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INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS & PREVENTIONS AND SAFE HANDLING OF

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

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Hazard definition & Types of industrial hazards

A Hazard is defined as - A condition with the potential of causing injury to personnel,
damage to property or loss of ate ial

 Mechanical
 Electrical
 Chemical
 Thermal / Fire
 Noise, Vibration
 Air borne

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Mechanical Hazards

 Unguarded machineries, rotating parts
 Improperly guarded machines
 Cutting, grinding and welding
 Operations while in motion
 Wrong tool selection/use
 Using defective tools
 Worn out ropes, chain, slings
 Wrong and Improper slinging
 Unsafe lifting of machines

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Prevention of mechanical hazards

 Factories Act - Section 21 : Machine Guarding

 Factories Act - Section 28 : Hoists & Lifts once in 6 months; Chains, Ropes, Lifting
Tackles – Once in a year

 Auto start /remote start – caution

 Right tools for the right job

 Welding set – Electrical certification

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Electrical hazards

 Improper wiring / worn out wiring
 No earthing or high earth resistance
 Aged wiring
 Unauthorized work
 Substandard materials
 Altering fuse rating
 Static electricity
 Result : Fire, Burns, Shock, Fatal

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Prevention of electrical hazards

 Proper earthing, bonding, earth resistance

 Flameproof equipments / switches

 ELCB – use / check

 Correct fuse rating

 Overvoltage protection

 Proper maintenance

 Megger test
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Effects of electrical current in human body

As per OSHA,

 Below 1 milliampere Generally not perceptible
 1 milliampere Faint tingle
 5 milliamperes Slight shock felt; not painful but
disturbing. Average individual can let go. Strong
involuntary reactions can lead to other injuries.
 6–25 milliamperes (women) Painful shock, loss of muscular control
 9–30 milliamperes (men) The f eezi g cu e t o let-go a ge. Individual
cannot let go, but can be thrown away from the
circuit if extensor muscles are stimulated.

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Effects of electrical current in human body cont..

 50–150 milliamperes Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular
contractions. Death is possible.
 1,000–4,300 milliamperes Rhythmic pumping action of the heart ceases.
Muscular contraction and nerve damage occur;
death likely.
 10,000 milliamperes Cardiac arrest, severe burns; death probable

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Thermal hazard
 Work in High Temperature areas/Furnaces
 Un insulated steam/condensate lines

Results:
 Body Temperature 36 – 40oC
 Human Thermoregulatory system – sweating
 Salt/Water depletion
 Heat cramps
 Fatigue of sweat glands
 Less Blood circulation to brain
 Heat stroke
 Cardiovascular system affected
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Prevention of thermal hazards

 Engineering Control - Insulation, Isolation

 Administrative Control - Rest cycle / drinking water/ job rotation

 Artificial humidification

 Ventilation / Free air movement

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Fire hazards

 Flammable products
 Combustibles
 Ignition sources (man made/electrical)

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Fire Prevention & Protection

 Fire water facility
 Back up power
 Fire fighting equipment's/ Extinguisher / Hydrants
 Smoke and Heat detectors

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Chemical hazards

 Flammable chemicals
 Toxic chemicals
 Corrosive chemicals
 Poisonous chemicals

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Prevention of chemical hazards

 Safe storage, Handling & Transportation
 Proper piping & storage with dykes
 Availability of safety showers, eyewash fountains
 Warning & labeling
 line disconnection
 Proper colour coding system
 Use of Air line Masks
 Rescue persons - Training

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Noise / vibration hazards

Permissible exposure of sound level as per factories act
8 Hrs. - 90 dB
4 Hrs. - 95 dB
2 Hrs. - 100 dB
1 Hr. - 105 dB
½ Hr. - 110 dB
¼ Hr. - 115 dB

No exposure > 115 dB

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Noise / vibration hazards Cont..

 TTS (Temporary Threshold shift)

 PTS (Permanent Threshold shift)

 NIHL (Noise Induced hearing Loss)

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Prevention of noise/vibration hazards
 Foundation with noise absorbing materials
 Replacement with less noise producing machines
 Proper lubrication / Maintenance
 Reducing the time of exposure
 Enclosing the operator
 Segregation of noise producing machines
 Use of silencers
 Job rotation
 Periodical check up
 Use of PPEs / Ear Plugs / Muff

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Air borne hazards

 Airborne contaminants can occur in the gaseous form (gases and vapours) or as
aerosols, which include airborne dusts, sprays, mists, smokes and fumes.
 Whenever people inhale airborne dust at work, they are at risk of occupational
disease.

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Prevention of air borne hazards

 Always use e ui ed PPE s. Wea a dust ask o espi ato whe dust a d othe
particulates, gases and fumes could be present
 Air monitoring
 Report all work related illness or injuries, no matter how minor
 Do not eat or drink in areas where toxics are present
 Store and label chemicals and other potentially dangerous substances according to
manufacturers instructions
 Read all MSDS for materials which are using

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Prevention of hazards

Hazard Identification

Hazard elimination

Reducing the severity

Education & Training

PEP Talks

Safety Promotion

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Hazardous products classification

The hazardous chemicals or dangerous goods are broadly classified as
Class I Explosives
Class II Gases- compressed, liquefied or deeply refrigerated
Class III Flammable liquids
Class IV Flammable solids or substances liable for spontaneous combustion or
substances coming in contact with water will emit flammable gases
Class V Oxidizing substances or organic peroxides
Class VI Poisonous (toxic) and infectious substances
Class VII Radioactive substances
Class VIII Corrosive substances
Class IX Miscellaneous dangerous substances

