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You are on page 1of 48

**ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND
**

CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

LAB MANUAL

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

Electrical Engineering

**1. Study of DC & AC motor starters
**

2. Study of three phase circuits

3. Speed Control of DC shunt motor

4. Load Test on DC shunt motor

5. OCC & Load Characteristics of DC shunt generator

6. Transfer Function of separately excited D.C.Generator.

7. Regulation of three phase alternator

8. Open Circuit and Short Circuit test on single phase transformer to draw its

equivalent circuit

9. Load test on single-phase transformer

10. Load test on single phase and three-phase Induction motor

EXP NO: 1 STUDY OF D.C & A.C MOTOR STARTERS DATE

AIM:

To study the different kinds of D.C &A.C motor starters

THEORY:

**The value of the armature current in a D.C shunt motor is given by
**

Ia = (V – Eb )/ Ra

where V = applied voltage.

Ra = armature resistance.

E b = Back e.m.f .

**In practice the value of the armature resistance is of the order of 1 ohms and at the instant of
**

starting the value of the back e.m.f is zero volts. Therefore under starting conditions the value

of the armature current is very high. This high inrush current at the time of starting may

damage the motor. To protect the motor from such dangerous current the D.C motors are

always started using starters. The types of D.C motor starters are

i) Two point starters

ii) ii) Three point starters

iii) iii) Four point starters.

**The functions of the starters are
**

i) It protects from dangerous high speed.

ii) It protects the motor from overloads

(i) Two Point Starters:

**It is used for starting D.C. series motors which has the problem of over
**

speeding due to the loss of load from its shaft. Here for starting the motor the control arm is moved

in clock-wise direction from its OFF position to the ON position against the spring tension. The

control arm is held in the ON position by the electromagnet E. The exciting coil of the hold-on

electromagnet E is connected in series with the armature circuit. If the motor loses its load, current

decreases and hence the strength of the electromagnet also decreases. The control arm returns to the

OFF position due to the spring tension, thus preventing the motor from over speeding. The starter

also returns to the OFF position when the supply voltage decreases appreciably. L and F are the two

points of the starter which are connected with the motor terminals

(ii) Three Point Starter:

**It is used for starting the shunt or compound motor. The coil of the hold on electromagnet E is
**

connected in series with the shunt field coil. In the case of disconnection in the field circuit the

control arm will return to its OFF position due to spring tension. This is necessary because the

shunt motor will over speed if it loses excitation. The starter also returns to the OFF position in

case of low voltage supply or complete failure of the supply. This protection is therefore is called

No Volt Release ( NVR).

**Over load protection:
**

When the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This heavy current also flows through the

exciting coil of the over load electromagnet ( OLR). The electromagnet then pulls an iron piece

upwar6.ds which short circuits the coils of the NVR coil. The hold on magnet gets de-energized

and therefore the starter arm returns to the OFF position, thus protecting the motor against

overload. L, A and F are the three terminals of the three point starter.

**(iii) Four Point Starter: (Refer Fig 3)
**

The connection diagram of the four point starter is shown in fig 3. In a four point starter arm

touches the starting resistance, the current from the supply is divided into three paths. One through

the starting resistance and the armature, one through the field circuit, and one through the NVR

coil. A protective resistance is connected in series with the NVR coil. Since in a four point starter

the NVR coil is independent of the of the field ckt connection , the d.c motor may over speed if

there is a break in the field circuit. A D.C motor can be stopped by opening the main switch. The

steps of the starting resistance are so designed that the armature current will remain within the

certain limits and will not change the torque developed by the motor to a great extent.

**INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERS
**

Auto –Transformer Starting

An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown in the fig.

When the switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor

terminals. When the motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its normal speed, the switch is put

to RUN position. Then the auto-transformer is cut out of the circuit and full rated voltage gets

applied across the motor terminals.

**The circuit diagram in the fig is for a manual auto-transformer starter. This can be made
**

push button operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over from start to run

position as the motor speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Over-load protection relay has not been

shown in the figure. The switch S is air-break type for small motors and oil break type for large

motors. Auto transformer may have more than one tapping to enable the user select any suitable

starting voltage depending upon the conditions.

Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them and thereby allow low voltage

to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out of the circuit as the motor

picks up speed.

Star- Delta Method Of Starting:

The startor phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is connected across its

free terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are disconnected through a switch and

they are reconnected in delta across the supply terminals. The current drawn by the motor from the

lines is reduced to as compared to the current it would have drawn if connected in delta. The motor

windings, first in star and then in delta the line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to

one third as compared to starting current with the windings delta-connected.

