You are on page 1of 47

The provided unit of work “Chemical reactions” is designed for Liverpool Boys’ high school

for stage 5. The outcomes and content are aligned with the new syllabus provided by Board

of studies (2017) under the topic Chemical World. It can be used for year 9 or 10. The

prerequisite for this unit is the structure of atom, periodic table and arrangement of atoms

in periodic table by atomic number. Though, some initial classes are dedicated to the

revision of these topics, but it is expected that these topics are pre covered before

execution of this unit. The duration of this unit is for 5 weeks and it weighs 25% of

assessment weightage. The rubric and all the resources required for this unit are submitted

along with the unit.

The unit is designed to use different pedagogical methods like explicit teaching with use of

metalanguage and developing mind maps, and inquiry based learning that includes the

development of experimental skills and making chemistry more exciting. Efficient teaching

includes teaching concepts explicitly in small steps along with a practice which is guided by

students; so that all the students can be benefitted from it (O’Neill, Geoghegan & Petersen,

2013). The unit allows teachers to talk interactively with students keeping them busy in

different activities by providing sequential instructions.

Ramnarain (2014) has stated that inquiry based leaning helps students develop key scientific

ideas by methods of raising questions, collecting first hand or secondary data, analysing

data and drawing conclusions. The unit submitted is designed to engage students by

experimental work (which involves asking questions and observing different chemical

reactions and drawing conclusions) and to build their chemical literacy. A student who is

chemical literate can understand the big ideas of chemistry in a better way (Shwartz, Ben-

Zvi & Hofstein, 2005).

Concept of flipped classroom has been used during week 3 and week 4 of the unit. The

flipped classroom setting helps teachers in utilizing the class timing more efficiently in

discussions the theory and/or demonstration of the experiments (Smith, 2017) as students

watch the same before the class. Each student is supposed to post a comment/ question on

the online discussion board after watching the video. This will not only ensure their

participation and also to help teacher in identifying the students who need extra help, thus

incorporating differentiation in the classroom (Sterling, 2012).

Lang et al., (2017) have discussed that the incorporation of ICT in classroom teaching is

highly common and desirable nowadays and how mobile devices can be utilised as a catalyst

for learning. ICT has been incorporated in this unit with the help of google slides, kahoot

quiz, online discussion board and flipped classroom. It is not assumed that every student will

have the resources at home to watch the video. Therefore, resources will be uploaded at

the start of the unit, so that students can visit school library to watch the video. Also, in

case, any student who does not have a mobile phone can be paired up with another student

to play Kahoot quiz.

Overall, an attempt has been made to design an engaging unit which provides ample

opportunities to students to understand concepts of chemical reactions with hands on

experience and to develop critical thinking skills; and to teacher to design lesson plans easily

and efficiently.
Unit: Chemical Reactions

Stage 5 Duration: 5-6 weeks

Science Details: 4 lessons per week; 55 minutes

each lesson


History of chemistry and the changes it has been through over the time are interesting.

Naming of compounds used to be like laughing gas, quicklime etc. With the increasing

number of compounds, a systematic naming process of chemicals was established by the

French scientist Antionne Lavoisier in 1787.

Chemistry is incorporated in our day to day lives. From the second we wake up till we sleep,

our day is full of chemistry. An example is of table salt which is a compound called sodium

chloride, NaCl or combustion of fuel in our automobiles or dissolving a teaspoon of sugar in

a cup of tea. We are surrounded by chemical reactions.

The unit is designed to provide opportunities to all the students to understand the chemical

reactions by experiments. Students will maintain a logbook/ journal to maintain the records

of the experiments and classroom notes and discussions during the 5 weeks. This logbook

will be submitted and assessed at the end of this unit. All the worksheets must be glued in

the logbook. Worksheet B is a generalised worksheet (with required titles) provided in the

resources which can be distributed for any experiment.


