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VEGETATION CLEARANCE

Alternative Techniques for


removing trees and bushes
The document gives a general idea of the range of techniques and equipment
available for vegetation clearance and different methods that could be used for
removing trees and bushes.

Planning
Approaches
Techniques and Equipments
Guidelines for Proper Tree Felling
Performance Techniques
Area Clearing Operations
Production Estimates
Land Clearing at different level of Investment
Forestry Tools and
List of Manufacturer and Suppliers of forestry equipments

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................9
2. Planning vegetation clearance ...................................................................................................... 10
3. Approaches to vegetation clearance ............................................................................................. 12
4. Techniques and equipments ......................................................................................................... 13
4.1 Killing standing trees and bushes through Fire ......................................................................... 16
4.2 Uprooting whole trees and bushes .......................................................................................... 21
4.2.1 Hand uprooting tools ................................................................................................................. 21
4.2.2 Hand winch ................................................................................................................................ 22
4.2.3 Tractor (direct pull) .................................................................................................................... 23
4.2.4 Tractor winch ............................................................................................................................. 24
4.2.5 Tractor-mounted tree extractor ................................................................................................ 25
4.2.6 Bulldozing ................................................................................................................................... 25
4.2.7 Two tracklayers with chain ........................................................................................................ 26
4.3 Cutting through the trunk at ground level................................................................................ 27
4.3.1 Hand cutting tools ...................................................................................................................... 27
4.3.2 Hand-held clearing saw .............................................................................................................. 27
4.3.3 Chainsaw .................................................................................................................................... 28
4.3.4 Tractor-mounted slasher ........................................................................................................... 29
4.3.5 Tracklayer with roller-crusher .................................................................................................... 29
4.3.6 Tracklayer with shearing blade .................................................................................................. 30
4.4 Removing stumps ................................................................................................................... 30
4.4.1 Hand digging tools ..................................................................................................................... 30
4.4.2 Root hook ................................................................................................................................... 31
4.4.3 Tractor-mounted stump extractor ............................................................................................. 32
4.4.4 Tractor-mounted stump chipper ............................................................................................... 32
4.4.5 Bulldozers, rakes and root ploughs ............................................................................................ 32
4.5 Removing Large Trees with bulldozer ...................................................................................... 33

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5. Guidelines for proper tree felling .................................................................................................. 35
5.1 Felling Trees ........................................................................................................................... 35
5.2 Making the Cuts...................................................................................................................... 37
5.3 Special Techniques for Felling Difficult Trees ........................................................................... 42
5.4 Limbing and Bucking ............................................................................................................... 44
6. Performance technique ............................................................................................................... 48
7. Area Clearing Operations .............................................................................................................. 50
7.1 Cutting and Piling Patterns............................................................................................................ 50
7.2 Chopping and Disking Patterns ..................................................................................................... 54
8. Production Estimate ..................................................................................................................... 57
8.1 Project Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 57
8.2 Hand Felling................................................................................................................................... 58
8.3 Quick Estimates ............................................................................................................................. 59
9. Land clearance at three levels of investment ................................................................................. 60
9.1 A labour-intensive set using 20 times as many man days to clear an area (capital-
intensive set) ..................................................................................................................................... 60
9. A moderately capital-intensive set........................................................................................... 60
9.3 A capital-intensive set costing about 500 times as much as the most labour-intensive set
............................................................................................................................................................ 60
10. Forestry Tools: ........................................................................................................................... 61
11. Annexure ................................................................................................................................... 68
List of manufactures and suppliers of forestry equipments ............................................................ 68

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List of Figures

Figure 1 - Soil Investigation work for land clearance .................................................................................... 9


Figure 2 - Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................................................. 14
Figure 3 - Head Protection .......................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 4 - Hearing Protection ...................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 5 - Eye/Face Protection .................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 6 - Leg Protection ............................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 7 - Foot Protection ........................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 8 - Hand Protection .......................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 9 - Avoid curves and sharp angles while making firebreaks line ..................................................... 17
Figure 10 - Firebreak Construction ............................................................................................................. 17
Figure 11 - Firebreak example (Hard Fire breaks)....................................................................................... 18
Figure 12 - Firebreak example (Soft Fire breaks) ........................................................................................ 18
Figure 13 - Drip torch .................................................................................................................................. 20
Figure 14 - Flares or fuses ........................................................................................................................... 20
Figure 15 - Fire break placement ................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 16 - Aerial ignition ............................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 17 - KMnO4 + Glycol = Fire! ........................................................................................................... 20
Figure 18 - Aerial Ignition ............................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 19 - Cotton stalk puller (manual and Mechanical) ........................................................................... 21
Figure 20 - Mandy pick................................................................................................................................ 22
Figure 21 - Lightweight pulling tool ............................................................................................................ 22
Figure 22 - Heavier type of hand winch ...................................................................................................... 23
Figure 23 - Tractor pulling out a small tree................................................................................................. 24
Figure 24 - Tractor mounted winch ............................................................................................................ 24
Figure 25 - Tractor-mounted tree extractor ............................................................................................... 25
Figure 26 - Bulldozer with push-over bar for tall trees ............................................................................... 26

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Figure 27 - Rake for tree-clearing work fitted in place of a bulldozer blade. ............................................. 26
Figure 28 - -Hand Cutting Tools .................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 29 - Clearing Saw .............................................................................................................................. 28
Figure 30 - Using a Chainsaw ...................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 31 - Tractor-mounted vertical axis slasher ...................................................................................... 29
Figure 32 - Roller - crusher .......................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 33 - Tracklayer with shearing blade ................................................................................................. 30
Figure 34 - Hand digging tools .................................................................................................................... 31
Figure 35 - Root hook.................................................................................................................................. 31
Figure 36 - Tractor-mounted stump chipper .............................................................................................. 32
Figure 37 - Four steps for removing large trees with a bulldozer ............................................................... 34
Figure 38 - Retreat path .............................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 39 - Hinge ......................................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 40 - Barber Chair .............................................................................................................................. 40
Figure 41 - Lodged Tree (A Hung Tree) ....................................................................................................... 41
Figure 42 - Dutchman Notch ....................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 43 - Kickback Notch .......................................................................................................................... 42
Figure 44 - Stalled Tree ............................................................................................................................... 42
Figure 45 - Top Bind .................................................................................................................................... 45
Figure 46 - Bottom Bind .............................................................................................................................. 45
Figure 47 - Spring Poles............................................................................................................................... 46
Figure 48 - Limb Lock .................................................................................................................................. 46
Figure 49 - Top Lock .................................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 50 - Tongue and Groove................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 51 - Cutting Vegetation to ground level and piling cut material by counterclockwise method ...... 51
Figure 52 - Cutting Vegetation to ground level and piling cut material by the increasing rectangles
method........................................................................................................................................................ 52
Figure 53 - Clearing on Steep Slope ............................................................................................................ 53
Figure 54 - Cutting and pilling dense growth of small diameter vegetation on level terrain ..................... 53

