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EE6461

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

LAB MANUAL
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

Electrical Engineering

1. Study of DC & AC motor starters
2. Study of three phase circuits
3. Speed Control of DC shunt motor
4. Load Test on DC shunt motor
5. OCC & Load Characteristics of DC shunt generator
6. Transfer Function of separately excited D.C.Generator.
7. Regulation of three phase alternator
8. Open Circuit and Short Circuit test on single phase transformer to draw its
equivalent circuit
9. Load test on single-phase transformer
10. Load test on single phase and three-phase Induction motor
EXP NO: 1 STUDY OF D.C & A.C MOTOR STARTERS DATE

AIM:
To study the different kinds of D.C &A.C motor starters

THEORY:

The value of the armature current in a D.C shunt motor is given by
Ia = (V – Eb )/ Ra
where V = applied voltage.
Ra = armature resistance.
E b = Back e.m.f .

In practice the value of the armature resistance is of the order of 1 ohms and at the instant of
starting the value of the back e.m.f is zero volts. Therefore under starting conditions the value
of the armature current is very high. This high inrush current at the time of starting may
damage the motor. To protect the motor from such dangerous current the D.C motors are
always started using starters. The types of D.C motor starters are
i) Two point starters
ii) ii) Three point starters
iii) iii) Four point starters.

The functions of the starters are
i) It protects from dangerous high speed.
ii) It protects the motor from overloads
(i) Two Point Starters:

It is used for starting D.C. series motors which has the problem of over
speeding due to the loss of load from its shaft. Here for starting the motor the control arm is moved
in clock-wise direction from its OFF position to the ON position against the spring tension. The
control arm is held in the ON position by the electromagnet E. The exciting coil of the hold-on
electromagnet E is connected in series with the armature circuit. If the motor loses its load, current
decreases and hence the strength of the electromagnet also decreases. The control arm returns to the
OFF position due to the spring tension, thus preventing the motor from over speeding. The starter
also returns to the OFF position when the supply voltage decreases appreciably. L and F are the two
points of the starter which are connected with the motor terminals
(ii) Three Point Starter:

It is used for starting the shunt or compound motor. The coil of the hold on electromagnet E is
connected in series with the shunt field coil. In the case of disconnection in the field circuit the
control arm will return to its OFF position due to spring tension. This is necessary because the
shunt motor will over speed if it loses excitation. The starter also returns to the OFF position in
case of low voltage supply or complete failure of the supply. This protection is therefore is called
No Volt Release ( NVR).

Over load protection:
When the motor is over loaded it draws a heavy current. This heavy current also flows through the
exciting coil of the over load electromagnet ( OLR). The electromagnet then pulls an iron piece
upwar6.ds which short circuits the coils of the NVR coil. The hold on magnet gets de-energized
and therefore the starter arm returns to the OFF position, thus protecting the motor against
overload. L, A and F are the three terminals of the three point starter.

(iii) Four Point Starter: (Refer Fig 3)
The connection diagram of the four point starter is shown in fig 3. In a four point starter arm
touches the starting resistance, the current from the supply is divided into three paths. One through
the starting resistance and the armature, one through the field circuit, and one through the NVR
coil. A protective resistance is connected in series with the NVR coil. Since in a four point starter
the NVR coil is independent of the of the field ckt connection , the d.c motor may over speed if
there is a break in the field circuit. A D.C motor can be stopped by opening the main switch. The
steps of the starting resistance are so designed that the armature current will remain within the
certain limits and will not change the torque developed by the motor to a great extent.

INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERS
Auto –Transformer Starting
An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer and a switch as shown in the fig.
When the switch S is put on START position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor
terminals. When the motor picks up speed, say to 80 per cent of its normal speed, the switch is put
to RUN position. Then the auto-transformer is cut out of the circuit and full rated voltage gets
applied across the motor terminals.

The circuit diagram in the fig is for a manual auto-transformer starter. This can be made
push button operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch over from start to run
position as the motor speed picks up to 80% of its speed. Over-load protection relay has not been
shown in the figure. The switch S is air-break type for small motors and oil break type for large
motors. Auto transformer may have more than one tapping to enable the user select any suitable
starting voltage depending upon the conditions.
Series resistors or reactors can be used to cause voltage drop in them and thereby allow low voltage
to be applied across the motor terminals at starting. These are cut out of the circuit as the motor
picks up speed.
Star- Delta Method Of Starting:

The startor phase windings are first connected in star and full voltage is connected across its
free terminals. As the motor picks up speed, the windings are disconnected through a switch and
they are reconnected in delta across the supply terminals. The current drawn by the motor from the
lines is reduced to as compared to the current it would have drawn if connected in delta. The motor
windings, first in star and then in delta the line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to
one third as compared to starting current with the windings delta-connected.
In making connections for star-delta starting, care should be taken such that sequence of supply
connections to the winding terminals does not change while changing from star connection to delta
connection. Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the opposite direction, when connections are
changed from star to delta. Star-delta starters are available for manual operation using push button
control. An automatic star – delta starter used time delay relays (T.D.R) through which star to delta
connections take place automatically with some pre-fixed time delay. The delay time of the T.D.R
is fixed keeping in view the starting time of the motor.

Full Voltage Or Direct –On-Line Starting:
When full voltage is connected across the stator terminals of an induction motor, large
current is drawn by the windings. This is because, at starting the induction motor behaves as a short
circuited transformer with its secondary, i.e. the rotor separated from the primary, i.e. the stator by
a small air-gap.

At starting when the rotor is at standstill, emf is induced in the rotor circuit exactly similar
to the emf induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. This induced emf of the rotor will
circulate a very large current through its windings. The primary will draw very large current from
the supply mains to balance the rotor ampere-turns. To limit the stator and rotor currents at starting
to a safe value, it may be necessary to reduce the stator supply voltage to a low value. If induction
motors are started direct-on-line such a heavy starting current of short duration may not cause harm
to the motor since the construction of induction motors are rugged. Other motors and equipment
connected to the supply lines will receive reduced voltage.
In industrial installations, however, if a number of large motors are started by this method,
the voltage drop will be very high and may be really objectionable for the other types of loads
connected to the system. The amount of voltage drop will not only be dependent on the size of the
motor but also on factors like the capacity of the power supply system, the size and length of the
line leading to the motors etc. Indian Electricity Rule restricts direct on line starting of 3 phase
induction motors above 5 hp.

Result
Thus the construction and working of different starters for starting D.C series, shunt, compound
and three phase induction motors are studied.
EXP NO 2 STUDY OF THREE PHASE CIRCUITS DATE

Aim:
To study three phase circuits

Three Phase Transformer Connections

The primary and secondary windings of a transformer can be connected in different configuration as
shown to meet practically any requirement. In the case of three phase transformer windings, three forms
of connection are possible: “star” (wye), “delta” (mesh) and “interconnected-star” (zig-zag).

The combinations of the three windings may be with the primary delta-connected and the secondary
star- connected, or star-delta, star-star or delta-delta, depending on the transformers use. When
transformers are used to provide three or more phases they are generally referred to as a Polyphase
Transformer.

Three Phase Transformer Star and Delta Configurations
But what do we mean by “star” and “delta” three-phase transformer connection. A three phase
transformer has three sets of primary and secondary windings. Depending upon how these sets of
windings are interconnected, determines whether the connection is a star or delta configuration. The
available voltage which is each displaced from the other by 120 electrical degrees and flow of the
transformers currents are also decided by the type of the electrical connection used on both the primary
and secondary sides.

With three single-phase transformers connected together, the magnetic fluxes in the three transformers
differ in phase by 120 time-degrees. With a single the three-phase transformer there are three magnetic
flux’s in the core differing in time-phase by 120 degrees.

The standard method for marking three phase transformer windings is to label the three primary
windings with capital (upper case) letters A, B and C, used to represent the three-phases of RED,
YELLOW and BLUE. The secondary windings are labeled with small (lower case) letters a, b and c.
Each winding has two ends normally labeled 1 and 2 so that, for example, the second winding of the
primary has ends which will be labeled Band B2, while the third winding of the secondary will be
labeled c1 and c2 as shown.

Transformer Star and Delta Configurations

Symbols are generally used on a three phase transformer to indicate the type or types of
connections used with upper case Y for star connected, D for delta connected and Z for
interconnected star primary windings, with lower case y, d and z for their respective
secondaries. Then, Star-Star would be labeled Yy, Delta-Delta would be labelled Dd and
interconnected star to interconnected star would be Zz for the same types of connected
transformers.

Transformer Winding Identification
Connection Primary Winding Secondary Winding
Delta D d
Star Y y
Interconnected Z z

We now know that there are four ways in which three single-phase transformers may be connected
together between primary and secondary three-phase circuits. The configurations are delta-delta, star-
star, star-delta,
and delta-star. Transformers for high voltage operation with the star connections has the advantage of
reducing the voltage on an individual transformer, reducing the number of turns required and an increase
in the size of the conductors, making the coil windings easier and cheaper to insulate than delta
transformers.

The delta-delta connection nevertheless has one big advantage over the star-delta configuration, in that if
one transformer of a group of three should become faulty or disabled, the two remaining ones will
continue to deliver three-phase power with a capacity equal to approximately two thirds of the original
output from the transformer unit.
Transformer Delta and Delta Connections

In a delta connected ( Dd ) group of transformers, the line voltage, V L is equal to the supply voltage, VL
= VS. But the current in each phase winding is given as: 1/√3 × IL of the line current, where IL is the line
current.

One disadvantage of delta connected three phase transformers is that each transformer must be wound
for the full-line voltage, (in our example above 100V) and for 57.7 per cent, line current. The greater
number of turns in the winding, together with the insulation between turns, necessitate a larger and more
expensive coil than the star connection. Another disadvantage with delta connected three phase
transformers is that there is no
“neutral” or common connection.

In the star-star arrangement ( Yy ), (wye-wye), each transformer has one terminal connected to a
common junction, or neutral point with the three remaining ends of the primary windings connected to
the three-phase mains supply. The number of turns in a transformer winding for star connection is 57.7
per cent, of that required for delta connection.

The star connection requires the use of three transformers, and if any one transformer becomes fault or
disabled, the whole group might become disabled. Nevertheless, the star connected three phase
transformer is especially convenient and economical in electrical power distributing systems, in that a
fourth wire may be connected as a neutral point, ( n ) of the three star connected secondaries as shown.

.
Transformer Star and Star Connections

The voltage between any line of the three-phase transformer is called the “line voltage”, V L, while the
voltage between any line and the neutral point of a star connected transformer is called the “phase
voltage”, V P. This phase voltage between the neutral point and any one of the line connections is 1/√3 ×
VL of the line voltage. Then above, the primary side phase voltage, VP is given as.

Result:
Thus the three phase circuits was studied.
EXPT.NO:3 SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR DATE:

AIM:
To determine the variation of speed with (i) armature voltage (Rheostatic control method) and
(ii) Field excitation (Flux control method).

NAMEPLATE DETAILS dd

HP

Armature voltage

Current

Speed

Excitation
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity

1 Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1

2 Ammeter (0-2.5)A MC 2

3 Rheostat 200Ω, 1.4A Wire Wound 1

4 Connecting Wires --- As required
--
5. Tachometer Digital (0-5000)rpm 1

THEORY

A dc motor is an electrical machine that takes electrical energy and converts it into mechanical
energy.

The speed of the dc motor is given by the relation
V- Ia Ra
N = ------------ rpm.

From the above relation, the speed of the dc shunt motor can be varied by varying,
1. The voltage V applied to armature.
2. The armature circuit resistance R a and
3. The flux Φ

The speed is nearly proportional to armature voltage if the armature drop is small, while it is
inversely proportional to the flux Φ

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

MODEL GRAPHS

Armature Control Method Field Control Method

PRECAUTIONS
1. While starting and stopping the machine the armature circuit rheostat is kept at maximum
resistance position and the field circuit rheostat is kept at minimum resistance position.
2. DPST switch is kept open initially.

PROCEDURE
1. The no load current is approximately 15 % of full load current. So the fuse rating should be
15% of full load current.
2. The type and range of all meters are selected according to the ratings of the motor.
3. The connections are made as per circuit diagram.
4. The armature rheostat is kept at maximum resistance position and the field rheostat is kept at
minimum resistance position initially.
5. The speed of the dc shunt motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely
proportional to flux.
6. In the armature voltage control method the flux or field excitation is kept constant and
armature voltage is varied to obtain different speeds.
7. In the field control method the armature voltage is kept constant and flux is varied by
varying the field current to obtain different speeds

A. ARMATURE VOLTAGE CONTORL METHOD
1. The motor is started by closing DPST switch, the motor starts running slowly.
2. As the armature rheostat resistance is reduced gradually the motor picks up speed.
3. The field current is kept at one constant value by adjusting the field rheostat.
4. The armature voltage is a varied in steps by varying the armature rheostat and corresponding
speed is noted down in each step. The readings are taken for speeds below the rated value.
5. The experiment is repeated for different constant values of field current.
6. A set of graphs between armature voltage and speed are drawn for different constant values
of field current.

NOTE: The readings should be taken for speed below the rated value.

B. FLUX CONTROL METHOD
1. In flux control method the armature voltage is kept at one constant value by adjusting the
armature rheostat.
2. The field current is varied in steps by varying the field circuit rheostat and the corresponding
speed is noted down in each case. The readings are tabulated.
3. A set of graphs between field current and speed are drawn for different values of armature
voltage.
NOTE: The readings should be taken for speed above the rated value.
TABLE FOR ARMATURE VOLTAGE CONTROL

If (A) Va (V) N (rpm) If (A) Va (V) N (rpm)

TABLE FOR FIELFD CONTROL

Va (V) If (V) N (rpm) Va (V) If (V) N (rpm)

RESULT

Thus the speed control of dc shunt motor was conducted by (i) Armature voltage control
method and (ii) Field control method.
EXPT.NO:4 LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR DATE:

AIM

To conduct a direct load test on the given dc shunt motor to plot the following performance
characteristics.

1) Efficiency Vs Output 4. Torque Vs Speed

2) Torque Vs output 5. Torque Vs Armature Current

3) Speed Vs Output 6. Speed Vs Armature Current

NAME PLATE DETAILS

Rated Voltage =

Power rating =

Rated Speed =

FUSE RATING

125% of rated current (full load current)

1.25 ×____________ =

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No. Apparatus Range Type Quantity

1
Voltmeter (0-300)V MC 1

Ammeter (0-2.5)A MC 2
2
3
Rheostat 200Ω, 1.4A Wire Wound 1

4 Connecting Wires --- As required
--
Tachometer
5. Digital (0-5000)rpm 1

THEORY

Load test on motor are performed to know about the efficiency, torque and speed
characteristics, which enable us to select an appropriate motor for on application.
The torque equation of a DC Motor is given by

Ta = 0.159 (ΦPZ / A) × Ia N-m
P,Z, A being constant the equation reduces to Ta = KΦ Ia

In a DC Shunt motor flux is constant, then the torque is directly proportional to the armature
current. The speed of a DC motor is given by N = K (V-IaRa) / Φ

Since Φ is constant, the speed is directly proportional to (V I a R a). As the load on motor
increases, the drop Ia Ra through increases is negligible as Ra is very small and the speed is
nearly constant . hence a DC shunt motor is considered as a constant speed motor. If a DC
shunt motor is started on load, it draws a heavy armature current, which in turn will damage the
machine itself. Hence DC shunt motors are always started on no-load.

PRECAUTIONS: (NOT TO BE INCLUDED IN THE RECORD)

1. Remove the fuse carriers before wiring and start wiring as per the circuit diagram.

2. Check the position of the rheostat as specified.

3. The load on motor must be released initially.

4. Fuse calculations: As this is al load a test the required fuse ratings are 120% of the rated
current of the motor.

5. Replace the fuse carriers with appropriate fuse wires after the circuit connections are
checked by the staff-in-charge.

PROCEDURE:

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram .

2. Keeping the motor field rheostat in its minimum position and the starter in its OFF position
the main supply is switched ON to the circuit.

3. The motor is started using the three point starter by slowly and carefully moving the starter
handle from its OFF to ON position.

4. The motor is brought to its rated speed by gradually adjusting the field rheostat and checked
with the help of a tachometer.

5. Under this no load condition one set of readings namely, applied voltage (V L ), line current
(IL), the two spring balance readings (F1 and F2 ) and motor speed (N) are noted down in the
tabular columns.

6. The load on the motor is increased in steps gradually and at each step, all the meter readings
and the motor speed are recorded in the tabular column. The above procedure is repeated until
the motor is loaded to 120% of its rated current.

7. After the experiment is completed, the load on motor is gradually decreased to minimum and
the rheostat is brought back to its original position and then the main supply is switched OFF.
TABULAR COLUMN

S1
Sl. VL IL If S1 S2 T N Ia I/P O/P η
S2
No (V) (A) (A) (kg) (kg) (N) (rpm) (A) (W) (W) (%)
(kg)

CALCULATIONS

1. The circumference of the brake drum is measured and the radius of the drum is calculated
using the expression r=c/2 , R=r + t/2, R=_______meters. t – Thickness of the belt.

2. The armature current is calculated as Ia = IL-IF

3. The input to the motor is V L × IL Watts.

4. The torque developed by the motor is given by T= (F1-F2) × r×9.81N-m.

5. The output of the motor in watts 2πNT/60

6. The efficiency of the motor = (O/P/I/P) × 100%

7. The plots of efficiency Vs Output, Torque Speed Vs Output are plotted in the same graph
sheet.

8. The plot of Torque Vs Armature Current and Speed Vs Armature Current are drawn in
another graph sheet.

9. The plot of speed Vs Torque is also plotted in separated in separate graph sheet.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

RESULT
Thus the direct load test on DC shunt motor has been conducted and the various performance
characteristics are plotted.
EXP.NO: 5 OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS DATE:
OF SELF EXCITED D.C SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM:
To obtain the open circuit and load characteristics of a self-excited DC shunt generator and
hence deduce the critical field resistance and critical speed.

FUSE RATING:

At load condition: 125% of rated current (full load current)

For motor: 1.25×______ =

For generator: 1.25×______ =

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sl. No. Name of the Range Type Quantity
apparatus

1. Ammeter (0 - 2A) MC 1
2. Ammeter (0 - 10A) MC 1
3. Voltmeter (0 - 300V) MC 1
4. Rheostat 400Ω/1.1 A, Wire wound 1 Each
800 Ω/0.8 A
5. Tachometer Digital (0-5000)rpm 1

PRECAUTION
All the switches are kept open initially.
The motor field rheostat is kept at minimum resistance position.
The generator field rheostat is kept at maximum resistance position.

PROCEDURE:
OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS
The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
After checking minimum position of motor field rheostat, maximum position of
generator held rheostat, The DPST switch is closed and starting resistance is
gradually removed.
The motor is started using three point starter.
By varying the field rheostat of the motor, the speed of the motor is adjusted to
the rated speed of the generator.
By varying the generator field rheostat, voltmeter and ammeter readings are
taken in steps upto 120% of rated voltage.
After bringing the generator rheostat to maximum position, field rheostat of
motor to minimum position, the DPST switch is closed.
Draw Rc line, such that it is tangent to the initial portion of O.C.C. at rated speed
and passes through origin.
LOAD TEST:
The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
The motor is started using three point starter.
Run the MG set at rated speed
Excite the Generator to its rated voltage after closing the SPSTS, and observe the
readings on no load.
Close the DPSTS on load side, vary the load for convenient steps of load current
and observe the meter readings.
Note that on each loading the speed should be rated speed.
Load the Generator upto its rated capacity.

TABULAR COLOUMN FOR OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

Sl. Field Generated
No Current, EMF,
If Amperes Eg volts
Circuit diagram for open circuit and load test on self excited dc shunt generator

M
MEASUREMENT OF Ra FOR GENERATOR

MEASUREMENT OF RA:

S.No. V I Ra
(Volts) (Amps) (Ohms)

1
2
3

TABULAR COLOUMN FOR LOAD CHARACTERISTICS

Speed = ____________rpm No Load Voltage = ______________Volts

S.No. Terminal Load If (Amps) Ia (Amps)= Eg = V+ IaRa
Voltage (V) Current (IL) (If+IL) (Volts)
Volts Amps

FORMULAS REQUIRED:

Load test:
For self excitation Ia = IL + If
So, induced emf on load, Eg = V + IaRa
MODEL GRAPHS:

RESULT:

Thus the open circuit and load characteristics of self excited D.C. Shunt Generator were
drawn.
EXP NO 7 REGULATION OF THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF & DATE:
MMF METHODS

AIM:
To conduct open circuit and short circuit tests on the given alternator and hence to
predetermine its regulation by EMF and MMF methods and to draw the phasor diagram for the given
load & power factor.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

MOTOR 3 Φ ALTERNATOR

Terminal Voltage = Terminal Voltage =

Rated Current = Rated Current =

Rated speed = Rated speed/Frequency =

Capacity = Capacity =

Excitation = Excitation =

FUSE RATING:

Load condition (Motor): 125% of rated current (full load current) = 1.25 X ____=_______A

(SC) condition (Alternator):125% of rated current (full load current) = 1.25 X ____=______A
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

SL.NO NAME OF APPARATUS TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter MC 0-2A 1
2 Ammeter MI 0-10A 1
3 Voltmeter MI 0-600V 1
4 Rheostat Wire wound 350ohms, 2A 1
5 Rheostat Wire wound 1000ohms, 1A 1
6 Tachometer Digital 5000 rpm 1

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The field rheostat and armature rheostat of dc motor are kept at minimum and maximum
position respectively.
2. The field circuit of the alternator should be kept open.

PROCEDURE:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
1) The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2) The DC shunt motor is started and its speed is brought to rated value by adjusting the motor
field and armature rheostats.
3) The terminal voltage at zero field current is noted.
4) Excitation is given to the alternator. The field current is increased gradually in steps until the
120 % of rated voltage is reached.
5) The field current and the corresponding terminal voltage are noted.
6) The field current is reduced to zero and the DC motor is switched off.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR REGULATIO OF 3Φ ALTERNATOR
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM TO FIND THE ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra)

TABULATON:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

Frequency f = ……. Hz;
Speed N = ……….. RPM
Sl. Field Short Short circuit
No. current circuit current
If current Isc / ph =
Sl. Field Terminal Voltage per phase
Isc Isc(line)
No current voltage Vph =
(Amps) (Amps) (Amps)
If VL VL/ 3 1
(Amps) (Volts) (Volts)
1 2
2
3
4
5 To find Ra
Sl. Armature Armature Armature
6 No voltage (V) current resistance
(A) (ohms)
7
1
8 2
3
9
10
Average value of Ra =____________ohms

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

1) The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2) The DC shunt motor is started and the speed is brought to rated value by adjusting the motor
field and armature rheostat.
3) The excitation is given to the alternator and the field current is gradually increased in steps until
the rated current is reached.
4) The field current and the corresponding short circuit current are noted.
5) The field current is reduced to zero and the DC motor is switched off.
FORMULAE:
EMF METHOD:
E 01
Synchronous..impedance/ phase    Zs 
Irated
E01 = open circuit voltage / phase corresponding to the field current Ifsc (from OCC)
Ifsc= field current required to circulate the rated current in short circuit test.

Synchronous reactance per phase-----(Xs)= ( Z s2  Ra2 )

Ra= effective stator resistance / phase =1.2 Rdc
Rdc= stator DC resistance/phase.

Open circuit voltage / phase (Eo)= (V cos  IRa ) 2  (V sin   IX s ) 2
‘+’ for lagging power factor
‘—‘ for leading power factor
V— Terminal voltage / phase
I —load current in ampere = XIrated.
X—Load factor
Eo  V
% Voltage regulation = X 100
V
MMF METHOD:

V— Rated Terminal voltage / phase in volts
I— Load current in ampere= XIrated
X—Load factor
' ''
I f  ( I 'f )2  ( I "f )2  2I f I f cos(90   )
I’f—Field current required to produce Eo (from OCC)
I”f—Field current required to circulate the rated current in short circuit test.
‘+’ for lagging power factor
‘—‘ for leading power factor
E—Open circuit voltage/ phase corresponding to the field current I f (from OCC).
Eo  V
% Voltage regulation= X 100
V
GRAPH:
The following graphs are drawn
Field current Vs open circuit voltage/phase
Field current Vs short circuit current/phase
MODEL GRAPH: OCC & SCC
PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR MMF METHOD

Lagging power Factor load Leading power factor load

PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR EMF METHOD

Lagging power factor load Leading power factor load

Unity power factor load
CALCULATION:

RESULT:

Thus the regulation of the alternator was predetermined by EMF and MMF methods
and phasor diagrams were drawn for given the loads and various power factor.
EXP. NO: 8 DATE:
OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TESTS ON SINGLE- PHASE
TRANSFORMER
AIM:
1. To obtain the equivalent circuit of transformer.
2. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of transformer.
3. To predetermine the maximum efficiency of transformer.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

Transformer Auto Transformer

Fuse rating:
Primary Current= KVA Rating of the Transformer/ Primary Voltage
Secondary Current= KVA Rating of the Transformer/ Secondary Voltage
10% of Primary current (fuse rating for open circuit test) = _________A
125% of Primary current (fuse rating for open circuit test) = _________A
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity
1 Ammeter MI (0-1)A 1
(0-10)A 1
(0-5)A 1
2 Voltmeter MI (0-150)V
(0-300)V 1
3 Wattmeter LPF (150V, 1A) 1
UPF 75V, 1A 1
4 Auto transformer 1ɸ 230/(0-270)V 1
5 Connecting Wires Copper ….. As required
PRECAUTION:

1. Variac must be kept in minimum position while switching on and switching
off the supply.
2. LPF wattmeter for O.C. test and UPF wattmeter for S.C. circuit test should
be used.

Procedure:
Open circuit test:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram

2. Switch on the supply and vary the autotransformer to get rated voltage

3. Note down ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings.

4. Bring back the autotransformer to original position.

5. Switch off the supply.
Short Circuit Test

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
2. The SPST switch on the primary side is closed
3. The autotransformer carefully is adjusted to energize the transformer with rated
primary current on the HV side
4. The voltmeter, wattmeter and ammeter readings are noted at this condition
5. The supply is switched off

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST FOR 1Φ TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST FOR 1Φ TRANSFORMER
Tabulation for OC Test Multiplication Factor ________

Sl. No Open Circuit Open Circuit Open Circuit Power (WOC) Open Circuit
primary primary in Watts Secondary
current (IOC) Voltage (VOC) Observed Actual Voltage in
in Amps in Volts Volts

Tabulation for SC Test Multiplication Factor ________

Sl. No Short Circuit Short Circuit Short Circuit Power (WSC) Short Circuit
primary primary in Watts Secondary
current (Isc) in Voltage (VSc) Observed Actual current in
Amps in Volts Amps

Equivalent circuit parameters

Open Circuit test

Short Circuit Test
where WSC is the short circuit power in watts

EFFICIENCY AND REGULATION

where V20 is the open circuit voltage on HV side

+ for lagging ; - for leading

Equivalent Circuit of 1 Φ Transformer referred to Primary
EFFICIENCY AND REGULATION

Result:

Thus the OC and SC tests were conducted on the given single phase transformer and the
equivalent circuit parameters were calculated and marked in the circuit. Also the efficiency and
regulation curves were predetermined for various load fractions and power factors.
EXP NO 9 LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER DATE

AIM:

To determine the efficiency
To find the variation of secondary terminal voltage with respect to the load current.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:

FUSE RATING:
At load condition :125% of rated current(full load current)=1.25×----- = ----amps

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Equipment Type Range Quantity
Name
1 Auto Transformer 230/(0-270) V, 1φ - 1

300 V, 5A UPF 1
2 Wattmeter
150 V, 5 A UPF 1

(0-10) A MI 1
3 Ammeter
(0-5) A MI 1

(0-300) V (0- MI 1

4 Voltmeter 150) V MI 1

5 Connecting Wires 2.5sq.mm Copper Few

6 Load (5 KW,230V) - 1

PRECAUTION:

1.The Variac should be kept in minimum position while switching on and switching off
the supply side DPSTS.

2. At the time of switching on the supply there should not be any load connected.
RANGE FIXING:

Rated capacityin VA
Rated primary current, I1 
Primary voltage, V1

Rated secondary current, I 2 Rated capacityin VA

Secondaryvoltage, V2

The load used is resistive in nature.

 The range of Ap, Vp, Wp are …………A, ……………V, …………W respectively.

The range of As, Vs, Ws are ……………A, …………….V, …………..W respectively.

PROCEDURE:

1. Excite the transformer to its rated voltage on no load.
2. Observe the meter readings at no load.
3. Gradually load the transformer and note the meter readings for each
loading.
4. Load the transformer to its rated capacity i.e. till it draws rated current from the
supply.
Note that applied voltage to the primary side should be kept at its rated voltage on
loading.

FORMULA USED:

1. Input power = W1 x M.F1 watts
2. Output power = W2 x M.F2 watts

Output power
3. Efficiency = ____________ X 100 %
Input power

E 02 - V 2
4. Regulation = ___________ X 100 %
E 02
Where E 02 - No load secondary voltage
V 2 - Secondary voltage at various loads
M.F – Multiplication factor
W1, W2 - Wattmeter readings
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TABULAR COLUMN:

Sl. VP IP WP (Watts) VS IS WS (Watts) % %
No. Regul
Volts Amps Volts Amps Efficiency ation
Observed Actual Observe Actual
d
MODEL GRAPHS:

RESULT:

Thus the efficiency and regulation of a single phase transformer were calculated.
EXP NO 10(a) DATE
LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM:
To conduct load test on the given single phase induction motor and to plot its performance
characteristics.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO APPARATUS SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY
1 Voltmeter (0-300V) MI 1
2 Ammeter (0-10A) MI 1
3 Wattmeter (300V,10A,UPF) 1
4 Tachometer Digital 1
5 Connecting ------ As Required
Wires

FORMULAE:
1. Circumference of the brake drum = 2ΠR (m)
R = Radius of the brake drum
2. Input power =W (watts)
W = wattmeter readings
3. Torque (T) = 9.81× R × (S1 ~ S2) (N-m)
S1, S2 = spring balance readings (Kg)
4. Output power =2NT (watts)
60

N- Speed in rpm
5. % Efficiency (η) = output power x100
input power
6. Power factor, cos Φ= W
VI

7. % Slip, s = NS- N 100
NS
NS = synchronous speed =120 f (rpm)
P
P = no. of poles
f=frequency of supply (Hz)
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The auto transformer is kept at minimum voltage position.
2. The motor is started at no load condition.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
2. The DPST switch is closed and the single phase supply is given
3. By adjusting the variac the rated voltage is applied and the corresponding no load
values of speed, spring balance and meter readings are noted down. If the wattmeter
readings show negative deflection on no load, switch of the supply & interchange the
terminals of current coils (M & L) of the wattmeter. Now, again starting the motor
(follow above procedure for starting), take readings.
4. The procedure is repeated till rated current of the motor.
5. The motor is unloaded, the auto transformer is brought to the minimum voltage
position, and the DPST switch is opened.
6. The radius of the brake drum is measured.

TABULAR COLOUMN:

Sl. V in I in Speed Wattmeter Spring Torque Output Pow % %
No volts Amps N reading Balance (T) Power er Efficiency Slip
(rpm) (watts) Readings (kg) N-m (watts) facto (η) (S)
r
Cos
Obs Act S S S1 S Φ
1 2 2

MODEL GRAPH
CIRCUIT DIGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT:

Thus the load test on the given single phase induction motor was conducted and its performance
characteristics were plotted.
EXP NO 10(b) DATE
LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM:
To determine the performance characteristics of 3-phase squirrel cage induction
motor by direct loading.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sl. NO APPARATUS REQUIRED TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Volt Meter MI 0-600V 1
2 Ammeter MI 0-10A 1
3 Watt Meter UPF 600V,10A 2
4 Auto Transformer 3 Phase 0-600 V 1
5 Connecting Wires ----- ----- As Required

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

FUSE RATING CALCULATION:
At load condition: 125 % of rated current (full load current) = 1.25 × _____ = _______ A

THEORY :
The load test on 3-phase induction motor is performed to obtain its various characteristics
including efficiency. A belt and brake drum arrangement as shown in the circuit diagram
can load the motor. If S1 and S2 are the tensions provided at the two sides of the belt, then
the load torque is given by
T = (S1 - S2) × (r+ t/2) × 9.81 N-m.

where r is the radius of the brake drum in metre and t is the thickness of the belt in metre.

The mechanical output of the motor is given by
Pm = 2×3.14×N×T Watt
60

where N is the speed of the motor in, RPM. The power input to the motor
Pi = VLIL watt

The efficiency of the motor is given by
η = Pm / Pi
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

3 ɸ VARIAC 415 V / (0-470 V)
v)
FORMULA:

Torque, T = (S1 – S2) × (r+t/2) × 9.81 (Nm)

Input power (Pi) = (W1 + W2) (Watt)

Output power (Po) = 2ΠNT / 60 (Watt)

% Efficiency
η = Po X 100
Pi

Cos ɸ = W/ (√3 VLIL)

% Slip S = (Ns – N) × 100
NS
PRECAUTION:
1. TPST switch should be at open position.
2. 3-phase autotransformer should be at minimum voltage position.
3. There should be no-load at the time of starting(Loosen the belt on the brake drum)
4. Brake drum should be cooled with water During Loading.

PROCEDURE:
1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Power supply is obtained from the control panel.
3. The TPST switch is closed.
4. Rated voltage of 3-phase induction motor, is applied by adjusting autotransformer
5. The initial readings of ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter are noted.
6. By increasing the load step by step, the readings of ammeter, voltmeter and
wattmeter are noted.
7. Step1 to 6 is repeated till the ammeter shows the rated current of
3-phase induction motor.
8. Decrease the load, bring auto-transformer to its minimum voltage position.
9. Switch off the supply.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL CALCULATION:

MODEL GRAPHS

1. Output power (Po) Vs Torque (T)
2. Output power (Po) Vs Efficiency (η)
3. Output power (Po) Vs Line current (IL)
4. Output power (Po) Vs Power factor (cos Φ)
5. Output power (Po) Vs Speed (N)
6. Torque (T) vs Speed (N)
7. Torque (T) vs Slip (S)

RESULT:

Thus the load test on 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor was conducted and its performance
characteristics were determined.