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# Chapter 4

:

WORK, ENERGY
AND POWER

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Chapter outline :

4.1 WORK
4.2 APPLICATIONS OF WORK
EQUATION FOR CONSTANT
FORCE
4.3 ENERGY
4.4 PRINCIPLE OF
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
4.5 POWER
4.6 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

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Objectives :
Define work done by a force, dW=Fds
and use the force – displacement
graph (straight line case).
Define energy, kinetic energy and
potential energy and use the formula for
kinetic energy ½mv2, gravitational
potential energy mgh and elastic
potential energy for spring ½kx2
Understand the work-energy theorem and
use the related equation.
State and use the principle of
Conservation of Energy, and solve
problems regarding conversion between
kinetic and potential energy.
To define power, P=W/t , derive and use
the formula P=F.v
To understand the concept of mechanical
efficiency and the concequences of
dissipated heat, ek=Woutput/Winput.
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4.1 Work
Definition of work done by a constant force :
product of the magnitude of the force and the
displacement of the body in the direction of the
force.
or
scalar (dot) product between force and
displacement of the body.
F

Equation of work :   F cos θ
W = F•s
s
W  Fs cos 
where ,
F : magnitude of force
s : displacement of the body
 
θ : the angle between F and s
• Scalar quantity
• Dimension : [W] = ML2T-2
• SI unit : kg m2 s-2 or joule (J) or N m
1 kg m2 s-2 = 1 N m = 1 J
One joule is the work done by a force of 1 N which
results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of the4
force.
Work done by a varying force :

F/N

s2
W   Fds
s1

s/m
0 si sf

W  area under the force-displacement graph

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4.2 Applications of work equation for
constant force.
Case 1 :
 Work done by a horizontal force, F on an
object:
W  Fsθcos ; where  =0o
 W  Fs 
F

Case 2 :
s
 Work done by a horizontal forces, F1 and
F2 on an object: 
F1 
F2

s
W1 = F1 s cos 0  and W2 = F2 s cos 0 
∑W =W 1 + W2 = ( F1 s + F2 s )
∑W =( F + F ) s
1 2 6

  W   Fnet  s
Case 3 :
 Work done by a vertical force, F on an
object: 
F
θ = 90 

W = Fs cos θ
s
 W 0J
Case 4 :
 Work done by a force, F and the friction
force, f on an object: 
F
 )θ
f

s
W = ( Fnet ) s
W = ( F cos θ − f ) s
 W  mas 7
• Notes :
Work done on an object is zero if :

(i) F = 0
(ii) s = 0

(iii) θ = 90o

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4.2 Applications of work equation for
constant force.
Sign convention :

W = Fs cos θ
0°<θ <90° (acute angle) 90°<θ <180° (obtuse angle)

W > 0 (positive) W < 0 (negative)

work is being done on work is being
the system ( by the done by the
external force) system

energy is
transferred to the energy is transferred
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system. from the system.
4.1 & 4.2
Conclusion :
 Work done by constant force:

W = Fs cos θ

 Work done by a varying force:

s2
W  s1
Fds

 Force-displacement graph :

W = area under the graph

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4.3 Energy
• Definition : system’s ability to do work.
• dimension : [energy] = [work] = ML2T-2
• SI unit : kg m2 s-2 or joule (J)
• Scalar quantity.

Forms of
Description
Energy
Energy released when chemical bonds
Chemical between atoms and molecules are
broken.
Energy that is associated with the
Electrical
flow of electrical charge.
Energy transmitted through the
propagation of a series of
Sound
compression and refaction in solid,
liquid or gas.
Mechanical
a. Kinetic Energy associated with the motion of
a body.
b. Gravitational
Energy associated with the position of
potential a body in a gravitational field.
c. Elastic Energy stored in a compressed or 12
potential stretched spring.
Forms of
Description
Energy
Energy that flows from one place to
Heat another as a result of a temperature
difference.
Sum of kinetic and potential energy of
Internal
atoms or molecules within a body.
Energy released by the splitting of heavy
Nuclear
nuclei.
Energy released when there is a loss of
small amount of mass in a nuclear
Mass process. The amount of energy can be
calculated from Einstein’s mass-energy
equation, E = mc2

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4.3.1 Kinetic Energy
• Definition: energy of a body due to its motion.
• Equation : 1
K = mv 2 where;
2 K = kinetic energy
m = mass of a body
v = speed of a body
Work-kinetic energy theorem :
“The work done by the net force on a
body equals the change in the kinetic
energy of the body’
W = ∆K
Prove : 
F
m 
s
 F  F  mma v 2  vo2