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Figure 55 - Fleet operation.......................................................................................................................... 54
Figure 56 - Parallel cuts Increasing rectangles ............................................................................................ 55
Figure 57 - Parallel cuts decreasing rectangles ........................................................................................... 55
Figure 58 - Abney Level: Measures slope of the ground and tree height................................................... 61
Figure 59 - Altimeter: Measures elevation or altitude ............................................................................... 61
Figure 60 - Backpack Fire Pump (Manually operated water pump for fighting forest fires) ...................... 61
Figure 61 - Bark Gauge (Determines the thickness of tree bark) ............................................................... 61
Figure 62 - Biltmore Stick (Measures tree diameter, log height, and the volume of timber in a tree) ...... 61
Figure 63 - Caliper Tree (Measures the stem diameter of small trees) ...................................................... 61
Figure 64 - Cant Hook (To roll or turn logs) ................................................................................................ 61
Figure 65 - Chainsaw (Manually felling trees, delimbing & bucking).......................................................... 61
Figure 66 - Clinometer (Measures tree height & slope) ............................................................................. 62
Figure 67 - Cruising Vest (To carry equipment for field work).................................................................... 62
Figure 68 - Diameter Tape (Measures the outside diameter of the main stem of trees) .......................... 62
Figure 69 - Drip Torch (Starts controlled prescribed burns in forests and prairies) ................................... 62
Figure 70 - Fiberglass Tape (Measure horizontal distance) ........................................................................ 62
Figure 71 - Fire Rake (Removes leaf litter and duff to create fire lines) ..................................................... 62
Figure 72 - Fire Swatter (Extinguishes slow spreading ground fires) .......................................................... 63
Figure 73 - Fire Weather Kit (measure weather conditions and determine danger risk levels for forest
fires) ............................................................................................................................................................ 63
Figure 74 - Haga Altimeter (Measures tree height and ground slope) ....................................................... 63
Figure 75 - Hand Level (Determines horizontal level)................................................................................. 63
Figure 76 - Helmet System (Combination hard hat, ear and eye protection required in logging) ............. 63
Figure 77 - Hip Chain (Measures distance over any terrain and through forests) ..................................... 63
Figure 78 - Increment Borer (Extracts small cylinders of wood from the bark to pith of a tree. Used to age
and determine growth of trees) ................................................................................................................. 63
Figure 79 - Plastic flagging (to mark an area or object) .............................................................................. 63
Figure 80 - Pulaski Axe (An axe and grubbing hoe tool that can trench and cut roots commonly) ........... 64
Figure 81 - Tree Caliper (Measures tree diameter very accurately) ........................................................... 64

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Figure 82 - PH Meter (to determine the pH) .............................................................................................. 64
Figure 83 - Soil Sampler (Soil Probe) ........................................................................................................... 64
Figure 84 - Soil Test Kit ................................................................................................................................ 64
Figure 85 - Garden (Spading) Fork .............................................................................................................. 64
Figure 86 - Hoe ............................................................................................................................................ 64
Figure 87 - Pruning Saw .............................................................................................................................. 65
Figure 88 - Cutting Tree Shears ................................................................................................................... 65
Figure 89 - Logging Bar Saw (Grips tree, cuts and drops) ........................................................................... 65
Figure 90 - Grapples (Move cut logs out of woods to level) ....................................................................... 65
Figure 91 - JCB 16 tonne Excavators ........................................................................................................... 65
Figure 92 - Tree Removal machine ............................................................................................................. 65
Figure 93 - Tree Cutting Machine ............................................................................................................... 65
Figure 94 - Tree cutting machine ................................................................................................................ 65
Figure 95 - Energy Wood Harvester ............................................................................................................ 66
Figure 96 - Feller Buncher (Tracked - Fixed) ............................................................................................... 66
Figure 97 - Feller Buncher (Tracked - Leveling)........................................................................................... 66
Figure 98 - Feller Buncher - Wheeled ......................................................................................................... 66
Figure 99 - Forestry Swing Machines .......................................................................................................... 66
Figure 100 - Forwarder ............................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 101 – Harvester Tracked .................................................................................................................. 67
Figure 102 - Harvester Wheeled ................................................................................................................. 67
Figure 103 - Harvesting Heads .................................................................................................................... 67
Figure 104 - Cable Skidders ......................................................................................................................... 67
Figure 105 - Grapple Skidders ..................................................................................................................... 67

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List of Tables

Table 1 - Kinds of Notches .......................................................................................................................... 39


Table 2 - Application and limitation of engineer equipment for land clearing .......................................... 48
Table 3 - Pros and cons of various wood waste handling options .............................................................. 56
Table 4 - Clearing Reconnaissance Form .................................................................................................... 58
Table 5 - Clearing by hand........................................................................................................................... 59

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1. Introduction
Vegetation clearance may be considered as a means of clearing land for cultivation of other crops, for
providing fuel, or for replacing certain trees with others. It is important to consider the consequences of
removing trees before proceeding to techniques for doing so. For field cultivation the preservation of
strips or blocks of trees will limit erosion and will continue to provide wind breaks and shelter for stock.
Careless clearance of trees could cause permanent economic damage through irreversible degradation
of the soil. Before clearance, the soil and forest have a remarkably closed nutrient cycle in which most
nutrients are stored in the biomass and topsoil, and transferred from one to the other via rain-wash,
litter fall, timber fall, root decomposition and plant uptake. Losses from this system are usually
negligible. Lush tropical vegetation can grow without nutrient deficiency symptoms in soils of very low
native fertility. When this nutrient cycle is broken by clearing the vegetation, significant changes in soil
physical properties take place. Soil and air temperatures increase because more solar radiation reaches
the soil surface. Soil moisture regimes are also altered, with less moisture removal from the subsoil than
when forest roots are active. Soil structure deterioration which leads to runoffs and erosion losses
occurs in poorly aggregated topsoil’s subjected to inappropriate management practices. Land-clearing
methods are crucial because certain mechanical operations, particularly those using heavy equipment,
may result in serious damage to soil physical properties, leading to compaction, topsoil removal and
erosion.
Figure 1 - Soil Investigation work for land clearance

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When it has been decided that clearance of the existing vegetation is necessary careful planning will
minimize the negative effects. A detailed land-use plan is required which shows the existing trees,
topography, soils and rainfall pattern; the order, time-scale and extent of clearance; and the planned
tree and crop cover throughout the year. The future production plans will show the range of products to
be extracted and the production method to be used which will determine the kind of clearance that is
required, whether, for example, tree stumps need to be removed or large areas need clearance of
debris for mechanical cultivation. Knowledge of the soils, topography and rainfall will allow adequate
soil conservation measures to be taken. The plan will indicate which trees need felling and which scrub
and brushwood areas need clearing by a certain date, thus showing the size of the task to be
undertaken. Detailed local knowledge of existing tree clearing practices is essential. It may be that these
are adequate for the task, but if not information on the availability of local manpower, equipment and
servicing is required. In the event that these too are inadequate further investigation of sources of
equipment and spares within the country and from overseas is necessary.

2. Planning vegetation clearance


Prepare production plans for the area

The plans will indicate the cropping pattern and the use of trees and animals in the production system.
Production methods will be detailed and full consideration will be given to the transport of goods to and
from the area.