 SC5 -16CW explains how models, theories and laws about matter have been refined

as new scientific evidence becomes available

 SC5-17CW discusses the importance of chemical reactions in the production of a

range of substances, and the influence of society on the development of new


 SCLS-23CW explores how common chemicals affect everyday life

 SC5-7WS processes, analyses and evaluates data from first-hand investigations and

secondary sources to develop evidence-based arguments and conclusions

Working Scientifically (Skills)

Questioning and predicting Outcomes:

A student develops questions or

hypotheses to be investigated scientifically.


 WS4Students question and predict by:

 a. formulating questions or hypotheses that

can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164,

 b. predicting outcomes based

on observations and scientific knowledge

Planning investigations Outcome:

A student:

 SC5-5WS

produces a plan to investigate

identified questions, hypotheses or

problems, individually and



 WS5.1Students identify data to be collected

for an investigation by:

 a. describing the purpose of an


 b. explaining why certain types of

information need to be collected in a range

of investigation types

 c. selecting possible sources of data,

including secondary sources, relevant to

the investigation
 WS5.2Students plan first-hand

investigations by:

 a. planning and selecting appropriate

investigation methods,

including fieldwork and laboratory

experimentation, to collect reliable

data (ACSIS165, ACSIS199)

 b. describing a logical procedure for

undertaking a range of investigation types

 c. designing controlled experiments to

collect valid first-hand data

 WS5.3Students choose equipment or

resources for an investigation by:

 a. identifying appropriate equipment and


 b. identifying the appropriate units to be

used in collecting data

 c. selecting equipment to collect and

record reliable data or information, using

digital technologies as appropriate, eg data

 d. assessing risks and addressing ethical

issues associated with these

methods (ACSIS165, ACSIS199)

Conducting investigations Outcomes

A student:

 SC5-6WS

undertakes first-hand investigations

to collect valid and reliable data and

information, individually and



 WS6Students conduct investigations by:

 a. individually and collaboratively using

appropriate investigation methods,

including fieldwork and laboratory

experimentation, to collect reliable

data (ACSIS165, ACSIS199)

 b. safely constructing, assembling and

manipulating identified equipment

 c. selecting and using appropriate

equipment, including digital technologies,

to systematically and accurately collect and

record data (ACSIS166, ACSIS200)

 d. using appropriate units for measuring

physical quantities

 e. reporting data and

information, evidence and findings,

with accuracy and honesty

 f. evaluating the effectiveness of the

planned procedure, considering risk factors

and ethical issues, and suggesting

improvements as appropriate

Processing and analysing data and Outcomes

information A student:

 SC5-7WS

processes, analyses and evaluates

data from first-hand investigations

and secondary sources to develop

evidence-based arguments and


Related Life Skills outcome: SCLS-7WS


 WS7.1Students process data and

information by:

 a. selecting and using a variety of methods

to organise data and information including

diagrams, tables, models, spreadsheets and


 b. selecting and extracting information

from tables, flow diagrams, other texts,

audio-visual resources and graphs,

including histograms and column, sector or

line graphs

 c. accessing data and information by using a

range of appropriate digital technologies

 d. applying numerical procedures and

mathematical concepts and using digital

technologies, where appropriate

 f. describing specific ways to improve the

quality of the data (ACSIS171, ACSIS205)

 WS7.2Students analyse data and

information by:
 c. assessing the validity and reliability of

first-hand data

 d. using knowledge of scientific concepts to

draw conclusions that are consistent

with evidence (ACSIS170, ACSIS204)

 g. critically analysing the validity of

information from secondary

sources (ACSIS172, ACSIS206)

Communicating Outcomes

A student:

 SC5-9WS

presents science ideas and evidence

for a particular purpose and to a

specific audience, using appropriate

scientific language, conventions and


Related Life Skills outcome: SCLS-9WS


 WS9Students communicate by:

 a. selecting and using in presentations, for

different purposes and

contexts, appropriate text types including

discussions, explanations, expositions,

procedures, recounts or reports

 b. selecting and constructing an

appropriate table, type of diagram, table or

graph (histogram or sector, column or line

graph) to present information and show

relationships clearly and succinctly using

digital technologies as appropriate

 c. using appropriate units for physical

quantities and symbols to express

relationships, including mathematical


Assessment Overview:

