0 views

Uploaded by vinodsingoria

work energy xi chapter physics

save

- Work and Energy
- DOC-20170825-WA0017
- HW05 - Energy Conservation
- lesson 2
- Work & Energy
- 9th Work Energy and Power Solved Guess Questions
- Work, Power & Energy_E
- C2002 Mechanics Solutions
- Work Energy V4
- Physics Lab Report 5
- Ch 4 Work & Energy
- Chp 8 Summary
- Class9 Science Unit11 NCERT TextBook EnglishEdition
- Energy
- Physics IIT Test
- Rocky-Mountain-Power--RMP-WRG-1
- Sezgin Korkmaz. 2015. Biomechanical Analysis of the Snatch Technique in Junior Elite Female Weightlifters
- 17th_Electric Power Survey Report
- Projects on the go – to be announced by ‘Mr Delivery’ Zuma
- Day 5 - Hooke’s Law Lab Make-Up
- Solar Pv Design Whitepaper
- Topic 2 Outline 2008
- lesson5doc
- homework 1
- Science 2003 Alabama
- What Does Einstein's Famous Equation Really Mean
- Motion, Force, And Models Invest. 2 Review Answers
- Lab Report 3 - Lab 6 - Hooke's Law
- Heaviside
- new ccc
- content_physics12th.pdf
- Answers part_1.pdf
- 12 Maths NcertSolutions Chapter 4 .4
- Prefilled Form
- Prefilled Form Adobe Acro Reader
- 5.3 Matrix Multiplication
- identity certificate in the Annexure A
- PREFILLED FORM.pdf
- Chapter 1.pdf
- Hand Note Collision
- question on oscillation.docx
- Passport Rules Imp[1]
- Chapter 8.pdf
- Vinod Extension
- 23471
- Assessment ITR Checklist
- 11967176 Four and Two Stroke Petrol Engine
- scan doc
- Noting
- Synposis FINAL
- IJETAE_0813_122
- Ccs Leave Rules
- Conversion of Decimal Into Percentage
- Suit
- IMG Ticket
- Toyota

You are on page 1of 28

:

WORK, ENERGY

AND POWER

1

Chapter outline :

4.1 WORK

4.2 APPLICATIONS OF WORK

EQUATION FOR CONSTANT

FORCE

4.3 ENERGY

4.4 PRINCIPLE OF

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

4.5 POWER

4.6 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

2

Objectives :

Define work done by a force, dW=Fds

and use the force – displacement

graph (straight line case).

Define energy, kinetic energy and

potential energy and use the formula for

kinetic energy ½mv2, gravitational

potential energy mgh and elastic

potential energy for spring ½kx2

Understand the work-energy theorem and

use the related equation.

State and use the principle of

Conservation of Energy, and solve

problems regarding conversion between

kinetic and potential energy.

To define power, P=W/t , derive and use

the formula P=F.v

To understand the concept of mechanical

efficiency and the concequences of

dissipated heat, ek=Woutput/Winput.

3

4.1 Work

Definition of work done by a constant force :

product of the magnitude of the force and the

displacement of the body in the direction of the

force.

or

scalar (dot) product between force and

displacement of the body.

F

)θ

Equation of work : F cos θ

W = F•s

s

W Fs cos

where ,

F : magnitude of force

s : displacement of the body

θ : the angle between F and s

• Scalar quantity

• Dimension : [W] = ML2T-2

• SI unit : kg m2 s-2 or joule (J) or N m

1 kg m2 s-2 = 1 N m = 1 J

One joule is the work done by a force of 1 N which

results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of the4

force.

Work done by a varying force :

F/N

s2

W Fds

s1

s/m

0 si sf

W area under the force-displacement graph

5

4.2 Applications of work equation for

constant force.

Case 1 :

Work done by a horizontal force, F on an

object:

W Fsθcos ; where =0o

W Fs

F

Case 2 :

s

Work done by a horizontal forces, F1 and

F2 on an object:

F1

F2

s

W1 = F1 s cos 0 and W2 = F2 s cos 0

∑W =W 1 + W2 = ( F1 s + F2 s )

∑W =( F + F ) s

1 2 6

W Fnet s

Case 3 :

Work done by a vertical force, F on an

object:

F

θ = 90

W = Fs cos θ

s

W 0J

Case 4 :

Work done by a force, F and the friction

force, f on an object:

F

)θ

f

s

W = ( Fnet ) s

W = ( F cos θ − f ) s

W mas 7

• Notes :

Work done on an object is zero if :

(i) F = 0

(ii) s = 0

(iii) θ = 90o

8

4.2 Applications of work equation for

constant force.

Sign convention :

W = Fs cos θ

0°<θ <90° (acute angle) 90°<θ <180° (obtuse angle)

W > 0 (positive) W < 0 (negative)

**work is being done on work is being
**

the system ( by the done by the

external force) system

energy is

transferred to the energy is transferred

9

system. from the system.

