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1. Match the List – I with List – II

List – I List – II
(a) Regression 1. Attribution of intentions originated in self to others
(b) Projection 2. Person falls back on childlike pattern of responding
(c) Rationalization 3. Redirecting tensions
(d) Sublimation 4. Acceptable reason for unacceptable thought

(a) (b) (c) (d)
A 1 3 2 4
B 2 1 4 3
C 4 2 3 1
D 3 4 1 2

2. For Freud, material that we are not currently aware of but that can be easily recalled is in the ______
a) Unconscious
b) Preconscious
c) Collective unconscious
d) Conscious

3. Match the List – I with List –II

List – I List – II
(a) Phoneme 1. Practical aspects of language
(b) Morpheme 2. Rules for governing words and phrases
(c) Pragmatics 3. Basic units of sound in a language
(d) Syntax 4. Smallest unit of meaning within language

(a) (b) (c) (d)
A 4 2 1 3
B 2 1 4 3
C 1 3 2 4
D 3 4 1 2

4. According to Freud, personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages. During infancy, the
psychosexual stage is called the _____________.
a) Latency stage
b) Oral stage
c) Anal stage
d) Phallic stage

5. Match the List – I with List – II :

List – I List – II
(a) Karen Horney 1. Inferiority Complex
(b) Carl Jung 2. Collective Unconscious
(c) Adler 3. Unconditional Positive Regard

(d) Carl Rogers 4. Basic Anxiety

(a) (b) (c) (d)
A 4 2 1 3
B 2 1 4 3
C 1 3 2 4
D 3 4 2 1

6. What do Abraham Maslow’s and Carl Rogers’s theories have in common?

a) They are both stage theories.
b) They focus on unconscious motivation.
c) They believe humans are always striving to fulfil their capabilities.
d) They both fit in the learning/cognitive perspective.

7. The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called ______.
a) Syntax
b) Semantics
c) Phonology
d) Regularization

8. The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that ______.

a) One’s language determines the pattern of one’s thinking and view of the world.
b) One’s thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one’s language.
c) We decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or sensible,
given the facts at hand.
d) Perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence.

9. The practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social “niceties” of language, are referred to
as __________.
a) Syntax
b) Grammar
c) Morphemes
d) Pragmatics

10. One strong piece of evidence that Lana, a chimp, truly learned and used language
would be if
a. Lana knew dozens of words
b. Lana could paraphrase sentences, communicating the same meaning in different ways
c. Lana was best at pragmatics, intermediate at semantics, and not so hot at syntax
d. Lana spoke with an Italian, English, and German accent

11. The ability to refer to events removed in time and space from the present is called:
a) productivity
b) displacement
c) semantics
d) pragmatics

12. One trait that dominates a personality so much that it influences nearly everything a person does is a:

a) Global Trait
b) Cardinal Trait
c) Specific trait
d) Central Trait
e) Secondary trait

13. From the Big Five personality dimensions, behaviors such as achievement, displaying ambition, and
exhibiting a high degree of discipline is
a) Agreeableness
b) Openness
c) Extraversion
d) Conscientiousness
e) Neuroticism

14. What is the trait approach to personality?

a) Assumes that people are motivated by unconscious emotional conflicts
b) Assumes that each individual has stable personality characteristics
c) Assumes that people's thoughts and beliefs are central to personality
d) Assumes that people have an innate tendency to become self-actualized
e) Assumes that people are motivated by conflicts originating in childhood

15. William Sheldon suggested that body build was associated with personality traits. Which one best
describes a person who is sensitive and intellectual?
a) conservative
b) neurotic
c) endomorph
d) mesomorph
e) ectomorph

16. According to Freud, which component of personality is present at birth and is influenced by the
pleasure principle?
a) Id
b) Ego
c) Superego
d) Threshold

17. Our explicit knowledge of our own behavior, traits, and other personal characteristics is called our
a) Self -esteem
b) Self -verification
c) Self-loathing
d) Self-concept

18. Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the ________.
a) collective
b) animus
c) anima
d) preconscious

19. You are about to undergo delicate brain surgery that requires great skill on the part of the surgeon. As
the surgical team wheels you into the operating room, you hope the surgeon has a high level of _____.

a) ego
b) extraversion
c) self-efficacy
d) superego

20. Probably the biggest problem with personality assessments by behaviorists is the _____.
a) observer effect
b) subject bias
c) experimenter bias
d) test bias

21. Id is to "Just do it" as superego is to

a) "Wait till later."
b) "Do your own thing."
c) "Don't do it."
d) "Oh, sit on it."

