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General Dowel Equations for Calculating Lateral Connection Values

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Approval Date:

August 15, 2011

ASD/LRFD

**TECHNICAL REPORT 12 NDS
**

®

**National Design Specification ®
**

for Wood Construction with Commentary

General Dowel 2012 EDITION

Equations for

Calculating Lateral

Connection Values

with Appendix A

The American Wood Council (AWC) is the voice of North American traditional and engineered wood

products. From a renewable resource that absorbs and sequesters carbon, the wood products industry

makes products that are essential to everyday life. AWC’s engineers, technologists, scientists, and

building code experts develop state-of-the-art engineering data, technology, and standards on structural

wood products for use by design professionals, building officials, and wood products manufacturers to

assure the safe and efficient design and use of wood structural components.

TECHNICAL REPORT 12

General Dowel

Equations for

Calculating Lateral

Connection Values

with Appendix A

**While every effort has been made to insure
**

the accuracy of the information presented,

and special effort has been made to assure

that the information reflects the state-of-

the-art, neither the American Wood Council

nor its members assume any responsibility

for any particular design prepared from this

publication. Those using this document as-

sume all liability from its use.

Copyright © 2015

American Wood Council

info@awc.org

www.awc.org

ii CONTENTS

Table of Contents

Part/Title Page Part/Title Page

**1 General Dowel Equations 3 Example Problems
**

1.1 Introduction 1 3.1 Bolted Connection with Gap 17

1.2 Lateral Connection Values 1 3.2 Lag Screw Connection 17

1.3 Reference Design Value 1 3.3 Lag Screw Penetration 20

1.4 Connection with Members of Solid 3.4 Steel Side Member to Wood Main

Cross Section 1 Member – Tapered Tip Effects 22

1.5 Connections with Members of Hollow 3.5 Bolted Connection through Solid and

Cross Section 1 Hollow Members – Double Shear 23

1.6 Dowel Bearing Strength and Fastener

Bending Yield Strength 2 4 References

1.7 Notation 2 References 24

2 Equation Derivation Appendix A Dowel Bearing

2.1 Introduction 6 Strength and Fastener

2.2 Equation Derivation for Connections Bending Yield Strength

with Members of Solid Cross Section 7 A.1 Introduction 25

2.3 Tapered Tip Equation Derivation 13 A.2 Notation 25

2.4 Equation Derivation for Connections A.3 Dowel Bearing Strength 25

with Members of Hollow Cross Section 14 A.4 Dowel Bending Yield Strength 28

A.5 References 29

List of Tables

1-1 General Dowel Equations for Solid Cross A1 Dowel Bearing Strength, Fe...........................27

Section Members.............................................3 A2 Dowel Bending Yield Strength......................29

1-2 General Dowel Equations for Solid Cross

Section Main Members and Hollow Cross

Section Side Member(s)..................................4

1-3 General Dowel Equations for Hollow Cross

Section Main Member and Solid Cross

Section Side Member(s)..................................5

List of Figures

2-1 Connection Yield Modes – Solid Cross 2-5 Single Shear Connection –Mode II...............12

Section Members.............................................6 2-6 Dowel Bearing with Tapered Tip

2-2 Connection Yield Modes – Solid and Connector......................................................13

Hollow Cross Section Members......................7 2-7 General Conditions of Dowel

2-3 General Conditions of Dowel Loading – Hollow Cross Section Members..15

Loading – Solid Members...............................8 A1 Dowel Bearing Strength Test Specimen........26

2-4 Connection Yield Modes Assumed A2 Dowel Bending Strength...............................28

Loading – Solid Members............................. 11

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 1

**PART 1. General Dowel Equations
**

1.1 Introduction 1.3 Reference Design Value

**A generalized form of the National Design The reference design value, Z, is the minimum of
**

Specification® (NDS®) for Wood Construction (AWC, the calculated, P/Rd, for all yield modes as follows:

2012) yield limit equations applicable to dowel-type P

fastener connections between members of solid cross Z= Minmum value of (1)

section is provided in Table 1-1 of this report. Rd

Equations are also provided for connections with side where:

or main members of hollow cross section, in Tables 1-2 Z = Reference lateral design value

and 1-3, respectively. The variables for these tables are

defined in Section 1.6. These general dowel equations P = Reference 5% offset yield value

are applicable to NDS connection conditions, allow for Rd = NDS reduction term for dowel type fastener

evaluation of connections with gaps between connected connections, see NDS Table 11.3.1B

members, and include separate equation variables to

better account for varying bearing and moment 1.4 Connections with Members of Solid

resistances of fasteners having more than one diameter Cross Section

along their length (such as threaded fasteners).

Equations in Table 1-1 are applicable for

1.2 Lateral Connection Values

calculation of reference 5% offset yield, P, for dowel

type fastener connections where connected members

Yield limit equations provided herein apply to are of solid cross section. The reference 5% offset

calculation of lateral values for single fastener yield, P, is calculated for each applicable connection

connections between wood-based members and yield mode, as depicted in Table 1-1. Example

connections of wood-based members to steel and applications of equations in Table 1-1 are provided in

concrete/masonry components. Design criteria for Part 3 of this report.

dowel type fastener connections are provided in the

NDS for Wood Construction and include the following 1.5 Connections with Members of Hollow

considerations: Cross Section

fastener design limit states (e.g. tension,

bearing, and shear);

Equations in Table 1-2 are applicable for

fastener spacing, edge, and end distance;

calculation of reference 5% offset yield, P, for dowel

connection fabrication and tolerances;

type fastener connections where the main member is of

connection geometry; solid cross section and the side member(s) have a

multiple fasteners and group action; hollow cross section. Equations in Table 1-3 are

member strength at the connection; applicable for calculation of reference 5% offset yield,

adjustments for end use (e.g. load duration and P, for dowel type fastener connections where the main

wet service) and fastener type (e.g. drift bolts member has a hollow cross section and the side

and drift pins). member(s) is/are of solid cross section. The equations

member bearing strengths; in Tables 1-2 and 1-3 are based on the assumption that

fastener bending strengths; the dowel penetrates both walls of the hollow member

reduction factors, Rd, to adjust reference 5% and the thickness of each wall through which the dowel

offset yield connection values, P, to reference penetrates, tws or twm, is the same. Connection yield

allowable stress design values, Z. modes are depicted in Tables 1-2 and 1-3. Example

applications of equations in Table 1-3 are provided in

Part 3 of this report.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

2 GENERAL DOWEL EQUATIONS

**1.6 Dowel Bearing Strength and Fastener Mbm = main member dowel bearing maximum
**

Bending Yield Strength moment, in.-lbs

Mbs = side member dowel bearing maximum

Dowel bearing strengths, Fe, and fastener bending yield moment, in.-lbs

strengths, Fyb, are provided in Appendix A. Mds = side member dowel moment resistance,

Fyb(Ds3/6), in.-lbs

1.7 Notation Mdm = main member dowel moment resistance,

Fyb(Dm3/6), in.-lbs

Ms = maximum moment developed in side

D = dowel diameter, in.

member at xs, in.-lbs

Ds = dowel diameter at maximum stress in side

Mm = maximum moment developed in main

member, in.

member at x, in.-lbs

Dm = dowel diameter at maximum stress in main

P = reference 5% offset yield lateral connection

member, in.

value for a single fastener connection, lbs

Dr = fastener root diameter, in.

p = dowel penetration, in.

E = length of tapered dowel tip, in.

qs = side member dowel-bearing resistance, FesD,

Fe = dowel bearing strength, psi

lbs./in.