Class discussions Formative

Class test Summative

Performing experiments Summative

and completing respective

Week Content Outline of Suggested activity/resources


Week CW3 Introduction Teachers asks students questions about

1 recall that previous knowledge of atoms and chemical

all matter reactions. Teachers form groups of 3 students

is and students make a list of chemical reactions

compose in day to day lives. At the end of the class,

d of groups share their ideas with whole class and

atoms discuss.

and has Define atom, Students can research / review Rutherford’s

mass review structure atomic Model. Then everyone will draw in their

of atom journal, diagram of an atom labelling:

containing -Electrons

electrons, - Protons

neutrons and -Neutrons

protons -Nucleus

Review electronic Students will make a table of sub-atomic

configuration particles including charge, size, mass and

location in an atom. Students will recall writing

atomic symbols.
For gifted Students- They will research about

how ions are created, naming ions.

Review Periodic Watch the you tube video “ The periodic table

table song” (AsapScience, 2018)



Students try to make periodic table in their

notebooks and remember as many elements

from periodic table as possible after watching

video. Self-correction after teacher displays

correct periodic table. Teacher to monitor that

students correct their work, if necessary. From

their previous knowledge students can share

the history of development of periodic table.

Elements were arranged by atomic mass and

why it changed.

For gifted Students: Define types of bonding-

Ionic and Covalent Bonding.

Week CW3- Define a Watch the you tube video “ ion cation anion”

2 identify a compound, ions, (Himrdo, 2011)

range of cations and (

compoun anions. HQ) Students can use the periodic table and
ds using complete worksheet about anions and cations

their with the help of teacher.

common Identify common Students brainstorm in groups of 2 or 3 and

names compounds from come up with names of as many compounds

and everyday life like from daily life along with their chemical names

chemical Sodium Chloride, and formula. Students research and make a list

formulae glucose, of uses of common compounds. Students also

hydrochloric acid, work on their journals, making sure they have

 -classify
water,, carbon attached the worksheet and important notes
dioxide, carbon are noted down.
ds into
ammonia etc.
based on
Define and Define Acid and its properties. List some acidic
discuss acids, substances from everyday life. Introduce
bases and indicator and demonstrate its use with variety
indicators. of acids. Introduce and describe pH Value and
Discuss what is pH scale. Define base. Discuss strong and weak

pH value. acids and strong and weak bases.

Define a base and Practical 1- Students can use red cabbage juice

describe the pH as an indicator and test which of the given

scale. solutions (Vinegar, baking soda, detergent and

sodium bicarbonate) is acidic. ( Worksheet A)

(Kritsadee, 2017)


wSg) (link of video, if teacher needs to watch it

beforehand or if teacher is casual and not sure

about the practical)

Practical 2- Ask students to mix some lime juice,

baking soda and liquid dish soap as per given

instructions and observe and discuss the

results. Students to use the format of

worksheet A and make their own worksheets.

(Olmezoglu, 2015)

Prg ) (link of video, if teacher needs to watch it

beforehand or if teacher is casual and not sure

about the practical)

Week investigat Introduce Explicit teaching on safety precautions to be

3 e a range students to lab taken while working with chemicals and fire.

of types equipment and Introduce students to lab equipment to be used

of safety procedures during the whole week for different

important experiments.

chemical Students draw and label these equipment in

reactions their journal. (Screenshots of google slides

that occur provided in the resources for this lesson)

in non- Kahoot quiz regarding lab safety rules

living syst

ems and a91e-aa8527c802f4


energy Investigate the Students will understand the basic structure of

transfer, chemical reaction doing any experiment:

including: – combustion and Aim

corrosion Materials required,

 combusti
on (ACSS
 the
Writing equations,
of acids
Teacher will demonstrate simple vacuum
candle experiment. (Kidscaffe, 2016)
Fh6Xs) ( Video link for teachers only)
Students will note their observations and will
discuss as a whole class.
In groups of 3, students will investigate iron

 corrosion nails corrosion and will leave the iron nails in 4

different test tubes filled with tap water, salty

 precipitati water, boiled water with a layer of oil on top

on and calcium carbonate( only powder form, no

water) (procedure in Worksheet-Corrosion;

provided in resources) and observations will be

noted in next class.