In making connections for star-delta starting, care should be taken such that sequence of supply

connections to the winding terminals does not change while changing from star connection to delta

connection. Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the opposite direction, when connections are

changed from star to delta. Star-delta starters are available for manual operation using push button

control. An automatic star – delta starter used time delay relays (T.D.R) through which star to delta

connections take place automatically with some pre-fixed time delay. The delay time of the T.D.R

is fixed keeping in view the starting time of the motor.

**Full Voltage Or Direct –On-Line Starting:
**

When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor, large

current is drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor behaves as a short

circuited transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from the primary, i.e. the stator by

a small air-gap.

**At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit exactly similar
**

to the emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This induced emf of the rotor will

circulate a very large current through its windings. The primary will draw very large current from

the supply mains to balance the rotor ampere-turns. To limit the stator and rotor currents at starting

to a safe value, it may be necessary to reduce the stator supply voltage to a low value. If induction

motors are started direct-on-line such a heavy starting current of short duration may not cause harm

to the motor since the construction of induction motors are rugged. Other motors and equipment

connected to the supply lines will receive reduced voltage.

In industrial installations, however, if a number of large motors are started by this method,

the voltage drop will be very high and may be really objectionable for the other types of loads

connected to the system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be dependent on the size of the

motor but also on factors like the capacity of the power supply system, the size and length of the

line leading to the motors etc. Indian Electricity Rule restricts direct on line starting of 3 phase

induction motors above 5 hp.

Result

Thus the construction and working of different starters for starting D.C series, shunt, compound

and three phase induction motors are studied.

EXP NO 2 STUDY OF THREE PHASE CIRCUITS DATE

Aim:

To study three phase circuits

Three Phase Transformer Connections

**The primary and secondary windings of a transformer can be connected in different configuration as
**

shown to meet practically any requirement. In the case of three phase transformer windings, three forms

of connection are possible: “star” (wye), “delta” (mesh) and “interconnected-star” (zig-zag).

The combinations of the three windings may be with the primary delta-connected and the secondary

star- connected, or star-delta, star-star or delta-delta, depending on the transformers use. When

transformers are used to provide three or more phases they are generally referred to as a Polyphase

Transformer.

**Three Phase Transformer Star and Delta Configurations
**

But what do we mean by “star” and “delta” three-phase transformer connection. A three phase

transformer has three sets of primary and secondary windings. Depending upon how these sets of

windings are interconnected, determines whether the connection is a star or delta configuration. The

available voltage which is each displaced from the other by 120 electrical degrees and flow of the

transformers currents are also decided by the type of the electrical connection used on both the primary

and secondary sides.

**With three single-phase transformers connected together, the magnetic fluxes in the three transformers
**

differ in phase by 120 time-degrees. With a single the three-phase transformer there are three magnetic

flux’s in the core differing in time-phase by 120 degrees.

**The standard method for marking three phase transformer windings is to label the three primary
**

windings with capital (upper case) letters A, B and C, used to represent the three-phases of RED,

YELLOW and BLUE. The secondary windings are labeled with small (lower case) letters a, b and c.

Each winding has two ends normally labeled 1 and 2 so that, for example, the second winding of the

primary has ends which will be labeled Band B2, while the third winding of the secondary will be

labeled c1 and c2 as shown.

Transformer Star and Delta Configurations

**Symbols are generally used on a three phase transformer to indicate the type or types of
**

connections used with upper case Y for star connected, D for delta connected and Z for

interconnected star primary windings, with lower case y, d and z for their respective

secondaries. Then, Star-Star would be labeled Yy, Delta-Delta would be labelled Dd and

interconnected star to interconnected star would be Zz for the same types of connected

transformers.

**Transformer Winding Identification
**

Connection Primary Winding Secondary Winding

Delta D d

Star Y y

Interconnected Z z

We now know that there are four ways in which three single-phase transformers may be connected

together between primary and secondary three-phase circuits. The configurations are delta-delta, star-

star, star-delta,

and delta-star. Transformers for high voltage operation with the star connections has the advantage of

reducing the voltage on an individual transformer, reducing the number of turns required and an increase

in the size of the conductors, making the coil windings easier and cheaper to insulate than delta

transformers.