22. The unconscious contains

a) material that can easily be brought to awareness.
b) everything we are aware of at a given moment.
c) repressed memories and emotions.
d) thoughts, perceptions, and memories.

23. Behavioral theories of personality are often criticized for their

a) inability to test or verify concepts.
b) limited recognition of temperament, emotion, and subjective factors.
c) ability to explain behavior after the fact only.
d) emphasis on the conditions under which behaviors occur.

24. The concept of traits is used to account for personal characteristics that are
a) biologically determined.
b) relatively permanent and enduring.
c) situation specific.
d) shared by a group.

25. Criticisms of Freud's developmental theory have centered on

a) the over-emphasis on sexuality in personality development.
b) Freud's treatment of father-daughter relationship.
c) the need for a stern or threatening mother in the development of conscience.
d) the unimportance of the first years of life in the formation of personality.

26. Which is included as one of the traits Maslow theorized were possessed by self-actualizers?
a) egocentrism
b) extraversion
c) superior intelligence
d) capacity to laugh at oneself

27. Behaviorists are to the external environment as humanists are to

a) stress.
b)personal growth.
c) humankind.

d) internal conflicts.

28. Self-actualization refers to

a) a tendency that causes human personality problems.
b) what it is that makes certain men and women famous.
c) anyone who is making full use of his or her potentials.
d) the requirements necessary for becoming famous, academically distinguished, or

29. The halo effect refers to

a) the technique in which the frequency of various behaviors is recorded.
b) the use of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli.
c) the process of admitting experience into consciousness.
d) the tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to
unrelated details of personality.

30. According to Rogers, the __________ self represents a very idealized self-image.
a) phenomenal
b) incongruent
c) archetypal
d) Ideal

31. In Adler's view, the main striving of personality is for

a) dominance.
b) sophistication.
c) instincts.
d) superiority.

32. Rogers calls the image of the person you would like to be the
a) ego ideal.
b) self archetype.
c) ideal self.
d) reinforced self.

33. Delaying action until it is appropriate describes the ego's use of the
a) pleasure principle.
b) morality principle.
c) ego ideal.
d) reality principle.

34. Which of the following is the correct ordering of Freud's psychosexual stages?
a) anal, phallic, oral, genital
b) oral, anal, phallic, genital
c) genital, phallic, oral, anal
d) anal, oral, phallic, genital

35. When your parents say “Of course, we love you…when you are good,” it is an example of
a) Teaching of self-actualization
b) learning trust versus mistrust
c) Conditional positive regard

d) Unconditional positive regard

36. In the attributional model of learned helplessness, a person is most likely to experience learned
helplessness when she/he attributes the failure to get into medical school to
a) his/her own poor aptitude
b) a temporary decrease in the number of applicants accepted
c) bad luck
d) idiosyncratic or strange procedures used by the admission committees

37. The fundamental attribution error occurs when a person underestimates or does not consider
________________ attributes and focuses too much on ________________ attributes or personal factors.
a) situational; dispositional
b) dispositional; situational
c) unconscious; situational
d) situational; unconscious
e) unconscious; dispositional

38. To explain a person’s personality, behaviorists would look to

a) early childhood emotional traumas.
b) the kind of love, warmth and affection given to the person by the parents.
c) the early experiences of rewards and punishments for certain behavior.
d) the constellation of personality traits possessed by the person.

39. Why is the chemical communication exhibited in ants not considered to be language by
a) it lacks productivity
b) only visual/mechanical communication is considered language
c) it is too prone to error
d) it shows syntax and semantics but lacks pragma

40. Which of the following statements are true about language?

a) It is symbolic.
b) It can be written, spoken, or signed.
c) It is capable of an infinite set of meaningful utterances.
d) all of these

41. Language is based on universal sound units called ______.

a) phonemes
b) morphemes
c) semantics
d) registers

42. Which of the following statements is true about infants?

a) They are not born with the ability to recognize all phonemes.
b) By the time they are 2 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they
are being brought up in.
c) By the time they are 9 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language
they are being brought up in.
d) By the time they are 12 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language
they are being brought up in.