4.1 & 4.2

Conclusion :

Work done by constant force:

W = Fs cos θ

Work done by a varying force:

s2

W s1

Fds

Force-displacement graph :

W = area under the graph

10

11

4.3 Energy

• Definition : system’s ability to do work.

• dimension : [energy] = [work] = ML2T-2

• SI unit : kg m2 s-2 or joule (J)

• Scalar quantity.

Forms of

Description

Energy

Energy released when chemical bonds

Chemical between atoms and molecules are

broken.

Energy that is associated with the

Electrical

flow of electrical charge.

Energy transmitted through the

propagation of a series of

Sound

compression and refaction in solid,

liquid or gas.

Mechanical

a. Kinetic Energy associated with the motion of

a body.

b. Gravitational

Energy associated with the position of

potential a body in a gravitational field.

c. Elastic Energy stored in a compressed or 12

potential stretched spring.

Forms of

Description

Energy

Energy that flows from one place to

Heat another as a result of a temperature

difference.

Sum of kinetic and potential energy of

Internal

atoms or molecules within a body.

Energy released by the splitting of heavy

Nuclear

nuclei.

Energy released when there is a loss of

small amount of mass in a nuclear

Mass process. The amount of energy can be

calculated from Einstein’s mass-energy

equation, E = mc2

Radiant Energy associated with infra-red

Heat radiation.

13

4.3.1 Kinetic Energy

• Definition: energy of a body due to its motion.

• Equation : 1

K = mv 2 where;

2 K = kinetic energy

m = mass of a body

v = speed of a body

Work-kinetic energy theorem :

“The work done by the net force on a

body equals the change in the kinetic

energy of the body’

W = ∆K

Prove :

F

m

s

F F mma v 2 vo2

2s

v 2

v

2

0 ; where a

2s

1 1

Fs = mv − mv0

2 2

2 2 14

K f - K i W K

4.3.2 Gravitational Potential Energy, U

Definition :

– energy stored in a body or system because

of its position.

Equation :

U = mgh

where;

U = gravitational potential energy

m = mass of a body

g = acceleration due to gravity

h = height of a body from the initial

position

**Work-gravitational potential energy theorem :
**

“The work done by the net force on a body

equals the change in the gravitational

potential energy of the body”

W U 15

• Derivation of W = ∆U :

Consider a body of mass m being lifted

from a height h2 to a height h1 :

h= h1 – h2

h1

h2

**Work done by the gravitational force,
**

Wg mgh mg h1 h2

mgh1 mgh2

U f Ui

W U 16

4.3.3 Elastic Potential Energy, Us

Definition :

energy stored in an elastic materials

as the result of their stretching or

compressing.

Equation :

1 2 1

U s = kx = Fs x

2 2

where;

Us = elastic potential energy

k = spring constant

x = extension or compression of the

spring

Fs = restoring force of spring

• Dimension of the spring constant, k :

[ Fs ]

[ k ] = = MT −2

[ x]

SI unit : kg s-2 or N m-1 17

Consider a spring is stretched by a force F :

Hooke’s Law :

“The restoring force, Fs of spring is directly

proportional to the amount of extension

or compression, x if the limit of

proportionality is not exceeded”

Fs ∝ − x

Fs kx

where ;

Fx = the restoring force of spring

x = extension or compression (xf - xi)

k = spring constant or force constant

-ve sign : direction of Fs is always opposite

to the direction of the amount of 18

extension or compression, x.

A graph of F against x :

F (x) The work done by the

force F is equal to

the area under the

straight-line graph ;

1

W Fx

x 2

x 1

(kx) x

2

1 2

W kx

2

Work-elastic potential energy theorem :

“The work done to overcome the elasticity of

the spring equals the change in elastic

potential”

W U s

U sf U si

1 2 1 2 19

kx f kxi

2 2

• Determining the spring constant, k :

Case 1 :

The spring is hung vertically and it is

stretched by a suspended object of mass m :

Initial position Fs

x

Final position

W = mg

The spring is in equilibrium ;

Fs W mg kx

mg

k

x

20

Case 2 :

The spring is attached to an object and it is

stretched and compressed by a force F:

Fs is negative,

Fs

x is positive F

x

x=0

Fs = 0

x=0

(Equilibrium position)

x=0

F Fs Fs is positive,

x is negative

x

x=0

The spring is in equilibrium ;

Fs F kx

F

k

21

x

Conclusion :

Formula for energy :

Kinetic energy

1

K = mv 2

2

Gravitational potential energy

U = mgh

Elastic potential energy

1 2 1

U s = kx = Fs x

2 2

Work-energy theorem:

W = ∆K and W U

22

4.4 Principle of Conservation of

Energy

State ;

“ The total energy in an isolated (closed)

system is conserved (constant)”

∑E = ∑E i f

**Total of initial Total of final
**

energy = energy

Conservation of mechanical energy (without

friction) :

E K U constant

or

Ki + U i = K f + U f

**Conservation of mechanical energy (with
**

friction) :

K i + U i + Wother = K f + U f

work done by the frictional 23

**force or losses of energy.
**

4.5 Power

Definition :

rate of doing work or rate at which

energy is transferred

• Average power , Pave ;

W E

Pave

t t

• Instantaneous power, P ;

∆W dW

P = limit =

∆t →0 ∆t dt

Scalar quantity.

