Urbanism Department

Universidad de Chile University of chile
Urban Planning and Design

Tampereen Teknillinen Yliopisto Tampere university of technology

: : : : INTRODUCTION

BECOMING AN ARCHITECT
During the development of the architecture career, the student starts to go through several stages and different challenges he has to deal with. In the way that s/he gets the necessary tools, s/he starts to forge him/herself as an efficient professional. One of those stages is the “Research Seminar”, moment at which s/he has to concentrate all the knowledge on the development of a successful report, new and thorough. In case of choosing a relevant topic such as urbanism, the student has to be able to put together, both, knowledge and originality. As the way of conceiving a particular city is absolutely local and not exportable, our mission as future architects is to suggest changes that won’t alter the place's own characteristics. Each way of organizing a city is different and necessary during human relationships, so our mission will be to try to understand those behaviors to put them on paper. It is because of these reasons that the Seminar won’t be a single solution for the topic exposed, but it will propose a suggested way of action with tools to be used. It is important to add that any of the writers’ own ideas that could appear in the next report should be presented with prudence, well grounded and not at random.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

5

INTRODUCTION
The human being is an animal in constant relationship with his environment. The need of communication has made him become closer to those of his kind, to form clusters. Those groups allowed to form what is known as family, because of mating reasons at the beginning. But his need to continue having relationships resulted in subsistence, and thus the tribes and other groups appeared, able to give protection under an organization to gather forces and not disappear. Taking a huge leap in the evolution of man, the first societies gave way to what is known as cities, which eventually led to the country conception. Countries started to take care of their borders when a deeper sense of belonging was generated. Similarly, the transaction of goods generated the barter at the beginning, and also trade networks between countries. Initially, the trade was carried out between the immediate borders mainly because of the basic needs for those times and the precariousness of means of transport. But over time, the relationship spanned far beyond the periphery, and used new territories as the sea. In ancient times there used to exist some fears towards the sea, as it wasn’t fully known, so myths and legends were around it. But

6

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

INTRODUCTION
after the discovery of America, the man turned towards its conquest. Over time, the sea stopped to be a frontier and it turned into one more road, full of wealth and opportunities to communicate with distant lands. This was how ports started to be established as a great gateway for foreign trade. There were other developments such as the steam locomotive that brought the borders even closer, and after that with the aviation the world was covered in all its dimensions. Returning to the thematic of the Sea as a route of transportation, the cities began to flourish around their ports, so the influence of these places on country development isn’t low. If we consider our Chilean reality, we think that the sea can mean the great pillar of the economy, as an access to the outside world. Our country, with a long coastline, has several of its cities founded near the coast. That is why we have decided to focus our work on the study of the coastal city of Turku, Finland. With the study of this city, we want to analyze the conquest of the coastline, and its development linked to a primarily economic topic. Besides, we want to show how this could condition the port facilities to be the protagonist during the development of the city, and explain the relation between the coast and the interior. From the study of the port, we will try to develop other topics such as the relationship of Turku with the Baltic Sea, plus a personal work that will be explained during the development of the report. We hope to introduce these issues with a reasonable approach and that as foreigners, not part of the local context, we will try to deal with this matter respectfully.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

7

OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this Seminar is to develop a piece of research carried out in the city of Turku, Finland, taking advantage of our 6-month stay in this country at the Tampere University of Technology (T.U.T). and considering the work done during the course “Urban Design and Planning”. as a tool. The theme will be will consider the following stages: •Motivation: Introduction to the main topic. While the report is developed, we will try to answer questions such as: Why should we work in Turku? Does it represent a real input for those who try to understand the different phenomena in the city? •Variables to consider: From the local reality, we’ll try to find a possible modus operandi or some kind of strategy to follow. •References: From successful foreign examples, we’ll try to take the most significant points, which could be useful for the research. •The Place: An overview of the history of Turku, to be able to characterize the place. Thus, with complete data, it will be easier to get closer to the Finnish reality. •Current Project: A revision of what is going on in Turku city, in relation to its urbanism and development. •The City and its areas: The most significant zoning will be shown, and from that we hope to get new solutions and several conclusions. •Own Project: As a preliminary sketch, we will present our own ideas that could help to improve the city of Turku. •Conclusions: Based on all the topics previously developed, we will try to define certain newer ideas that show the relationship between the existing information and our own work.

8

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

OBJECTIVES
We hope that our work will represent one step forward towards the understanding of architecture, for both, Finnish and Chilean professionals. More than an absolute solution, we would like this report to be used as some kind of research material for professionals and students as this stage, one of the last ones before joining the professional life.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

9

: : : : VARIABLES TO CONSIDER

PROBLEMATICS
GLOBAL PROBLEM OF THE BALTIC SEA
Until the mid 60’s, the Baltic Sea water was quite clean, but after many abuses committed by countries developing their production and taking no care of pollution, this sea became one of the most highly contaminated of the world, receiving the wastes of an area of more than 70 million inhabitants. This constitutes approximately 15% of the industrial production from the planet. The great quantity of industrial and agricultural waste spilled into the Sea, becomes a toxic burden that contaminates its waters in an irreversible way. This fact, added to the difficulty of water renovation, due to the physical and natural characteristics of the Baltic Sea, such as its low salinity, low depth, and its closed location with one unique way out to the sea through a strait, gives as a result a densely polluted Sea, surrounded by industrial coasts, without clear

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

13

PROBLEMATICS
possibilities of renovation or water cleaning. The four most polluting factors of the Baltic Sea are: •Oil dumping •Eutrophication •Bioaccumulation of toxic substances •Accidental discharges of toxic and dangerous waste Oil Dumping: According to the studies done between years 1960 and 1997, 127 oil dumpings have occurred, which means over 37 tons, in the area between Baltic Sea and North Sea. It is important to highlight that 10% of hydrocarbon dumping is originated in the sea itself, while the rest comes from polluted land. The group coming from oil, and called Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), is the one that pollutes the most. The PAH located in the Baltic Sea are 3 times more than in the North Sea.

14

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

PROBLEMATICS
Eutrophication: In ecology, this is understood as the input rather massive of inorganic nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem. This is mainly due to the farming pollution, specially diffuse pollution of soil and groundwater by inorganic fertilizers from an industrial origin, or animal excrement from agricultural enterprises. These cases provide nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium to the sea, encouraging the massive growth of algae. These algae, when dead, fall to the seafloor and decompose drastically reducing the oxygen from the sea, which generates a high rate of mortality in the aquatic fauna. The Baltic Sea would possess a 25% of their seafloor turned into desert because of this factor. Bioaccumulation: It is the process of accumulation of certain products within the organisms. In the particular case of the Baltic Sea, some

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

15

PROBLEMATICS
substances can be detected such as PCBs, DDT and some toxic metals in different animals; like in the case of seals, which due to its declining population, have a higher concentration of toxic substances per sample. Although the concentrations of these substances have been declining, the levels are still ten times higher than in the waters of the North Sea. Toxic and dangerous Waste: According to the directives of the European Union toxic and dangerous waste are those which contain certain concentrations: • As, Cd, Be, Pb, Se, Te, Hg, Sb and compounds • Compounds of soluble copper •Phenol, ether, organic solvents, carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons •Isocyanates, organic and inorganic cyanides •Biocides and phyto pharmaceutical compounds

16

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

PROBLEMATICS
•Pharmaceutical Compounds •Powder and asbesto fibers •Peroxide, chlorates and perchlorates •Metal Carbonilos •Acids and bases used in the treatment of metals •Hexavalent chromium compounds •Not inert Organichalogen •Industrial Waste •Unidentified Chemical Laboratory compounds or new environmental compounds of unknown effects •Thallium and its compounds •Titanium dioxide industry waste •The mineral or synthetic oils, including mixtures: water-oil and emulsions.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

17

PROBLEMATICS
GLOBAL PROBLEM OF THE COAST IN BALTIC SEA REGION
With the birth of maritime trade in Northern Europe, in the middle of the seventh century, the coast of the Baltic area was valued as a strategic area of exchange and products processing. As far back as in the 13th Century, German cities recently founded, expanded new markets for Western products expelling the Scandinavian from the edge of the Baltic Sea. After the agreement between German and Flemish, associated cities between 70 and 80 in total, monopolized the Baltic foreign trade, and with this action activated its coastline and ports. It is in this way how the coastal edge of the Baltic Sea begins to be inhabited and populated; the first motivation to conquer the sea front was under a purely economic and strategically commercial spirit. It is because of this reason that there is an absence of clear urban linkages between city and sea, a fact recognized in several of the coastal cities of the Baltic region. This disconnection between city and sea is increased by the development of the port companies, which support the economy and stability of these cities. The port progress brings new supporting infrastructure, such as railway lines, and coastal road structures and intercity connection with neighbouring merchant cities. This generates the expansion of the area of influence and the city land occupation by the port, and as a result, the creation of closer-edges that leave the city, physically and visually, unlinked from the sea. On the other hand, the progress of the cities brings along an increase in the coastal population and a growth in all kinds of industries and services in the coastal territory. This gradual occupation of land and alteration of the environment as a result of urbanization, construction and a low control of toxic spill by industries, is the main problem that the coast of the Baltic Sea is actually going through. Although nature is present in these cities, the concrete on the dock edge has become a barrier between the sea and city and hence between nature and city.