Survey the area


At the same time as production plans are being prepared a comprehensive survey of the area should be
made. This will assist in planning future production as well as planning the method of developing the
area. Factors such as tree count, tree size, wood density, root system, vines, and undergrowth
significantly affect production in land clearing operations. The survey will include:

Types of trees present: An inventory of the existing trees should be made taking into account
species and their economic potential, size of tree and distance between trees. The trees for
felling and the areas to be cleared can then be mapped out. Detailed knowledge of the size of
trees for felling the range of their sizes and of whether they are hard or soft woods, will aid
equipment selection.
A soil map of the area: Knowledge of the soils will assist in production plans and in the planning
of adequate soil conservation measures.
A relief map: If there is no adequate map of the area steps should be taken to make a sketch
map. The information gathered in the survey should be plotted on the map.
Rainfall distribution: The frequency and quantity of rainfall should be ascertained. Soil
conservation measures can be planned more effectively if the likely intensity of the rainfall is
also known. Where there is a long dry season the soil may become so hard that it is impossible
to uproot trees or remove stumps until some rain has fallen. Removing the tree cover and

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disturbing the soil will tend to increase soil erosion, so it may be better not to uproot trees just
before the rainy season. However, at the end of the rainy season the soil may be too wet for
tractors to work effectively, Killing trees by burning is only possible in areas where there is a
pronounced dry season and the burning should be left until the end of that season, It may be
necessary to use heavy machinery if the work must be finished quickly and the climate permits
only a short working season in each year.

Determine the extent of clearance necessary


The plans will indicate how much land needs clearing and the thoroughness of the clearance
required. For example: if a tractor will subsequently be used for cultivation then large fields
should be cleared of most of the trees, stumps and roots to below cultivation depth. A deeper
cleared layer will be necessary for root crops, or land which will be ridged, than for non-root
crops grown on level ground. If the land is to be ploughed by oxen instead of a tractor some of
the larger stumps may be left in place, and the cleared fields can be smaller because an ox
plough is more maneuverable, if the cleared land will be used for pasture or tree crops there
may be no need to remove the stumps. Belts of trees can also be left to give shade to the young
trees or to the grazing animals.
For sloping land, clearance should be restricted to narrow belts, on or close to the contours. The
cleared timber can be placed in windrows along the upper edge of the tree shelter belts to assist
in controlling erosion. As few trees and stumps as possible should be cleared from the land
sufficient should be left so as to minimize erosion.

Consider access onto the land


The ease of access onto the land and the topography of the land will affect the types of
equipment that can enter the area and be used safely and the sale- ability of the timber, an
access road may need to be constructed for bringing in heavy equipment to extract large trees
and to cultivate the land mechanically. Land intended for ox cultivation, re-afforestation or
pasture may not need an access road. The choices for subsequent crop production may be
limited if access to the area is difficult.

Plan the disposal of the timber


The disposal of timber needs careful planning otherwise the costs of this operation could exceed
the initial cost of cutting down the trees. If use cannot be made of the timber on the farm, the
cheapest method may be to sell the timber to local merchants, charcoal burners and firewood
cutters. However, they may not clear the land in time for planting and they are unlikely to have
removed the stumps. The extra difficulty and cost of digging out the stumps, if this is necessary,
may outweigh the initial advantage, An alternative is to sell the plank timber (i,e. that above the
flared bowl), which can be cut from the roots and bowl after felling whole trees, When it is not
possible to remove the timber and if it will not rot down, burning may be necessary, But

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stringent precautions must be taken to prevent the fire from getting out of hand and damaging
the nearby fields and trees.

Find out the availability of manpower


Land clearance can be carried out using labour and simple equipment alone if there is sufficient
manpower available. Most mechanical tree clearing equipment needs highly skilled operators if
it is to be used efficiently. Much of the equipment is very dangerous in unskilled hands.
Specialized training for various lengths of time may be required, including the training of service
engineers.

Find out the availability of existing machinery and maintenance facilities


Sometimes the land clearance can be done by agricultural tractors during slack periods. If a
tractor is available it may be worth buying a winch or tree extractor to fit on to it. It may only be
economic to use heavy tracklayers for land clearance if they can be hired from those who
normally use them for building dams, roads etc.
The maintenance of hand tools can be carried out in a nearby village. But if engine-powered
equipment is used it is essential to have maintenance workshops and spare parts available. The
lack of the latter may paralyze equipment for months, whilst spares are on order. The slow
running diesel engines of tractors are generally more reliable than the small high speed petrol
engines of chainsaws, Wheeled tractors usually need more maintenance when used for land
clearance than when used for normal agricultural operations, Pneumatic tyres have a very short
life if tractors are driven over stumps.
Small engine tools, such as chainsaws, can usually be taken to the nearest town for repair, but
broken-down tractors often cannot be moved and have to be repaired in the field. Although
repair facilities for ordinary wheeled tractors may be available nearby it is unlikely that such
convenient facilities would be available for track laying vehicles.

3. Approaches to vegetation clearance


There are four basic approaches to the task of removing trees and bushes during vegetation
clearance operations.

Killing standing trees and bushes


Fire can be used to destroy small bushes and to kill larger trees by scorching. Cutting through
the bark of a tree all the way round its trunk (ring barking) will eventually kill it. Trees and
bushes can be treated with chemical arboricides by spraying or by application through cuts in
the bark. Animals, insects or diseases can be introduced to kill the trees.

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Uprooting whole trees and bushes
This is generally done by pulling or pushing sideways on the trunk at some height above ground
level. For small trees there are machines which grip the trunk and lift the whole tree vertically
out of the ground.

Cutting through t e trunk at ground level


This can be done with an axe, by hand or power saw, or by a shearing blade mounted on a heavy
tracklayer. Small trees and bushes can be knocked down and cut through by a heavy bladed
roller towed behind a tractor. Small bushes can also be cut with a tractor-mounted slasher. The
stumps left in the ground have to be removed in a second operation.

Removing stumps
Stumps can be pulled or lifted out of the ground; they can be shattered with explosives into
small pieces which can then be removed by hand. Stumps can also be destroyed where they are
by burning them or by chipping them mechanically into very small pieces, or they can simply be
left to decay, In general, it is easier to remove the root with the rest of the tree than to pull it
out afterwards.

4. Techniques and equipments


This section describes the techniques and equipment available for tree clearing. It is divided into
four parts dealing with methods of killing standing trees and bushes, uprooting whole trees and
bushes, cutting through the trunk at ground level and removing stumps.
Notes on each piece of equipment are provided, where appropriate, a list of equipment is
given. Other items that are required to perform the operation, such as chemicals, are also listed.
Items such as fuel and lubricants will be required by all petrol and diesel driven machines and
these are not specially listed.
The technique is explained and the operation of the equipment is described, No indication is
given of the labour cost of the operation but if skilled personnel are required this is mentioned
and as there will be large differentials between the skilled and unskilled this needs to be taken
into account.
Special points about the equipment are made. Comments are made, if appropriate, on the
equipment's durability, maintenance, transport and manufacture. Mechanical equipment may
only have a life of five years. If a particular piece of equipment has a much longer or shorter life
expectancy this is noted. The type of maintenance facilities required are suggested, Repair costs
often amount to about 150% of the original purchase price over the life of a machine. If the
costs are likely to be higher, this is noted. If the equipment has special transport requirements
these are noted. The possibility of production in areas with limited manufacturing capability is

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indicated. Otherwise the equipment may have to be brought in from other areas or countries
with specialized manufacturing capability.
Safety points are noted. Most land clearance operations are potentially dangerous if care is not
taken. This section emphasizes any special safety points, and the necessity for using skilled
operators. For every operation some training is essential, during which operators should be
instructed in the safe use of the tools and equipment and be shown the protective clothing that
is necessary for the operation.
Personal protective equipment, for the head, ears, eyes, face, hands, and legs are designed to
prevent or lessen the severity of injuries to loggers.
Figure 2 - Personal Protective Equipment