The delta-delta connection nevertheless has one big advantage over the star-delta configuration, in that if

one transformer of a group of three should become faulty or disabled, the two remaining ones will

continue to deliver three-phase power with a capacity equal to approximately two thirds of the original

output from the transformer unit.

Transformer Delta and Delta Connections

**In a delta connected ( Dd ) group of transformers, the line voltage, V L is equal to the supply voltage, VL
**

= VS. But the current in each phase winding is given as: 1/√3 × IL of the line current, where IL is the line

current.

**One disadvantage of delta connected three phase transformers is that each transformer must be wound
**

for the full-line voltage, (in our example above 100V) and for 57.7 per cent, line current. The greater

number of turns in the winding, together with the insulation between turns, necessitate a larger and more

expensive coil than the star connection. Another disadvantage with delta connected three phase

transformers is that there is no

“neutral” or common connection.

**In the star-star arrangement ( Yy ), (wye-wye), each transformer has one terminal connected to a
**

common junction, or neutral point with the three remaining ends of the primary windings connected to

the three-phase mains supply. The number of turns in a transformer winding for star connection is 57.7

per cent, of that required for delta connection.

The star connection requires the use of three transformers, and if any one transformer becomes fault or

disabled, the whole group might become disabled. Nevertheless, the star connected three phase

transformer is especially convenient and economical in electrical power distributing systems, in that a

fourth wire may be connected as a neutral point, ( n ) of the three star connected secondaries as shown.

.

Transformer Star and Star Connections

The voltage between any line of the three-phase transformer is called the “line voltage”, V L, while the

voltage between any line and the neutral point of a star connected transformer is called the “phase

voltage”, V P. This phase voltage between the neutral point and any one of the line connections is 1/√3 ×

VL of the line voltage. Then above, the primary side phase voltage, VP is given as.

Result:

Thus the three phase circuits was studied.

EXPT.NO:3 SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR DATE:

AIM:

To determine the variation of speed with (i) armature voltage (Rheostatic control method) and

(ii) Field excitation (Flux control method).

NAMEPLATE DETAILS dd

HP

Armature voltage

Current

Speed

Excitation

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity

1 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1

2 Ammeter (0-2.5)A MC 2

3 Rheostat 200Ω, 1.4A Wire Wound 1

**4 Connecting Wires --- As required
**

--

5. Tachometer Digital (0-5000)rpm 1

THEORY

**A dc motor is an electrical machine that takes electrical energy and converts it into mechanical
**

energy.

**The speed of the dc motor is given by the relation
**

V- Ia Ra

N = ------------ rpm.

KΦ

**From the above relation, the speed of the dc shunt motor can be varied by varying,
**

1. The voltage V applied to armature.

2. The armature circuit resistance R a and

3. The flux Φ

**The speed is nearly proportional to armature voltage if the armature drop is small, while it is
**

inversely proportional to the flux Φ

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

MODEL GRAPHS

Armature Control Method Field Control Method

PRECAUTIONS

1. While starting and stopping the machine the armature circuit rheostat is kept at maximum

resistance position and the field circuit rheostat is kept at minimum resistance position.

2. DPST switch is kept open initially.

PROCEDURE

1. The no load current is approximately 15 % of full load current. So the fuse rating should be

15% of full load current.

2. The type and range of all meters are selected according to the ratings of the motor.

3. The connections are made as per circuit diagram.

4. The armature rheostat is kept at maximum resistance position and the field rheostat is kept at

minimum resistance position initially.

5. The speed of the dc shunt motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely

proportional to flux.

6. In the armature voltage control method the flux or field excitation is kept constant and

armature voltage is varied to obtain different speeds.

7. In the field control method the armature voltage is kept constant and flux is varied by

varying the field current to obtain different speeds

**A. ARMATURE VOLTAGE CONTORL METHOD
**

1. The motor is started by closing DPST switch, the motor starts running slowly.

2. As the armature rheostat resistance is reduced gradually the motor picks up speed.

3. The field current is kept at one constant value by adjusting the field rheostat.

4. The armature voltage is a varied in steps by varying the armature rheostat and corresponding

speed is noted down in each step. The readings are taken for speeds below the rated value.

5. The experiment is repeated for different constant values of field current.

6. A set of graphs between armature voltage and speed are drawn for different constant values

of field current.

NOTE: The readings should be taken for speed below the rated value.

**B. FLUX CONTROL METHOD
**

1. In flux control method the armature voltage is kept at one constant value by adjusting the

armature rheostat.

2. The field current is varied in steps by varying the field circuit rheostat and the corresponding

speed is noted down in each case. The readings are tabulated.

3. A set of graphs between field current and speed are drawn for different values of armature

voltage.

NOTE: The readings should be taken for speed above the rated value.

TABLE FOR ARMATURE VOLTAGE CONTROL

If (A) Va (V) N (rpm) If (A) Va (V) N (rpm)

TABLE FOR FIELFD CONTROL

Va (V) If (V) N (rpm) Va (V) If (V) N (rpm)

RESULT

**Thus the speed control of dc shunt motor was conducted by (i) Armature voltage control
**

method and (ii) Field control method.

EXPT.NO:4 LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR DATE:

AIM

**To conduct a direct load test on the given dc shunt motor to plot the following performance
**

characteristics.

1) Efficiency Vs Output 4. Torque Vs Speed

2) Torque Vs output 5. Torque Vs Armature Current

3) Speed Vs Output 6. Speed Vs Armature Current

NAME PLATE DETAILS

Rated Voltage =

Power rating =

Rated Speed =

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (full load current)

1.25 ×____________ =

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity

1

Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1

Ammeter (0-2.5)A MC 2

2

3

Rheostat 200Ω, 1.4A Wire Wound 1

**4 Connecting Wires --- As required
**

--

Tachometer

5. Digital (0-5000)rpm 1

THEORY

**Load test on motor are performed to know about the efficiency, torque and speed
**

characteristics, which enable us to select an appropriate motor for on application.

The torque equation of a DC Motor is given by

Ta = 0.159 (ΦPZ / A) × Ia N-m

P,Z, A being constant the equation reduces to Ta = KΦ Ia

**In a DC Shunt motor flux is constant, then the torque is directly proportional to the armature
**

current. The speed of a DC motor is given by N = K (V-IaRa) / Φ

**Since Φ is constant, the speed is directly proportional to (V I a R a). As the load on motor
**

increases, the drop Ia Ra through increases is negligible as Ra is very small and the speed is

nearly constant . hence a DC shunt motor is considered as a constant speed motor. If a DC

shunt motor is started on load, it draws a heavy armature current, which in turn will damage the

machine itself. Hence DC shunt motors are always started on no-load.

PRECAUTIONS: (NOT TO BE INCLUDED IN THE RECORD)

1. Remove the fuse carriers before wiring and start wiring as per the circuit diagram.

2. Check the position of the rheostat as specified.

3. The load on motor must be released initially.

**4. Fuse calculations: As this is al load a test the required fuse ratings are 120% of the rated
**

current of the motor.

**5. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wires after the circuit connections are
**

checked by the staff-in-charge.

PROCEDURE:

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram .

2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position and the starter in its OFF position

the main supply is switched ON to the circuit.

3. The motor is started using the three point starter by slowly and carefully moving the starter

handle from its OFF to ON position.

**4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by gradually adjusting the field rheostat and checked
**

with the help of a tachometer.

**5. Under this no load condition one set of readings namely, applied voltage (V L ), line current
**

(IL), the two spring balance readings (F1 and F2 ) and motor speed (N) are noted down in the

tabular columns.

6. The load on the motor is increased in steps gradually and at each step, all the meter readings

and the motor speed are recorded in the tabular column. The above procedure is repeated until

the motor is loaded to 120% of its rated current.

**7. After the experiment is completed, the load on motor is gradually decreased to minimum and
**

the rheostat is brought back to its original position and then the main supply is switched OFF.

TABULAR COLUMN

S1

Sl. VL IL If S1 S2 T N Ia I/P O/P η

S2

No (V) (A) (A) (kg) (kg) (N) (rpm) (A) (W) (W) (%)

(kg)

CALCULATIONS

**1. The circumference of the brake drum is measured and the radius of the drum is calculated
**

using the expression r=c/2 , R=r + t/2, R=_______meters. t – Thickness of the belt.

2. The armature current is calculated as Ia = IL-IF

3. The input to the motor is V L × IL Watts.

4. The torque developed by the motor is given by T= (F1-F2) × r×9.81N-m.

5. The output of the motor in watts 2πNT/60

6. The efficiency of the motor = (O/P/I/P) × 100%

**7. The plots of efficiency Vs Output, Torque Speed Vs Output are plotted in the same graph
**

sheet.

**8. The plot of Torque Vs Armature Current and Speed Vs Armature Current are drawn in
**

another graph sheet.

**9. The plot of speed Vs Torque is also plotted in separated in separate graph sheet.
**

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

RESULT

Thus the direct load test on DC shunt motor has been conducted and the various performance

characteristics are plotted.

EXP.NO: 5 OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS DATE:

OF SELF EXCITED D.C SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM:

To obtain the open circuit and load characteristics of a self-excited DC shunt generator and

hence deduce the critical field resistance and critical speed.

FUSE RATING:

At load condition: 125% of rated current (full load current)

For motor: 1.25×______ =

For generator: 1.25×______ =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

**Sl. No. Name of the Range Type Quantity
**

apparatus

1. Ammeter (0 - 2A) MC 1

2. Ammeter (0 - 10A) MC 1

3. Voltmeter (0 - 300V) MC 1

4. Rheostat 400Ω/1.1 A, Wire wound 1 Each

800 Ω/0.8 A

5. Tachometer Digital (0-5000)rpm 1

PRECAUTION

All the switches are kept open initially.

The motor field rheostat is kept at minimum resistance position.

The generator field rheostat is kept at maximum resistance position.

PROCEDURE:

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of

generator held rheostat, The DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is

gradually removed.

The motor is started using three point starter.

By varying the field rheostat of the motor, the speed of the motor is adjusted to

the rated speed of the generator.

By varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are

taken in steps upto 120% of rated voltage.

After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of

motor to minimum position, the DPST switch is closed.

Draw Rc line, such that it is tangent to the initial portion of O.C.C. at rated speed

and passes through origin.

LOAD TEST:

The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

The motor is started using three point starter.

Run the MG set at rated speed

Excite the Generator to its rated voltage after closing the SPSTS, and observe the

readings on no load.

Close the DPSTS on load side, vary the load for convenient steps of load current

and observe the meter readings.

Note that on each loading the speed should be rated speed.

Load the Generator upto its rated capacity.

TABULAR COLOUMN FOR OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

Sl. Field Generated

No Current, EMF,

If Amperes Eg volts

Circuit diagram for open circuit and load test on self excited dc shunt generator

M

MEASUREMENT OF Ra FOR GENERATOR

MEASUREMENT OF RA:

S.No. V I Ra

(Volts) (Amps) (Ohms)

1

2

3

TABULAR COLOUMN FOR LOAD CHARACTERISTICS

Speed = ____________rpm No Load Voltage = ______________Volts

**S.No. Terminal Load If (Amps) Ia (Amps)= Eg = V+ IaRa
**

Voltage (V) Current (IL) (If+IL) (Volts)

Volts Amps

FORMULAS REQUIRED:

Load test:

For self excitation Ia = IL + If

So, induced emf on load, Eg = V + IaRa

MODEL GRAPHS:

RESULT:

**Thus the open circuit and load characteristics of self excited D.C. Shunt Generator were
**

drawn.

EXP NO 7 REGULATION OF THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF & DATE:

MMF METHODS

AIM:

To conduct open circuit and short circuit tests on the given alternator and hence to

predetermine its regulation by EMF and MMF methods and to draw the phasor diagram for the given

load & power factor.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

MOTOR 3 Φ ALTERNATOR

Terminal Voltage = Terminal Voltage =

Rated Current = Rated Current =

Rated speed = Rated speed/Frequency =

Capacity = Capacity =

Excitation = Excitation =

FUSE RATING:

Load condition (Motor): 125% of rated current (full load current) = 1.25 X ____=_______A

**(SC) condition (Alternator):125% of rated current (full load current) = 1.25 X ____=______A
**

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

**SL.NO NAME OF APPARATUS TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
**

1 Ammeter MC 0-2A 1

2 Ammeter MI 0-10A 1

3 Voltmeter MI 0-600V 1

4 Rheostat Wire wound 350ohms, 2A 1

5 Rheostat Wire wound 1000ohms, 1A 1

6 Tachometer Digital 5000 rpm 1

PRECAUTIONS:

**1. The field rheostat and armature rheostat of dc motor are kept at minimum and maximum
**

position respectively.

2. The field circuit of the alternator should be kept open.

PROCEDURE:

**OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
**

1) The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2) The DC shunt motor is started and its speed is brought to rated value by adjusting the motor

field and armature rheostats.

3) The terminal voltage at zero field current is noted.

4) Excitation is given to the alternator. The field current is increased gradually in steps until the

120 % of rated voltage is reached.

5) The field current and the corresponding terminal voltage are noted.

6) The field current is reduced to zero and the DC motor is switched off.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR REGULATIO OF 3Φ ALTERNATOR

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM TO FIND THE ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra)

TABULATON:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

Frequency f = ……. Hz;

Speed N = ……….. RPM

Sl. Field Short Short circuit

No. current circuit current

If current Isc / ph =

Sl. Field Terminal Voltage per phase

Isc Isc(line)

No current voltage Vph =

(Amps) (Amps) (Amps)

If VL VL/ 3 1

(Amps) (Volts) (Volts)

1 2

2

3

4

5 To find Ra

Sl. Armature Armature Armature

6 No voltage (V) current resistance

(A) (ohms)

7

1

8 2

3

9

10

Average value of Ra =____________ohms

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

**1) The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
**

2) The DC shunt motor is started and the speed is brought to rated value by adjusting the motor

field and armature rheostat.

3) The excitation is given to the alternator and the field current is gradually increased in steps until

the rated current is reached.

4) The field current and the corresponding short circuit current are noted.

5) The field current is reduced to zero and the DC motor is switched off.

FORMULAE:

EMF METHOD:

E 01

Synchronous..impedance/ phase Zs

Irated

E01 = open circuit voltage / phase corresponding to the field current Ifsc (from OCC)

Ifsc= field current required to circulate the rated current in short circuit test.

Synchronous reactance per phase-----(Xs)= ( Z s2 Ra2 )

**Ra= effective stator resistance / phase =1.2 Rdc
**

Rdc= stator DC resistance/phase.

**Open circuit voltage / phase (Eo)= (V cos IRa ) 2 (V sin IX s ) 2
**

‘+’ for lagging power factor

‘—‘ for leading power factor

V— Terminal voltage / phase

I —load current in ampere = XIrated.

X—Load factor

Eo V

% Voltage regulation = X 100

V

MMF METHOD:

**V— Rated Terminal voltage / phase in volts
**

I— Load current in ampere= XIrated

X—Load factor

' ''

I f ( I 'f )2 ( I "f )2 2I f I f cos(90 )

I’f—Field current required to produce Eo (from OCC)

I”f—Field current required to circulate the rated current in short circuit test.

‘+’ for lagging power factor

‘—‘ for leading power factor

E—Open circuit voltage/ phase corresponding to the field current I f (from OCC).

Eo V

% Voltage regulation= X 100

V

GRAPH:

The following graphs are drawn

Field current Vs open circuit voltage/phase

Field current Vs short circuit current/phase

MODEL GRAPH: OCC & SCC

PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR MMF METHOD

Lagging power Factor load Leading power factor load

PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR EMF METHOD

Lagging power factor load Leading power factor load

**Unity power factor load
**

CALCULATION:

RESULT:

**Thus the regulation of the alternator was predetermined by EMF and MMF methods
**

and phasor diagrams were drawn for given the loads and various power factor.

EXP. NO: 8 DATE:

OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TESTS ON SINGLE- PHASE

TRANSFORMER

AIM:

1. To obtain the equivalent circuit of transformer.

2. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of transformer.

3. To predetermine the maximum efficiency of transformer.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

Transformer Auto Transformer

Fuse rating:

Primary Current= KVA Rating of the Transformer/ Primary Voltage

Secondary Current= KVA Rating of the Transformer/ Secondary Voltage

10% of Primary current (fuse rating for open circuit test) = _________A

125% of Primary current (fuse rating for open circuit test) = _________A

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

**S. No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity
**

1 Ammeter MI (0-1)A 1

(0-10)A 1

(0-5)A 1

2 Voltmeter MI (0-150)V

(0-300)V 1

3 Wattmeter LPF (150V, 1A) 1

UPF 75V, 1A 1

4 Auto transformer 1ɸ 230/(0-270)V 1

5 Connecting Wires Copper ….. As required

PRECAUTION:

**1. Variac must be kept in minimum position while switching on and switching
**

off the supply.

2. LPF wattmeter for O.C. test and UPF wattmeter for S.C. circuit test should

be used.

Procedure:

Open circuit test:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram

2. Switch on the supply and vary the autotransformer to get rated voltage

3. Note down ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings.

4. Bring back the autotransformer to original position.

**5. Switch off the supply.
**

Short Circuit Test

**1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
**

2. The SPST switch on the primary side is closed

3. The autotransformer carefully is adjusted to energize the transformer with rated

primary current on the HV side

4. The voltmeter, wattmeter and ammeter readings are noted at this condition

5. The supply is switched off

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST FOR 1Φ TRANSFORMER

**CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST FOR 1Φ TRANSFORMER
**

Tabulation for OC Test Multiplication Factor ________

**Sl. No Open Circuit Open Circuit Open Circuit Power (WOC) Open Circuit
**

primary primary in Watts Secondary

current (IOC) Voltage (VOC) Observed Actual Voltage in

in Amps in Volts Volts

Tabulation for SC Test Multiplication Factor ________

**Sl. No Short Circuit Short Circuit Short Circuit Power (WSC) Short Circuit
**

primary primary in Watts Secondary

current (Isc) in Voltage (VSc) Observed Actual current in

Amps in Volts Amps

Equivalent circuit parameters

Open Circuit test

**Short Circuit Test
**

where WSC is the short circuit power in watts

EFFICIENCY AND REGULATION

where V20 is the open circuit voltage on HV side

+ for lagging ; - for leading

**Equivalent Circuit of 1 Φ Transformer referred to Primary
**

EFFICIENCY AND REGULATION

Result:

**Thus the OC and SC tests were conducted on the given single phase transformer and the
**

equivalent circuit parameters were calculated and marked in the circuit. Also the efficiency and

regulation curves were predetermined for various load fractions and power factors.

EXP NO 9 LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER DATE

AIM:

**To determine the efficiency
**

To find the variation of secondary terminal voltage with respect to the load current.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

FUSE RATING:

At load condition :125% of rated current(full load current)=1.25×----- = ----amps

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

**S.No. Equipment Type Range Quantity
**

Name

1 Auto Transformer 230/(0-270) V, 1φ - 1

300 V, 5A UPF 1

2 Wattmeter

150 V, 5 A UPF 1

(0-10) A MI 1

3 Ammeter

(0-5) A MI 1

(0-300) V (0- MI 1

4 Voltmeter 150) V MI 1

5 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm Copper Few

6 Load (5 KW,230V) - 1

PRECAUTION:

**1.The Variac should be kept in minimum position while switching on and switching off
**

the supply side DPSTS.

**2. At the time of switching on the supply there should not be any load connected.
**

RANGE FIXING:

Rated capacityin VA

Rated primary current, I1

Primary voltage, V1

**Rated secondary current, I 2 Rated capacityin VA
**

Secondaryvoltage, V2

The load used is resistive in nature.

The range of Ap, Vp, Wp are …………A, ……………V, …………W respectively.

The range of As, Vs, Ws are ……………A, …………….V, …………..W respectively.

PROCEDURE:

**1. Excite the transformer to its rated voltage on no load.
**

2. Observe the meter readings at no load.

3. Gradually load the transformer and note the meter readings for each

loading.

4. Load the transformer to its rated capacity i.e. till it draws rated current from the

supply.

Note that applied voltage to the primary side should be kept at its rated voltage on

loading.

FORMULA USED:

**1. Input power = W1 x M.F1 watts
**

2. Output power = W2 x M.F2 watts

Output power

3. Efficiency = ____________ X 100 %

Input power

E 02 - V 2

4. Regulation = ___________ X 100 %

E 02

Where E 02 - No load secondary voltage

V 2 - Secondary voltage at various loads

M.F – Multiplication factor

W1, W2 - Wattmeter readings

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TABULAR COLUMN:

**Sl. VP IP WP (Watts) VS IS WS (Watts) % %
**

No. Regul

Volts Amps Volts Amps Efficiency ation

Observed Actual Observe Actual

d

MODEL GRAPHS:

RESULT:

**Thus the efficiency and regulation of a single phase transformer were calculated.
**

EXP NO 10(a) DATE

LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM:

To conduct load test on the given single phase induction motor and to plot its performance

characteristics.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

**S.NO APPARATUS SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY
**

1 Voltmeter (0-300V) MI 1

2 Ammeter (0-10A) MI 1

3 Wattmeter (300V,10A,UPF) 1

4 Tachometer Digital 1

5 Connecting ------ As Required

Wires

FORMULAE:

1. Circumference of the brake drum = 2ΠR (m)

R = Radius of the brake drum

2. Input power =W (watts)

W = wattmeter readings

3. Torque (T) = 9.81× R × (S1 ~ S2) (N-m)

S1, S2 = spring balance readings (Kg)

4. Output power =2NT (watts)

60

N- Speed in rpm

5. % Efficiency (η) = output power x100

input power

6. Power factor, cos Φ= W

VI

7. % Slip, s = NS- N 100

NS

NS = synchronous speed =120 f (rpm)

P

P = no. of poles

f=frequency of supply (Hz)

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The auto transformer is kept at minimum voltage position.

2. The motor is started at no load condition.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram

2. The DPST switch is closed and the single phase supply is given

3. By adjusting the variac the rated voltage is applied and the corresponding no load

values of speed, spring balance and meter readings are noted down. If the wattmeter

readings show negative deflection on no load, switch of the supply & interchange the

terminals of current coils (M & L) of the wattmeter. Now, again starting the motor

(follow above procedure for starting), take readings.

4. The procedure is repeated till rated current of the motor.

5. The motor is unloaded, the auto transformer is brought to the minimum voltage

position, and the DPST switch is opened.

6. The radius of the brake drum is measured.

TABULAR COLOUMN:

**Sl. V in I in Speed Wattmeter Spring Torque Output Pow % %
**

No volts Amps N reading Balance (T) Power er Efficiency Slip

(rpm) (watts) Readings (kg) N-m (watts) facto (η) (S)

r

Cos

Obs Act S S S1 S Φ

1 2 2

MODEL GRAPH

CIRCUIT DIGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT:

Thus the load test on the given single phase induction motor was conducted and its performance

characteristics were plotted.

EXP NO 10(b) DATE

LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM:

To determine the performance characteristics of 3-phase squirrel cage induction

motor by direct loading.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

**Sl. NO APPARATUS REQUIRED TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
**

1 Volt Meter MI 0-600V 1

2 Ammeter MI 0-10A 1

3 Watt Meter UPF 600V,10A 2

4 Auto Transformer 3 Phase 0-600 V 1

5 Connecting Wires ----- ----- As Required

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

**FUSE RATING CALCULATION:
**

At load condition: 125 % of rated current (full load current) = 1.25 × _____ = _______ A

THEORY :

The load test on 3-phase induction motor is performed to obtain its various characteristics

including efficiency. A belt and brake drum arrangement as shown in the circuit diagram

can load the motor. If S1 and S2 are the tensions provided at the two sides of the belt, then

the load torque is given by

T = (S1 - S2) × (r+ t/2) × 9.81 N-m.

where r is the radius of the brake drum in metre and t is the thickness of the belt in metre.

**The mechanical output of the motor is given by
**

Pm = 2×3.14×N×T Watt

60

**where N is the speed of the motor in, RPM. The power input to the motor
**

Pi = VLIL watt

**The efficiency of the motor is given by
**

η = Pm / Pi

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

**3 ɸ VARIAC 415 V / (0-470 V)
**

v)

FORMULA:

Torque, T = (S1 – S2) × (r+t/2) × 9.81 (Nm)

Input power (Pi) = (W1 + W2) (Watt)

Output power (Po) = 2ΠNT / 60 (Watt)

% Efficiency

η = Po X 100

Pi

Cos ɸ = W/ (√3 VLIL)

% Slip S = (Ns – N) × 100

NS

PRECAUTION:

1. TPST switch should be at open position.

2. 3-phase autotransformer should be at minimum voltage position.

3. There should be no-load at the time of starting(Loosen the belt on the brake drum)

4. Brake drum should be cooled with water During Loading.

PROCEDURE:

1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Power supply is obtained from the control panel.

3. The TPST switch is closed.

4. Rated voltage of 3-phase induction motor, is applied by adjusting autotransformer

5. The initial readings of ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter are noted.

6. By increasing the load step by step, the readings of ammeter, voltmeter and

wattmeter are noted.

7. Step1 to 6 is repeated till the ammeter shows the rated current of

3-phase induction motor.

8. Decrease the load, bring auto-transformer to its minimum voltage position.

9. Switch off the supply.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL CALCULATION:

MODEL GRAPHS

**1. Output power (Po) Vs Torque (T)
**

2. Output power (Po) Vs Efficiency (η)

3. Output power (Po) Vs Line current (IL)

4. Output power (Po) Vs Power factor (cos Φ)

5. Output power (Po) Vs Speed (N)

6. Torque (T) vs Speed (N)

7. Torque (T) vs Slip (S)

RESULT:

Thus the load test on 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor was conducted and its performance

characteristics were determined.

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