18

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

PROBLEMATICS
TURKU PROBLEMS
After defining those global problems that exist inside the Turku area, we can identify the two main issues that should be revisited briefly. The pollution of the waters near Turku harbor is an environmental problem with shared responsibility among the Baltic Sea members. It is common knowledge that one of the biggest polluters in the Baltic Sea is Russia, while the damage produced by Finland (particularly Turku) is small compared to its peers. Even the environmental conflict in the Sea involves Turku, because the city owns an exit in the coast to this place, so it’s extremely important to consider this fact in any design. The implications and impact of any solution or urban strategy has to be evaluated, to take care of Turku environment. The other problem that affects the City, the disassociation between marine border and City and its possible solution, would be the main objective of this report. We will try to evaluate variables to consider in order to reach a logical answer with the characteristics of the City. This disconnection has been started by more than one disruptive factor existing in the City. Its origin as a port city, already presented, determined its structure and organization with its center sheltered inland and along the border ready for port activities, completely denied by the City at first. Besides, the progress of the Port companies expands its occupation in the city, turning the coastal edge into a private compound denying the access of the inhabitants to its sea. The society of a country in progress, like Finland, can perfectly manage basic survival situations. It starts a new development process where new needs and concerns can be identified, reorganizing the cities, valuing its history, its culture and its landscapes are watched with a different prism than before, looking for other activities increasingly relevant as leisure. Thus, we see that the role of coastal urban edge is in question, becoming very important to study the new concept of how to use the coast which sets the current context of Turku.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

19

: : : : REFERENCES

REFERENCE
Project Barón Port+Viña del Mar+Chile

NICOLAS NAZER CORVALAN

Project Puerto Madero+Buenos Aires+Argentina

CAPM S.A. [OLD PUERTO MADERO CORPORATION]

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

23

REHABILITATION EDGE HARBOR

REFERENCE
LIGHTHOUSE-BUILDING

CESAR PELLI

Sun Box Tower+Sevilla+Spain

WS ATKINS & PARTNERS

Burj al Arab Hotel+Dubai+UAE

ARQUITECTIA

The South Gate+Project Puerto Madero+Buenos Aires+Argentina

JEAN NOUVEL

Peirao XXI+Project Vigo Port+Galicia+Spain

24

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

REFERENCE
Whale Boardwalk+Puerto Montt+Chile

South Bank Boardwalk+Melbourne+Australia

Puerto MaderoBoardwalk+Buenos Aires+Argentina

Rambla del Mar Boardwalk+Barcelona+Spain

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

25

BOARDWALK DESIGN

: : : : THE PLACE

HISTORY
FINLAND: ETERNAL LAND FIGHTS
This Scandinavian country is actually the consequence of several centuries of wars between the Swedish Kingdom and the Novgord Republic – part of Imperial Russia- for Finnish lands. However, the cultural, religious and idiosyncratic legacy is awarded to Sweden, thanks to the 700 years under its kingdom, which started during the Christianity restauration in 1154. As a result of this great influence, Swedish is used as the second official language, Turku city becomes the capital of trade, religion, culture and studies with the University of Turku. After this period, Finland starts to lose influence and power in front of Sweden, because of several wars won by the Imperial Russia, being interesting to highlight the Finnish War from 1808 to 1809. The aftermath of this war left Helsinki as the new administrative and university capital, with the University of

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

29

HISTORY
Helsinki under the orders of the Zar Alexander I. The Country was the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland as part of Imperial Russia, until 1917 when Finland got the independence from Russia. The wars continued until the end of the Second World War, where treaties with U.S.S.R. were signed, together with the establishment of the “Iron Curtain” that cut off the relationship between the Soviet Union and Europe. Finland started its European integration by joining the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), which was meant for those countries that had been left outside the 1957 European Economy Community (EEC) agreement. In 1973, Finland created connections to EEC, and became full member in 1995. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 changed the pact between Russia and Finland speeded up Finland’s EU membership, although it was not its direct cause.

30

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

HISTORY
TURKU: HISTORICALLY A CAPITAL
The first settlements in the Turku Region took place after the Ice Age, between years 4200-3300 BC, so it’s the most ancient city from Finland. As many of the medieval cities, there is no exact date of its foundation, but some data say that Turku was born around 1150, as a meeting point between inhabitants of the interior of the country and sailors looking for merchandise to exchange. That is how the name of the city can be understood, because the word Turku is a Finnish name, which comes from the ancient Russian word türgüthat means market. Already during that period, the harbor is consolidated and the city around it, being located in the shore of the Aura.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

31

HISTORY
Because of its role as the exchange centre of culture and trade, during the Swedish Kingdom, Turku was the great capital of Finland. In 1640 with the Turku Academy, the capital was already considered as the first college city of Finland, therefore the capital of studies, religion and new trends.

TURKU, CONDITIONED BY HISTORY

TURKU AND ITS GOLDEN ERA

When Russia takes hold of the Turku Region after the Finnish War, and for strategic reasons, Turku stops being the capital of the country given its vulnerable situation of closeness to Sweden. After this, Helsinki becomes the capital of the Great Duchy of Finland. In this same way, the Zar Alexander I, after the great fire of Turku during year 1827, orders to build a new University but this time in the new capital, Helsinki. So, this is how Turku has to rebuild, reorder and redefine itself, until it gets to be the new city that we know today.

32

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

HISTORY
TURKU: THE HISTORICAL HARBOR OF FINLAND
The Port of Turku counts with a 850-year tradition of Trade and Shipping. It was founded on a natural trading post at the mouth of the River Aura. The first settlement of the Turku region after the Ice Age took place roughly from 4200-3300 BC. The settlement expanded as the land rose, and gradually it drew the traders to the River Aura. The first time that Turku was mentioned in history was in a geographical presentation in 1154 by Al Idris, a learned Arabian in Palermo, and it appeared under the name of Abuwa. During the Middle Ages the Port and the City spread along the riverbank. During that time, there were frequent foreign connections from the Port, especially to the Hanseatic town of Danzig. After the age of the windjammers, steamships took over and started regular traffic to Stockholm in the 1830’s.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

33

HISTORY
Turku was an important wartime port during both the Crimean War and the First World War. After the Second World War, the Pansio military harbor was located in Turku, and today the main base of the Finnish Navy is located there. Because of the Port location at the mouth of River Aura, it was necessary to start dredging early on in order to provide sufficient draught. The first official port organization was the dredging committee, founded in 1739, and this association gradually grew into the Port Authority. With the help of workers and entrepreneurs in the Port, the place has been running for almost a millennium in order to enhance the connections from Finland to Scandinavia, Continental Europe and Russia, and the Port developed over time into the modern passenger and unitized cargo harbor that exists today.

34

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

HISTORY
The birth and development of the port have always been essential elements of the evolution of the City of Turku until today. It means a source of employment for many of its inhabitants and has influenced Turku activities into its roots, as culture and changes within society. It has also laid the foundations for trading and international contacts.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

35

HISTORY

36

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

: : : : CURRENT PROJECT

BALTIC SEA ACTIONS
ACTIONS BY HELSINKI AND TURKU
(According to the communiqué of the group Helsinki-Turku: “Actions by the cities of Helsinki and Turku for improving the state of the Baltic Sea”) The cadastre, determines the following diagnosis: •The Baltic Sea is considered as one of the seas with greater quantity of pollutants and toxic substances in its waters. •The Eutrophication is one of the biggest problems of the Baltic Sea, caused by high levels of minerals from the catchment area consisting of 14 countries, four times the area of the same Sea. •The Gulf of Finland is the most devastated area by eutrophication, being the main area to solve. •The discharge of oil and hazardous chemicals is a major threat, because they are very dense and toxic solutions, which can not be eliminated in its entirety. Pollutant Factors: •The natural conditions in the Baltic Sea, as low depth, its location between close straits of water and low salinity of the water promote pollution.

•The industrial wastes, agricultural and population contribute to the pollution of the Baltic Sea coast.

•The increase in the transport of hazardous chemicals and petroleum is threatening to turn the Baltic Sea into a marine desert because of the toxicity of the substances and its unsuccessful elimination.

Actions by the cities: 1.Reducing the point loading. amount of

•Improving the cities sewage networks

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

39

BALTIC SEA ACTIONS
2.Reducing diffuse pollution. •Reducing agricultural loading •Reduction of wastewater emissions from scattered settlement areas 3.Dredging of contaminated sediment. •Dredging to remediate the areas of worst pollution by organotin compounds or other hazardous substances. 4.Reducing the wastewater discharges from shipping and boating. •Change the harbor dues so that a wastewater charge is automatically included in the vessel waste fee, irrespective of whether the vessel discharges its wastewater to land or not. 5.International cooperation. •The cities support international environmental projects focusing on the Baltic Sea through their own networks, such as through cooperation with BaltMet, or the Union of the Baltic Cities. 6.Research projects and the establishment of a professorship. •In cooperation with universities, institutes of higher education, and research institutes, the cities participate in technical/scientific research projects dealing with improving the state of the Baltic Sea. 7.To establish a fund for the protection of the archipelago in association with the Centrum Balticum foundation. •Turku will establish the Archipelago Protection Fund in association with the Centrum Balticum foundation. 8.Increasing awareness about the state of the Baltic Sea. •Increase the awareness of the municipal residents about their possibilities to contribute to improve the state of the Baltic Sea by, for example, organising thematic evenings and information events, and by increasing cooperation with other actors.

40

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

PROJECT
NODE INTERMODAL LOGISTICS TURKU - LOGICITY
Turku is located as a junction of Northern European traffic. Turku is the bridgehead between the growing markets of the East and West. The city also offers Finland’s fast connections to Scandinavia.

As part of the TransEuropean Network (TEN), the Nordic Triangle traffic corridor that links together the capitals of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg is a key area of EU logistics development. Turku’s role is to link the different modes of transport in the Finnish section of the corridor to Sweden via a sea and train ferry connection.

Located at the junction of Turku Airport, railway connections to Russia and on to China, the motorway into Central Finland and the E18 ring road, the LogiCity area forms an attractive cluster for other companies.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

41

PROJECT
TURKU CULTURAL CAPITAL OF EUROPE 2011
In this proposal, Turku is recognized as a city undervalued and relegated in its historic role of political-administrative, religious, university and cultural capital of Finland. The slogan of the company is "Turku on Fire", recalling the fire of 1827 that almost completely erased the history of the city, but once rebuilt on the foundations of the former Turku, seeks to foster the development of a city port generating a unique identity and entertainment attractions. The objective of this proposal is to achieve a national organization to revalue the city, and by taking advantage of its quality door from the sea, to empower Turku as the showcase for access to Finland. The program of scheduled projects on the eve of the year 2011 are: 1.Memories and Truths: Construction of the future based on the past. •Exhibition of fires in Turku. historic

•Time Machine: Project about the study of history. •Bordering Memories: project between Finland, Estonia and Russia bringing back memories and points of view based on a shared past. 2.Transformations: Findings drawn from the existing urban experience, giving way to new forms of experiences over time and space, and the experience of the physical changes of the city. 3.Exploring the Archipelago: It aims at consolidating the Baltic Sea as a center of events, activated through the foreign cruises encouraging the

42

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

PROJECT
entry of tourists to the city. On the other hand, it will try to activate the area by encouraging the occupation of the archipelago by the people of Turku.