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Figure 3 - Head Protection Figure 6 - Leg Protection

Figure 4 - Hearing Protection

Figure 7 - Foot Protection

Figure 5 - Eye/Face Protection

Figure 8 - Hand Protection

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4.1 Killing standing trees and bushes through Fire
Fire, if it is hot enough, can completely kill bushes and trees.
Equipment required: Machetes and fire beaters for fire control.
Before the burn:
1. Objectives of the burn are clear and understood.
2. Develop the burn prescription
3. Prepare burn unit and firebreaks
4. Make sure equipment and crew are ready
Small bushes can be completely destroyed by burning, particularly if there is a lot of dry grass
underneath them, It is simplest to burn bushes at the end of the dry season, although the danger of the
fire getting out of control is very high in these conditions. Tall trees are more difficult to burn, but the
heat from burning the grass and bushes may kill the trees by scorching them. Firebreaks, cleared areas
to separate areas to be burnt from surrounding trees, crops, or dwellings, should always be used. There
is some benefit to the subsequent crop from the fertilizer value of the ash.

A common procedure for burning, in areas with an extended dry season, is as follows:
Make firebreaks of sufficient width, all around the area
At the end of the dry season and at a windless time, e.g. early morning, set the tinder alight.
Have a team of fire fighters prepared to stop the spread of the fire.
Making an effective firebreak:
A firebreak must have all the flammable material removed. Removing the vegetation stops the fire from
crossing the firebreak. Even dry roots, just below the surface, have to be removed as fires might burn
along them overnight and escape from the control line during the next day.
Make the line as short and straight as possible. Avoid curves and sharp angles.
Width of the Fire Break:

Depends on the fuel in the burn unit, outside the burn unit, and the risks associated with the
burn
General rule – width of break 2-3 times the height of the flanking fire.
Wider on the down-wind side than on up wind side
Most forest operators will use machinery to make firebreaks. A suitable machine will be a ‘dozer or an
excavator. The machine has to be able to clear away the scrub and logs and get right down to the
mineral earth so that there is nothing left to burn.

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Figure 9 - Avoid curves and sharp angles while making firebreaks line

If a machine is used to make a direct attack on a burning edge it must always have a tanker in support.
The tanker’s job is to protect the machine if it catches on fire. The tanker crew can watch out for any
changes in fire behavior.
The dozer is used to clear a line 3 – 6 meters wide. When working directly on the edge of the flames, all
material must be pushed into the fire to prevent any burning debris falling into the fuel on the unburnt
side. The operator should try not to mix big heaps of dirt in with the burning fuel as these will smoulder
for days and be very hard to mop up. It’s not always possible to avoid this if the edge is burning fiercely.
Sweep the fuel away with the first pass and cut down to the dirt on the second run. Any heaps which are
made should be pushed well into the burn.
Figure 10 - Firebreak Construction

In a parallel attack, where the firebreak is put in a short distance away from the fire edge, it is
important that all the fuel is pushed to the opposite side of the line, away from the approaching fire.
The reason is to stop the build up of fuel in windrows on the fire side. Large piles of burning material are
more likely to cause escapes. In a parallel attack a tanker is also needed to protect the machine as the
strip of fuel between the firebreak and the fire edge has to be burnt out as the line is put in.

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For most firebreak construction two machines working together will be safer and get more done in the
time. ‘Dozers must be equipped with a winch in case they get stuck. Ripper machines will be ok only if
they are working with a winch machine.
Figure 11 - Firebreak example (Hard Fire breaks)

Figure 12 - Firebreak example (Soft Fire breaks)

Use existing barriers:


Roads, Rivers, Lakes and Rocks
Things to consider when building firebreaks
Firebreaks should be as straight as possible. Any kinks or sharp corners will be places where the fire can
easily escape. Firebreaks built with machines should be trafficable by 4 wheel drives, to allow tankers to
follow up behind. There must be turning places provided, at least one every 200 metres.
Whether built by hand tools or machines, firebreaks should be scouted ahead to avoid dangerous
conditions, particularly areas with big amounts of dry fuels on the ground where fires will flare up and

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“jump” the break. Also watch out above as dry trees close to the line will be dangerous when they catch
alight. Firebreaks must stand well back from these hazards – it is better to include them within the burn
area. Ensure crews and machines always have an escape route.
Pre-burn Briefing
 Review map of the unit
 Size and unit boundaries
 Consider risks
 Purpose of the burn
 Fuel Model
 Predicted Weather
 Expected fire behavior and smoke dispersal
 Revise equipment needs
 Re-examine ignition, containment and suppression
 Check modes of communication and traffic
 Location of vehicles, pumps and telephones
 Locate equipment, supplies and water
 Re-examine contingencies, fire lines and routes of escape
 Adjacent fuels
 Weather conditions on site
 Document the outfitting of the crew
Operations for the Burn
1. Ignition Plan
 Where is the test fire going to be conducted?
 What is the ignition pattern (technique) for the burn?
2. Holding Plan
 Who is responsible for holding?
 Are there any critical control areas, weak points in line and areas needing special control
efforts?
3. Contingency Plan
 What actions will you take if the fire gets away?
 Do you have sufficient resources to handle a major escape or will you need help?
 Where does the help come from?

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Ignition – Tools and Devices
Figure 13 - Drip torch Figure 16 - Aerial ignition

Figure 14 - Flares or fuses Figure 17 - KMnO4 + Glycol = Fire!

Figure 15 - Fire break placement Figure 18 - Aerial Ignition

Prescribed Fire Training Center 33

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Safety:
 The risk of fire getting out of control is very great.
 Firefighters should always be on hand and firebreaks must be used.
 Operators need training in fire control.
 This operation only requires the simplest equipment to cut down scrub in order to make
firebreaks.
 First Aid/First Responder Trained
 Location of First Aid Kits
 Medical Emergency Procedures
 Emergency Evacuation Route
 Sources of Emergency Assistance

4.2 Uprooting whole trees and bushes

4.2.1 Hand uprooting tools


Small bushes can be uprooted with hand tools.
Equipment required: Mandy-pick and Hand or mechanical cotton-stalk puller.
The mandy-pick and the hand cotton stalk puller can be used to uproot small bushes with stems less
than about 2cm in diameter provided that the ground is not very hard. Both tools consist of a jaw, to
grip the base of the bush, on the end of a long-handled lever, They are more efficient for uprooting
bushes than spades or mattocks and little training in their use is necessary.
Figure 19 - Cotton stalk puller (manual and Mechanical)

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Figure 20 - Mandy pick

These are cheap, easily manufactured tools that can be very effective in the right circumstances.
Safety: No special points need noting.

4.2.2 Hand winch

Trees can be pulled over by a hand winch.


Equipment required: Hand winch
A hand winch or pulling tool can exert a very large pull (up to about 5 tonnes) if a firm anchorage is
available. It can be used to pull out trees in the same manner as draught animals are used (see next
section). The usual method of anchoring the winch is to tie it to the base of a large tree.
Figure 21 - Lightweight pulling tool

22
Figure 22 - Heavier type of hand winch

Apart from routine oiling the equipment needs little maintenance and will last a long time. The large
winches will require an ox-cart, or similar, for transport. Hand winches could be made in a small factory.
Safety: Handled carefully this equipment provides an effective safe method for uprooting small trees.
The distance from the winch to the tree trunk should be at least twice the height of the tree to be felled.
Some operator training is necessary for safe operation.