2s
 v 2
v
2
0  ; where a 
2s
1 1
Fs = mv − mv0
2 2

2 2 14
 K f - K i  W  K
4.3.2 Gravitational Potential Energy, U
Definition :
– energy stored in a body or system because
of its position.
Equation :
U = mgh
where;
U = gravitational potential energy
m = mass of a body
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = height of a body from the initial
position

Work-gravitational potential energy theorem :
“The work done by the net force on a body
equals the change in the gravitational
potential energy of the body”

W  U 15
• Derivation of W = ∆U :
Consider a body of mass m being lifted
from a height h2 to a height h1 :

h= h1 – h2

h1

h2

Work done by the gravitational force,
Wg  mgh  mg  h1  h2 
 mgh1  mgh2
 U f Ui
 W  U 16
4.3.3 Elastic Potential Energy, Us
Definition :
energy stored in an elastic materials
as the result of their stretching or
compressing.

Equation :
1 2 1
U s = kx = Fs x
2 2
where;
Us = elastic potential energy
k = spring constant
x = extension or compression of the
spring
Fs = restoring force of spring
• Dimension of the spring constant, k :
[ Fs ]
[ k ] = = MT −2
[ x]
SI unit : kg s-2 or N m-1 17
Consider a spring is stretched by a force F :

Hooke’s Law :
“The restoring force, Fs of spring is directly
proportional to the amount of extension
or compression, x if the limit of
proportionality is not exceeded”
Fs ∝ − x
 Fs   kx
where ;
Fx = the restoring force of spring
x = extension or compression (xf - xi)
k = spring constant or force constant
-ve sign : direction of Fs is always opposite
to the direction of the amount of 18
extension or compression, x.
A graph of F against x :
F (x) The work done by the
force F is equal to
the area under the
straight-line graph ;
1
W  Fx
x 2
x 1
 (kx) x
2
1 2
W  kx
2
Work-elastic potential energy theorem :
“The work done to overcome the elasticity of
the spring equals the change in elastic
potential”
W  U s
 U sf  U si
1 2 1 2 19
 kx f  kxi
2 2
• Determining the spring constant, k :

Case 1 :
 The spring is hung vertically and it is
stretched by a suspended object of mass m :

Initial position Fs
x
Final position

 
W = mg
The spring is in equilibrium ;
 
Fs  W  mg  kx
mg
 k
x
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Case 2 :
 The spring is attached to an object and it is
stretched and compressed by a force F:
Fs is negative, 
Fs 
x is positive F

x
x=0
Fs = 0
x=0

(Equilibrium position)
x=0
 
F Fs Fs is positive,
x is negative

x
x=0
The spring is in equilibrium ;
 
Fs  F  kx
F
 k
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x
Conclusion :
Formula for energy :
 Kinetic energy
1
K = mv 2
2
 Gravitational potential energy

U = mgh
 Elastic potential energy
1 2 1
U s = kx = Fs x
2 2

 Work-energy theorem:

W = ∆K and W  U

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4.4 Principle of Conservation of
Energy
State ;
“ The total energy in an isolated (closed)
system is conserved (constant)”

∑E = ∑E i f

Total of initial Total of final
energy = energy
Conservation of mechanical energy (without
friction) :
E  K  U  constant
or
Ki + U i = K f + U f

Conservation of mechanical energy (with
friction) :
K i + U i + Wother = K f + U f
work done by the frictional 23

force or losses of energy.
4.5 Power
Definition :
rate of doing work or rate at which
energy is transferred
• Average power , Pave ;

W E
Pave  
t t
• Instantaneous power, P ;

∆W dW
P = limit =
∆t →0 ∆t dt
Scalar quantity.
Dimension :

[ P] = [ ∆W ] ML2T −2
= = ML T2 −3

[ ∆t ] T
• SI unit : kg m2 s-3 or J s-1 or watt (W)
Other unit : horsepower (hp)
1 hp = 550 ft.lb s-1 = 746 watts
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Relation of P, F and v ;

Consider the net force F applied to an
object and its velocity v :
dW
P
dt

 F cos   ds
dt
 Fv cos 
 
 P  F v

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4.6 Mechanical efficiency (ek or η )
Definition :
– ratio of the useful work done, Wout to the
energy input, Ein

Wout
ek   100%
Ein
or
– ratio of the useful power output, Pout to
the power input, Pin

Pout
ek   100%
Pin

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4.4, 4.5 & 4.6
Conclusion :
Conservation of energy :
In an isolated (closed) system, the total
energy of that system is constant.
 Use ,

 Ei   E f in solving problems
regarding conservation
of energy

 Power :
W E
Pav  
t t
and
P  Fv cos 
Mechanical efficiency :
Wout
ek   100%
Ein
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THE END…
Next Chapter…
CHAPTER 5 :
Static

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