4.Take-offs: Seeking to enhance the unique and special elements in the region, it intends to rediscover the art and the urban underground through projects to support introspection in the culture and everyday life typical of Turku. •Forum-Turku Design 2011 •The Unexpected City, which displays the unexpected of daily life in Turku.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

43

URBAN DESIGN CONTEST
URBAN PROJECTS IN TURKU
(Public Competition organized by the Municipality of Turku) To follow below there are 3 areas called for public tender, which seek to recover the function of areas damaged as a result of unemployment in urban infrastructure.

Kakola This area becomes a green oasis with a spectacular view over the city. In addition to a park, apartments and facilities for the creative industry it will also be located on the Kakola Hill. Skanssi This area will include several programs in a landscape near the archipelago. The main areas will include housing area, trading area and services. Ratapiha This project near the City center will include a new train station mixed with other services like shopping centers and housing areas.

44

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

URBAN DESIGN CONTEST
Kakola

This Project aims at recycling the ex Turku Prison building. A whole new educational complex with its own infraestructure will function in the area. The location of the ex-jail is at the top of Kakola Hill, so it has the privilege of viewing the whole City. It is also surrounded by beautiful nature that plays the role of Turku´s natural lung. The good conections between the centre and the housing estates together with the equipment that can be reused constitute the strengths of the selected project without spoiling the natural quality of Kakola Hill.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

45

URBAN DESIGN CONTEST
Skanssi HARTELA/ Arkkitehtitoimisto Helin + CO Skanssi, the new suburban centre in the eastern region of the City of Turku, is located in a natural landscape near the archipelago. The buildings will be placed along the base of the Skanssi hill in the form of a crescent. The covered shopping centre features large glass exteriors allowing the visitors a view of the surrounding landscape with its forests, rocks and a network of natural paths, all combined to create an excellent setting for recreation and leisure. The design respects the cultural history of the area. For example, fruit trees will be planted in the valley which once held flourishing orchards. The proximity to nature is also mirrored in the material selection: the surfaces of the buildings vary between brick, plaster, wood, and natural stone. The new Skanssi area centre will be comprised of unique, compact quarters surrounded by a network of green areas. With both residential buildings and a commercial centre, Skanssi is aiming at becoming a versatile and natural entity.

46

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

URBAN DESIGN CONTEST
Ratapiha

The program proposed for this project is to create a new intermodal station for trains and buses, complemented with a shopping centre and housing estates around the station. The main feature of this project is its linear availability that covers an important area of Turku, so the impact of the project in the city will be important. The project is placed on the site without affecting the nature due to its transparent materials that give the impresion of being light and at the same time not creating physical limits with the city.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

47

: : : : THE CITY & ITS AREAS

THE GREATER REGION
THE BALTIC SEA
It is an interior sea in the northern region of Europe that opens to the northern sea, reaching the Atlantic Ocean through the straits of Kattegat and Skagerrak. It’s exactly placed between the Scandinavian Peninsula – Sweden and Finland-, Denmark, Poland, Kaliningrad and the three Baltic Countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

The extension of the Baltic Sea is about 432.800 km2 and includes two big gulfs, Finland Gulf –between the Finnish country and Estoniaand Botnia Gulf –between the east coast of Sweden and the west coast of Finland. Its waters are not so deep, with an average depth of 57mts, and a deepest area of 459mt, in the north part of the Swedish island of Gotland.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

51

THE GREATER REGION
It’s a Sea with low level of salinity compared to other seas and oceans, because of its high latitude that produces low water evaporation which is also combined with the big input of sweet water from the many rivers that are located in the region. Coastal countries as Baltic Republics, Poland and Kaliningrad compose the basin that drains to Baltic Sea, besides the Check Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine and Byelorussia that indirectly contribute water to the sea waterway, in spite of not having coasts.

One of the wealths of the Baltic Sea is its amber deposit, both in quality and quantity, being only surpassed by Mexico and Dominican Republic, extracting between 500 and 800 millions of this mineral.

52

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE GREATER REGION
ARCHIPELAGO
[SALO]

[UUSIKAUPUNKI]

[LOIMAA]

[TURKU]

[ACHIPELAGO]

There are over 20.000 islands in the Turku Archipelago. They are near the Turunmaa Archipelago, which comprises the Swedish speaking municipalities in the islands. This is the largest archipelago in the Baltic and there are even more islands than inhabitants. The chain of islands and rocky islets extends towards the sea for 100 km south west of Turku, and the landscape varies from large island and greenish islets to bald rock islets in the outer archipelago. Only the most relevant islands are going to be mentioned in this summary, that could later on help with the report. The eastern area of the archipelago comprises the island of Kimito with its islets (it’s divided in 3 different municipalities), and Särkisalo. The region is easily accessible by car or boat. The community of Särkisalo is located to the east of the island. The most important industries in all four

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

53

THE GREATER REGION
municipalities are farming, fishing and small-scale industry, large-scale industry to some extent, the service trade and tourism. The western region is the largest area of the archipelago. It has an-80 km -long route and it includes 3 ferries. The communities differ considerably from each other with respect to occupational structure. Pargas is characterized by industry and the service trade, while Nagu, Korpo, Houtskär and Iniö by farming, fishing and fishfarming, the service trade and small-scale industry. All its communities are bilingual, where the majority of inhabitants speak Swedish as their mother tongue. The State of Finland is an important employer in the archipelago, as many people are employed by the army and the local ferry and boat services. The extensive Archipelago National Park begins at the South of Korpo and Nagu, with flora and fauna diverse and unique.

54

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE GREATER REGION
In the northern area, its character is similar to the inner archipelago with its verdant landscape. A number of the communities here are engaged in typical of the archipelago livelihoods: farming, fishing, smallscale industry and tourism. The main difference with the eastern and western areas, is that here, the majority of the inhabitants speaks Finnish as their mother tongue, and they have always and since history is recorded, connections have been maintained with the mainland of Finland, Åland and Sweden. The biggest community in the region is Taivassalo to the east with 1,900 inhabitants Further eastward is Askainen, and in the south of this one is located Velkua, small island community of 240 inhabitants. There are other small places like Merimasku and Naantali. Further to the south is Rymättylä, that is only a short trip from Turku, Pargas and Napu.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

55

THE GREATER REGION
THE SUB REGION
Uusikaupunki Sub-Region This city has a population of approximately 16.200 inhabitants, and the population density is 32.99 inhabitants per km². The most significant industries in this place are carmanufacturing, chemical industry, metal industry and fish processing. It belongs to Finland Proper (Southwest Finland), with other 53 municipalities including Turku. Loimaa Sub-Region This place consists of 10 lively municipalities, including the town of Loimaa. In the spacious Loimaa sub-region there are approximately 37.000 inhabitants, 16 inhabitants/Km2. This region also belongs to the Finland Proper Region. The city and district of Loimaa have a very favourable geographic and logistic location inside a triangle generated by the cities of Turku, Tampere and Helsinki.

56

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE GREATER REGION
Salo Sub-Region During 17th century, Salo used to be one of the biggest export ports in Finland. Salo city has about 25,000 inhabitants, a region that also belongs to the Finland Proper Region. This place is statistically the leading region in the production of electronics in Finland, having a big importance in the work with brands as Nokia, Nordic ID wireless products, etc. The region’s other lucrative fields of business include the metal, plastics and carpentry industries. One of its best known industrial areas is Meriniitty. The Salo region is located alongside the nationally important motorway and railway routes, close to both Turku and Helsinki. The municipality of Salo has a population of 24,878, with a population density is 173.50 inhabitants per km2.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

57

THE PORT
THE PORT OF TURKU TODAY
Turku represents the second most important port for general and unitized cargo in Finland after Helsinki. It’s also the only train ferry harbor in Finland, which means that the whole of Finland is hinterland of the Port of Turku. Located in the most accessible part of the country, the modern and sheltered Port seems to be growing beyond big nowadays, serving all of Scandinavia, Northern Europe, the Baltic States and Russia. In the case of the Baltic Sea, it has become an increasingly important area for marine transports because of the economic growth. The emphasis now lies on regular routes and unitized cargo. That is why the position of the Port of Turku as a central crossroads in the transport chain has been strengthened. The importance of being the only train ferry harbor in Finland is big. This way of transport intensely supports the

58

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE PORT
development of this environmentally friendly means of transport. Also, the Port of Turku actively cooperates with the destination ports of regular liner traffic. The objective is to make services and operations even more efficient. Sufficient capacity and smooth connections secure excellent basis for growth and operations in the future, too.

Connections with Europe and Asia Turku has traditionally served as the gate to Europe. The Port of Turku is a core area in the zone well known as “Nordic Triangle” (Nordic Triangle Sea Motorway ™), which is an important TEN (Trans European Network) project of the European Union. The main route of the Motorway consists of triangle ro-ro and container feeder traffic between the ports, and it should be fully at work by the year 2010. The E18 road

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

59

THE PORT
connects the national markets on the northern part of the triangle providing access to Russia and Asia. The eastern side of the triangle connects southern Finland and northern Germany via the Baltic Sea. The western side connects northern Germany and Norway providing access to the Northern Sea and over the Atlantic. The main partners of the Nordic Triangle Sea Motorway project are the Southwest Finland Ports of Turku and Naantali, the Ports of Stockholm, the Port of Hamburg and Hamburg Port Authority, the Port of Rostock, and the Port of Kristiansand. Basically there are Motorways of the corridors in Europe: four Sea •Motorway of the Sea of Western Europe - leading from Portugal and Spain via the Atlantic Arc to the North Sea and the Irish Sea •Motorway of the Sea of South-East Europe connecting the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean, including Cyprus •Motorway of the Sea of South-West Europe - Western Mediterranean, connecting Spain, France, Italy and including Malta and linking with the Motorway of the Sea of South-East Europe and including links to the Black Sea The Turku region development strategies focus strongly on logistics. The region is the centre of Scandinavian traffic in Finland, and the Port of Turku has played a major role in achieving that place. Regional logistics projects also support the development of the Port of Turku, improving for example

•Motorway of the Baltic Sea - linking the Baltic Sea Member States with Member States in Central and Western Europe, including the route through the North Sea/Baltic Sea Canal

60

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE PORT
transport equipment. solutions and Port of Turku environment and the

Turku has acted for centuries as the commercial and mental bond between Finland and the rest of Europe. For example the passenger traffic to and from Stockholm and continental Europe has continued for over a hundred years, with almost 4 million travellers per year, and passenger traffic is still one of the key operations of the Port of Turku. Ferries departing from Turku are also an increasingly popular route to continental Europe. That is because of the new bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen that also makes Turku more accessible to the rest of Europe. It is also Finland’s leading port in terms of Scandinavian transport and number two in unit cargo to and from continental Europe. Furthermore, an international airport, only 8 kilometres away, allows a variety of transport solutions.