4.2.3 Tractor (direct pull)


Tractors can pull down medium-sized trees.
Equipment required: 60 HP wheeled tractor and Chain
Tractors can be used to pull out trees in the same way as draught animals, but can exert a much greater
pull (in the region of half the tractor's own weight). Because of the larger force, a chain or steel rope is
normally used instead of a fibre rope, Tractors, like draught animals, have difficulty in gripping the soil if
a downward pull is needed. The chain should be long enough to make the pull almost horizontal.
Normal tractor driving skills are required. Normal tractor servicing and repair facilities are required.
Safety: There should be a safety frame fitted to the tractor with a low attachment for the chain. The
distance between the tractor and the tree trunk should be at least twice the height of the tree.

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Figure 23 - Tractor pulling out a small tree

4.2.4 Tractor winch

A tractor winch can exert a greater pull than a tractor pulling directly.
Equipment required: 60 HP wheeled tractor and Winch
The winch is attached to the rear of the tractor and driven mechanically or hydraulically by the tractor
engine. A winch on a wheeled tractor can exert a pull of around 10 tonnes, which is resisted by a soil
anchor fixed to the tractor. The winch and anchor can be fitted on to the tractor in a few hours. The
tractor can be very easily overturned if it is not placed exactly in the line of pull of the winch and the
clutch released at the least sign of the front wheels rising. The driver should be trained carefully.
Normal servicing and maintenance should be carried out regularly. Particular attention should be paid to
the winch Gable.
Figure 24 - Tractor mounted winch

Safety: The tractor should be fitted with a safety frame and should be placed at least at a distance of at
least twice the height of the tree. Additionally there is the danger of the winch cable snapping and

24
injuring an operator if it flies back. As a precaution straddles the cable with a trailer or similar object
around which the cable would wrap itself in the event of it snapping.

4.2.5 Tractor-mounted tree extractor


Tree extractors can lift small trees vertically out of the ground.
Equipment required: 60 HP wheeled tractor and Tree Extractor
The tree extractor is an attachment fitted to the rear of an ordinary wheeled tractor. It has jaws which
can grip the tree trunk and then lift it vertically out of the ground. The maximum size of tree which can
be extracted is limited by the opening of the jaws and is generally about 40cm in diameter. After
extraction, a tree can be carried in the jaws and deposited where required. Some training is necessary.
Normal tractor servicing and repair facilities are required. The extractor could be manufactured in a
small factory using brought-in hydraulic components.
Figure 25 - Tractor-mounted tree extractor

Safety: The tree extractor is rather more expensive than a tractor winch, but it is much easier and safer
to use.

4.2.6 Bulldozing

Bulldozers mounted on tracklayers can push trees over.


Equipment required: 150 – 180 HP tracklayer, Bulldozer blade, Rake and Push – over bar
Light blades are available for wheeled tractors but are only suitable for rooting out scrub. Tracklayers
with earth-dozing blades can be used on small trees by direct pushing from the side with the least bowl.
The root can also be reduced by excavating soil and roots on the side to be pushed, The dozer's capacity
to fell large trees can be increased by fitting a push-over bar as an extension to the blade, For a small
number of exceptionally large trees a ramp can be built up on the side to enable the tracklayer to obtain
more leverage, but this is not recommended as it moves the soil around too much. Although commonly
used for tree-clearing, bulldozers are designed for earth-moving and they usually disturb the topsoil
excessively. An open-toothed rake is more appropriate as it allows the soil to fall through when the tree
is moved. There is a danger of soil compaction. Special skill in tree clearing is required in addition to
normal tracklayer driving skills.

25
Normal tracklayer servicing and repair facilities are required. The push-over bar and the rake could be
manufactured in a workshop. Transport of the tracklayer would be by low-loading lorry.
Figure 26 - Bulldozer with push-over bar for tall trees

Figure 27 - Rake for tree-clearing work fitted in place of a bulldozer blade.

Safety: Safety mainly depends upon the driver's skill. A safety frame should be fitted to the tracklayer.

4.2.7 Two tracklayers with chain

Trees can be knocked over by a heavy chain pulled behind two tracklayers.
Equipment required: 2 large tracklayer and chain, 150 – 180 HP tracklayer with bulldozer blade.
Rapid clearing of small and medium-sized trees can be achieved by knocking them down with a heavy
chain pulled behind two large tracklayers. This method is suitable for clearing large, flat areas. It is
sometimes necessary to make two passes; the first to bend the trees over and the second in the
opposite direction, to uproot them. Large iron balls are often placed in the chain to raise the level of
contact with the trees. Swivels should be fitted to prevent twisting or knotting of the chain. Additional

26
equipment, such as a bulldozer, is necessary to assist in the felling of larger trees and to remove the
uprooted trees. Skilled operators are required to perform the task effectively and to avoid soil
compaction or topsoil removal.
The contractor from whom the equipment is hired is normally responsible for maintenance, transport to
the site and the provision of drivers.
Safety: This is a relatively safe, but capital intensive, method for clearing large areas.

4.3 Cutting through the trunk at ground level

4.3.1 Hand cutting tools


Trees of any size can be cut down using hand tools.
Equipment required: Machete, Slasher, Billhook, Axe, Two-man saw and Forestry wedges
Machetes, slashers and billhooks are useful, for cutting down small bushes with stems up to about 8 cm
diameters. Larger trees can be cut with a felling axe; a two-man saw is generally faster than an axe for
cutting down trees of more than about 50cm diameter. The maximum size which can be sawn depends
on the length of the saw. Wedges are often used to prevent the saw jamming,
The equipment will have a long life. It can be maintained by the user or a village blacksmith; Saw
sharpening is a skilled job but can be carried out by the user after some training. The equipment could
be manufactured by a blacksmith, except the saw which would be made in a small factory.
Figure 28 - -Hand Cutting Tools

4.3.2 Hand-held clearing saw


Clearing saws can cut down small trees.
Equipment required: Hand-held clearing saw and Safety helmet
These machines have a rotary saw blade driven by a small petrol engine. They can cut small trees with
stems up to about 20cm in diameter. Operators require training in the use and maintenance of clearing
saws and in the use of small engines.
Small engine servicing and repair facilities are required, but even with these the engine will have a
relatively short life.

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Figure 29 - Clearing Saw

Safety: Onlookers should be kept away for their own safety. The operator can be protected from flying
debris by a safety helmet.

4.3.3 Chainsaw

Chainsaws can cut down trees of any size.


Equipment required: Chainsaw and Protective clothing.
A chainsaw can cut down trees up to a size which is limited by the blade length. Chainsaws longer than
about 50cm need skilled operators. They can be very dangerous. Most chainsaws are driven by small
petrol engines, but it is possible to buy a chainsaw driven by a hydraulic motor which runs off the
hydraulic circuit of a tractor, Special training in the use of chainsaws is essential.
Chainsaws will last for about five years but the chains may need replacing after about a month. Normal
small engine servicing and repair facilities and also special equipment for adjusting and sharpening the
blade are required.
Figure 30 - Using a Chainsaw

Safety: Operator skill is vital: chainsaws can be very dangerous in unskilled hands. It is advisable to wear
a safety helmet with a visor.