Fe‖ = dowel bearing strength parallel to grain in

qm = main member dowel-bearing resistance,

wood, psi FemD, lbs./in.

Fe = dowel bearing strength perpendicular to t = thickness, in.

grain in wood, psi tws = wall thickness in hollow side member, in.

Fes = side member dowel bearing strength, psi twm = wall thickness in hollow main member, in.

Fem = main member dowel bearing strength, psi vs = length of void space along the axis of the

Ftu = tensile ultimate strength, psi dowel in hollow side member, in.

Fu = specified minimum tensile strength, psi vm = length of void space along the axis of the

Fy = specified minimum tensile yield strength, dowel in hollow main member, in.

psi x = distance from shear plane to maximum

Fyb = specified minimum dowel bending yield moment, in.

strength of fastener, psi Rd = NDS reduction term for dowel type

G = specific gravity fasteners

g = gap between members, in. Z = reference lateral design value for a single

Ls = side member dowel-bearing length, in. fastener connection, lbs

Lm = main member dowel-bearing length, in. Zʹ = adjusted lateral design value for a single

fastener connection, lbs

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 3

Table 1-1 General Dowel Equations for Solid Cross Section Members2

Yield

Mode Single Shear Double Shear Description

Im P = qm Lm P = qm Lm

Is P = qs Ls P = 2 qs Ls

**B + B + B - 4 AC General equation for member bearing
**

B - 4 AC

2 2

**II-IV P= P= and dowel yielding
**

2A A

Inputs A, B, & C for Yield Modes II-IV

II1 1 1 B = Ls + g + Lm q L2 q L2

A= + 2 2

C= - s s - m m

4 qs 4 qm 4 4

IIIm1 1 1 B = g + Lm q m L 2m

A= + 2 C= - M s-

2 qs 4 qm 4

IIIs 1 1 B = Ls + g q s L 2s

A= + 2 C= - - Mm

4 qs 2 qm 4

IV 1 1 B= g C= -Ms- Mm

A= +

2 qs 2 qm

1

Yield Modes II and IIIm do not apply for double shear connections.

2

See Section 1.6 for notation.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

4 GENERAL DOWEL EQUATIONS

Table 1-2 General Dowel Equations for Solid Cross-Section Main Member and Hollow Cross Section Side Member(s)2

Yield

Mode Single Shear Double Shear Description

Im P = q mLm P = qm Lm

Is P = 2q st ws P = 4 q s t ws

B + B - 4 AC

2

B + B - 4 AC

2

General equation for member bearing

II-IV P= P= and dowel yielding

2A A

Inputs A, B, & C for Yield Modes II-IV

1 1 Lm qm L2m

II1 A= + B = tws +vs g + C = - q stws (t ws vs ) -

4 qs 4 qm 2 4

1 1

B = g + Lm

A= + qm L2m

IIIm1 C= - M s-

2 qs 4 qm 2 4

1 1

IIIs A=

4 qs

+

2 qm

B = tws vs + g C = - q stws (t ws vs ) - M m

1 1

IV A= + B= g C= -Ms- Mm

2 qs 2 qm

**Yield Modes II and IIIm do not apply for double shear connections.
**

1

**See Section 1.6 for notation.
**

2

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 5

Table 1-3 General Dowel Equations for Hollow Cross Section Main Member and Solid Cross Section Side Member(s)2

Yield

Mode Single Shear Double Shear Description

Im P = 2q mtwm P = 2q mt wm

Is P = qs Ls P = 2 qs Ls

B + B - 4 AC

2

B + B - 4 AC

2

General equation for member bearing

II-IV P= P= and dowel yielding

2A A

Inputs A, B, & C for Yield Modes II-IV

1 1 Ls qs L2s

II1 A= + B = twm +vm g + C = - q mtwm (t wm vm ) -

4 qs 4 qm 2 4

1 1

IIIm1 A= + B = g +twm vm C = - M s - q mtwm (t wm vm )

2 qs 4 qm

1 1 Ls q s L 2s

IIIs A= + B= +g C= - - Mm

4 qs 2 qm 2 4

1 1

IV A= + B= g C= -Ms- Mm

2 qs 2 qm

1

Yield Modes II and IIIm do not apply for double shear connections.

2

See Section 1.6 for notation.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

6 EQUATION DERIVATION

**PART 2. Equation Derivation
**

2.1 Introduction between members are conservatively ignored. End

fixity is the resistance to rotation provided at the

The yield model used to develop the general end(s) of the dowel, such as under a nail head or bolt

dowel equations considers effects of dowel moment nut and washer. The strength contribution of end fixity

resistance and dowel bearing resistance on a is difficult to predict and may be dependent on several

connection’s lateral strength. Based on the European factors including load level, fastener type and

Yield Model (Soltis 1991), connection strength is installation, washer or fastener head size (e.g. nail or

assumed to be reached when: (1) compressive strength screw head size), tensile forces that may develop in the

of the member beneath the dowel is exceeded; or (2) fastener under lateral loading, and amount of

one or more plastic hinges forms in the dowel. dimensional change in connected members. Frictional

Behavior of the connection is assumed to be in resistance to slipping of connection members is not

accordance with yield modes depicted in Tables 1-1, typically addressed in wood connection design

1-2 and 1-3. Dowel loading is assumed to be because the amount of frictional force is difficult to

uniformly distributed and perpendicular to the axis of predict and in many instances may not exist as wood

the dowel (e.g. ideally plastic deformation). Each yield shrinks or the connection relaxes.

mode addresses a specific loading condition on the 2.1.2 Predicted Yield Mode

dowel such that the dowel will remain in static Predicted yield modes for single fastener

equilibrium. General dowel equations can be obtained connections are in agreement with yield modes

by considering equilibrium of forces within a observed from connection tests where end and edge

connection exhibiting behavior in accordance with distance, member cross section, and fastener size are

yield modes I – IV as shown in Tables 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3, adequate to ensure development of yielding by

and Figures 2-1 and 2-2. Applying this concept, a free- precluding occurrence of premature wood failures

body diagram for each yield mode can be drawn, and such as those due to splitting, formation of a wood

principles of statics can be used to develop the general shear plug, fastener failure or fastener withdrawal.

dowel equations. These and other failure limit states are not specifically

2.1.1 End Fixity and Friction addressed by the yield mode equations.

Potential increased strength due to effects of end

fixity, tension forces in the fastener, and friction

Figure 2-1 Connection Yield Modes – Solid Cross Section Members Section Members

“m” denotes main member, “s” denotes side member

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 7

**2.2 Equation Derivation for Connections simplifies equation derivation. These basic conditions
**

with Members of Solid Cross Section are shown in Figure 2-3. In Case B, maximum

moment is based on dowel bearing. In Case C,

2.2.1 Mode I maximum moment is based on dowel bending.

Yield modes Im and Is model connections limited Maximum moments for both cases occur at points of

by uniform bearing in the main and side member(s). zero shear. Maximum moment due to dowel bearing,

Figure 2-3, Case A, shows that the maximum value for shown in Case B of Figure 2-3, represents a load

shear, P, is determined by the following equations: condition where the dowel’s moment capacity is

sufficiently large to prevent yielding of the dowel

P = qmLm (2) (dowel bending). For calculation purposes, let q define

P = qsLs (3) member bearing resistance (lb/in.) (q = FeDb), L,

define member bearing length (in.), and let x represent

Similarly, considering the geometry of a double the location of zero shear (x = L – 2a). The resulting

shear connection, the maximum value for shear, P, is maximum moment due to dowel bearing, Mb, equals

determined by: qa2. Recognizing that a = (L – x)/2 and x = P/q and

P = qmLm (2) substituting results in Mb = (q/4)(L – P/q)2 for single

shear connections.