The Port of Turku is located in a unique archipelago, in one of the borders of the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea great pollution is absolutely indisputable due to different reasons which will be explained further on in this report. This is why it is necessary to clarify that the Port of Turku works actively with its cooperation partners mainly in Finland in order to develop operations and services so that they cause less harm and threats to the environment. At the moment, the Port of Turku has an ISO 9001 quality standard and ISO 14001 environmental standard. For the time being, the resources are focused on the development of preventive measures, waste collection and sorting as well as discharges decreasing. The Harbor annually draws up an environmental management

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

61

THE PORT
program that defines the individual actions to improve the environmental issues and also to prevent contamination of the environment, so there is environmental legislation and regulations awareness and compliance with them. Services Turku of the Port of In addition to the above, there are 5 different areas, distributed along the harbor. TCT: Turku Terminal Container

TAT: Turku Auto Terminal TEL: Turku Landbridge TDC: Turku Centre Eastern Distribution

The Port of Turku offers several services for customers and companies. The development of the report will not be influenced by these issues, but it is relevant to mention them: •Electricity supply for vessels •Pilotage •Mooring and unmooring of vessels •Water supply for vessels •Harbor cranes •Cargo scales •Port control •Waste management *(There is still vacant spaces in the Port, warehouse space and land areas for storage available for lease).

TCP: Turku Cruise Port TCT: Turku Terminal Container

This new terminal was built in the West Harbor with the latest technology applied. This area offers container loading and unloading services in its own facilities, instead of having to do it at the customer’s premises. The working group that handles the area includes experts of different fields, for instance, from the forest industry, shipping companies and stevedore companies. Basically the TCT consists of: Two container terminals with modern equipment

62

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE PORT
•Loading and unloading of units and containers in the Port's facilities •Efficient handling container TEL: Turku bridge Eastern Land-

TAT: Turku Auto Terminal There are long time traditions of car imports in Turku and its Port, so there is plenty of experience in this area. In addition, sufficient space is reserved for cars, and the connections to Turku and further on to other locations in Finland are excellent. The car import companies operating with the Turku Auto Terminal product concept are continuously developing their services. Basically the TAT consists of: •Fast connections tailored services •Information efficient potential and

technology utilization

Turku counts with the only train ferry harbor in Finland, so the City provides a wide variety of services and aims at promoting the continuous growth of train ferry traffic. As environmental safety increases the importance of train ferry traffic, new developments start to appear. One important project is the Eastern Land-bridge, the logistics corridor reaching from Stockholm via Turku to Russia that ties together the market areas of Scandinavia and Russia. The co-operation partners in the project, in addition to the Ports of Turku and Stockholm, are Green Cargo AB, SeaRail EEIG and VR Cargo. Basically the TCP consists of: •Geographically suitable location in the Baltic Sea transport corridor •Frequent connections ensuring efficiency

•Guarded large areas and safe facilities for cars

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

63

THE PORT
•Many additional services •Transfer loading of railway carriages indoors •European and Finnish track gauges. TDC: Turku Centre Distribution consists of: •Over 225 hectares of land area •Several terminal warehouse buildings and

•All Models of transports can be efficiently utilised Project Development together with the customers TCP: Turku Cruise Port Cruise traffic is growing rapidly in the tourism industry, and the Baltic Sea is becoming more and more popular as a cruise destination. Although Turku is an old city, with almost 8 hundred years, it’s is fairly new on the cruise map, with its archipelago with some 20000 islands and islets. The Turku Cruise Port is actively promoting the destination to the cruise industry, and it’s a founder member of the Cruise Baltic Project.

The Port of Turku is continuously developing terminal and warehouse operations to support the traffic in the port. This strengthens significantly the position of the Turku economic region as a natural distribution centre and the TDC represents the centre of Scandinavian traffic in Finland. The Free Zone Company area includes many warehouses for different needs in over 20 hectares, and a land area of about 37 hectares is reserved for the use of the Port’s customers. There are terminal warehouses, lorry terminals and metal industry in the continuously developing area. Basically the TDC

64

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE CITY
TURKU TODAY
The City of Turku was founded at Koroinen, a few kilometres from the Turku market square. The trade took place on this historical site during the 1150's, and in 1229 the bishopric was transferred there as well.

Since its inception, the city was located on the edge of the river, with an urban design simple and orthogonal. This urban model, as a “chess table” pattern, allows a free expansion of the city while needs of the population grow, it also represents the national policy on the democratic distribution of land to citizens. It’s still possible to recognize the basic structure of Turku, in the old town.

After rebuilding the city, because of the great fire in 1827, Turku adopted new standards and criteria for the urban design. Thus, today it is a city of broad interior streets, in the

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

65

THE CITY
event of the need for a mass evacuation prompted by a sinister; an orthogonal grid in its urban center, in search of rebuilding the old layout of the city. While the city grows further from the river, the types of buildings are more varied, as also the order in their layout, because it is no longer strictly orthogonal. The design becomes in a grid guided by the morphology of the city including the existing topography and its environment. The Aura River has been the main witness of the evolution of the city and its changes over the history. That’s why it can be regarded as the heart of Turku, because the city life is focused around the river, near where there are some of the most interesting sightseeings, including the Turku Castle and Finland's National Shrine, the Turku Cathedral, for example. The Old Grand Market Square and the site of the declaration of Christmas Peace every year, are also located by Aura.

66

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

THE CITY
Geographical location and Area City centre (Market Square) Land surface area, km2 245.7 Planned area, km2 Climate 2006 Mean annual temperature, oC ............6.9 Max. temperature, oC ..29.8 Min. temperature, oC ..-21.4 Precipitation, mm .........722 Rainy days, (> 0,0 mm) ...............172 Average number of hours of sunshine per month Jan.- March ...................98 June – Aug. .................333 Mean temperature 1971-2000, oC ..................5.2 Average precipitation 1971-2000, mm ...............698 City personnel on 31st of December 2006 .............14,072 POPULATION 1970 Total ......................152,210 Men .....................70,065 Age distribution, % 0-14 .........................20.9 15-64 .......................69.3 65+ ............................9.8 Changes in population 2006* Births ........................1,819 Deaths ......................1,765 Intermunicipal migration Inmigration ............9,887 Outmigration .........9,870 18.1 68.5 13.4 Net domestic migration ....................17 Net immigration from abroad .........................419 Total change in population ................490 15.6 68.2 16.2 13.3 69.4 17.3 Population on 31st of Dec. 1980 163,680 75,840 1990 159,180 73,502 2006 175,354 82,148 90.9 60o27.1’N, 22o16.2’E Total area, km2 .............306.4 Population per km2 2006 714

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

67

THE CITY
Families 2005 Total ...........................................................................44,670 Average family size, persons ............................................2.6 Proportion of single-parent families of families with children, % .............................................27.7 HOUSING Households 2005

Total ............................................................................92,707 households of one person, % .....................................49.9 five persons or more, % ...............................................2.8 Average household size, persons ...................................1.82 1980 Buildings ................................................... 14,446 of which residential ............................... 12,339 detached houses ..................................... 9,927 Summer cottages ....................................... 1,853 Total of individual dwellings ...................... 74,593 detached houses, % ................................. 21.3 apartments, % ........................................... 77.2 Households in owner-occupied dwellings, % 62.7 1995 Average size of dwellings/person, m2 ........... 34.2 COMMERCIAL LIFE House building 2006 Completed buildings ........................................................495 of which residential ......................................................290 Completed dwellings .......................................................587 their average floor area, m2 .........................................92.8 2005 20,062 16,725 14,262 2,546 102,304 25.8 72.0 52.0 2005 37.1

68

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

: : : : PROJECT

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CITY
Human beings are naturally sociable by themselves and who need communication between each other to progress. This is how settlements start to grow, get bigger and become cities. Because of this constant change there is no absolute definition to characterise all the cities. One definition that sounds more exact is from the urban planner M. Webber, who defines it as “interaction, not place, that is the essence of the city and city life”. Although this definition was made in 1964, it’s fairly useful for today, when everything is based on change. of peace, privacy, space, harmony, order and color”. From those aims, each society has established its own reality.

Each society has had its own yearnings of making cities, but there are several common needs for all the cases. In the first place there are basic human needs as psychologist Rudolph Arnheim said: “Hungry, cold and fear are in same condition than the need

After many centuries, basic needs as water and energy supplies have spread quite well, keeping some deficit in remote areas. Besides those resources, nowadays there are five additional components of the technical infrastructure that have had a critical influence on the evolution of contemporary urban settlements: •Transportation Routes for trains (steam at first, then diesel and electric locomotives) •Transportation Routes for automobiles (internal combustion engine) •Aviation Routes (aircraft and air traffic control systems) •Communication grids for cable and wireless telecommunications. •Infrastructure for longdistance heat distribution.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

71

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
These kinds of communication networks have developed different settlements in density and location, which altogether form the whole world. These links and their developments have also meant a change in the importance of the time dimension and the shortening of space in our perception of distances. The access to products and the movement of information, services and people is every day faster, creating a more complete grid. are several common services at lower prices, but all this fast race of consumption is spending all the natural resources that exist, gearing the Earth to a catastrophe. It is because of these reasons that sustainability is a common concern.

This is how world development happens in an immeasurable fast way, where aspects such as globalization that gets distances shorter, empowers instant responses in every aspect. Every day barriers are becoming more and more invisible, existing only in the frontiers between countries. All over the world people are talking about a giant communication net where there

The concept sustainability was recognized after the “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992)”. That word can be divided in three parts: environmental, economic and social. The basic relationship is that counting with a balanced economy and environment, social welfare can be reached. In what concerns a city and its surroundings, the important thing is that technology and social organization can manage to recover the affected environment at the same time that it is exploited, so as not to make resources collapse.