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4.3.4 Tractor-mounted slasher

Tractor-mounted slashers can be used to clear scrub.


Equipment required: 60 HP wheeled tractor, Vertical axis slasher and Horizontal axis slasher
These are heavy duty versions of the machines normally used for grass cutting and can be used for
stems up to about 5cm. There are two types - one with two large blades or chains rotating about a
vertical axis and the other with large numbers of flails rotating about a horizontal axis, The advantage of
the former is that it is cheaper, while the latter is more robust and leaves the cut material as a fine
mulch which could decompose quickly. They are of particular value in clearing re-growth. Normal tractor
driving skills are required by the operator.
Figure 31 - Tractor-mounted vertical axis slasher

Normal tractor servicing and repair facilities are required. The chains, blades or flails may need replacing
after a long period of heavy use.
Safety: Keep manufacturer’s guards in place and in good condition for safe operation.

4.3.5 Tracklayer with roller-crusher


The roller-crusher will break down small trees.
Equipment required: 150/180 HP tracklayer and roller – crusher
The roller-crusher consists of a large diameter heavy roller with sharp blades set around its
circumference and it is towed behind a tracklayer. It knocks down trees with trunks up to about 10 cm
diameter and the blades can cut through the trunks in several places. It is useful for clearing undesirable
re - growth. Tracklayer driving skills are needed.
Figure 32 - Roller - crusher

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Tracklayer servicing and repair facilities must be available. The roller-crusher could be made in a small
factory. The tracklayer and equipment needs transporting to the site on a low loading lorry.
Safety: Normal safety precautions are required when using heavy equipment.

4.3.6 Tracklayer with shearing blade

A sharpened blade in front of a tracklayer will cut through small trees.


Equipment required: 150/180 HP tracklayer and shearing blade
The shearing blade is mounted on the front of a large track – layer. Its sharp edge cuts trees and bushes
at ground level as the machine is driven forward. It is most effective on trees with stems up to about 10
cm diameter, There are two types of shearing blade - the single angle blade and the V – blade. The
capital cost is high in relation to the size of trees that can be felled, Special driving skills are needed. In
certain soil conditions there is a danger of compaction.
Normal tracklayer servicing and repair facilities are needed. The blade needs to be sharpened daily and
will need replacing from time to time. A low loading lorry is required for transporting the equipment to
the site.
Figure 33 - Tracklayer with shearing blade

Safety: A safety cab is required on the tracklayer.

4.4 Removing stumps

4.4.1 Hand digging tools

Stumps can be dug out by hand.


Equipment required: Pickaxe, Mattock and Spade
The soil needs excavating around the stump and roots. Some roots may have to be cut until it is possible
to lift the stump out of the ground. This is an arduous task.

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Figure 34 - Hand digging tools

The equipment can be maintained by a village blacksmith and can be made in a small factory.
Safety: The hand tools should be used correctly with care, especially when more than one person is
working on a particular stump.

4.4.2 Root hook

A large hook can be used to pull out stumps.


Equipment required: Root hook, Rope, Cable/chain, Power source (hand winch/draught
animals/tractor/power winch), Pickaxe, Mattock and Spade.
This is a large hook which is used to grip the stump or roots while they are pulled out. The pull can be
provided by draught animals, a tractor, hand winch, engine-powered winch or tractor mounted winch.
Some hand tool work is also required for partially digging out the stumps and cutting the roots.
Figure 35 - Root hook

A root hook would last for many years and could be made by a blacksmith or in a small factory.
Mechanical power sources would need normal maintenance and servicing.

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Safety: Precautions should be taken to minimize damage, should the rope or cable snap. If a tractor
mounted winch is used it recommended that the cable be straddled with a trailer or similar object
around which the cable would wrap itself in the event of it snapping.

4.4.3 Tractor-mounted stump extractor

Stumps can be lifted vertically out of the ground.


Equipment required: 60 HP tractor and stump extractor
The stump extractor is a modification of a tractor-mounted tree extractor. The trunk-gripping jaws are
replaced by a pair of hooks which grip the stump and lift it out of the ground. Some training is necessary.
Tractor servicing and repair facilities are required. The extractor could be manufactured in a small
factory using bought-in hydraulic components.
Safety: Normal safety precautions are required.

4.4.4 Tractor-mounted stump chipper

The stump chipper reduces a tree stump to small pieces.


Equipment required: 60 HP tractor and stump chipper
This is a machine with a circular saw type blade which is used to cut away stumps to below ground level.
The depth of chipping can be down to 40cm below ground level, so that any remaining part of the stump
will not interfere with cultivation implements. It is an expensive tool. Some training in its use is required.
Figure 36 - Tractor-mounted stump chipper

Normal tractor servicing and repair facilities are required.


Safety: Guards must be kept in place whenever the chipper is rotating.

4.4.5 Bulldozers, rakes and root ploughs

Tree stumps can be pushed or pulled out of the ground by implements attached to tracklayers.
Equipment required: 150/180 HP tracklayer, Bulldozer blade, rake and Root plough

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When clearing an area in dry or temperate forests, the bulldozer is the most efficient mechanical
equipment for removing small brush, trees, and stumps up to 6 inches in diameter. Although more time
and effort are required, bulldozers can also remove trees up to 30 inches in diameter when tractor-
mounted clearing units and power saws are not available. Because of its ability to push, move, and skid
felled trees and brush, the bulldozer is used extensively as the primary unit of equipment in all clearing
operations
Bulldozers can be used to push out stumps, but rakes are better as they disturb the soil less. Some rakes
are mounted on the front of a tractor (like a bulldozer blade); others are mounted at the back and
resemble very strong tined cultivators.
A root plough is a blade attached to the back of a tractor which cuts through roots below ground level.
The roots can then be pulled out or raked out more easily.
The implements can be fitted to wheeled tractors, but they can only deal with small stumps and the
pneumatic tyres are easily damaged by the stumps. The implements are normally fitted to heavy
tracklayers. Care should be taken to protect the soil. The driver requires special skill.
Normal tracklayer servicing and repair facilities are required. The rake could be manufactured in a small
factory. A low loading lorry would be required for transport.
Safety: Mainly depends on the driver’s skill.

4.5 Removing Large Trees with bulldozer


Removing large trees (over 12 inches in diameter) is much slower and more difficult than clearing brush
and small trees. First, gently and cautiously probe the tree for dead limbs that could fall and injure you.
Then, position the blade high and center it for maximum leverage. Determine the direction of fall before
pushing the tree over; the direction of lean, if any, is usually the direction of fall. If possible, push the
tree over the same as you would a medium tree.
However, if the tree has a large, deeply embedded root system, use the following method
1. Opposite the direction of fall, make a cut deep enough to cut some of the large roots. Use a V-
ditch cut around the tree, tilted downward laterally toward the tree roots.
2. Cut side two.
3. Cut side three.
4. To obtain greater pushing leverage, build an earth ramp on the same side as the original cut.
Then push the tree over. As the tree starts to fall, reverse the tractor quickly to get away from
the rising root mass. After felling the tree, fill the stump hole so that water will not collect in it.
NOTE: The roots on the fourth side may need to be cut also.