P = 2qsLs (4) Subscripts s and m indicate side and main member

2.2.2 Modes II-IV in the following equations for maximum moment due

For modes II-IV, considering conditions where to dowel bearing:

limiting or maximum moments act on the dowel

Figure 2-2 Connection Yield Modes – Solid and Hollow Cross Section Members

“m” denotes main member, “s” denotes side member

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

8 EQUATION DERIVATION

**Single Shear: Fyb D 3s
**

M ds = (8)

q P

2

6

M bs = s Ls - (5)

4 qs Fyb D 3m

M dm = (9)

2 6

qm P

M bm = Lm - (6) Assumed solid section loading conditions for each

4 qm of the yield modes I-IV is provided in Figure 2-4.

Double Shear: Each mode consists of an interaction of dowel bearing

and dowel bending as shown in Figure 2-3.

q P

2

Considering equilibrium of the dowel for each

M bs = s Ls - (7) particular yield mode (by summing moments about a

4 2q s fixed point on the dowel), and using relationships for

maximum moment defined above, characteristic

equations for the maximum load, P, can be determined

Maximum moment due to dowel bending is shown

as follows:

in Case C of Figure 2-3. In this case, maximum

moment is limited to the moment provided by the

dowel in bending which is represented by a

concentrated moment acting at the point of zero shear

(x = P/q). Moment resistance of the dowel, assuming

ideally plastic behavior, is expressed as follows:

Figure 2-3 General Conditions of Dowel Loading – Solid Members

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 9

**Single Shear: Single Shear:
**

2

1 1 q P

2

P + + P g - ( M s + M m ) = 0 (10) M bs = s Ls - (5)

2q s 2q m 4 qs

Double Shear: 2

q P

M bm = m Lm - (6)

P 1 + 1 + P g - (

2

4 qm

M s+M m ) = 0 (11)

4 2q s 2q m 2

Substituting Mbs and Mbm into the characteristic

equation for Ms and Mm results in the following

where: quadratic equation expressed in terms of known

Ms = maximum moment developed in the side properties for dowel-bearing resistance (qs and qm),

member at xs dowel-bearing length (Ls and Lm), and the gap between

members (g), and a single unknown variable, P.

Mm = maximum moment developed in the main

member at xm

Single Shear:

g = gap distance (assumed to be equal for

1 1 Ls L m qs L s + q m L m = 0

2 2

(12)

double shear connections)

2

P + + P + g + -

4q s 4q m 2 2 4 4

Variables Ms and Mm represent values of

maximum moment due to dowel bearing or dowel 2.2.4 Mode IIIm

bending depending on the mode being considered. An Mode IIIm models a connection limited by dowel

example single shear connection with assumed loading bearing in the main member and dowel bending in the

for yield mode II is provided in Figure 2-5. Shear and side member. The maximum load, P, is determined by

moment diagrams are also provided. As shown in solving the characteristic equation for P:

Figure 2-5, maximum moments, Ms and Mm for mode

II occur at distance xs and xm from connected faces, Single Shear:

and are based on moments Mbs and Mbm due to dowel

2

bearing. q P

Derivation of the general dowel equations assumes M bm = m Lm - (13)

4 qm

that critical stresses in the dowel occur at locations of

maximum induced moment. This is appropriate for

dowels having a constant diameter in the side and and:

main member. Dowel diameters in the side and main Mds = side member dowel moment resistance

member, however, do not need to be equal. For

connections where dowel diameter is not constant Substituting Mds and Mbm into the characteristic

within a member, it is conservative to assume that the equation for Ms and Mm results in the following

least diameter occurs at the location of maximum quadratic equation expressed in terms of known

moment. Alternatively, critical stress in the dowel can properties for dowel-bearing resistance (qs and qm),

be determined by considering the applicable moment dowel-bearing length (Lm and Lds), and the gap between

and dowel section properties along the length of the members (g), and a single unknown variable, P.

dowel.

Yield modes II and IIIm are not possible for double Single Shear:

shear connections, as the assumed symmetry of double

shear connections does not permit these modes to 1 1 Lm q m L 2m

+ + P g + - M ds + = 0 (14)

2

occur. P

2

sq 4 q m 2 4

2.2.3 Mode II 2.2.5 Mode IIIs

Yield Mode II models a connection limited by Mode IIIs models a connection limited by dowel

dowel bearing in the side and main members. The bearing in the side member(s) and dowel bending in the

maximum induced moment was previously determined main member. The maximum load, P, is determined by

as follows: solving the characteristic equation for P.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

10 EQUATION DERIVATION

**Single Shear: Double Shear:
**

2

P 1 + 1 + P L s + g - qs L s +

2 2

q P M m= 0 (16)

M bs = s Ls - (5)

4 qs 4 4 q s 2q m 2 2 4

2.2.6 Mode IV

and: Mode IV models a connection limited by dowel

bending in the main and side member(s). The

Mm = dowel bending moment in the main maximum load, P, is determined by solving the

member characteristic equation for P:

Double Shear: where:

2

qs P Mds = side member dowel moment resistance

M bs = Ls - (7)

4 2q s Mdm = main member dowel moment resistance

Substituting Mds and Mdm into the characteristic

and: equations (equations 10 and 11) for Ms and Mm results

in the following quadratic equations expressed in

Mdm = main member dowel moment resistance terms of known properties for dowel-bearing resistance

(qs and qm), dowel-bearing length (Ms and Mm), and the

Substituting Mbs and Mdm into the characteristic gap between members (g), and a single unknown

equations (equations 10 and 11) for Ms and Mm results variable, P.

in the following quadratic equation(s) expressed in

terms of known properties of qs, qm, Ls, Mm, and g, and

a single unknown variable, P. Single Shear:

1 1

Single Shear:

2

P + + P g - M ds + M dm = 0 (17)

2q s 2q m

1 1 Ls qs Ls

2

2

P + + P + g -

+ M dm = 0 (15)

4 q s 2q m 2 4

Double Shear:

P 1 + 1 + P g -

2

M ds + M dm = 0 (18)

4 2q s 2q m 2

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 11

Figure 2-4 Connection Yield Modes Assumed Loading – Solid Members

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

12 EQUATION DERIVATION

Figure 2-5 Single Shear Connection - Mode II

Single Shear

Dowel Joint

Single Shear

Dowel Joint with

Uniform Loading

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 13

**2.3 Tapered Tip Equation Derivation P 2 PLs q sL2s
**

M bs = (22)

Equations considering effect of a tapered fastener

4qs 2 4

tip are based on connections composed entirely of

solid-cross section members but with bearing P2 p E p 2 pE 5E 2

Mbm = P qm (23)

resistance in the penetrated member based on a 4qm 2 4 4 4 48

combination of full diameter bearing and reduced

diameter bearing of the tapered fastener tip. The maximum moment due to dowel bending is

2.3.1 Mode I limited to the moment provided by the dowel in

bending which is represented by a concentrated

The bearing resistance of the fastener with a

moment acting at the point of zero shear (x = P/q).

tapered tip can be calculated as the combination of

Moment resistance of the dowel, Mds and Mdm,

bearing resistance provided by the full diameter

assuming ideally plastic behavior, is expressed in

portion of the fastener plus the bearing resistance

equations 8 and 9.

provided by the tapered tip which is modeled as

having diameter vary linearly from full diameter to a Figure 2-6 Dowel Bearing with Tapered Tip

point over the length of the tapered tip, E. Maximum

load P is determined by: Connector

1

P = qm p E qm E (19)

2

The Mode Im equation can be further simplified to:

E

P = qm p - (20)

2

For single shear connections, bearing in the side

member is based on diameter, D. Maximum load P is

determined by the characteristic equation:

P = qs Ls (3)

Considering the geometry of a double shear

connection, where the tip is in the side member,

maximum load, P, is determined by:

P = qm Lm (2)

E

P = q s 2L s (21)

2

2.3.2 Modes II-IV

Figure 2-6 illustrates a general dowel bearing

scenario with a tapered tip connector. For calculation

purposes, let q define member bearing resistance

(lb/in.) determined by the equation q = FeDb, p define

penetration length (in), E define the length of taper

(in), and let x represent the location of zero shear (x =

p-a-b-E). The resulting maximum moment due to Substitution of values of maximum bearing

dowel bearing, Mb, equals qa2 + qE2/24. Recognizing resistance and maximum moment resistance as

that am = p/2 – xm/2 – E/4 and x = P/q results in the applicable for the yield mode into characteristic

following equations for maximum moment due to equation for single shear (equation 10) and for double

dowel bearing: shear (equation 11) result in equations the maximum

load, P, as follows:

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

14 EQUATION DERIVATION

**Mode II 2.4 Equation Derivation for Connections
**

Single Shear: with Members of Hollow Cross Section

1 1 Ls p E

2

P + + P + g + Following the approach for connections composed

4

sq 4 q m 2 2 4 entirely of members having solid cross sections,

(24)

q L 2 q p 2 q pE q m5E 2 equations for connections composed of a combination

- s s+ m m = 0 of members having solid and hollow cross section can

4 4 4 48 be developed as shown in Section 2.4 for yield modes

depicted in Tables 1-2 and 1-3. Equations in Section

Mode IIIm 2.4 are based on assumed connection configurations

Single Shear: composed entirely of hollow cross section members

for both side and main members.

1 1 p E

2

P + + P g + 2.4.1 Mode I

2q s 4 q m 2 4 (25) Yield modes Im and Is model connections limited

q p 2 q pE q 5E 2 by uniform bearing in the main and side member(s).

- M s+ m m m = 0

4 4 48 Figure 2-7, Case A, shows that the maximum value for

shear, P, is determined by the following equations:

Mode IIIs P = 2qmtwm (30)

Single Shear:

P = 2qstws (31)

1 1 Ls qs Ls

2

2

P + + P + g - + M dm = 0 (26) Similarly, considering the geometry of a double

4 q s 2q m 2 4 shear connection, the maximum value for shear, P, is

determined by the equations:

Double Shear:

P = 2qmtwm (30)

P 1 + 1 + P L s + g - qs L s +

2 2

M dm = 0 (27) P = 4qstws (32)

4 4 q s 2q m 2 2 4

2.4.2 Modes II-IV

Mode IV For modes II-IV, considering conditions where

Single Shear: limiting or maximum moments act on the dowel

simplifies equation derivation (see Figure 2-7). In

1 1 Case B, maximum moment is based on dowel bearing.

2

P + + P g - M ds + M dm = 0 (28) In Case C, maximum moment is based on dowel

2q s 2q m bending. Maximum moments for both cases occur at

Double Shear: points of zero shear. Parsons (2001) showed that for

hollow cross section members, the controlling load

P 1 + 1 + P g -

2

cases show that all dowel yielding occurs in the wall

M ds + M dm = 0 (29) next to the shear plane, therefore only these cases are

4 2q s 2q m 2

considered in this document.

For double shear where side member penetrations Maximum moment due to dowel bearing, shown in

are unequal, Ls shall be taken as the minimum bearing Case B of Figure 2-7, represents a load condition

length in either of the two side members. where the dowel is sufficiently large to prevent

yielding of the dowel (dowel bending). For calculation

2.3.3 NDS Assumption

purposes, let q define member bearing resistance

For connectors with a tapered tip, the NDS

(lb/in.) (q = FeDb), tw define member wall thickness

specifies that bearing length is permitted to be

(in.), and let x represent the location of zero shear (x =

calculated as L = p – E/2. Example 2.4 in Part 3 of this

2(tw – a)).

report shows that the NDS requirement closely

The resulting maximum moment due to dowel

approximates results from the more detailed evaluation

bearing, Mb, equals qa2 + 2qav – qtwv. Recognizing

of a tapered tip on bearing resistance in accordance

that a = tw – x/2 and x = P/q, and substituting, results

with the foregoing derivations.

in Mb = P2/(4q) – P(tw + v) + qtw2 + qtwv in the

member.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 15

**Subscripts s and m indicate side and main member ideally plastic behavior, is expressed in equations 8
**

in the following equations for maximum moment due and 9.

to dowel bearing: Following the method established in Section 2.2,

the maximum load, P, can be determined using the

Single Shear: same characteristic equations used for solid members

(equations 10 and 11).

P2 Similar to solid members, yield modes II and IIIm

Mbs = Ptws vs qstws

2

qstwsvs (33)

4qs are not possible for double shear connections, as the

assumed symmetry of double shear connections does

P2 not permit these modes to occur.

M bm = P twm vm qstwm

2

qmtwmvm (34)

4qm 2.4.3 Mode II

Yield Mode II models a connection limited by

Double Shear: dowel bearing in the side and main members. The

maximum induced moment was previously determined

P2 t v 2 (equations 33 and 34). Substituting Mbs and Mbm into

M bs = P ws s qstws qstws vs (35)

16qs 2 2 the characteristic equation for Ms and Mm results in the

following quadratic equation, expressed in terms of

Maximum moment due to dowel bending is shown known properties for dowel-bearing resistance (qs and

in Case C of Figure 2-7. In this case, maximum qm), dowel-bearing length (Ls and Lm), and the gap

moment is limited to the moment provided by the between members (g), and a single unknown variable, P.

dowel in bending which is represented by a

concentrated moment acting at the point of zero shear

(x = P/q). Moment resistance of the dowel, assuming

Figure 2-7 General Conditions of Dowel Loading – Hollow Cross Section Members

Single Shear:

1 (36)

1

+ + P t ws vs + g t wm +vm

2

P

4 q s 4 q m AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

2

- q t qs tws q t

s ws

2

m wm

qmtwm vm = 0

16 EQUATION DERIVATION

**properties for dowel-bearing resistance (qs and qm),
**

2.4.4 Mode IIIm dowel-bearing length (Ls), dowel moment resistance

(Mdm) and the gap between members (g), and a single

Mode IIIm models a connection limited by dowel

unknown variable, P.

bearing in the main member and dowel bending in the

side member. Dowel bending will occur in the

member wall closest to the shear plane. Substituting Single Shear:

Mds (equation 8) and Mbm (equation 34) into the

characteristic equation (equations 10 and 11) for Ms 1 1

+ + P t ws vs + g

2

P

and Mm results in the following quadratic equation 4 q s 2q m (38)

expressed in terms of known properties for dowel-

bearing resistance (qs and qm), dowel-bearing length 2

- qs tws

qs tws vs + M dm = 0

(Lm), dowel moment resistance (Mds) and the gap

between members (g), and a single unknown variable, Double Shear:

P.