72

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This is how the new course set by sustainable development movement has as its objective to create a new way of life that is better adapted to the planet’s regenerative resources and distributes these fairly across the globe. So, there is some kind of mission to reconstruct the city. In relation to this, sustainable development has two important topics: •Sustainable development places people into the context of global development and looks for strategies to ensure the survival of the biosphere in its entirety. It expresses belief in humankind’s creative responsibility and competence in the development of the biosphere. •Sustainable development calls for the creation of autonomous regions that define their central ideas in open-ended time frames spanning several generations. These regions recognize that regional development must be based on globally necessitated resource restrictions and a globally influenced exchange of knowledge.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

73

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
NETZSTADT MODEL
For the report we are going to recognize the main issues that could be helpful to our design, taken from the Netzstadt Method. Those tools that could help recognizing how to develop a sustainable city, in this case Turku. There have criteria to quality •Diversity •Flexibility •Degree of self-sufficiency •Resource efficiency The urban system described by the Netzstadt Model consists of 3 elements: •Nodes: Locations marked by a high density of people, goods and information. •Connections: They represent flows of people, goods and information between nodes. •Borders: are the spatial, to be evaluate five urban temporal or organizational demarcations of the network. They are also called the perimeter or the scale of the network. These elements together form an open system. This is because the nodes inside the system are linked to nodes that belong to other systems. So, the system allows an exchange of people, goods and information with systems beyond its borders, i.e. with its hinterlands. The Netzstadt Model defines 5 scale levels that are present in the city: •Individual •Local •Communal •Regional •National It also mentions that those systems are generated through human activity, and activity is

•Identification

74

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
seen as an action by human beings designed to satisfy their needs. The human basic activities are gathered in 4 groups: •To nourish and recover •To clean •To reside and work •To transport communicate and

The study of earth morphology is founded on the next methodological prerequisites: •Landscape shapes as signs •Landscape shapes geometrical abstraction in

•Choice of image motif and visual tools The architecture of the territory, from a morphological perspective includes: •waters •forest •settlement •agriculture

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

75

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
•infrastructure •fallow land The study of all these structures serves as the foundation to classify the strengths and weaknesses of urban quality in the selected territory. As a whole combination of layers that work together, each city has its own features. Depending on the circumstances of geographical latitude and regional culture, one or the other combination of types of territory dominates. In many of the Finnish cities like Turku, its environs are forest, waters and settlement Morphologically, territories can be regarded as hybrid constructs, which are assembled from attributes resulting from natural history and cultural history. The decisive attributes in an initial approach to the architecture of territory are: •The coherence of Territory or of the Earth’s surface •Boundaries and Thresholds •Scale or Magnitude •Tasks (Functions) •Urban granulation •Urban resistances In the Netzstadt Method, six basic morphological concepts are applied, in ascending order of complexity: •Contour or Boundary •Field •Size •Structure •Figure •Hierarchy

76

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
THE OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL TOOLS
Basically, the metabolism of urban systems designates the physiological processes (transport and transformations of matter and energy) in anthropogenic ecological systems. These are the essential physical resources that can be implemented in the Method for the qualitative and quantitative description of nodes and flows: •Water •Food (biomass) •Construction materials •Energy There are several physiological indicators to study urban systems: •Density of inhabitants •Density of workplaces •Density of services •Density of institutions •Workforce (flows)

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

77

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
•Students (flows) Additional desirable indicators would include: •Consumers (flows) •Information (flows in bits and bytes) The long-term objective of the Netzstadt Method is to accomplish three tasks for the urban system as a whole: •The urban form is developed over the whole spectrum of scales (entire landscapes and individual buildings). •An adequate metabolism for the global and regional conditions is created (households with key resources). •An understanding of the system is achieved which enables optimum cybernetic processes (understood as the regulation of norms, institutions and technical infrastructures using social control mechanisms). •Basically, the Netzstadt Method doesn’t generate design. It helps supporting analysis and structures of the work of design. It also doesn’t develop new quality objectives for urban systems, for this normative powers are required which are assembled and carried out specific to the culture in which they are located. •Design using the Netzstadt Method answers the following questions: •How do the four activities (to nourish and recover, to clean, to reside and work, to transport and communicate) manifest themselves morphologically and physiologically in three network elements, primarily related to the six territories (settlement, infrastructure, agriculture, forest, water, fallow land) and the four main resources (water, food, construction materials, energy)?

78

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
•What effects do these characteristics have on urban quality measured in terms of the five criteria (identification, diversity, flexibility, degree of selfsufficiency, resource efficiency)?

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

79

RELATIONS INSIDE THE REGION
TURKU AND THE CONNECTION WITH OTHER CITY CENTERS
Turku region can be described in relation to its settlements. According to large scale density analysis, this region has a very typical structure consisting of the city centre, suburbs and surrounding small towns affected by the growth of the main city. The schema on the left shows that there is a virtual connection between the different settlements. It’s determined because of the short distance that exists between each point. Turku also appears as the main hub where all the flows come, inside a bigger net. The region counts with good roads and railway network, which goes all over the region, connecting several nodes. For this report, it is important to concentrate the study on the harbor area and the surrounding cities. The municipalities of Turku, Paimio, Salo and Parainen are located in this area. First of all, they are located near the Baltic Sea, so the incoming and outgoing resources are continuous.

80

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

RELATIONS INSIDE THE REGION
Besides, the commercial relation between the cities is even more obvious because they are on the way of the E18 route (excepting Parainen City), that goes from Scandinavian countries to Asia. So the different flows are easy to move from one place to another. The Railway also passes through each one of these places, so the connection with the train ferry harbor in Turku is easier, and the physical communication becomes instant. In the case of Parainen, the railway doesn’t get to that place, but there’s an efficient road to get there (180 Road). There is also a road of high quality that begins in Turku (110 Road), so the connection can be easily established.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

81

RELATIONS INSIDE THE REGION
The Logicity is one extra component that will be included into the commercial network that exists in Turku. Specifically, it will be located in the immediate vicinity of Turku Airport. First of all, the Port of Turku can be reached by road from Logicity in about 15 minutes (E63 Road), so the link with the port is physically possible and immediate. Besides, the railway connection can communicate both nodes and Asia, and the E18 road connects the East and West. Basically, Logicity represents a concept based on logistical efficiency. The addition of air flights as a mean of transport and a supply of versatile logistics services meet to create an integral cluster. LogiCity is designed for all companies seeking greater process efficiency through logistics. Companies typically operating in, for instance, transport and value-added PORT OF TURKU AND ITS RELATION WITH THE AIRPORT (LOGICITY)

82

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

RELATIONS INSIDE THE REGION
logistics, the distribution centre business, warehousing and wholesale operations, and logistics functions for high-tech industries. Because of these basic reasons is that the Port of Turku and Logicity will represent for Turku City a great global positioning in the marketplace. The total of square meters for Logicity operations (1,000,000 m2 of floor space for the year 2015) and its organized work with the Port will ensure a successful development and growth.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

83

INCLUDING NETZSTADT METHOD IN THE CITY OF TURKU
Before starting with the incorporation of Netzstadt Method into the City of Turku, we have to explain that the project won’t be concentrated only on this book. It will be useful as one more tool between other design strategies, but not the only solution. This Method will help supporting analysis and structures for the design work. There are some issues that could be helpful to design solutions for Turku, looking for a sustainable City. Identification It’s important that inhabitants and guests know typical images from the City, in this case Turku. By creating icons with essential features of the place, people can create a sense of home, security, appeal, well-being and creative inspiration. We think that Turku has had its own images for many centuries, which people know very well. For example we have the case of the Castle, main exponent of the local history and values. To reach identification, we think that there must be more elements enabled to people’s use. If inhabitants feel like owners of the space, a common feeling can be spread. There are other elements such as nature, but in the case of architecture, a specific reality appears, distinguishing Turku from other cities of Finland. This is how several elements like nature, buildings, sounds, lights and people can generate a unique atmosphere. Diversity It defines the different ways a certain function in a urban system can be performed (e.g. transports, architecture, consumer product manufactured, etc). Turku seems to present diversity in all its areas. For example, in transport there are many ways to move from one place to another and in all territories. There are good quality roads for cars, several bus lines for transportation, railways connecting the entire region, an airport relatively close to the City

84

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

INCLUDING NETZSTADT METHOD IN THE CITY OF TURKU
center and sea transport in the harbor. That’s the main feature of the City, its capability to connect inhabitants and guests with any destiny. On the other hand, Finland manages a whole tradition in wood architecture, but it doesn’t mean that other materials like concrete are not included in Turku. In this country heating systems are efficient for example, so that’s why any material for construction can be used. In terms of manufactured consumer products, there is no problem to get the same products than in continental Europe, because of the good connections with other markets. The diversity in Turku also includes places like food markets, where the offer is quite complete, so people can get the same products that warmer countries offer. We think that all these situations represent some kind of controlled diversity, where the offer can be handled by the region, without suffering shortages. Flexibility Turku is a City that has suffered some extreme changes. For example, after the great fire in 1827 the entire place had to be rebuilt. It has also been in the middle of territorial fights between nations. Its inhabitants have been Swedish, Russian and finally Finnish, so violent changes have occurred there. Despite that, Turku is a traditional society but always flexible to controlled changes, including transport improvements, economy modifications, etc. Degree of self sufficiency This issue refers to the relationship between available regional resources and the resources that the region requires to meet its needs. The City of Turku isn’t known for processing its own raw materials, but the transport network that exists in the region allows to have enough resources available, taking advantage of the good relationship that exists between the region and its hinterlands.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

85

INCLUDING NETZSTADT METHOD IN THE CITY OF TURKU
HOW THE 3 ELEMENTS FOR URBAN SYSTEMS APPEARS IN TURKU
The main point where there is some grade of selfsufficiency is in employment, because the Port of Turku and its services concentrate the 86% of the city’s workforce. This is how most of the inhabitants can stay in the City working and also young people who can study in places like the Cathedral School (founded with the Cathedral of Turku in the late 13th century) or in the University of Turku (the second largest university in Finland). So basically people can find services such as education and employment in the same City, without the need to travel to other places. Resource Efficiency This concept denotes the relationship between the quantity of a resource utilized and the quantity that is available. In Turku, the delivery of resources for the different human needs is quite efficient. The transport network can reach any place of the City, providing the whole population with a complete variety of goods. The Finnish behavior also contributes to this objective given the fact they are disciplined in their daily lives. NODES // BORDERS CONNECTIONS //

There is a relation between the urban center of the City and its sub centers. Some of the programs in those nodes are community services like education, recreation places, supply markets, etc. Each defined area is influencing its surrounding, in about 1km of diameter. As an open system, the areas are connected through common zones that start to structure a grid, so the borders are in continuous change and in relation with more than one node. Two different layers of communication appear in the City: road network and pedestrian ways. Each one at a different scale, the first one can make direct links where the most important thing is the program, and the efficiency and speed are primary matters. On the other hand, the pedestrian ways are in constant change, developing new relationships every time.