43. The word playing consists of two morphemes, play and ing. Ing is a good example of a
____________ morpheme.
a) free
b) bound
c) concise
d) indirect

44. You are learning Russian in preparation for a trip next summer. Although you are doing a good job
recognizing the written signs you need to know, you are having trouble with the sounds of the Russian
language. Which of the following aspects of language is giving you trouble?
a) syntax
b) phonemes
c) morphemes
d) audiograms

45. A famous lecturer argues that because the Hopi Indians have only two nouns for things that fly, one
for birds and another for nonbirds, the Hopi MUST interpret all flying things in terms of these two nouns.
This argument is based on ______.
a) the idealized prototype construct
b) bottom-up processing
c) deep structure elaboration
d) the linguistic relativity hypothesis

46. In order to conclusively show that animals do use language, one would have to demonstrate that
a) the language had an auditory, or sound, component
b) the language had a genetic or instinctual base
c) the language used arbitrary symbols
d) the animals have the same vocal abilities as people

47. Dolphins, according to TV and movies, are very intelligent and have strong language abilities. They
might even be able to talk! However, which statement is true from the research?
a) Dolphins have been shown to be able to master syntax.
b) Dolphins have the language abilities of a 3-year-old child.
c) Dolphin communication with parrots has been firmly established.
d) none of these

48. At the current time, which statement is true about our knowledge of whether animals can use
humanlike language?
a) It has been clearly shown that animals cannot use humanlike language.
b) All animal communication is instinctual and, thus, is not language.
c) Only primates, like monkey and chimps, show any sign of language-like behavior.
d) It is still unclear if animals can show humanlike language at any level of development

49. Which of the following is correct concerning the research on the “innateness” of sensation seeking?
a) The research on the innateness of sensation seeking is inconclusive at this time.

b) According to research, there is clear evidence that sensation seeking is innate.

c) Some studies support the idea that sensation seeking is innate while others do not.
d) There is no scientific way to determine whether sensation seeking is innate or not.

50. Each of the following is a symptom of anorexia nervosa EXCEPT __________.

a) intense fear of becoming obese, which does not diminish as weight loss progresses
b) disturbance of body image, such as “feeling fat” even when emaciated
c) recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging of the foods just eaten
d) refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimal normal weight for height and age

51. Cattell divides traits into two categories. They are

a) Source and surface attitudes
b) Traits and types
c) Egos and sentiments
d) Defence mechanisms and coping mechanisms

52. Which one of the following terms is most aptly defined by the words “how behaviour gets started, is
energised, is sustained, is directed”?
a) Emotion
b) Motivation
c) Achievement need
d) Aspiration

53. To develop his theory, ________ used a kind of steam-shovel approach to personality assessment.
a) Freud
b) Eysenck
c) Skinner
d) None of these

54. One factor motivating U.K. travelers is status. Which of Maslow's needs is this most related to?
a) physiological
b) safety
c) belongingness
d) esteem
e) self-actualization

55. Which of the following reflects the relatively stable behavioral tendencies that individuals display
across a variety of situations?
a) motivation
b) personality
c) emotion
d) perception

56. Strong, relatively uncontrollable feelings that affect our behavior are known as _____.
a) motivations
b) personality
c) emotions
d) perceptions

57. Maslow's hierarchy of needs includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
a) cognition
b) physiological
c) safety
d) belongingness
e) esteem

58. Many victims of hurricane Katrina were left without their homes, food, and water--basic necessities
for living. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which motives were activated for these

a) security
b) self-actualization
c) physiological
d) belongingness
e) esteem

59. Randy is exceptionally organized. For example, he colour codes all his bills and alphabetizes
groceries in his cupboards. According to Freud’s theory, Randy is most likely fixated at which stage of
psychosexual development.
a) Oral
b) Anal
c) Phallic
d) Latent
e) Genital

60. In which of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial stages of development is the central task to develop and
exercise self control and independence.
a) Trust vs Mistrust
b) Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
c) Initiative vs guilt
d) Industry vs inferiority
e) Generative versus stagnation

61. The 16 PF scale is based on the work of

a) H.J. Eysenck
b) Gordon Allport
c) Sheldon
d) R.B. Cattell

62. According to Carl Jung, there are tendencies that shape human behavior and can be represented by
term such as “the hero” or “the shadow”. Such tendencies are known as
a) Perosnas
b) Traits
c) Schemas
d) Archetypes
e) Complexes