P 1 1 P

2

+ + tws vs + g

4 4 q s 2q m 2 (39)

Single Shear:

1 1

2

- q t qs tws vs + M dm = 0

s ws

+ + P g +twm vm

2

P 2.4.6 Mode IV

2q s 4 q m (37) Mode IV models a connection limited by dowel

2

- M ds + qmtwm

qmtwm vm = 0 bending in the main and side member(s). Substituting

Mds and Mdm (equations 8 and 9) into the characteristic

2.4.5 Mode IIIs equations for Ms and Mm yields the same quadratic

Mode IIIs models a connection limited by dowel equations developed for solid sections (equations 17

bearing in the side member(s) and dowel bending in and 18).

the main member. Substituting Mbs (equations 33 and An alternative, energy based derivation,

35) and Mdm (equation 9) into the characteristic producing the same results in different equation

equation for Ms and Mm results in the following format, is provided in Parsons (2001).

quadratic equation(s) expressed in terms of known

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 17

**PART 3. Example Problems
**

Example 3.1 Bolted Connection with Gap

Problem Statement: Determine the reference design Given: Both side and main member thicknesses are

value, Z, for a wood-to-wood single shear bolted 1.5 in. Each connection uses a single ½ in. diameter

connection. Compare values for gap distance, g, equal bolt (SAE J429 Grade 1).

to 0 in., ¼ in., and ½ in. Connection end and edge Ls = Lm = 1.5 in.

distances are assumed to be in accordance with D = 0.5 in.

applicable NDS provisions. Fyb = 45,000 psi

Fell = 4800 psi, Fe = 2550 psi

g = 0, 0.25, 0.5 in.

Bearing length, in. &

P5%/Rd, lbs Z1, lbs

grain direction

Main Side Im Is II IIIm IIIs IV

Gap distance, g = 0 in.

1- ½ll 1- ½ll 900 900 414 550 550 663 414

1- ½ll 1- ½ 720 383 250 380 324 442 250

383 383 176 289 289 387 176

1- ½ 1- ½

Gap distance, g = ¼ in.

1- ½ll 1- ½ll 900 900 370 482 482 576 370

1- ½ll 1- ½ 720 383 224 341 284 393 224

383 383 157 258 258 349 157

1- ½ 1- ½

Gap distance, g = ½ in.

1- ½ll 1- ½ll 900 900 333 426 426 501 333

1- ½ll 1- ½ 720 383 202 307 250 350 202

383 383 142 231 231 315 142

1- ½ 1- ½

Connection values have not been adjusted for end use conditions such as load duration, wet service, and temperature. Z is the

1

minimum of P5%/Rd for each yield mode. The controlling yield mode value is underlined.

Example 3.2 Lag Screw Connection

**Problem Statement: Determine the reference design other threaded fasteners such as bolts and wood
**

value for a wood-to-wood single shear lag screw screws by accounting for specific attributes (diameter,

connection. Compare values for different connection root diameter, dowel bending strength) of those

conditions described in Cases 1–4. The main member fastener types.

is loaded parallel to grain for all cases. Connection end

and edge distances are assumed to be in accordance Given Data:

with applicable NDS provisions. Parallel and perpendicular to grain dowel bearing

strengths:

Note: This example illustrates the application of TR12

Fell = 5600 psi, Fe = 3650 psi

equations to account for varying bearing and moment

resistances of lag screws in a wood-to-wood Fyb = 45,000 psi

connection. A similar approach can be applied to

Ls = 1.5 in.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

18 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

**Lm = 3 in. Case 3 (Figure 3-2C): Moment resistance is based on
**

fastener root diameter, Dr, and bearing resistance is

D = 0.375 in., based on D.

Dr = 0.265 in.

Side Member:

g = 0 in.

qs = FesD

Case 1 (Figure 3-2A): Moment resistance, side

member bearing, and main member bearing are based Fy b D3r

Ms

on fastener root diameter, Dr. Note: These are the 6

assumptions used to develop the NDS tabular values.

Main Member:

Side Member:

qm = FemD

qs = FesDr

Fy b D3r

Fy b D3r Mm

Ms 6

6

Case 4 (Figure 3-2D): Fastener moment resistance

Main Member: and bearing resistance are based on diameter, D (e.g.

connection with unthreaded shank extending deep into

qm = FemDr the main member). Additional calculations will

Fy b D3r determine the required length of unthreaded shank

Mm penetration into the main member.

6

Case 2 (Figure 3-2B): Moment resistance and side Note: Where unthreaded shank penetration into the

member bearing are based on fastener root diameter, main member is not adequate to enable development

Dr. Bearing resistance in the main member is based on of the moment resistance of the fastener based on

D. diameter D, the fastener rood diameter, Dr, is the

appropriate diameter for calculation of fastener

Side Member: moment resistance in the main member.

**qs = FesDr Side Member:
**

Fy b D3r qs = FesD

Ms

6 Fy b D3

Ms

Main Member: 6

qm = FemD Main Member:

3

Fy b D r qm = FemD

Mm

6 Fy b D3

Mm

6

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 19

**Figure 3-2 Wood-to-wood single shear lag screw comparison of different diameter and thread
**

location conditions.

Reduced

body

Reduced body

diameter lag

diameter lag

screw, Dr

screw, Dr

(A) Case 1 (B) Case 2

**Full body Full body
**

diameter lag diameter lag

screw, D screw, D (shear

(shear plane plane cuts

cuts threads) shank)

(C) Case 3 (D) Case 4

Bearing length, in.

& grain direction P5%/Rd, lbs Z1, lbs

**Side Im Is II IIIm IIIs IV
**

Case 1 (NDS Tabular Basis)2

1- ½ll 1113 557 420 478 260 201 201

1- ½ 890 290 304 353 153 143 143

Case 2

1- ½ll 1575 557 548 629 275 218 218

1- ½ 1260 290 400 457 160 152 152

Case 3

1- ½ll 1575 788 595 671 357 239 239

1- ½ 1260 411 431 495 207 170 170

Case 4

1- ½ll 1575 788 595 697 406 403 403

1- ½ 1260 411 431 513 249 286 286

1

Connection values have not been adjusted for end use conditions such as load duration, wet service, and temperature. Z is the

minimum of P5%/Rd for each yield mode. The controlling yield mode value is underlined.

2

Case 1 represents assumptions used to develop NDS tabular values. Since the NDS equations utilize only a single diameter in

calculation of reference design value, the least diameter (e.g. Dr) is conservatively used to estimate moment and bearing resistances.

In this example, Cases 2-4 demonstrate that more efficient designs can be achieved by considering the varying moment and bearing

resistances of the fastener in lieu of the least diameter assumption.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

20 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

Example 3.3 Lag Screw Penetration

**Problem Statement: Determine the minimum 0.5 0.5
**

required length of shank penetration in the main M 395.5

member to ensure that fastener moment resistance in 2a 2 max 2 0.87 in.

the main member is limited by diameter, D, of the qm 2100

shank rather than root diameter, Dr, at the threads. The fastener moment diagram in the main member

Connection end and edge distances are assumed to be from 0 ≤ x1 ≤ 2a can be constructed from the alternate

in accordance with applicable NDS provisions. load condition in Figure 2.3C.