86

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

INCLUDING NETZSTADT METHOD IN THE CITY OF TURKU
The Port of Turku appears in a different category. People and goods movement from the harbor to other places is constant, but it just represents a crossing point and transition where the user would rather get out than stay in there. Although many people depend on the Port activity, they don’t have an identity with the place, that’s the main difference with the City center.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

87

INCLUDING NETZSTADT METHOD IN THE CITY OF TURKU
EVALUATING THE 5 SCALE LEVELS IN TURKU
Individual The house unit represents for the Finnish inhabitant his personal refuge, where family life can be looked after. In the case of Turku there are several housing areas that satisfy their needs, which are also close to their basic needs supply. Local Unit With a population of 175,354 inhabitants, the basic needs of urban life are covered in Turku. As the City is not so big, small units of inhabitants can fulfill their physiological and sociological needs to identify with their neighborhood. Communal The first level of collectively organized educational, construction and social tasks are located in this scale. As in the last map these areas are in constant relation and change, depending on how City development takes place. Regional To make a city, a coordination of elements is needed and all these variables developed and linked compose a region. In the case of Turku, there are several departments that look after education, transport, resource management, etc. This is how the communal levels can be joined into a bigger unit. The role of the Port of Turku appears with all its impact, modifying the behavior of the other units that compose the region. National This is the main scale where Turku appears as a gate from continental Europe to the rest of Finland. Its importance of how a Coastal City can make the triangulation possible between the cities of Helsinki, Tampere and Turku as a trade matter.

88

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE
CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS IN THE TURKU REGION
In addition to the four area types the city centre is also studied alongside because of its crucial importance to the liveliness of the whole Turku region.

COMPACT: CITY CENTRE
•BUILDING MATERIALS: A VERY STABILE SITUATION WHEN IT COMES TO OUTER CORTEX OF BUILDINGS -> NO DEMOLITION BUT MODIFICATION OF THE INSIDE •RAIN WATER*: HIGH FLOOD DANGER BECAUSE OF LACK OF ABSORPTION -> BALANCING BY THE MEANS OF STREET DESIGN, CONNECTIONS TO AURA RIVER? •FOOD^: FOOD SALES CONCENTRATED ON LARGE UNITS LIKE DEPARTMENT STORES -> NEW RESTAURANT & SHOP STYLE FOOD SHOPPING CONCEPTS •HVAC: LOTS OF PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS AND OFFICES WITH 24/7 ENERGY CONSUMPTION -> SWITCH OFF POLICIES.

The four area types were chosen to highlight existing problems and future potentials. The compact area of Varissuo is the largest suburb of Turku with around 10.000 inhabitants pinpointing the importance of suburban renewal. Actually Turku has an excess supply of massive suburbs, but the only dense human scale area found at the moment is Port Arthur a Russian Era wooden housing complex also known as “Portsa” next to Kakolanmäki development area, which is changing from former jail to housing and offices. The spacious area of Nummi is a very typical small house estate inhabited in the past by the working class and nowadays serving as an idyllic middle class area. The sparse area of Moisio near Paimio town is chosen to turn the focus on the potential of countryside as an ecological and autonomous region.

* assumption: global warming will accelerate. ^ influence of traffic considered, focus on reducing private car use.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

89

ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE
Port Arthur/district VIII •building materials: leftover building materials can be used for common social projects like building tree huts for children or grilling places etc. •rain water: balancing by the means of landscape urbanism (for example artificial greek like in kartanonkoski area and “grass parking”). •food: cornershops with long opening hours, using old cellars for common food preservation, cooking dinners together occasionally for a larger group (like young families) -> common dining spaces. •hvac: improving thermal insulation when renovating, encouraging fire place use to cut down heating energy consumption peak in the winter, more natural air conditioning systems -> less open windows -> minor energy loss.

COMPACT: CITY CENTRE

90

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE
Paimio - moisio building materials: lots of space available for storing building materials, founding a building parts bank for renovation purposes of old farm houses, using farm buildings innovatively -> barn art, reuse as low budget holiday locations for city kids. •rain water: some farming uses allow less pure water > rain water harvesting pools and minor purification. •food: local processing and selling on-site, ecological farming, quality instead of quantity. •hvac: heat gathering devices to cow stables etc., developing local energy production forms like bioenergy.

Nummi •building consultation on building suitability for materials: reuse of materials,

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

91

ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE
lightweight/ temporary structures in the people’s summer cottages. •rain water: providing houses with special rain pipe fitting barrels to divide rain amount to a longer period in case of flood danger -> using the water in garden -> less water consumption -> more ecology •food: new delivery concepts like turning English milkman into a Finnish food man with electric car. •hvac: improving thermal insulation when renovating, encouraging fire place use to cut down heating energy consumption peak in the winter, degrading temperature in secondary spaces like garages, cellars, saunas etc. Varissuo •building materials: demolition of some houses followed by urban mining and reuse of old elements, modification of some element houses post-ddr style

92

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE
-> experimental housing projects like large ecological complexes and small scale houses for elderly people + rain water: covering parking lots with absorbent materials, “grass parking”. •food: improving walk ways from home to local centre with better lighting, materials and orientation -> more “social” flows. •hvac: improving thermal insulation while doing urban renewal, replacing high consumption air conditioners, using natural air condition in parallel, in some spaces. City centre + building materials: low effort activation and reuse of existing buildings according to present needs (alternative cultures and underground, offices for creative and mobile work, use of temporary city spaces, IMMATERIAL NETWORKING WITH WLAN)

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

93

ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE
•rain water: balancing by the means of street design: “grass parking” and “green squares” ,planting grass on railroad areas, connections to aura river? •food: More corner shops and ethnic restaurants for shorter daily “food hunting” trips and diverse culture, new concepts to combine dining and grocery shopping functions. •hvac: lightweight building extensions with plug-in to existing infrastructure, houses on houses -> ecological, stimulation for architecture scene, switch off policies for public and office buildings, fluorescent lamps and higher demands for cutting down energy consumption. •vertical densification: roof escapes, roof gardens, MODIFYING ATTICS, tm9 module grass roof mat to prevent urban heat island effect •windmill park near harbor activities AS INDUSTRIAL TOURIST SITE. •activating Aura river as flowing living room with lightweight structures like swim tanks and artificial islands

94

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT AREA

The regional node of Artukainen showcases a solution model for wild development of hypermarkets and free time centers. Artukainen area houses at the moment Messukeskus and Turkuhalli, so it has an existing capacity of somehow coping with large traffic peaks. In addition, our traffic analysis proposes a new railway/tram line to reach this node. By concentrating new commercial activities to places like Artukainen and potentially Itäkeskus and Länsikeskus, it is possible to prevent the sprawl from reaching a critical mass – at least for a while. The so called private small scale housing structure. node basically means infill to existing

The purpose is to densify and diversify existing structure (large apartment blocks contra private houses), but without creating new significant unecological flows.

The combination of harbor, Aura river and Turku’s castle calls for the importance of having an image in the global world. The mixture of shore, river and Medieval history is something unique. The global connection is both immaterial in the sense of culture and material in the meaning of concrete flows of goods running through the harbor.

The local node is another way of altering small empty fields. It can be a common farming area, local mini-park or playfield - basically something that brings locals together producing needed public spaces.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

95

DESIGN AREA
The design of the marine front begins as a response to the need of a significant connection between human beings and their natural environment, because thanks to this relationship the character and identity of the city center can be determined. The coastal city structure can be classified into two types: the "cityport" and "city-beach", according to the relevant relationship between the city center and coastline. Today, the "cities-port" share the same problem of decoupling between the sea and city, product of the absolute ownership of the entire coastline by shipping companies, which make up a visual and physical wall between the marine front and urban center, with port infrastructure, vast fields or simply warehouse buildings. This phenomenon prevents a dialogue between man and his environment, and at the same time hampers a clear reading of the city and its access from the sea. With this in mind, the proposal must be based on water as a means of transport and also as an area to protect. This is achieved through implementation of sustainable models for the City design, which respect the environment and makes the coast more habitable. In this way, the project seeks to rehabilitate the marine front of Turku, describing it as the scene of the communion between the sea (environment) and the city center (as the inhabitant and the agent that activated the town), generating a design edge, which reorganizes the rest of the city, and include the inhabitants of Turku in the use of the Port. Another objective is to provide Turku with new infrastructure that might position it as a city of international importance, attracting new visitors who may demand new investments that, in long term, will mean improving its inhabitants life quality. The marine front will be the face of Turku, and the Port will be the door to Finland. The proposal that submitted is divided two levels: -Long-term Projects -Short-term Solutions is into

96

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

OWN PROJECT

DESIGN AREA
Long-term Projects In this category are projects such as the reorganization of the Port of Turku, for the integration between the citizenry and the sea; rehabilitation of the marine front with pedestrian access and the creation of new buildings, with the aim of incorporating new programs and uses to the harbor area. Such urban interventions are classified as long-term because more time for its implementation and for the perception of results is required. Short-term Solutions Within this group, we propose solutions with immediate results, aiming among other things to incorporate vegetation into the cement desert of the port area; promote tourism in the city through advertising, using port infrastructure as support for publicity banners; or refurbish the facades of some buildings in the port, in order to mitigate the hardness of steel and cement, achieving the approach between the visitor and citizen with the coast. These solutions can be reached through the incorporation of new bioclimatic techniques and materials, as in the case of implementing the curtain wall, vegetal coating in walls, carpets of grass on cement, to name a few.

THE DESIGN AREA

THE DESIGN SEA

CONECTIONS BY SEA

CONECTIONS BY LAND

HIGHLIGHTS PROJECT POINTS

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

97

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
PROJECT #1. TURKU, THE GREAT SCANDINAVIAN ACCESS
One of the solutions proposed to improve the connections between the city and the port, is the creation of a ferry that would start in the river from the city centre, going through different stations until arriving at the port terminal. This is how the marine means of transport can be incorporated to benefit Turku inhabitants, to stop being simply a route to enter and leave the country. On the other hand, the solution seeks to strengthen even more the great Scandinavian access across the archipelago, involving through thematic stations the islands and the City. In addition to a physical connection, a visual relation is searched, because as it has been the major access to Finland for centuries, the image presented to other countries can be enhanced. This visual link leads to a more transcendent relationship between the archipelago and the port of Turku, in which the coastline produces an immediate impact on the perception of the town. With this coast recognition, the entry of vessels by the archipelago manages to be more unified and in relation with the islands, so that port and city achieve their natural boundaries.