Corrosion ( Students will observe the iron nails and note

Continued), the observations in their respective worksheets.

Reactions Teacher will discuss and explain methods to

between acids prevent rusting like using a paint or adding oil

and metals or grease and galvanizing. Students will note

these in their worksheet/journal.

Students are expected to watch the following

video before the class (flipped classroom) “

Acids reacting with metals”

(Freesciencelessons, 2017)


Class will start discussing the

comments/questions posted by students on

online discussion board.

Practical- Acids and metals (Details in-

Worksheet Acids and metals)

wcWo)( Video for teachers)

(KClassScienceChannel, 2013)

High precautions needed while doing this

practical. It is suggested that 2 teachers are

present during the practicals.

Reaction Students are expected to watch video before

between acids the class (flipped classroom) “ Metal carbonates

and carbonates reacting with acids” (Freesciencelessons, 2014)

and chemical

reaction including 0w

Precipitation Class will start with the comments/questions

posted by students on online discussion board.

Practical- Acids and carbonates ( worksheet

Acids and Metal Carbonates) (Video for

teachers) (Kentang358, 2012)


Define precipitation.

Practical- Common precipitates. (Worksheet-

precipitation) (Video for teachers) (Cienciabit:

Science and technology, 2015)

P2k or (BrillionNerd, 2015)


Week investigat Neutralisation Define Neutralisation

4 e a range Decomposition Practical- Neutralisation Simply adding

of types measured amount of carbonate in measured

of amount of acid and then testing with indicator.

important Neutralisation can be demonstrated by change

chemical in colour of acid before and after addition of

reactions carbonate.

that occur

in non- Define decomposition reaction

living syst Practical- Decomposition- Applying heat on

ems and ferrous sulphate crystals and observing

involve decomposition.

energy (Worksheet B can be used) (Video already

transfer, watched)




identify Identify chemical Review respiration

some reaction that Students research in pairs the word equation

examples occurs during for respiration and reaction taking place during

of respiration. digestion. Students should write their findings

important in form of chemical reactions and one

chemical paragraph of explanation.


that occur

in living








n and



acids such
as occur



deduce Using examples Students can be provide with colourful objects

that new from chemical (Colourful pebbles, small balls, strings etc) to

substance reactions show the arrangement of atoms and thus

s are discussed in class formation of compound.

formed so far, identify Teacher introduces/reviews reactants and

during that by products in equations and discuss balancing the

chemical rearranging equation with some of examples of different

reactions atoms, new chemical equations.

by substances are Gifted Students- teacher can guide the students

rearrangi formed. towards law of conservation of mass.

ng atoms Additional

rather Content:

than Balance a range

creating of common

or chemical

destroyin equations

g them

Balancing the Students are provided the opportunity to

chemical balance range of chemical equations and catch

equations up with the journal writing. Worksheet of

(Continued) balancing equations provided in the resources.

Week Class test Summative Students are given 15 minutes at the start of

5 assessment the lesson to revise the content. Test papers

are provided to the students. This is an

individual task. (Test paper provided in the


CW 4 Define Practical - Exothermic and Endothermic

identify Exothermic and Reaction

that Endothermic. Teacher should demonstrate (as it used

chemical Discuss energy concentrated HCL and Concentrated NaOH) the

reactions gain and loss experiment using concentrated Hydrochloric

involve acid and Concentrated Sodium hydroxide. After

energy mixing these temperature increases and heat is

transfer liberated, thus exothermic reaction. Teacher

and can can then demonstrate an experiment by mixing

be Ammonium Chloride and barium hydroxide.

exotherm After mixing these two compounds, mixture

ic or becomes slushy and a liquid is formed and

endother temperature drops, thus endothermic reaction.

mic Students to note down the observations and

chemical reactions involved in this practical.