Note: This example utilizes a lag screw connection to For 0 < x1 ≤ a:

illustrate an approach for determining minimum 2

required length of shank penetration to ensure q x

M M max m 1

fastener moment resistance in the main member is 2

limited by diameter, D. A similar approach can be

applied to other threaded fasteners such as bolts and Substituting Mreduced for M, distance x1 from the point

of maximum moment to the point of reduced moment

wood screws by accounting for specific dimensions

(diameter, root diameter, dowel bending strength) of can be calculated as:

those fasteners. 0.5

2( M max M reduced )

x1

Given: The 3/8" diameter lag screw connection in q m

Figure 3.3A has a reference design value of 403 lbs

(Mode IV) based on diameter, D (see Case 4 of Distance x2 from the shear plane to the point of

Example 3.2). reduced moment can be calculated as:

P = (Reference design value)(Rd) 0.5

= (403 lbs)(3.2) = 1289.6 lbs P 2( M max M reduced )

x2

qm qm

qm = FemD

= (5600psi)(0.375 in.) = 2100 lb/in. For a < x1 ≤ 2a

Fastener moment resistance at shank:

qm a 2 q x

F D3 M M max qm a m 1 x1

D = y b,5% = 395.5 in.-lbs 2 2

6

Fastener moment resistance at root: Substituting Mreduced for M, distance x1 from the point

F D3 of maximum moment to the point of reduced moment

Dr = y b,5% r = 139.6 in.-lbs can be calculated as:

6

Solution: 0.5

The basic dowel loading condition for Mode IV is 2M reduced

x1 2a

shown in Figure 3.3B. Since the reference value is q m

based on Mode IV yield, the maximum moment is

equal to the moment resistance of the dowel (e.g. Mmax Distance x2 from the shear plane to the point of

= 395.5 in.-lbs based on the moment resistance reduced moment can be calculated as:

provided by shank diameter, D). Zero shear and 0.5

maximum moment occur at distance, x m, from the P 2M reduced

shear plane: x2

2a

qm q m

P 1289.6

x 0.61 in.

m

qm 2100 Minimum penetration length

The value of Mreduced is taken as 139.6 in.-lbs which

To estimate moment beyond xm an alternate loading equals the moment resistance at the root diameter, Dr.

condition can be constructed for the dowel as shown in For Mreduced = 139.6 in.-lbs, a < x1 ≤ 2a and the

Figure 3.3C. The length of bearing needed to develop minimum required shank penetration, x2, equals 1.12

the maximum moment is calculated as: in.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 21

Figure 3-3A Figure 3-3C

D = 3/8” (full body

diameter lag screw) qm

V

1 ½” P M

qm

x a a

x2

Shear plane

P

P

x1

Shear, V x

x2

Mmax

Figure 3-3B Mreduced

Moment, M

qm

V

M x Mm

Shear plane

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

22 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

**Example 3.4 Steel Side Member to Wood Given: Dowel bearing strength is 4700 psi. Side
**

Main Member – Tapered Tip Effects member is 16 gage ASTM A653, Grade 33 steel. Nail

diameter is 0.131" and is of adequate length to

Problem Statement: Compare reference design accommodate the given penetrations. Tapered tip

values, Z, for a single shear nail connection at 12D, length, E, is equal to 2D. Main member is loaded

10D, 8D, 6D, and 4D penetrations. Connection end and parallel to grain.

edge distances are assumed to be in accordance with

applicable NDS provisions.

Ls = 0.06 in.

For “EYM tip derivation” case: D = 0.131 in.

Lm = p E = 0.262 in.

Use tapered tip equations 24 through 29 Fem = 4700 psi

For “NDS” case: Fes = 61,850 psi

Lm = p – E/2 Fyb = 100,000 psi

Use general dowel equations in Table 1-1 g = 0 in.

**EYM Tip derivation NDS (Lm = p-E/2)
**

Penetration Z1 Controlling Z1 Controlling

Depth (p) (lbs) Mode (lbs) Mode

12D (1.57") 97 IIIs 97 IIIs

10D (1.31") 97 IIIs 97 IIIs

8D (1.05") 97 IIIs 97 IIIs

6D (0.79") 79 II 78 II

Connection values have not been adjusted for end use conditions such as load duration, wet service, and temperature. Z is the

1

minimum of P5%/Rd for each yield mode.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 23

**Example 3.5 Bolted Connection through Given: Main member is an HSS 3x3x¼, side members
**

Solid and Hollow Members – Double Shear are 1.5" thick. A single ½" diameter SAE J429 Grade 1

bolt is used to make the connection.

Problem Statement: Using equation in Table 1-3,

determine the reference design value, Z, for a double twm = 0.233 in.

shear bolted connection with a hollow section main

member and solid cross section side members shown vm = 2.534 in.

in Figure 3.5. Connection end and edge distances are

Ls = 1.5 in.

assumed to be in accordance with applicable NDS

provisions. D = 0.5 in.

Fem = 87,000 psi

Figure 3-5 Fes = 4800 psi

Fyb = 45,000 psi

g = 0 in.

**qm = FemD = 87,000 psi(0.5 in.) = 43,500 lb/in.
**

qs = FesD = 4800 psi(0.5 in.) = 2400 lb/in.

45, 000 psi 0.5in.

3

Fyb D3

M m = Ms = = 937.5 in.-lb

6 6

P5%/Rd, lbs Z1, lbs

Im Is IIIs IV

5068 1800 1413 1825 1413

1Connection values have not been adjusted for end use conditions such

**as load duration, wet service, and temperature. Z is the minimum of
**

P5%/Rd for each yield mode. The controlling yield mode value is

underlined.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

24 REFERENCES 24

PART 4. References

ANSI/AWC NDS-2012 National Design Specification

(NDS) for Wood Construction. American Wood

Council, Leesburg, VA, 2012.

**Parsons, W.R. (2001). Energy-based modeling of
**

dowel-type connections in wood-plastic composite

hollow sections. Masters Thesis, Washington State

University. Pullman WA.

**Soltis, L.A. European Yield Model for Wood
**

Connections. New York, NY: American Society of

Civil Engineers, Proceedings of Structures Congress

1991, Indianapolis, IN 60-63; 1991.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 25

**Appendix A. Dowel Bearing Strength and Fastener Bending
**

Yield Strength

A.1 Introduction A.3 Dowel Bearing Strength

**This Appendix provides dowel bearing strengths, Dowel bearing strengths, Fe, for wood, steel, alumi-
**

Fe, and fastener bending yield strengths, Fyb, for use in num, and concrete used in calculation of lateral connection

calculation of reference lateral design values, Z, using design values, Z, are summarized in Table A1.

Technical Report 12 (TR12) General Dowel Equations for For wood, dowel bearing strengths are determined

Calculating Lateral Connection Values. Dowel bearing from dowel bearing tests in accordance with methods

strengths and fastener bending yield strengths provided outlined in ASTM D5764 Standard Test Method for

herein are identical to values established in the National Evaluating Dowel-Bearing Strength of Wood and Wood-

Design Specification® (NDS®) for Wood Construction for Based Products [2, 3]. These tests are used to define the

materials included in connection design value tables [1]. specific gravity-based relationships for wood members in

Additional information on dowel bearing strengths and Table A1. Dowel bearing strengths for structural compos-

fastener bending yield strengths is provided including in- ite lumber are specific to each manufacturer’s product and

formation on dowel bearing strengths of aluminum and are typically reported on the basis of an equivalent specif-

stainless steel, and bending yield strengths for stainless ic gravity, Geqv, using equivalency methods described in

steel nails. ASTM D5456 Standard Specification for Evaluation of

Structural Composite Lumber Products [4]. The bearing

A.2 Notation strength and associated equivalent specific gravity may

vary by product grade, fastener type, diameter, and ori-

D = dowel diameter, in. entation. The equivalent specific gravities are generally

f′c = specified concrete compressive strength, psi not equivalent or correlated to the actual product density.

Fe = dowel bearing strength, psi For wood structural panels, a value of specific grav-

Fe|| = dowel bearing strength parallel to grain in wood, psi ity, G, is provided that establishes the appropriate Fe for

Fe⊥ = d owel bearing strength perpendicular to grain in use in calculating lateral connection design values, Z, but

wood, psi generally does not represent the actual product density.