2 3

1

1.Turku Gate

2.Turism Stations

3.Eco-Footpaths

98

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
Robot Parking Given the importance of car entry through the Port of Turku, it would be irresponsible if we decided to erradicate this function, considering economic development. The biggest problem caused by this activity is the huge area that the Port has for parking in one level only where so many square meters are wasted. In order to provide a solution to this car problem, several robot parking towers are proposed, which have as an advantage the possibility of having some free space left for potential citizen programs. Besides, with the provision of new towers, a new border is defined which separates Port and City functions, keeping some sort of permeability to mix both realities. To enhance a duality program, we propose to install some kind of commerce on the towers first floor so as to incorporate the inhabitants to its use. Maritime Research Institute The Baltic Sea is the victim of constant abuses against its ecosystem. Every time it seems to be more polluted, and there isn’t a clear solution to reverse the damage. The countries that have a coastline in this Sea, including Finland seem to be the main responsible for these actions. However,

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

PROJECT #2. INTERVENTION T.A.T.

99

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
in the case of the Port of Turku, it counts on an ISO 14001 Environmental Standard, so its coast is fairly clean. The main issue is that Turku with its exit to the Baltic Sea cannot remain indifferent to all that abuse. That is why the construction of a Maritime Research Institute is suggested, which will look after the conditions of the Baltic Sea and it could also provide advances and new technologies in relation to the care of the Sea and its biodiversity. For its construction, the use of the released land alongside the coast - at the car terminal is proposed so as to have an immediate access to it. In the case of the building that will be erected, the project will try to rescue some existing warehouses, trying to use their structure, and also create concrete structures with steel and glass to highlight transparency and continue with the connection between the Sea and City. The program isn’t determined at this stage, but it is intended to add areas such as: laboratories, libraries, monitoring center, equipment for sampling, etc. A way to incorporate the community into the program of the Institute would be by offering exhibits, professional speeches, etc.

100

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
This institute would be completed thanks to the strategic partnership between the University and the Port of Turku, where both entities will benefit from. The institute would also benefit all the countries near the Baltic Sea, so the intention is that foreign professionals and investors can be involved in its development. Sea aquarium To accentuate even further the relationship between the citizen and the Sea the creation of the Sea Aquarium is proposed. Basically this would be an educational building, which could show the richness of the Sea, with aquariums, activities for the family, etc. This place would complement the existing tourist offer in Turku (the Castle appears as the main place), trying to consolidate the City´s potential as a tourist destiny. Besides, the Aquarium would reach the objective of educating population about the care the Sea needs, and how important it is for future generations. This building would be conceived as a dependence of the Maritime Research Institute, to let them work together and in a way that many of the existing building could be reused. Moreover, working as a society it could act as a natural reserve of the institute, modifying their programs to last in time. Aquatic Park This proposal is purely playful and where the main protagonists would be children. It is conceived with many indoor games such as warm pools and recreation places and its main objective would be to strengthen the touristic role that Turku intends to have. Recreational facilities also are useful to relax from the Port´s formal atmosphere, placing Turku also as a place where you can have a nice time along the coastline, catering for all age groups.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

101

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
1. Robotic Buildings Parking

2.

Maritime Institute

Research

3.

Sea Aquarium

3 4

2 1
4. Aquatic Park

102

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
PROJECT #3. INTERVENTION T.C.T.
Container area As a first solution, stacking of containers located in the port is suggested as a strategy to gain square meters of usable area. Without altering the original image of the Turku Container Terminal, the original container morphology will be kept for the basic design of the other proposed areas. Along with the relocation of containers, the cargo vessel area is also modified. This will release space for citizens everyday use, looking for Port harnessing and its appropriation. Turku Cultural Center As a program that complements existing places in the City as the Regional Museum of Turku, a Cultural Center in the coastline is proposed. Using the area now used by the Turku Container Terminal a new Center will be created, which will offer exhibition halls, information about the City, music shows, dance, etc. This project will be located in the coastal circuit of new programs, and it will also be included into the marine circuit that would start from the City center. The building will keep container language in its architecture as well as all new programs housed in this area. Besides it will represent a cultural link with islands like Hirvensalo, so the work together would be useful for the development of culture and arts in the Region. Boulevard A number of shops arranged in several containers along the coastal edge will accommodate a much more attractive border, which could offer outdoor activities for pedestrians. It could be considered to incorporate themes such as craft fairs, restaurants, clothes shops, and so on. As the trades will be placed in containers, the spatial arrangement of the shops can be much more versatile over time, allowing spatial modifications according to the requirements. Container Buildings The creation of housing and office blocks is suggested, keeping the language of the Turku Container Terminal and trying to complement the Boulevard area. As in previous programs, container language is maintained to make a whole unique unit. By incorporating the housing program to the Port, the main objective is to make a resident injection inside it, complementing the floating population expected. The Port would offer all the basic needs that an inhabitant could need, and also who could work at the Port or could

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

103

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
require moving easily to other Scandinavian countries. The offices can share the buildings with residential apartments, taking advantage of the communications with the Port and Logicity. Walking Borderline As a walking edge, a verandah is proposed to use all the borderline, continuing towards the West near the Research Institute and other maritime facilities. If the project considers the Finnish inhabitant, who likes to walk and ride bikes, it’s absolutely necessary to include pedestrian and bicycle paths. With the creation of good quality facilities, well lit and with green areas, it’s possible to create a circuit where people can go through the different programs suggested in the proposal.

104

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
1. Stacking containers

2.

Cultural Center Museum of Turku

and

3.

Boulevard

4 3
4. Container Buildings

1 2
5. Green Boardwalk

5

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

105

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
PROJECT #4. INTERVENTION T.C.P.
Lighthouse Building (International Turku Hotel) Turku is one of the major entrances to Finland from continental Europe through the sea. In its capacity as a portal, we believe it’s necessary to mark some kind of vertical milestone, to mark the great access to the city, visible from far away. That’s why a “Lighthouse Building” is proposed, which could also make the link between the Port and the City of Turku establishing a visual and program relationship. The exact location will be next to the Turku Cruise Port, representing a fast solution for finding accommodation. The main function of this tower is to include a good quality hotel, with restaurant services, a bar, and conference facilities. Thus besides a milestone access to the port, it can provide shelter for potential travelers and businessmen who need a place to stay near the port.

Floating Bridge This is the most temporary place in the proposal. Basically, a Floating Bridge is suggested, between the “Container Area” and the “Cruise Port”. The main feature of this element is that it can be installed only for special occasions, so as not to block the ships access. This is how a whole unit can be made from the different Port areas, complying with the diversification of the port including the user as the main character.

106

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

LONG-TERM PROJECTS
1. International Hotel Turku

2.

Public Area

1 3
3. Free footpaths

2

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

107

LONG-TERM PROJECTS

The Maritime Research Institute and the Robotic Parking Buildings

The Baltic Sea and the International Turku Hotel in front.

108

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS
BUILDINGS ADVERTISING
The Port of Turku zone has several buildings notable for their size and location, but their current appearance deteriorates the City image. The occupation of buildings’ walls as a bracket to install advertisement to promote the city to get the attention of tourists is proposed as a project, while the buildings are refurbished. The intervention of the buildings chosen, can help during the temporary wait for a deep rehabilitation or repair of the building.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

109

SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS
To achieve beauty and mitigate the hard impact of materials as concrete in the Port area with an immediate result, the idea of integrating vegetation on the facades in two different ways is suggested. The first proposal is to paint the walls with nature designs, including the species existing in Turku. So this solution represents a fast way to incorporate nature within the City, achieving a visual connection between citizens and environment. The second solution proposed, is to incorporate vegetation alive with the help of new technologies. This could include grass carpets that grow over on the concrete, plants and shrubs with shorter roots which sprout from the building walls with a previous treatment on them. Another easy solution is to create green closures, planting bushes or other small pruned shrubs. With these innovations it is possible to transform a gray building into another which is green and alive. Besides, some roofs and some sheds at the Port can be used to create green environments.

110

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

GREEN BUILDINGS

SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS
This contemporary technology, which allows vegetation growing on concrete without soil, suggests that it would be a possible way to reduce the urban impact that produces the railway network. The seeding of grass and trees in the railway area is suggested, trying to incorporate pedestrians to these zones, allowing the appropriation of the place and strengthening the local identity.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

111

: : : : CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
The research work about the City of Turku started to deliver a series of relevant data for subsequent stages, until the development of a personal project. We started the work recognizing local problems and after that interesting topics started to appear, which were quite remote to our Chilean reality. One issue was Baltic Sea pollution. The situation is absolutely critical, because of that it’s urgent to take action to care for all its components over time. Although we realize that Finland takes measures to stop polluting the Sea, other countries are guilty of some of the toxic spills, chemicals, etc. That’s why we believe that the joint work between countries is essential to reach a common strategy to follow. The big problem that we saw when we started studying Turku is the relationship between the City and the Port. For many reasons described before, we realized that this was a problem, but not so distant from our reality. In Chile there are several examples of “city-ports” that have left the whole harbor area for the development of the marine port. The problem is that economic reasons are more important than anything, untying the city and the sea front, like in a human scale where the individual isn’t identified with the environment, in this case the port, not feeling it his own. The historical Port of Turku transferred the inhabitant to the interior of the City, removing his right on the harbor, to privatize it. Following with the report development, the methodology to seek examples of port development was quite useful to put in the context the issue of improving a “cityport”. As further examples appeared around the world, there were also more new logical solutions, so we understood that certain common patterns such as preserving old buildings for its renewal could be enriching the user’s identity and residence in the port. The history of Finland, and in particular from Turku, meant a lot for us because it’s a completely different reality from the Chilean one. In the case of Turku, this City was Swedish, Russian and finally Finnish. Even so disciplined inhabitants have been able to adapt to changes in language and idiosyncrasies to be what they are now. On the other hand, Turku suffered a major fire after which it was necessary to rebuild the entire City. Also the University of Turku moved to Helsinki, and the title of capital ended.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

115

CONCLUSION
Similarities with Chile are for example “chess table grid” that began in the new City design, in an attempt to reflect the proper democracy and equity. One of the relevant issues is that in general all the basic subsistence needs are covered in the Finnish society. That is why the new programs are being designed more for leisure than for any need. It is precisely here that we take the idea of a new program in the Port, where much more leisure programs are mixed with other more educational. Our own projects phase served as a starting point to associate our proposals and make them sustainable over time. For example office facilities housed in the area of containers, or Building Lighthouse, can work together with Logicity, to finally communicate them and generate people and property flows. Moreover it helped us to get to know the criteria adopted by the designer to work in Turku. The basic and initial study that we did in the region of Turku, introducing its subregions, the archipelago, the Port, City and Sea was helpful as a blueprint to put us within the context more comprehensively. While the level of information was sometimes precarious because it was mostly written in Finnish, the contribution of professionals working in the Port of Turku and in the municipality, gave us easy access to certain information. The Netzstadt Method served to identify variables in the city, from where to find material to work. The study of the relationship between nodes in the city (Airport and Port for example) or the identification of certain nodes with their interrelationships served us to assess the conditions under which the City of Turku exists, with examples of density throughout the region. This is how the Netzstadt represented a guide to coordinate a modus operandi at work, useful as a first step and then to be supplemented with our work. Another major contribution was the work done as a group for the Urban Planning Course at the Tampere University of Technology. In this activity we received the Port area to work on it, and that research carried out with a group of Finnish students resulted in our big research about the Port of Turku, for all its potential.