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Figure 37 - Four steps for removing large trees with a bulldozer

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5. Guidelines for proper tree felling

5.1 Felling Trees


To "fell a tree" means more than just cutting it down. Felling means to cut the tree in such a way that it
falls in the desired direction and results in the least damage to the tree. To safely fell any one tree,
logger must:
1. Determine the direction you want the tree to fall.
2. Look for overhead hazards such as dead limbs or tops, loose bark, power lines, etc.
3. Make sure the entire area is clear of falling hazards.
4. Plan and clear your escape route.
5. Check the wind conditions. Wind can cause a tree to fall prematurely or in another direction.
6. Make sure no one else is in the cutting area.
7. Make sure you have all of your required personal protective equipment. (Head, eye, leg and ear
protection)
8. Make sure your saw has been inspected and is in good working order.
Hazards:
 Throwback: As the tree falls through other trees or lands on objects, those objects or branches
may get thrown back toward the logger.
 Lodged Tree: A tree that has not fallen completely to the ground because it is lodged or leaning
against another tree.
 Terrain: If the tree falls onto stumps, rocks, or uneven ground, a hazard may be created.
 Widow maker: Broken off limbs that are hanging freely in the tree to be felled or in the trees
close by.
 Snag: Standing dead tree, standing broken tree, or a standing rotted tree to be felled or nearby.
 Spring Pole: A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling which is under stress or tension due to
the pressure or weight of another tree or object.
 Extreme Weather: Strong wind.
 Entanglement: Vines or limbs of other trees intertwined with the limbs of the tree to be felled.
Ways to Eliminate or Avoid
 If possible, avoid felling into other trees or onto objects. Don't turn your back on the tree as it
falls, and hide behind a standing tree if possible.
 If possible, move the obstacle
 Do not work in the presence of lodged trees. Have these death traps pushed or pulled down by
a machine
 Knock Broken off limbs down or pull them down with a machine.
 Use a machine to release the tension (Spring Pole) or release it with a chain saw.
 Do not fell trees during high winds.
 Undo the entanglement if possible or use a machine to fell the tree.

35
Identifying the Appropriate Felling Direction
This planning step is very important because it determines the location and type of cuts to be made as
well as prevents damage to the tree and harm to yourself.
Clear Fall Path: Along with a clear landing, this is the most important factor in deciding what direction to
fell a tree. Visualize the fall path in all directions and identify those directions that are free of other
trees. Finding a clear path will eliminate lodged trees, throwback, and damage to the tree being felled as
well as the other trees.
Clear Landing: Avoid felling a tree onto stumps, large rocks, or uneven ground. This will prevent cracking
and other damage to the tree.
Lean of Tree: It is generally easier and safer to fell a tree in the direction that it is already leaning. This
makes for a cleaner fall and eliminates the need to use wedges, allowing gravity to do the work.
Ease of Removal: When possible, fell the tree so the butt faces the skid road. Also, fell the tree
consistent with the felling pattern of other trees. This also makes for efficient limbing and removal.
Slope of Ground: Fell in a direction that will minimize the chance that the tree will roll or slide.
Retreat Path: You must plan your escape route and clear a path before you begin cutting
Figure 38 - Retreat path

Direction of Safe Retreat:


 45 degrees from the sides and back on either side
 Never move away directly behind the tree - you can be seriously hurt if the tree butt kicks back
during the fall
How to Retreat:
 Using a bore cut and a release cut will make it easier to retreat in plenty of time
 Don't turn back on the falling tree
 Walk quickly away to a distance of 20 feet from the falling tree
 Position yourself behind a standing tree if possible.

36
Felling Hinge: The hinge is the wood between the undercut (face cut/notch) and the back cut. The
purpose of the hinge is to provide sufficient wood to hold the tree to the stump during the majority of
the tree's fall, and to guide the tree's fall in the intended direction. The position of the hinge will affect
the direction of fall. The size of the hinge is important to prevent splitting, fiber pull, barber chairs, and
other undesirable and unsafe actions.
Figure 39 - Hinge

The following describes a proper hinge:


 The length of the hinge should be 80% of the diameter of the tree at breast height.
Example: For a 12-inch diameter tree the hinge should be 9.6 inches long (12 inches ×0.8).
 The width of the hinge should be 10% of the diameter of the tree at breast height.
Example: For a 12-inch diameter tree the hinge should be 1.2 inches long (12 inches ×0.1).
 The hinge on a tree with no side lean should be perpendicular to the intended direction of fall.

5.2 Making the Cuts


The safe felling of a tree includes making three precise and strategic cuts.

The notch created by the top and bottom cuts in the picture above is called an "Open-face Notch." You
can compare this notch with the Humbolt and Conventional Notches. Special techniques are used for
difficult trees.
The Top Cut
The top cut is the first of two cuts that result in a V-shaped notch. The notch is made on the side of the
tree that you want it to fall.
The Correct Cut
1. Starting Point: Important -- begin at any height as long as you allow enough room for the undercut
2. Angle of Attack: Important -- cut downward at an angle of 70 degrees

37
3. Ending Point: Stop when the cut reaches ¼ to 1/3 of the trunk's diameter or when the cut reaches
80% of the tree's diameter at chest level

The Bottom or Undercut


The undercut is the second of two cuts that result in a V-shaped notch. The notch is made on the side of
the tree facing the direction that you want it to fall.
The Correct Cut
1. Starting Point: Very Important -- begin at the level that will create at least a 70 degree notch opening
2. Angle of Attack: Important -- cut upward at a 20-degree angle
3. Ending Point: Very important -- stop when the cut reaches the end point of the face cut
The undercut should be 1/3rd to 1/4th of the tree’s diameter. The two cuts meet at the apex of the angle
and neither cut bypasses the other.

The Back Cut


The back cut is the third and final cut and is made on the opposite side of the notch. The back cut
disconnects almost all of the tree from the stump leaving a hinge that helps to control the tree's fall.
The Correct Cut
1. Starting Point: Important - begin on the opposite side of the notch at the same level as the
notched corner
2. Angle of Attack: Important - cut flat along a horizontal plane

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3. Ending Point: Very important - stop at the point that will leave a hinge width that is 1/10 the
tree's diameter

This is the simplest of all back cuts. Other back-cutting techniques may be required for felling difficult
trees.
Table 1 - Kinds of Notches

Open-faced Notch Conventional Notch Humbolt Notch

Total angle ideally 90 degrees; at 45 degrees 45 degrees


least 70 degrees

Top Cut angled downward 70 angled downward 45 flat horizontal


degrees degrees

Bottom Cut angled upward 20 flat horizontal angled upward 45


degrees degrees

Back Cut horizontal; at the same horizontal; at least 1 horizontal; at least 1


height at the corner of inch above the bottom inch above the top cut
the notch cut

Depth 1/4 - 1/3 of tree 1/4 - 1/3 of tree 1/4 - 1/3 of tree
diameter diameter diameter

Point of notch just before tree hits middle of fall middle of fall
ground closure

39
Degree of safety High Medium Medium

Advantages greater accuracy of familiar to many loggers saves slightly more


felling target, hinge wood, familiar to many
stays intact until tree loggers
hits ground, less danger
of kickback and other
out-of-control
movement

Disadvantages hinge may have to be hinge breaks early hinge breaks early
cut off,

Results of Improper Notching


Barber Chair
 The splitting of the butt of the log during the latter part of the fall. The tree often remains
attached to the stump, thus creating a danger zone and ruining much of the log.
 Caused by a Dutchman notch
1. The tree starts to fall and stops when Dutchman notch closes, resulting in strain along
the dotted line.
2. Because of the strain, the fibres separate and the tree begins to split.
3. The tree continues to split until it breaks off, leaving a Barber Chair.
Figure 40 - Barber Chair

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Lodged Tree (also called A Hung Tree)
 A cut tree that has not fallen completely to the ground, but is lodged or leaning against another
tree. This is extremely dangerous. Do not work in the presence of hung trees. Have these death-
traps pushed or pulled down by a machine.
 Caused by poor judgment of felling path or inaccurate cutting.
Figure 41 - Lodged Tree (A Hung Tree)

Dutchman
 The seat that interferes with the smooth closing of the notch
 Caused when one of the notch cuts is made too deep and extends beyond the endpoint of the
other notch cut, known as "Bypass"
Figure 42 - Dutchman Notch

Kickback
 When a falling tree hits the ground or other object it can bounce back causing the log to move
back over the stump with great force. This is the main reason you should never stand or retreat
directly behind the tree.
 Increased chance of kickback by not making the back cut above the notch on a conventional or
Humbolt notch.