Ftu = tensile ultimate strength, psi For example, the specific gravity applicable for deter-

Fu = specified minimum tensile strength, psi mination of Fe for wood structural panels, plywood and

Fy = specified minimum tensile yield strength, psi oriented strand board (OSB), with D ≤ ¼ inch is based on

Fyb = dowel bending yield strength of fastener, psi results of dowel bearing strength tests. A value of specific

G = specific gravity of wood (oven dry weight and gravity is derived from testing to establish the appropri-

oven dry volume) ate bearing strength when used in the applicable bearing

Geqv = test-based equivalent specific gravity of structural strength equation [5]. For plywood used in bolted joints,

composite lumber where fastener diameter is greater than ¼ inch, the use

t = thickness, in. of dowel bearing strength of 5600 psi regardless of ply-

Z = reference lateral design value for a single fastener wood species and direction of face grain has been shown

connection, lb. to result in conservative design values when compared to

Z′ = adjusted lateral design value for a single fastener the tested strength of bolted plywood joints [6].

connection, lb. An illustration of a typical half-hole dowel bearing

test specimen used to determine dowel bearing strength

of a wood specimen is shown in Figure A1.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

26 DOWEL BEARING STRENGTH AND FASTENER BENDING YIELD STRENGTH

**Figure A1. Dowel Bearing Strength Test Specimen
**

a) Dowel bearing strength half-hole specimen, and b) illustration of 5% diameter offset yield limit state for dowel

bearing strength.

Yield

Proportional Limit

Loading block

Load (lbs.)

Fastener Dowel bearing specimen

5% of diameter

**FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW Deformation (in.)
**

a) b)

For steel designed in accordance with AISC-360 steel by 1.6 when calculating the lateral connection design

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, the nomi- value, Z, is intended to apply to steel of other thicknesses,

nal bearing strength is 2.4Fu when deformation at the with other specified minimum tensile strengths, and that

bolt hole is a design consideration [7]. The result- vary from ASTM A36 and ASTM A653 steel, for which

ing nominal bearing stress is 139 ksi for ASTM A36 steel design standards are applicable.

steel with Fu = 58 ksi [8]. In the NDS, tabulated design For stainless steel [11,12] designed in accordance

values for wood-to-steel connections using these steel with AISC Design Guide 27 Structural Stainless Steel

bearing stresses are divided by 1.6, providing a dowel for hot-rolled structural stainless steel, the nominal bear-

bearing strength, Fe, of 87,000 psi. While the 1.6 factor ing strength is limited to maximum value of 1.25Fu when

is intended to permit use of load duration increases for deformation at the bolt hole is a design consideration

calculation of the adjusted lateral design value, Z′, per [13]. Dividing this bearing stress value by 1.6 for consis-

the NDS, it is not intended to supersede requirements tency with the bearing strength approach for carbon steel,

for design of metal parts in accordance with accepted provides a dowel bearing strength, Fe, of 1.25Fu/1.6. For

engineering practice (see NDS 10.2.3). cold-formed structural stainless steel designed in accor-

For steel designed in accordance with AISI S100 dance with SEI/ASCE 8-02 Specification for the Design

North American Specification for the Design of Cold- of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members, the

Formed Steel Structural Members, the nominal bearing nominal bearing strength for single shear connections

stress is determined by the expression (4.64t + 1.53)Fu, with a washer under the bolt head and nut is 2.0Fu [14].

which is applicable where deformation around a bolt Dividing this bearing stress value by 1.6 for consistency

hole is a design consideration [9]. The resulting ASTM with the bearing strength approach for carbon steel, pro-

A653 [10] nominal bearing stress for steel with Fu = 45 vides a dowel bearing strength, Fe, of 2.0Fu /1.6.

ksi ranges from 76 ksi to 119 ksi for thicknesses rang- For bolts bearing on aluminum designed in ac-

ing from 0.036 to 0.239 inches, respectively. In the NDS, cordance with ADM-1 Aluminum Design Manual, the

tabulated design values for wood-to-steel connections are nominal bearing stress on bolts is 2Ftu [15]. Dividing this

based on 2.2Fu divided by 1.6, providing a dowel bearing bearing stress value by 1.6 for consistency with the bear-

strength, Fe, of 61,850 psi. The use of 2.2Fu for the range ing strength approach for steel, provides a dowel bearing

of steel thicknesses addressed in NDS wood-to-steel strength, Fe, of 2Ftu /1.6.

connection design value tables for ASTM A653 steel is Theoretical modeling of dowel bearing strength of

based on bearing stress provisions in prior editions of concrete and dowel bearing tests in concrete with maxi-

AISI S100 in lieu of more recent AISI S100 provisions mum f ′c = 2700 psi are the basis of the relationship 3f ′c

that adjust bearing stress based on steel thickness. representing the approximate 5% offset limit state value

This bearing strength derivation approach for steel, for concrete dowel bearing strength [16, 17]. Information

which includes dividing the nominal bearing stress for on design of dowels in concrete pavements suggests

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 27

**dowel bearing strength of concrete in this range, and design of concrete or anchors in concrete in accordance
**

also dependence on dowel diameter with larger bearing with accepted practice [19] (see NDS 10.2.4).

strengths associated with dowels of smaller diameter NDS reference values of dowel bearing strength,

[18]. For the design of wood-to-concrete connections, a Fe, in Table A1 and in NDS Table 12.3.3 are rounded

concrete dowel bearing strength of 7500 psi is considered values and are generally associated with smaller and

applicable for concrete with a minimum compressive larger values than would result from the direct use of

strength of 2500 psi. The use of a dowel bearing strength the equations. The rounded values of Fe are used to cal-

of concrete for calculation of lateral connection design culate the lateral connection design values, Z, tabulated

values, Z, is not intended to supersede requirements for in the NDS.

**Table A1. Dowel Bearing Strength, Fe
**

NDS Dowel

Nominal Bearing Strength, NDS Reference

Material Bearing Stress Fe, Equation (psi) Value, Fe (psi)

Wood members3 (for D ≥ ¼″)

Parallel to grain (Fe‖) 11200 G NDS Table 12.3.3

Perpendicular to grain (Fe⊥) 6100 G1.45/D0.5 NDS Table 12.3.3

Wood members3 (D < ¼″)

Parallel and perpendicular to grain (Fe) 16600 G1.84 NDS Table 12.3.3

Wood Structural Panels

Plywood (for D ≤ ¼″)

Structural 1, Marine (G= 0.5) 16600 G1.84 4650

Other Grades (G = 0.42) 16600 G1.84 3350

(Note: Use G = 0.42 when species of the plies is not known. When species

of the plies is known, specific gravity listed for the actual species and the

corresponding dowel bearing strength may be used, or the weighted average

may be used for mixed species.)

Plywood (for D > ¼″)

All Grades (G = 0.5) 11200 G 5600

Oriented Strand Board (for D ≤ ¼″)

All Grades (G = 0.5) 16600 G1.84 4650

Concrete1 (f′c = 2500 psi) 3f′c 7500

Steel 2

**ASTM A36 (Fu = 58 ksi, t > ¼″) 2.4Fu 2.4Fu/1.6 87,000
**

ASTM A653 (Fu = 45 ksi, t < 0.239″) (4.64t + 1.53) Fu 2.2Fu/1.6 61,850

Stainless Steel2

ASTM A240 (hot-rolled, t ≥ ⅛″) 1.25Fu 1.25Fu/1.6

ASTM A240 (cold-formed) 2.0 Fu 2.0 Fu/1.6

**ASTM A240 specified Fu
**

Type 304: Fu = 75 ksi -

Type 304L: Fu = 70 ksi -

Type 316: Fu = 75 ksi -

Type 316L: Fu = 70 ksi -

Aluminum2 2Ftu 2Ftu/1.6 -

1

Design of concrete parts shall also be in accordance with accepted practices (see NDS 10.2.4). For f ′c values greater than or equal to 2500 psi,

the dowel bearing strength, Fe, is limited to 7500 psi.