The practical with endothermic reaction can be

done by students as well.

 Revision  Students work on their journals

Journal submission and group discussion of

interesting things learnt in the unit.


Journal (10%) Unsatisfactory (0-3%) Satisfactory (4-6%) Very good (7 -10%)

Journal not submitted Journal submitted Complete journal

or incomplete without with some complete submitted with all the

proper notes, and worksheets, and some worksheets, and

incomplete notes. important notes.

worksheets. Untidy Readable, minor No scribbling. Neat

work (unreadable). scribbling. and tidy work.

Experiments Unsatisfactory (0-3%) Satisfactory (4-6%) Very good (7-10%)

performed and None or only 1-2 Some of the All of the experiments

Behaviour in experiments experiments performed.

Laboratory (10%) performed. No performed. Some Observations are

records of observations noted recorded

observations. down. appropriately.

Did not follow Was given a warning Followed all the

instructions/ lab about behaviour. instructions in the

safety rules. Was not Followed most of the laboratory.

allowed to perform instructions regarding

the experiments. lab safety.

Quiz (5%) Unsatisfactory Satisfactory Very good

Marks less than 10 Marks between 10-25 Marks over 25


Worksheet A

Name of the student:


Aim: To determine which given solution is acidic in nature using natural indicator.

Materials Used:

1. Red cabbage Juice

2. Vinegar

3. Baking Soda

4. Detergent

5. Sodium bicarbonate


1. Take 4 clean beakers.

2. Put 60 ml Vinegar in one, 60 ml water in rest of the beakers.

3. In one of the beakers, make solution with baking soda (1 teaspoon).

4. Repeat the step 3 with detergent and sodium bicarbonate. Label each correctly.

5. Put 10-15 drops of red cabbage juice in all the 4 solutions.

6. Observe the colour change.

Concept used:

1. Acid will change colour into red tone.

2. Neutral will not change the colour of indicator

3. Alkaline or base will change the colour into yellow or green tone.

4. Anthocyanin inside the red cabbage acts as indicator.




Conclusion/ results:
Worksheet B (Common worksheet which can be used for

any experiment)

Name of the student:



Materials Required:

Diagram of the apparatus:



Anion/Cation Worksheet (Scribd, 2018)
Screen shots of google slides
Worksheet –Corrosion

Aim: To understand corrosion and its prevention and treatment.

Materials used: 4 test tubes, 4 iron nails, regular tap water, Salt ( 1 – teaspoon), recently

boiled water, 1 teaspoon oil, 1 teaspoon Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 )


1. Take 4 clean test tubes.

2. In first test tube, submerge a nail in regular tap water.

3. In second test tube, submerge a nail in regular tap water and add ½ tea

spoon of salt. Shake it to dissolve the salt.

4. In third test tube, submerge the nail in recently boiled water and put a layer

of oil on top of the water.

5. In last test tube, put a nail and add a teas poon of calcium chloride.

6. Label each test tube correctly.

7. Put stopper on each test tube.

8. Leave the test tube for minimum 24 hours. Can be left for more days.


1. First test tube:

2. Second test tube:

3. Third test tube:

4. Fourth test tube:

Chemical reactions:
Rust Prevention ideas:




Worksheet-Acids and metal:

Metals react with acids to form a salt of the metal and hydrogen gas. General equation can

be written as:

Metal +Acid Salt + hydrogen

Materials required: Zinc granules, Dilute hydrochloric acid, dilute sulphuric acid, a matchbox

Precautions to be taken:

1. Wear safety goggles, lab coat, gloves and covered shoes

2. Match box is supposed to be with teacher, when ready to test the gas, ask teacher to light

up the matchstick for you.