116

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

CONCLUSION
About personal design, we tried to work from the look of architecture students designing in a reality beyond their own. Based on the requirements set by the Teacher during corrections in the course of the investigation, the project was developed in stages, depending on the scale. Of course that doing projects in 2 categories (long and short term) allowed us to modify them over time. After developing all the study in the City of Turku in all its different stages, we realize that it’s possible to INCREASE THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA. The City has the main tools to achieve its sustainable development. With the existence of areas like the Port or all the transport networks, the access to goods and information can be really fast and efficient. Through diversifying the Harbor area, new programs can show the solutions of how to connect the inhabitants with the Port and the Sea as one unit, without making any distinction. And all these solutions seem to be on the same way as Turku’s development, where new projects are constantly appearing to improve the living standards of the inhabitants. This is why Turku represents the perfect stage to make new projects like ours, where the City can finally recover the Sea and all its identity. In general the work resulted as we wanted. With a methodical work we found a result that left us quite satisfied. We are certain that the research could be much more complete, but most of the database was in Finnish, so this language barrier obliged us to make use of all the documents that were written in English. We believe that this was a gratifying experience for us as future Latin American architects, to work within a reality so different as the Finnish. This analysis allowed us to get much closer to their culture and traditions. Besides, working with professional Finns served us to get a better result.

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

117

: : : : BIBLIOGRAPHY & INDEX

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Netzstadt - Designing the Urban
OSWALD, Franz - BACCINI, Peter Birkhäuser – Publishers for Architecture Germany 2003

Processing Utopia – City Scratching II
YLÄ-ANTITILA - SAMULI ALPPI Tampere University of Technology – D.A. Institute of Urban Planning and Design Publications 2007

Research Seminar -Redefining the Typical Area of Antofagasta
PLAUT, Catherine - MICHELA, Sandra University of Chile Chile 2003

Topics architectural composition Use and activity. From the utilitas to the funcion
CALDUCH, Juan Club Universitario Editorial Spain

Web pages:
http://www.turku.fi http://www.turkutouring.fi http://www.saaristo.org/eng/ http://www.turku2011.fi/public/?lang=en http://www.searail.net/index_uk.html http://www.port.turku.fi/portal/hots/ http://www.pilotturku.com/page/en http://www.port.turku.fi/portal/port/english/ http://portfolio.pilotturku.com http://intratad.turku.fi/e18/cms.nsf/pages/indexeng http://www.transportlogistic.de/link/en/15972762 http://opaskartta.turku.fi/ http://www.bspinfo.lt/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turku

Other sites:
http://www.puertomadero.com http://www.answers.com/topic/finland?cat=travel http://chilearq.com/v2/proyectos.php?tipo=853&foto=0 http://www.vitruvius.com.br/arquitextos/arq054/arq054_03_e.asp

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

121

INDEX & CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BECOMING AN ARCHITECT. . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OBJETIVES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

03 TRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
05 COMING AN ARCHITECT. . . . . . . . . . 06 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 OBJETIVES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VARIABLES

TO

CONSIDER.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11
13 13 88 18 19 . .

VARIABLES TO CONSIDER. . . . . . .
OBLEMATICS PROBLEM OF THE BALTIC SEA. . . . . . . . . . four most polluting factors of the Baltic Sea. OBAL PROBLEM OF THE COAST IN BALTIC SEA REGION. OBAL PROBLEM OF THE COAST IN BALTIC SEA REGION.

PROBLEMATICS GLOBAL PROBLEM OF THE BALTIC SEA. . . . . . . . . . -The four most polluting factors of the Baltic Sea. GLOBAL PROBLEM OF THE COAST IN BALTIC SEA REGION. . TURKU PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

REFRENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REFERENCE REHABILITATION EDGE HARBOR. . . . . . . . REFERENCE LIGHTHOUSE-BUILDING. . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCE BOARDWALK DESIGN. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

ENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23 RENCE REHABILITATION EDGE HARBOR. . . . . . . . 24 ERENCE LIGHTHOUSE-BUILDING. . . . . . . . . . . 25 REFERENCE BOARDWALK DESIGN. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THE PLACE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HISTORY FINLAND: ETERNAL LAND FIGHTS. . . . TURKU: HISTORICALLY A CAPITAL. . . . TURKU AND ITS GOLDEN ERA. . . . . . TURKU, CONDITIONED BY HISTORY. . . . TURKU: HISTORICAL HARBOR OF FINLAND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
29 29 31 32 32 33 . .

E PLACE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STORY LAND: ETERNAL LAND FIGHTS. . . . . . . . . . . . KU: HISTORICALLY A CAPITAL. . . . . . . . . . . AND ITS GOLDEN ERA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . U, CONDITIONED BY HISTORY. . . . . . . . . . . . RKU: HISTORICAL HARBOR OF FINLAND. . . . . . . .

CURRENT PROJECT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BALTIC SEA ACTIONS ACTIONS BY HELSINKI AND TURKU. . . . . . . . . . . . -Diagnosis. -Factors Pollutants. -Actions by the cities. PROJECT NODE INTERMODAL LOGISTICS TURKU-LOGICITY. . . . . . TURKU CULTURAL CAPITAL OF EUROPE 2011. . . . . . . . -Memories and Truths. -Trasformations. -Exploring the Archipelago. -Take-offs. URBAN DESIGN CONTEST URBAN PROJECTS IN TURKU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –Kakola. -Skanssi. -Ratapiha.

37

RRENT PROJECT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .

39 IC SEA ACTIONS 39 IONS BY HELSINKI AND TURKU. . . . . . . 88 iagnosis. 88 Pollutants. 88 by the cities. 41 OJECT 41 DE INTERMODAL LOGISTICS TURKU-LOGICITY. 42 CULTURAL CAPITAL OF EUROPE 2011. . . . 88 and Truths. 88 asformations. 88 the Archipelago. 88 e-offs. 44 BAN DESIGN CONTEST 44 AN PROJECTS IN TURKU. . . . . . . . . . 36 akola. 37 . 38

. . . . . . . . -

. . . .

122

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

INDEX & CONTENTS
THE CITY & ITS AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE GREATER REGION THE BALTIC SEA . . . . . . . . . . . ARCHIPELAGO. . . . . . . . . . . . . THE SUB REGION . . . . . . . . . . . -Uusikaupunki Sub-Region. -Loimaa Sub-Region. -Salo Sub-Region. THE PORT THE PORT OF TURKU TODAY. . . . . . . -Connections with Europe and Asia. -Port of Turku and the environment. -Services of the Port of Turku. -TCT: Turku Container Terminal. -TAT: Turku Auto Terminal. -TEL: Turku Eastern Land-bridge. -TDC: Turku Distribution Centre. -TCP: Turku Cruise Port. THE CITY TURKU TODAY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49
51 51 53 56

. . . . . . . .

58 58

. . . . . . . .

65 65

PROJECT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CITY . . . . . . NETZSTADT MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL TOOLS RELATIONS INSIDE THE REGION TURKU AND THE CONNECTION WITH OTHER CITY CENTERS PORT OF TURKU AND ITS RELATION WITH THE AIRPORT (LOGICITY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INCLUDING NETZSTADT METHOD IN THE CITY OF TURKU. –Identification -Diversity -Flexibility -Degree of self sufficiency -Resource Efficiency HOW THE 3 ELEMENTS FOR URBAN SYSTEMS APPEARS IN TURKU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -NODES // CONNECTIONS // BORDERS EVALUATING THE 5 SCALE LEVELS IN TURKU . . . . . –Individual -Local Unit -Communal -Regional -National . . . . . . . . . . . .

69
71 71 74 77 80 80 82 84

. . . .

86 88

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

123

INDEX & CONTENTS
ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SCALE CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS IN THE TURKU REGION. . . -Port Arthur/district VIII -Paimio - moisio -Nummi -Varissuo -City centre ANALYSIS OF IMPACT AREA. . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN AREA OWN PROJECT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –Long-term Projects -Short-term Solutions LONG-TERM PROJECTS PROJECT #1. TURKU, THE GREAT SCANDINAVIAN ACCESS PROJECT #2. INTERVENTION T.A.T . . . . . . . . . -Robot Parking -Maritime Research Institute -Sea aquarium -Aquatic Park PROJECT #3. INTERVENTION T.C.T. . . . . . . . . -Container area -Turku Cultural Center -Boulevard -Container Buildings -Walking Borderline PROJECT #4. INTERVENTION T.C.P. . . . . . . . . -Lighthouse Building -Floating Bridge SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS BUILDINGS ADVERTISING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . GREEN BUILDINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 89

. . . .

95 96 96

. . . .

98 98 99

. .

103

. .

106

. . . .

109 109 110

CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

BIBLIOGRAPHY & INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX & CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 122

124

INCREASING THE VALUE OF TURKU AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY; DIVERSIFYING THE HARBOR AREA UNIVERSITY OF CHILE . . . . . . . . GERSON GONZÁLEZ LÓPEZ + CRISTÓBAL RIVEROS BRIEBA

University of chile

2007
cover design by

aribel gonzalez