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R1GID SOLUTIONS

Review School for Civil Engineering
Unit 601, Don Lorenzo Building, P. Paredes St., Sampaloc, Manila

Transportation, Highway and Traffic Engineering

HIGHWAY SAFETY & ACCIDENT ANALYSIS L = length of roadway
ATT = average travel time
1. Accident rates for 100 million vehicle miles of travel
(HMVM) for a segment of a highway: II. Time Mean Speed (TMS)

𝐴(100,000,000) 𝑉1 + 𝑉1 + β‹― + 𝑉𝑛
𝑅= ¡𝑑 =
𝐴𝐷𝑇 (𝑁)(365)(𝐿) 𝑛
Β΅t = Time Mean Speed
2. Accident rates per million entering vehicles (MEV) for an N = Number of vehicles
intersection: V(i) = Velocity of the ith vehicle

𝑨(𝟏, 𝟎𝟎𝟎, 𝟎𝟎𝟎) III. Flow-Density Relationships
𝑹=
𝑨𝑫𝑻 (𝑡)(πŸ‘πŸ”πŸ“)
𝑛 (3600)
π‘ž= π‘£π‘’β„Ž/β„Žπ‘Ÿ
3. Severity Ratio 𝑇
πΉπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ + πΌπ‘›π‘—π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘¦ q= the equivalent hourly flow at which pass a point in highway
𝑆. 𝑅. = n=the number of vehicles passing a point in the roadway in T sec
πΉπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™ + πΌπ‘›π‘—π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘¦ + π‘ƒπ‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘¦ π·π‘Žπ‘šπ‘Žπ‘”π‘’
𝑛 1
●Vehicle traveling along straight path 𝐾= π‘ž = 𝐾(¡𝑠 ) ¡𝑠 = π‘ž (β„Žπ‘  ) β„Žπ‘  =
𝐿 π‘˜

F=ma K = Density of highway section (veh/km.)
A=dV/dt ; A=V/t hs = average space headway
V=dS/dt ; V=S/t 𝑛
π‘ž=
𝐴𝑇𝑇
q= the equivalent hourly flow at the section of highway
𝑉2 π‘Ž ATT= average travel time of vehicles passing the section of 𝑆
= 𝑓+𝐺 =
2𝑔(𝑓+𝐺) 𝑔 highway
𝑉2 𝑉
2 = 2π‘Žπ‘† π‘œπ‘Ÿ 𝑆 = 2π‘Ž IV. Peak Hour Factor (PHF)

π‘ƒπ‘’π‘Žπ‘˜ π»π‘œπ‘’π‘Ÿ π‘‰π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘šπ‘’ (𝑃𝐻𝑉)
Note: G is negative(-) if downhill π‘₯ π‘šπ‘–π‘›. 𝑃𝐻𝐹 =
max π‘₯ π‘šπ‘–π‘›. π‘‰π‘œπ‘™ π‘œπ‘“ π‘£π‘’β„Ž
●Vehicle traveling along curve path π‘₯ π‘šπ‘–π‘›
π‘₯60π‘šπ‘–π‘›

F=ma π‘ƒπ‘’π‘Žπ‘˜ π»π‘œπ‘’π‘Ÿ π‘‰π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘šπ‘’ (𝑃𝐻𝑉)
V2 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 π»π‘œπ‘’π‘Ÿπ‘™π‘¦ π‘‰π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘šπ‘’ =
A= π‘ƒπ‘’π‘Žπ‘˜ π»π‘œπ‘’π‘Ÿ πΉπ‘Žπ‘π‘‘π‘œπ‘Ÿ (𝑃𝐻𝐹)
R
𝑉2 Sight distance for vertical Summit: 𝑒
+𝑓 =
𝑔𝑅

𝑉2
(πΌπ‘šπ‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‘ πΉπ‘Žπ‘π‘‘π‘œπ‘Ÿ)𝐼. 𝐹. = 𝑒 + 𝑓 =
𝑔𝑅

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS:

I. Space Mean Speed (SMS)

π‘ π‘’π‘š π‘œπ‘“ π‘‘π‘–π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘π‘’ π‘‘π‘–π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘π‘’
¡𝑠 = = When D < L
𝑁𝑑 π΄π‘£π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘”π‘’ π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’
𝐴𝐷2
𝑁 𝐿 =
¡𝑠 = 200 ( √h1 + √h2 )οΌ’
1 1 1
+ + β‹―+
𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉𝑛
Β΅s = Space Mean Speed When D > L
t(i) = the time it takes the ith vehicle to travel across the section
200( √h1 + √h2 )οΌ’
of highway 𝐿 = 2𝐷 βˆ’
N = Number of vehicles 𝐴
V(i) = Velocity of the ith vehicle