3. Follow lab safety rules all the time.


1. Take dilute hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid in two different beakers.

2. Put zinc granules in both the beakers.

3. Observe the reaction carefully.

4. With the help of teacher, bring a burning match stick close to the mouth of

the beaker containing dilute hydrochloric acid. You should hear a “pop”


5. Repeat the step 4 for sulphuric acid.




Chemical reactions:

1. Zn + 2 HCl = ZnCl2 + H2

2. __________________________ ( Write the reaction for Zinc and Sulphuric acid)

Worksheet- Acid and Metal carbonates

Metal carbonates react with acids to form a salt of the metal, water and carbon dioxide gas.

General equation can be written as:

Metal Carbonate+ Acid = Salt + water + carbon dioxide

Materials required: Calcium carbonate, sulphuric acid, a beaker, a spatula and a matchbox

Precautions to be taken:

1. Wear safety goggles, lab coat, gloves and covered shoes

2. Match box is supposed to be with teacher, when ready to test the gas, ask teacher to light

up the matchstick for you.

3. Follow lab safety rules all the time.


1. Add two spatulas of calcium carbonate into the beaker.

2. Add sulphuric acid into the beaker.

3. With the help of teacher, light a matchstick and bring it close to the mouth of

the beaker.

4. Record your observations.



Chemical reactions:

CaCO3 + H2SO4 = Ca SO4+ CO2 + H2O

____________________________ (Write equation for zinc carbonate and Hydrochloric acid)

Worksheet – Precipitation:

Aim: to do an experiment to obtain precipitate and record observations.

Materials required:

Two beakers, distilled water, caustic soda or sodium hydroxide, Copper Sulphate, Spatula,

stirring rods


1. In both the beakers add 100 ml of distilled water

2. Add two spatulas of sodium hydroxide in one of the beakers and 2 spatulas of

copper sulphate in another beaker.

3. Stir them well with different stirring rods.

4. Slowly add little amount of sodium hydroxide solution into the beaker of

copper sulphate solution.

5. Record your observations.

Chemical reaction:

CuSO4 + NaOH= Na2SO4 + Cu (OH)2

_____________________________Write equation for iron sulphate and sodium hydroxide

Conclusion/ result:
Worksheet for balancing equations.
Class Test paper (35 marks)

1. About how many known elements are in the periodic table

(approximately)? (1 mark)

a. 10

b. 50

c. 100

d. 200

2. The atomic number of an element tells you the number of_______ in a

neutral atom (1 mark)

a. Protons

b. Neutrons

c. Both

d. None of the above

3. Which of these choices is NOT a family of elements? (1 mark)

a. Halogens

b. Alkali Metal

c. Noble gases

d. All of these are families of elements

4. Which of the following is not a physical property of metals ( 1 mark)

a. Luster

b. Corrosion

c. Malleability

d. Ductile

5. Which of the following is a compound (1 mark)

a. Fe

b. O

c. N2

d. CO

6. Balance the following equations (2 marks each)

a. ____ AgI + ______Na2S _____Ag2S + _____NaI

b. ____ Cacl2 + ______Na3PO4 _____Ca3(PO4)2 + _____NaCl

c. _____FeS + ____ O2 _____Fe2O3 + _____SO2

d. __ As + __ NaOH → __ Na3AsO3 + __ H2

e. __ KClO3 + __ P4 → __ P4O10 + __ KCl

7. For each chemical reaction, determine whether they are representative

of the dissociation reaction of a strong acid, a weak acid, a strong base, or

a weak base. ( 2 marks each)

a. Na(OH)(aq)+H2O(l)→Na+(aq)+OH−(aq)Na(OH)(aq)+H2O(l)→Na(aq)++OH


b. HF(aq)+H2O(l)⇌H3O+(aq)+F−(aq)HF(aq)+H2O(l)⇌H3O(aq)++F(aq)−

c. H2PO−4(aq)+H2O(l)⇌H3PO4(aq)+OH−(aq)