63. Which of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on the effect of early childhood
experiences on personality?

a) Psychodynamic
b) Humanistic
c) Trait
d) Social cognitive
e) Behavioral

64. Free will plays the greatest role in which of the following?
a) Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory
b) B.F. Skinner’s Behaviorism
c) Carl Rogers’s Humanistic Psychology
d) Hans Eyesenck’s trait model
e) William Sheldon’s theory of somatotypes

65. What term is best used to describe the smallest meaningful unit of language?
a) Phone
b) Phoneme
c) Morpheme
d) Syntax
e) Semantic

66. All of the following statements about psychodynamic theorists are correct Except.
a) Karen Harney stressed the importance of social relationships between children and their parents
b) Alfred Adler claimed that childhood feelings of inferiority lead to striving for superiority
c) Erik Erikson described conflicts at different stages of development
d) Carl Jung identified two components of the unconsciousness: the preconscious and the formal
e) Sigmund Freud stressed the interaction of the id, the ego, and the superego.

67. Which theorists revised Sigmund Freud’s stages of development, replacing Freud’s psychosexual
stages with psychosocial stages.
a) Karen Horney
b) Erik Erikson
c) Alfred Adler
d) Viktor Frankl
e) Abraham Maslow

68. The idea that people cope with stress by moving toward people, away from people, or against people
is most consistent with the view of
a) Aaron Beck
b) Carl Rogers
c) Karen Horney
d) Erik Erikson
e) Eric Fromm

69. Which of the following statements about the relationship between motivation and emotion is NOT
a) Motives are often accompanied by emotions.
b) Emotions can have motivational properties of their own.

c) The arousal of emotions activates behavior, similar to motives.

d) Emotions and motives always create changes in behavior.

70. Which of the following is NOT a cue that regulates eating?

a) body fat levels
b) stomach contractions
c) blood sugar levels
d) total blood volume

71. Which piece of evidence BEST supports the “set point” hypothesis?
a) A person who is severely deprived of a specific nutrient will crave foods containing the
b) Persons who consume a lot of sugar gradually develop insulin intolerance
c) A person’s weight tends to stay the same over the long term
d) Stomach “stapling” will significantly decrease calorie intake

72. The optimal arousal theory states that individuals are motivated to
a) increase stimulation in order to increase arousal
b) decrease stimulation in order to decrease arousal
c) maintain neither too much nor too little stimulation and arousal
d) maintain whatever is the current level of stimulation and arousal

73. An actress finds that her performance while rehearsing lines in the dressing room is dull and flat.
However, as soon as she is in front of a live audience, she rises to the occasion and her performance
comes alive. Her improvement is best explained by
a) Solomon’s opponent-process theory
b) the James-Lange theory
c) the Yerkes-Dodson law
d) the Cannon-Bard theory

74. According to Solomon’s opponent-process theory, repeated exposure to the same stimulus will
a) decrease the initial reaction and increase the opponent reaction
b) increase both the initial and opponent reaction
c) increase the initial reaction and decrease the opponent reaction
d) decrease both the initial and opponent reactions

75. Which of the following is an example of extrinsic motivation?

a) working in a factory with poor conditions but good pay
b) going to Disney World to ride the roller coasters
c) rereading your favorite novel
d) watching a horror film because you love feeling frightened

76. Which two theories emphasize the importance of physiological arousal in the conscious experience of
a) the James-Lange and cognitive theories
d) the Cannon-Bard and cognitive theories
c) the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories
d) the Izard and Cannon-Bard theories

77. Relative to retrospective memory, prospective memory typically:

a) Involves remembering what we know about something

b) has a low information content

c) Involves an explicit reminder to carry out an action
d) Enjoys a greater availability of external cues

78. Horney believed that cultural conditions are largely responsible for the development of
a) basic trust
b) basic mistrust
c) basic anxiety
d) basic psychoses

79. People's expectations that they are capable of performing a behavior that will produce desired
outcomes in any particular situation is called
a) outcome expectancy
b) self-efficacy
c) distortion of consequences
d) the self system

80. Which statement is consistent with Rogers's theory?

a) Self-regard is originally dependent on self-concept.
b) Once achieved, self-regard can exist independently of others' opinions and attitudes
c) Self-regard is symptomatic of malignant egoism.
d) Self-regard stems from the negative appraisals received from others