2

Design of metal parts shall also be in accordance with applicable metal design procedures (see NDS 10.2.3).

3

For structural composite lumber, an equivalent specific gravity, Geqv, is used to derive the dowel bearing strength instead of the actual product

specific gravity, G.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

28 DOWEL BEARING STRENGTH AND FASTENER BENDING YIELD STRENGTH

**A.4 Dowel Bending Yield Strength F1575 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending
**

Yield Moment of Nails for determination of the 5% offset

Dowel bending yield strengths, Fyb, for bolts, lag limit state value [20, 21]. A typical fastener bending test

screws, wood screws, and nails for use in calculation specimen is shown in Figure A2. Stainless steel nails

of reference lateral design values, Z, are summarized in have been shown to display similar bending strength to

Table A2. comparably sized carbon steel fasteners [22]. For either

For nails and small-diameter wood screws and lags carbon steel nails or stainless steel nails, bending yield

screws, the value of Fyb increases with reduced diameter values are evaluated in accordance with supplementary

and depends on the hardness of the steel. The empiri- requirements of ASTM F1667 Standard Specification for

cal relationships are based on testing of carbon steel Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples for engi-

nails in accordance with procedures outlined in ASTM neered construction [23].

**Figure A2. Dowel Bending Strength
**

a) Nail bending specimen, and b) illustration of 5% diameter offset yield limit state for bending yield strength.

LOAD

Yield

Proportional

Limit

Load (lbs.)

5% of diameter

CL

Deformation (in.)

a) b)

For bolts and lag screws with diameter of ⅜ inch NDS reference values of fastener bending yield

and greater, Fyb = 45 ksi is associated with the equation strength, Fyb, in Table A2 are rounded values. The rounded

Fyb = Fy /2 + Fu /2 for bolts having Fy = 36 ksi and Fu = values of Fyb are used to calculate lateral connection design

60 ksi. This bending yield strength equation applies for values, Z, tabulated in the NDS. In some cases, such as

steel fasteners for which steel design standards are ap- for nails of 0.344 to 0.375 inches in diameter as well as

plicable, including both carbon steel and stainless steel hardened nails greater than 0.192 inch, the equations pro-

[24, 25, 26]. duce slightly greater values of Fyb than used as the basis of

lateral connection design values, Z, tabulated in the NDS.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12 29

Table A2. Dowel Bending Yield Strength, Fyb

**NDS Dowel Bending Yield NDS Reference
**

Fastener Strength, Fyb, Equation (psi) Value, Fyb (psi)

Bolt, lag screw (with D ≥ ⅜″), drift pin

SAE J429 Grade 1: Fy = 36 ksi, Fu = 60 ksi Fy /2 + Fu /2 45,000

ASTM A320, Class 1, Type B8 and B8M:

Stainless Steel S30400: Fy = 30 ksi, Fu = 75 ksi -

Stainless Steel S30403: Fy = 25 ksi, Fu = 70 ksi -

Stainless Steel S31600: Fy = 30 ksi, Fu = 75 ksi -

Stainless Steel S31603: Fy = 25 ksi, Fu = 70 ksi -

Common, box, or sinker nail, spike, lag screw, wood screw

(low to medium carbon steel) 130,400 – 213,900D

0.099″ ≤ D ≤ 0.142″ 100,000

0.142″ < D ≤ 0.177″ 90,000

0.177″ < D ≤ 0.236″ 80,000

0.236″ < D ≤ 0.273″ 70,000

0.273″ < D ≤ 0.344″ 60,000

0.344″ < D ≤ 0.375″ 45,000

Hardened steel nail (medium carbon steel) including post- 169,500 – 278,000D

frame ring shank nails

0.120″ ≤ D ≤ 0.142″ 130,000

0.142″ < D ≤ 0.192″ 115,000

0.192″ < D ≤ 0.207″ 100,000

**A.5 References [6] APA E825E, Fastener Loads for Plywood – Bolts,
**

APA – The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma,

[1] ANSI/AWC NDS-2012 National Design Washington, 1997.

Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. American

Wood Council, Leesburg, VA, 2012. [7] AISC 360-10 Specification for Structural Steel

Buildings. American Institute of Steel Construction,

[2] ASTM D5764-97a (2013) Standard Test Method for Inc., Chicago, IL, 2010.

Evaluating Dowel-Bearing Strength of Wood and Wood-

Based Products. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013. [8] ASTM A36-12, Standard Specification for Carbon

Structural Steel. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.

[3] Wilkinson, T.L., Dowel Bearing Strength. Forest

Products Laboratory Research Paper FPL-RP-505. [9] AISI S100-2007. North American Specification for

Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.

Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1991. American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC, 2007.

**[4] ASTM D5456-11a, Standard Specification for [10] ASTM A653-13, Standard Specification for Steel
**

Evaluation of Structural Composite Lumber Products. Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc Iron Alloy-

ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011. Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process. ASTM,

West Conshohocken, PA, 2013.

[5] APA D510, Panel Design Specification, APA – The

Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, Washington, 2012. [11] ASTM A240-14, Standard Specification for

Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate,

Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General

Applications. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL

30 DOWEL BEARING STRENGTH AND FASTENER BENDING YIELD STRENGTH

**[12] ASTM A480-14b, Standard Specification for [19] ACI 318-14. Building Code Requirements for
**

General Requirements for Flat-Rolled Stainless and Structural Concrete and Commentary. American

Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip. ASTM, Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2014.

West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.

[20] Loferski, J.R. and McLain, T.E., "Static and Impact

[13] AISC Design Guide 27, Structural Stainless Steel. Flexural Properties of Common Wire Nails," Journal

American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, Vol. 19, No. 4, July

IL, 2013. 1991, pp. 297-304.

**[14] SEI/ASCE 8-02 Specification for the Design of [21] ASTM F1575-03 (2013) Standard Test Method for
**

Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members. Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails. ASTM,

American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2002. West Conshohocken, PA, 2013.

**[15] AA ADM-1 2010. Aluminum Design Manual, 2010 [22] Rammer, D.R., and Zelinka, S.L., "Withdrawal
**

Edition. Aluminum Association, Washington, D.C, Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel

2010. Nails," Journal of Structural Engineering, July 2014.

**[16] Vintzeleou, E.N., Tassios, T.P., "Mathematical [23] ASTM F1667-11a Standard Specification for
**

Models for Dowel Action Under Monotonic and Cyclic Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples. ASTM,

Conditions." Magazine of Concrete Research: Vol. 38, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011.

No. 134: March 1986.

[24] SAE J429, Mechanical and Material Requirements

[17] Biolzi, L., and Giuriani, E., "Bearing Capacity for Externally Threaded Fasteners, Society of

of a Bar Under Transversal Loads," Materials and Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1999.

Structures, V. 23, n 138, Nov., 1990, pp. 449 456,

University di Udine, Udine, Italy, 1991. [25] ASTM A320-14, Standard Specification for Alloy-

Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for Low-Temperature

[18] Snyder, M.B., Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Service. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.

Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements.

National Concrete Consortium, Ames, IA, 2011.

**AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
**

American Wood Council

AWC Mission Statement

To increase the use of wood by assuring the broad

regulatory acceptance of wood products, developing

design tools and guidelines for wood construction,

and influencing the development of public policies

affecting the use and manufacture of wood products.

American Wood Council

222 Catoctin Circle, SE

Suite 201

Leesburg, VA 20175

www.awc.org 10-15

info@awc.org

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