8. Write out the neutralization reactions for the following pairs. Make sure to

balance the equations as necessary. (2 marks each)

a. Ba(OH)2Ba(OH)2 and HNO3HNO3

b. Ca(OH)2Ca(OH)2 and H2SO4H2SO4

c. RbOHRbOH and HI

9. Examine the following pH measures and tell whether they are in the range to

be considered acidic, basic or neutral. ( 1 mark each)

a. 6.8

b. 13.5

c. 1.9

d. 4.2

e. 9.7
10. Nitric acid, HNO3, is a strong acid. Define ‘strong’ acid, and write the

equation of nitric acid reacting with water. How does this equation differ from

the reaction of a weak acid, such as hydrosulfuric acid (H2S)? ( 3 marks)


1. AsapScience (2018, Feb 6). The Periodic Table Song. [Video File]. Retrieved from

2. Board of Studies New South Wales. (2017). Science K-10 Syllabus. (Publication No.

20121622). Retrieved from:

3. BrillionNerd (2015, Mar13). Precipitation reaction. [Video File]. Retrieved from

4. Cienciabit: Science and technology (2015, Nov 29). Precipitation reactions. Chemistry

Experiment. [Video File]. Retrieved From

5. Freesciencelessons (2017, Apr 9). GCSE Science Chemistry (9-1) Acids reacting with

metals. [Video File]. Retrieved from

6. Freesciencelessons (2014, Oct 5). GCSE Science Chemistry Unit 1. Lesson 17. Metal

carbonates reacting with acids. [Video File]. Retrieved from

7. Himrdo (2011, Feb 11). Ion Cation Anion. [Video File]. Retrieved from

8. Hofstein, A., Lunetta V. (2004) Science Education. The Laboratory in science

education: Foundations for the twenty-first century 5(1), 28-54.

9. KClassScienceChannel (2013, Jun19). Metals react with acids to produce salt and

hydrogen/ Acid & Bases/ Chemistry. [Video File]. Retrieved from

10. Kentang358 (2012, Jul11). Reaction metal carbonate with acid. [Video File]. Retrieved


11. Kidscaffe (2016, Jan 26). Vacuum candle Experiment. [Video File]. Retrieved from

12. Kritsadee, S. (2017, Feb 6). Introduce myself and teach do the experiment on acid and

alkaline with natural indicators. [Video File]. Retrieved from

13. Lang, C., Craig, A., & Casey, G. (2017). A pedagogy for outreach activities in

ICT: Promoting peer to peer learning, creativity and experimentation. British

Journal of Educational Technology, 48(6), 1491-1501.

14. O’neill, S., Geoghegan, D., & Petersen, S. (2013). Raising the pedagogical bar:

Teachers’ co-construction of explicit teaching. Improving Schools, 16 (2), 148-

158. Olmezoglu, C. (2015, Oct 18) Acid- Base reaction Experiment Can Olmezoglu.

[Video File]. Retrieved from

15. Ramnarain, U. (2014). Teachers' perceptions of inquiry-based learning in urban,

suburban, township and rural high schools: The context-specificity of science

curriculum implementation in South Africa. Teaching and Teacher Education, 38,

65-75. Scribd (2018), Chemical Formula Writing Worksheet. Retrieved from:

16. Shwartz, Y., Ben‐Zvi, R., & Hofstein, A. (2005). The importance of involving high‐

school chemistry teachers in the process of defining the operational meaning of

‘chemical literacy’. International Journal of Science Education, 27(3), 323-344.

17. Smith, C. E. (2017). The flipped classroom: Benefits of student-led

learning. Nursing, 47(4), 20-22.

18. Sterling S. (2012) The flipped classroom: A pedagogy for differentiating instruction

and teaching essential skills . Fast Forword by Scientific learning. Retrieved from: