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TV Advert Project; Assignment 2

Structures and Techniques of TV advertising blog
The structures of adverts are made up of many elements , one being Forms. The 7
forms are;
Realistic Narratives​ - Adverts that are very realistic therefore they use real
scenarios in actual places sometimes with a real audience too. They always reflect
real life as they are based on realistic outlooks. One advert I found to contain
realistic narrative was an advert by EE in Wembley Stadium,as it has genuine people
giving their opinion instead of actors, which makes the audience trust them more
therefore the company may make more sales. The advert is also shot in a real life
location, Wembley Stadium. ​

Anti-Realistic Narratives ​- This is basically the opposite to a Realistic Narrative
therefore it is a surreal and fake (not real). Such as e.g. talking animals.One advert I
found that used this was created by Skittles and is named ‘touch the rainbow’ which
is a slogan that skittles uses. Anyway in this advert there is a male who touch turns
everything into skittles, which is obviously fake and would never happen.
Animation​- Adverts that use cartoon and illustrations, this is a very sneaky strategy
used by many companies and brands as the character becomes memorable and
recognizable to its audience. As well as this the advert tends to follow by a logo also
making the advert and company unforgettable. An example of this is an annual
christmas advert produced for the company John Lewis. In the advert there is a
cartoon monster named Moz, the christmas adverts tend to be very popular and by
using this cartoon people enjoy the advert as it is a sweet storyline.

Documentary​-Adverts which use reality to present what is going on in the world and
show aspects of news whether that is good or bad.They document situations and
topics of society. An advert that i found containing this was an advert based on
cancer about a young girl has dealing with cancer. The advert is film as a
documentary, following the girl around her home whilst she is communicating with
the camera. The documentary advert demonstrates the struggle of cancer in a
diverse way but it is emotionally effective. ​

Talking Heads​-These adverts contain a body who directly interacts with the camera,
intending to create the effect that they are speaking individually to the you (the
audience.) An example advert using this would be one designed for the credit card as it stars a presenter who constantly uses direct address to
question the targeted audience. This is sort of like a trust strategy as a the presenter
is a real person showing a sense of realism creating the audience to gain the
companies trust. ​
Stand Alone​- An advert that has no continuing storyline therefore a singular advert
with no recurring characters. An example advert of this would be ‘The beauty of
change’ by ford as the company focus on making the advert more a less
perfect.They also try to make the advert original as they is not any like it.

Series​- This is the opposite to a stand alone advert ,therefore it is a variety/series of
adverts containing the same regular characters, brand and often has a slogan but
each advert will be based on similar storylines but all leading to the same slogan at
the ending. One advert i found that used this regularly and is quite a popular and
frequent series of adverts repeated on television- Compare the This
advert has the same characters and slogan (compare the meerkat) however the
scenarios changed in each, meaning this advert is the perfect of a series advert.
Another main element of structuring adverts would be styles;
Humorous​- Advert that use comedy to the advantage as comedy is more likely to be
remembered.Therefore they do this so the audience will remember the advert which
will make them think of the brand. They try to create an unforgettable effect. One
advert that consists of this is a advert produced for Aldi where an attractive man is
promoting champagne and is talking in a unexpected very high pitch and it is
shockingly funny. ​

Surreal​- An advert that is bizarre and out of the norm.These adverts tend to contain
unrealistic aspects, companies often use this weird method to help engaged the
audience. Cadburys brought out a very bizarre advert where a boy and a girl
repeatedly move their eyebrows in a strange way with an irritating noise in the
background, overall the advert is very random. ​

Dramatic​- These adverts use particular content to create the audience to feel a
sense of guilt and think about certain events and issues happening in society. An
emotional advert produced by foster homes focuses on young boy that has no lunch
because he has no care. They try to guilt trip the audience to try and convince them
to foster , the advert tries to be very persuasive. ​
Parody​- An advert that recreates something original and adds humour and comedy
to make the audience laugh and remember the advert. One advert that uses this
approach is an advert by specsavers named the ‘specs effect’ it is a recreation of a
lynx advert where a crowd of females go crazy for the smell of lynx but when they
approach the person wearing it his is wearing some strange glasses so they are put
right off, therefore the slogan by specsavers in then used ‘should of gone to
specsavers’. ​

Codes and Conventions of advert targets​-
-Various types of Humour
-Sound- Non Digestic - Soundtrack/Music - Digestic- Sound exists in the frame
-On locations/Set locations
- Characters -Regular characters/Realistic characters
-Audio- hooks audience
-Target audience
-Props- Costumes
-Simple narrative-narration
-Hidden comedy
-Chroma keying
-Computer generated imagery- photoshop
-Timing (30 seconds)
-Lighting- High-Key-Bright/Low-Key-Dark
-Camera angles/shots/directions
-Special FX
-Graphics-logos on end card
-Colour implications e.g. red connatates blood.

Persuasive Techniques
Gunn’s Advertising Types are 12 formats of advertising founded by a man named
Donald Gunns. Despite being identified almost 40 years ago the formats are still very
relative and used in the advertising industry.

1.The Demo​- A demonstration of products showing the target audience how it works
and explaining the method of the product. An example of this are adverts by JML-in
the majority of their adverts they use an example demo of the product as a technique
to make more sales. Here is an example of them demonstrating there ‘Paint Racer’.

2.Show the problem​- A key dilemma in the advert that is quickly solved and fixed.
An example of this is the quickquid restore some advert as there is a variety of
problems but there are quickly fixed ​

3.Symbolize the problem​- When graphics are used to exaggerate the problem and
symbols to show the issue displayed. An advert which has used this is an advert
produced for gaviscon as i contain graphics to symbolize the humans heartburn e.g.
a flame in edited on the actors chest to imply the sense of burning.
4.Symbolize the benefit​- When graphics and symbols are used to show the
benefits of a product e.g. text on screen. A great example of this is a advert created
by apple, introducing the new apple products.Throughout the advert they show
graphic versions of the new products and explain the product visually using
animation and this engages the audience so they buy the products.

5.Comparison​- Companies often tend to use these techniques to make sure that the
audience are aware that they product is the ‘best’ on the market and better than its
rivals. Aldi use this technique is many of their adverts, they take their own product
and the branded version and discuss how their product is just as good and beneficial
but cheaper. ​

6.Exemplary story​- A advert that has a narrator explaining the benefits of a
products. Apple also did a great advert using this technique too. The advert was
based on their new apple watch.The advert has a detailed narrated overvoice which
goes into depth about each part of the watch. ​

7.Benefits causes story​- Series of events caused by the benefits of the product. An
advert that portrays this is an advert by extra chewing gum as it claims you can find
love by chewing their gum. ​
8.Testimonial​- Real person promoting a product to another person e.g. sales pitch.
An advert that uses this is an advert by colgate where a bunch of people recommend
their toothpaste. ​

9.Ongoing characters or celebrities​- A character or actor that always makes an
appearance in a certain brand adverts this is because it makes the audience
remember and identify the advert. EE have made several adverts with Kevin Bacon,
making him an ongoing celebrity belonging to the advert.

10.Associated user imagery​- When an advert has a specific target audience. who
would buy the brands products and use them. An advert that shows this is a nike
advert with Ronaldo in it as the the trainers are football studs so its aims at people
who play the sport.​ ​

11.Unique personality property​- History behind the product like where it comes
from or founder of the product to make the product stand out. An advert that uses
this is an advert created for werther’s original caramels as the advert has a trip to the
past of the ladies childhood memory. ​
12.Parody or borrowed format​- Basically just a parody advert, mimikin something
or adverts filled with comedy. An example would be one by specsavers as it made to
be funny as the person cant see properly and ends up on a rollercoaster therefore
they use bizarre and parodic acts to create humour. ​

Another persuasive technique is ​hidden ​and ​overt messages

Hidden messages
Something hidden in the advert such as a comment like ‘big melons’ when referring
to big breasts.
Hidden messages are often used for sexy adverts as they are not shown on
television in the daytime as they are hidden from young audiences.
An advert that does this is a hugo boss aftershave as it's not appropriate to young
audiences and aimed at adults and a more mature audience.

Overt messages
Openly displayed/flat out telling the audience such as a joke said straight up and
straight to the point.
Overt messages are often used for the funny adverts as they are targeted to many
audiences to make them laugh and remember the advert and its brand. An example
of this would be the snickers advert as it has an overt message of ‘ you are not you
when you’re hungry. ​
Featured product & service characteristics
Brand Identity
Aspects that the brand is made up of such as the slogan,logos,colours.Constant
reinforcement by companies so that the audience remember their brand.
For example



These identities make the products memorable and recognisable to the audience.
Tesco uses all these aspects in their adverts. ​
Product Lifestyle Appeal

The way that products are sold to customers as a lifestyle not just the product itself
like if you wear their luxury item, you will have a luxury lifestyle and people
surrounding you will think you have a expensive lifestyle.Products that you feel better
than others. An example of this is Gucci as people big this brand up and it is very
expensive and people think it is a wow factor. Many celebrities and famous
influencers with great lifestyle wear Gucci making people with a lifestyle less
fortunate than theirs crave the luxury brand.

Taylor Swift wearing Gucci trainers Harry Styles wearing a Gucci hoodie

Billie Eilish wearing a Gucci cap Drake wearing a Gucci jacket
Harry styles actually stars in a gucci advert, in the advert he visits a chippy filled with
average class people therefore the advert is sort of trying to show anyone can wear
gucci however in conclusion the advert absolutely nothing to do with Gucci therefore
they did a bad job of this and makes me feel more like the brand can only be worn by
people with a certain lifestyle. ​
Unique selling point/proposition
The benefits that this product has that others don’t have, the advantages of the
product and basically persuading customers to buy your product over the similar
competition on the market.
A great example of this is an advert made by samsung, in the advert they show the
advantages of their new phone whilst shading apple's new iphone saying how that
can't do what their new phone can, subtly saying theres is a lot better.

Target Audience Classification

Socio-economic classification
A division of customers dependent on their financial ability to buy something.
Lower class e.g. wish customers (Cheap)
Middle class e.g. matalan customers (average & reasonable prices)
Upper class e.g. selfridges customers (overpriced)

Division of customers due to social class, lifestyle and basic characteristics. Certain
brands and product can have a stereotypical reflection on your social class and
general lifestyle.
For example Louis Vuitton is a very expensive and luxury brand and their products
are genuinely overpriced for what they are.Stereotypically people who own louis
vuitton are seen as a upper class and wealthy and often seen to have a stress-free
and extremely financially stable luxurious lifestyle.
Even the advert for Louis Vuitton is created to look expensive.

Identifying an audience in media marketing into certain categories.
This categories being;

● Race
● Age
● Ethnicity
● Gender
● Location
● Nationality

Information Sources
How many people are watching a certain programme divided by households with
Focus Groups
A diverse group of people, who are questioned and responses are analysed. Here's
an example of a focus group;

A individual conversation with somebody asking the questions (interviewer) and the
other person answering and responding (interviewee).
An example of an interview;

BARB- Broadcast audience research board
Research Agencies
Delivers official viewing figures for uk viewing.
The RA- Do the research advise on the campaign
Rate cards & advertising information packs.
A document containing prices and descriptions for the various and placement
options available from a media outlet.


ASA- Advert Standard Authority
Ofcom- Television Communication
Both the similar companies who work together to make sure everything is
appropriate and inoffensive content on television e.g. adverts and TV programmes.
To ensure adverts are suitable and age related
ASA focuses more on adverts and Ofcom focuses more on actual television
programmes more.
People complain and report adverts that they do not agree with to Ofcom or ASA and
then they will then look into the case and decide whether or not to remove the advert
off the television.

Some adverts are banned off the television due their explicit content e.g. too
sexualised, swearing or general inappropriate.Here is a few adverts from uk that
have been banned by ASA or Ofcom.
This advert is based on a boy who’s father died and the boy cannot find anything in
common with him therefore he feels a loss of connection with dad.The boy then has
a burger from mcdonalds and his mother tells him that is what his dad used to have,
this makes the little boy overjoyed and feels he has a connection with his dad.
Unfortunately many people were offended by this advert because of the way they
handled grief to promote their brand. After 256 complaints about the controversy
Ofcom made the decision to remove the advert from the air.
This advert is about two work colleagues who are eating KFC whilst singing with
their mouths full of food.Many people were appalled by this advert as it was seen as
gross and unmannered.The advert caused backlash and ASA received a
humongous 1671 complaints. People were saying it was encouraging children to
ditch their table manners. In the end ASA decided to remove the advert due to all the
unwanted drama caused by the advertisement.

Some adverts also receive complaints but ASA or Ofcom look into the case and if
they don't think it's eligible to removed/banned they will not upheld the case.
This advert is about a disabled lady who recently got a new boyfriend and gossips to
her friends about her romantic experience and claims to had a spasm during the
experience.But a few people found it offensive and too sexualisedand the advert had
92 complaints made about it.However some insensitive people drew attention to her
disability therefore ASA chose to not remove the advert due to the discriminating
behaviour towards the disabled lady.
This advert is made for currys pc world and it is about some parents teasing their
children saying that they are going to have a traditional like sitting around the fire and
things the children would find boring causing them to be disappointed but then the
parents reveal that all along it was a joke when they have bought a new television for
them all to watch at christmas.But 131 people actually complained because they
thought the advert was trying to change christmas into a materialistic instead of
remembering the reasoning of christmas and why we have it and tried to make
people think about electronic items more than the religious side to christmas. ASA
decided not remove the advert as they did not believe that currys pc world was
intentionally trying to offend anybody with this advert and the advert didn't directly
mock religion or anything whatsoever. ASA agreed the advert was made to be funny
and heartwarming.

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