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R1GID SOLUTIONS
Review School for Civil Engineering
Unit 601, Don Lorenzo Building, P. Paredes St., Sampaloc, Manila

Where;
Sight distance for vertical Sag: W= wheel load t=thickness of pavement
f=allowable tensile stress of concrete
r=radius of circular area of contact between the wheel load
When D < L and pavement
Es=modulus of elasticity of subgrade
𝐴𝐷2 𝐿
= Ep= modulus of elasticity of pavement
120 + 3.5𝐷2

When D > L
120 + 3.5𝐷2 𝐿
= 2𝐷 βˆ’
𝐴

Sight distance for Horizontal curve

When D < L
𝐷2 𝐿
=
8π‘š

When D > L

𝐿( 2𝐷 βˆ’ 𝐿 ) 𝐿
=
8π‘š

Pavement Design

1. Rigid Pavement without dowels
3π‘Š 𝑑
=√
𝑓

2. Rigid Pavement without dowels
3π‘Š
𝑑1 = √ (π‘™π‘œπ‘Žπ‘‘ π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘‘β„Žπ‘’ 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒)
2𝑓

3π‘Š
𝑑2 = √ (π‘™π‘œπ‘Žπ‘‘ π‘Žπ‘‘ π‘‘β„Žπ‘’ π‘π‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿ)
4𝑓

3. Flexible Pavement
π‘Š
𝑑1 = 0.564√ βˆ’ π‘Ÿ
𝑓1

4. Thickness of pavement in terms of expansion pressure
𝑒π‘₯π‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘ π‘–π‘œπ‘› π‘π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘ π‘ π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’
𝑑1 =
π‘π‘Žπ‘£π‘’π‘šπ‘’π‘›π‘‘ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑦
5. Stiffness factor of pavement
3 𝐸𝑠 𝑆
. 𝐹. = √
𝐸𝑝

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R1GID SOLUTIONS
Review School for Civil Engineering
Unit 601, Don Lorenzo Building, P. Paredes St., Sampaloc, Manila

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R1GID SOLUTIONS
Review School for Civil Engineering
Unit 601, Don Lorenzo Building, P. Paredes St., Sampaloc, Manila

Transportation, Highway and Traffic Engineering
ACCIDENT RATES
1. Data on a traffic accident recorded on a certain intersection SITUATION. The following travel times were observed for
for the past 5 years has an accident rate of 4160 per million four vehicles traversing a one kilometer segment of highway
entering vehicles (ARMV). If the average daily traffic entering Vehicle Time (min)
the intersection is 504, find the total number of accidents during 1 1.6
5 years. 2 1.2
3 1.5
a. 3826 c. 3888 4 1.7
b. 3485 d. 3698 9. Compute the space mean speed of these vehicles in kph.
a. 30 c.50.
2. It is observed that 40 traffic crashes occurred on a 17.5-mile b. 40 d. 60
long section of highway in one year. The ADT on the section 10. Compute the rate of flow in veh/hr
was 5000 vehicles. Determine the rate of total crashes per 100 a. 130 c.150.
million vehicle-miles. b. 160 d.160
a. 125.24 c. 120.23 11. Compute the time mean speed of these vehicles in kph
b. 100.26 d. 130.23 a. 30.88 c.58.35
b. 40.7 d.26.25
3. Data on a traffic accident recorded for the past 5 years on a
certain stretch of a two lane highway is tabulated as follows: 12. The following data were taken on five vehicles travelling a
was observe and distance traveled when observed every 2
YEAR PROPERTY INJURY FATAL second. Det. Space mean speed
DAMAGE
2004 150 50 1 Vehicles Distace, in meter
2005 182 41 2
2006 158 48 4 1 24.4
2007 210 31 2 2 25.8
2008 198 55 5 3 24.7
4.Compute the severity ratio. 4 26.9
a. 0.29 c. 0.54 5 22.9
b. 0.35 d. 0.21
a.45.29 KPH c. 41.23
FUNDEMENTAL OF TRAFFIC FLOW b. 44.76 d. 54.21

