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(a) (b

)
Lift force 0°

Drag force
U incident
U rotation

U wind
Torque graph for NACA 0018 modified
9 λ = 0.1
8
λ = 0.25
7
λ = 0.5
Torque (N-m)

6
5 λ = 0.75
4 λ= 1
3
2
1
0
-1 0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Azimuth angle

Torque graph for NACA 2415
8
λ = 0.1
7
λ = 0.25
6
λ = 0.5
Torque (N-m)

5
λ = 0.75
4
λ= 1
3
2
1
0
-1 0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Azimuth angle


blade 1

45° B 1 ′ B 3″

90° B 1 ″ B 3′

blade 2
blade 3

B 2′ B 2″
3.17e+01
2.14e+01
1.12e+01
1.02e+00
-9.19e+00
-1.94e+01
-2.96e+01
-3.98e+01
-5.00e+01
-6.03e+01
-7.05e+01

3.24e+01
2.18e+01
1.12e+01
5.44e-01
-1.01e+00
-2.07e+01
-3.14e+01
-4.20e+01
-5.26e+01
-6.33e+01
-7.39e+01

3.17e+01
2.10e+01
1.04e+01
-2.47e-01
-1.09e+01
-2.15e+01
-3.22e+01
-4.28e+01
-5.35e+01
-6.41e+01
-7.48e+01