Dimension :

[ P] = [ ∆W ] ML2T −2

= = ML T2 −3

[ ∆t ] T

• SI unit : kg m2 s-3 or J s-1 or watt (W)

Other unit : horsepower (hp)

1 hp = 550 ft.lb s-1 = 746 watts

24

Relation of P, F and v ;

**Consider the net force F applied to an
**

object and its velocity v :

dW

P

dt

F cos ds

dt

Fv cos

P F v

25

4.6 Mechanical efficiency (ek or η )

Definition :

– ratio of the useful work done, Wout to the

energy input, Ein

Wout

ek 100%

Ein

or

– ratio of the useful power output, Pout to

the power input, Pin

Pout

ek 100%

Pin

26

4.4, 4.5 & 4.6

Conclusion :

Conservation of energy :

In an isolated (closed) system, the total

energy of that system is constant.

Use ,

Ei E f in solving problems

regarding conservation

of energy

Power :

W E

Pav

t t

and

P Fv cos

Mechanical efficiency :

Wout

ek 100%

Ein

27

THE END…

Next Chapter…

CHAPTER 5 :

Static

28

- Work and EnergyUploaded byChow Lee
- DOC-20170825-WA0017Uploaded byAnju Mohta
- HW05 - Energy ConservationUploaded byBradley Nartowt
- lesson 2Uploaded byapi-239321343
- Work & EnergyUploaded byrjkmehta
- 9th Work Energy and Power Solved Guess QuestionsUploaded byGovind
- Work, Power & Energy_EUploaded bythinkiit
- C2002 Mechanics SolutionsUploaded byajc2016
- Work Energy V4Uploaded byHaley Hamill
- Physics Lab Report 5Uploaded byCatherine Linsley
- Ch 4 Work & EnergyUploaded byAadil Khan
- Chp 8 SummaryUploaded byCurt
- Class9 Science Unit11 NCERT TextBook EnglishEditionUploaded bybansallove2008
- EnergyUploaded byFida Karimah
- Physics IIT TestUploaded bySandeepKumar
- Rocky-Mountain-Power--RMP-WRG-1Uploaded byGenability
- Sezgin Korkmaz. 2015. Biomechanical Analysis of the Snatch Technique in Junior Elite Female WeightliftersUploaded byCésar Javier Adrianzén Tello
- 17th_Electric Power Survey ReportUploaded byGautam Kumtakar
- Projects on the go – to be announced by ‘Mr Delivery’ ZumaUploaded byCityPress
- Day 5 - Hooke’s Law Lab Make-UpUploaded byhetero
- Solar Pv Design WhitepaperUploaded byschauhan12
- Topic 2 Outline 2008Uploaded byChad Facciolo
- lesson5docUploaded byapi-322450433
- homework 1Uploaded byapi-356375515
- Science 2003 AlabamaUploaded byrobertson_nikki
- What Does Einstein's Famous Equation Really MeanUploaded byArvind Rs
- Motion, Force, And Models Invest. 2 Review AnswersUploaded bytellshappley
- Lab Report 3 - Lab 6 - Hooke's LawUploaded byDennis Enderson
- HeavisideUploaded bymareazzurroo
- new cccUploaded byapi-285003798

- content_physics12th.pdfUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Answers part_1.pdfUploaded byvinodsingoria
- 12 Maths NcertSolutions Chapter 4 .4Uploaded byvinodsingoria
- Prefilled FormUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Prefilled Form Adobe Acro ReaderUploaded byvinodsingoria
- 5.3 Matrix MultiplicationUploaded byvinodsingoria
- identity certificate in the Annexure AUploaded byvinodsingoria
- PREFILLED FORM.pdfUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Chapter 1.pdfUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Hand Note CollisionUploaded byvinodsingoria
- question on oscillation.docxUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Passport Rules Imp[1]Uploaded byvinodsingoria
- Chapter 8.pdfUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Vinod ExtensionUploaded byvinodsingoria
- 23471Uploaded byvinodsingoria
- Assessment ITR ChecklistUploaded byvinodsingoria
- 11967176 Four and Two Stroke Petrol EngineUploaded byvinodsingoria
- scan docUploaded byvinodsingoria
- NotingUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Synposis FINALUploaded byvinodsingoria
- IJETAE_0813_122Uploaded byvinodsingoria
- Ccs Leave RulesUploaded byvinodsingoria
- Conversion of Decimal Into PercentageUploaded byvinodsingoria
- SuitUploaded byvinodsingoria
- IMG TicketUploaded byvinodsingoria
- ToyotaUploaded byvinodsingoria