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Grouping of chemicals

Grouping as per navigational risks
Group A Flammable liquefied gases- LPG, propane, butane, butadiene, Vinyl
chloride, propylene etc.,
Group B Flammable liquids- Petroleum liquids, benzene, toluene etc.,
Group C Poisonous liquids- Phenol, nitro benzene etc.,
Group D Sulphuric acid, acetic acid etc.,

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Standards
 ASTM STP- 825- A Guide to the Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials Accidents
 NFPA 704- Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for
Emergency Response"
 Da ge ous goods a e ate ials o ite s with
hazardous properties which, if not properly controlled,
present a potential hazard to human health and safety,
infrastructure and/ or their means of transport.

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Explosives
 Any chemical compound, mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of
which is to function by explosion (i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of
gas and heat).
 Class A Explosive-An explosive of detonating or otherwise maximum hazard.
 Class B Explosive- An explosive that functions by rapid combustion rather than
detonation. This class
includes:
1. Liquid or solid propellant explosives.
2. Some explosive devices such as special fireworks,
3. Some pyrotechnic signal devices.
4. Some smokeless powders.
 Class C Explosive
Manufactured articles containing Class A or Class B explosives, or both, as components
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but in restricted quantities, including certain types of fireworks.
Gases

 Gases are defined by dangerous goods regulations as substances which have a
vapour pressure of 300 kPa or greater at 50°c or which are completely gaseous at
20°c at standard atmospheric pressure, and items containing these substances.
 The class encompasses compressed gases, liquefied gases, dissolved gases,
refrigerated liquefied gases and mixtures of one or more gases
 Aerosols, Compressed air, Insecticide gases, Refrigerant gases, Carbon dioxide,
Helium / helium compounds, Hydrogen / hydrogen compounds, Oxygen / oxygen
compounds, Nitrogen / nitrogen compounds, Natural gas, Petroleum gases, Butane,
Propane etc.,

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Flammable liquids

 Flammable liquids are defined by dangerous goods regulations as liquids, mixtures of
liquids or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension which give off a
flammable vapour (have a flash point) at temperatures of not more than 60-65°C
 Flammable liquids are capable of posing serious hazards due to their volatility and
combustibility
 Gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel, Aviation fuel, Diethyl ether, Ethanol, Coal tar,
Petroleum crude oil, Petroleum distillates, Turpentine etc.,

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Flammable Solid
 Any solid material, other than an explosive, which under conditions normally
incident to transportation is likely to cause fires through friction or retained heat
from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when
ignited burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a serious transportation
hazard.
 Included in this class are spontaneously combustible and water-reactive
materials.
 Calcium (Metal), Calcium Carbide, Charcoal-Coal, Lithium Nitride, Magnesium, Nickel
(Raney Catalyst), Phosphorus (Yellow/White), Potassium, Rubidium etc.,

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Oxidizing substances or organic peroxides
 A substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion of organic
Matter.
 Nitric acid, mixed acid, per chloric acid, or
hydrogen peroxide may cause fire when brought into contact with combustible
materials.
 An organic compound containing the bivalent peroxide --0--0-- or the R--O--
O--H (hydro peroxide) structure and which may be considered a derivative of
hydrogen peroxide where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced
by organic radicals.
 Some organic peroxides and hydro peroxides are very sensitive to acid and may
spontaneously react and/or detonate. Small packages of organic peroxides in a
fire can also detonate.
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Poisonous (toxic) and infectious substances
Poison A- Poisonous gases, vapors, or liquids that are dangerous to life in very small
amounts. This class includes: Nitrogen Dioxide (Liquid), Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Peroxide,
Nitrogen Tetroxide, Tetra ethyldithiophosphate (Compressed Gas), Hydrogen Cyanide,
Methyl Chloride etc.,
Poison B- Liquid or solid substances, other than Class A poisons or irritating materials,
which are known to be so toxic to man as to afford a hazard to health during
transportation or which, in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity, are
presumed to be toxic to man because they give positive test results to one of the
following tests on laboratory animals.
a) Oral Toxicity
b) Inhalation Toxicity
c) Skin Absorption Toxicity
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Radioactive substances

 Any material which spontaneously emits ionizing radiation of sufficient magnitude
to require placarding as radioactive.
 Uranium, thorium, radium etc.,

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Corrosive substances

 A liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human
skin tissue at the site of contact, or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on
steel.
 Benzyl Chloride, Hydrogen Fluoride, Phosphoric Acid, Sulfuric Acid, Sodium
Hydroxide, Zirconium Tetrachloride etc.,

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Miscellaneous dangerous substances

 Miscellaneous dangerous goods are substances and articles which during transport
present a danger or hazard not covered by other classes.
 This class encompasses, but is not limited to, environmentally hazardous substances,
substances that are transported at elevated temperatures, miscellaneous articles
and substances, genetically modified organisms and micro-organisms and
(depending on the method of transport) magnetized materials and aviation
regulated substances.
 Dry ice, solid carbon dioxide, Ammonium nitrate fertilizers, Lithium ion batteries,
Internal combustion engines, Vehicles, Magnetized material etc.,

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Classes of hazardous materials

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Safety is you!
Thank you!

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