5. Calculate the safe stopping sight distance for a car moving at SITUATION. 4 vehicles caught by camera that measures the
a speed of 50 kph for two way traffic in two lane road if the spot speed on a 300 ft. roadway. The spot speed of vehicles as
coefficient of friction is 0.8 and the reaction time is 2.5 sec. measured are 45, 45 ,40 and 30 mph respectively.
a. 40.79 m c. 40.36
b. 45.35 d. 47.01 13.Determine the density of traffic in veh per mile
a. 78.33 c. 70.4
6. A test Vehicles moving at 40 KPH was stopped by applying b. 71.35 d. 73.3
the brakes and the length of the skid mark was 12.2 m. if the 14. Determine the time mean speed in mph.
average skid resistance of level pavement is 0.7. Determine the a. 50 c. 40
brake efficiency of the test vehicles. b. 30 d. 20
a. 70.79 % c. 70.36 15.Determine the space mean speed in mph
b. 75.35 d. 73.7 a. 38.9 c. 32.23
b. 43.26 d. 30.23
7. A car was travelling at a speed of 50mph. The driver saw a 16. Compute the maximum spacing of cars ii meters.
road block 80m. ahead and stepped on the brake causing the car a. 32.5 m c. 22.8
to decelerate uniformly at 10m/sec2. Find the distance from the b. 20.2 d. 40.4
road block to the point where the car stopped. Assume the
perception-reaction time is 2sec.
a. 18.33 m c. 10.28
b. 11.35 d. 13.3

8. A car is traveling at uphill road with a slope of 3/100 with a
speed of 70kph. If the coefficient of friction is 0.35, compute the
braking distance.
a. 60.29 m c.50.54
b. 50.71 d. 30.21

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R1GID SOLUTIONS
Review School for Civil Engineering
Unit 601, Don Lorenzo Building, P. Paredes St., Sampaloc, Manila

SITUATION. The following traffic counts were made during 26. A flexible pavement carries a static wheel load of 53.5 KN.
rush hour period along a certain part of a roadway. A 15minute The circular area of the tire is 85806 mm2 an transmitted load is
volume count was gathered as shown below. distributed across a wide area of the subgrade at an angle of 45
Time Volume of traffic deg. The subgrade bearing value is 0.14 Mpa, while that of the
7:00-7:15 806 base is 0.41 Mpa. Design the thickness of the pavement and that
7:15-7:30 854 the base
7:30-7:45 867 a. 45 mm , 110 mm c. 50 mm, 160 mm
7:45-8:00 810 b. 60 mm, 135 mm d. 39 mm, 145 mm

17. Determine the peak hour volume in veh/hr
a. 2227 c. 3337 Situation. Rigid pavement of the proposed nagtahan road to
b. 4447 d. 5557 carry a max. wheel load of 60 KN.. Fc’=20 Mpa The allowable
18. Determine the peak hour factor tensile stress of the concrete pavement is 0.06 Fc’
a. .882 c. 0.852 27.Neglecting the dowel. Find the thickness of the pavement
b. 0.962 d.0.965 a. 387.3 mm c. 320.23
19. Determine the design hourly volume in veh/hr. b. 423.26 d. 230.23
a. 3468 c. 3202 28. Considering the dowel. Find the thickness of the pavement
b. 4232 d. 2303 a.156.98 mm c. 193.64
b. 123.65 d. 273.86
SUPER ELEVATION
Situation An existing horizontal curve on a highway has a RAILROAD ENGINEERING
radius of150m. and the rate of superelevation is 0.08. If the
coefficient of road side friction is 0.15. SITUATION. A turn out of the curve track has a frog of a given
20. Compute the impact factor data
a. 0.32 c. 0.45 Frog no. = 9
b. 0.35 d. 0.23 Total length = 4950 mm
21.Determine the design speed in kph of the vehicle along this Toe length = 1950 mm
highway.
a. 63.32 kph c. 54.45 29.Compute the length of heel spread
b. 54.35 d. 66.23 a.111.11 m c. 333.33
b.222.22 d. 444.44
SIGHT DISTANCE 30.Compute the length of heel spread
Situation. A summit vertical curve has a back and forward
tangent grade of + 2 % and – 3% respectively. The curve is to be
designed for a speed of 80 kph with a reaction time of 2.5 sec
and f = 0.3
22.Compute the length of stopping sight distance
a. 118.33 m c. 134.19
b. 121.35 d. 139.45
23. Compute the minimum length of of the summit curve if the
driver height is 1.08 and and that object .6 m.
a. 130.50 m c. 139.23
b. 115.5 0 d. 136.83

24. A highway curve has a radius of 80 m and length of 90 m. if
the required sight distance is 60. How far from the the road
could allowed the trees to grow
a. 5.25 m c. 5.23
b. 5.25 d. 5.63

PAVEMENT DESIGN
25. Compute the thickness of flexible pavement for a wheel load
of 54 KN, if the allowable bearing pressure on the base of the
pavement is 0.15 Mpa and the Equivalent radius of the contact
area of the tires is equal to 165 mm
a. 188.33 mm c. 173.4
b. 181.35 d. 173.3

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