41
Figure 43 - Kickback Notch

Stalled Tree
 A tree that has just begun to fall but is stopped by its own stump. This is almost as dangerous as
a lodged tree and requires a machine to push it over.
 Caused by a Dutchman notch
1. The tree starts to fall but stops when the Dutchman closes.
2. The cutter must leave the tree to be pushed down by a skidder or...
3. Cut the hinge or holding wood right off in order to make it fall, resulting in no control of
direction of fall.
Figure 44 - Stalled Tree

5.3 Special Techniques for Felling Difficult Trees


A large tree may be felled against its natural lean by inserting one or more wedges in the back cut. As
the back cut is sawn, the wedges are driven in with an axe.

42
The amount of back lean that can be overcome is based on the height and diameter of the tree to be
felled. The following method determines the amount of back lean which can be overcome with 2 inches
of wedging.
 Wedging Trees with Back Lean
 Trees that side scar easily
 Larger Trees
 Heavy Leaners
 Trees leaning the wrong way
Wedging Trees with Back Lean
 Determine the height of the tree. This can be estimated quite accurately using one of these
methods:
 Pro-Sight method
 Clinometer method
 Axe handle method
 Determine the diameter (not circumference) of the tree at breast height using a tape.
 Determine the number of segments in the tree by dividing the height (in feet) by the diameter
(in feet).
 Example: a 100 foot tree 24 inches in diameter (2 feet) would yield 50 segments (100 ÷
2).
 Example: a 100 foot tree 12 inches in diameter (1 foot) would yield 100 segments (100 ÷
1).
 Determine the amount of back lean (in feet) by plumbing the tree
Trees that side scar easily
1. In standard felling, the sides of the hinge between the notch and the back cut are not sawn when
the tree starts to fall.
2. As the tree falls, there is strain on the sides of the tree along the dotted lines. (circled area)
3. Instead of breaking with the hinge, strips along the side of the tree rip off the stump, resulting in
side scars.

To prevent side scarring, corner to a depth of one inch before making the back cut and approx 1/3
diameter of tree.
Felling Larger Trees with slight lean or with heavy tops
A. The notch is made in the normal manner (1/3 dia. of tree).
B. Make corner cuts
C. The number one cut is made as per the diagram, at the same height above the notch as a
standard back cut

43
D. The number two cut is made as per the diagram, at the same plane as cut number one.
E. The number three cut is made at the same plane as the former cuts, leaving the standard
thickness of hinge.

5.4 Limbing and Bucking


Limbing is cutting branches off of felled or standing trees. Bucking is sawing felled trees into sections
called logs. The length of the logs is dependent on the species of the tree and type of final product.
 Primary hazards include unstable logs, and hazards associated with using chain saws.
 Examples of proper bucking to relieve tension for top bind and bottom bind are provided below.
As a tree falls it will often brush other trees and leaves broken live limbs or dean limbs hanging in
surrounding trees. Sometimes falling trees will shoot off the stump and roll sideways or ahead creating
pressures on tree limbs. Loggers should never limb a tree immediately after felling. It is often a good
idea to drop several trees and then refuel the saw prior to limbing. This will provide ample time for
overhead hazards to come down.
Prior to limbing, loggers should evaluate five potential hazards as follows:
 Overhead hazards.
 Spring poles.
 Butt movement forward (creates back pressure on limbs).
 Butt twist (creates sideways pressure on limbs).
 Butt off the ground (creates tension on the tree stem).
Highlights of Limbing and Bucking Requirements
 Limbing and Bucking must be done on the uphill side of each tree or log, where rolling or sliding
of logs may be expected.
 Precautions, such as chocking or moving to a stable position, must be taken to prevent the logs
or the butt from striking employees while limbing and bucking wind-thrown trees.
Top Bind
 Arrows indicate saw travel direction and cross-hatching indicates the heartwood that will break.
Depending upon the soundness of the wood and the timber lie, it may be advantageous to use
the end of the bar and bore from point (C) in making cuts number (1) and number (3) if it
appears there could be a danger of the log slabbing.

44
 NOTE: A wedge section could be removed when sawing cut (2) if the top bind is excessive, to
allow the tree cut to close as cuts (4) and (5) are made
Figure 45 - Top Bind

Bottom Bind
Cuts are similar to those for top bind, except top and bottom cuts are reversed
Figure 46 - Bottom Bind

Spring Poles:
The safest way to release a spring pole is to shave a sufficient amount of wood from the underside of
the spring pole to allow the wood fiber on the top side to release slowly.

45
To decide optimum point of spring pole release, determine a straight vertical line from the stump to
where it meets a straight horizontal line from the highest point of bend, and come down at a 45° angle
from where the two lines intersect.
Figure 47 - Spring Poles

Limb Lock: Back and sideways pressure on limbs can be handled using a limb lock.
If limbs have back pressure on them, they can severely injure a logger when they are severed from the
tree. A good precaution to use in these circumstances is a limb lock. The purpose of a limb lock is to
prevent a limb under pressure from kicking back and striking the leg or pinching the saw. The first cut is
made on either the topside or bottom side of the limb (top and bottom refer to top and bottom of the
limb as if the tree were standing up). It is preferable to make the first cut on the side with compression
pressure and the second cut on the side with stress.
The cut on the top of the limb is made closer to the trunk of the tree and the cut on the bottom is made
further out on the limb. It is important that the two cuts by-pass so that all fiber is severed. This will
create a step in the limb which will prevent the limb from kicking back and hitting the logger.
Figure 48 - Limb Lock

Top Lock: Twisting of trees and butts off the ground create pressure on the stem that can behandled
with a top lock.
If the stem of the tree is under stress, a top lock can be used to prevent the top from kicking up and
striking the logger. The first cut of a top lock is made on the side of the tree that is under compression,
in the top or bottom of the stem. The second cut is made on the side of the tree which is under tension.
This prevents pinching the saw. The top cut is always made closer to the top of the tree and the bottom
cut is made closer to the bottom of the tree (the reverse order of the limb lock). Both cuts must by-pass
so that all fiber is severed.

46
Figure 49 - Top Lock

Tongue and Groove: If there is danger of a tree or portion of a tree rolling on the logger, a tongue and
groove can be used. To make the tongue and groove, the stem of the tree is bored in the center. Then
up and down cuts are made either closer to the top or butt of the tree, so that each of them by-pass the
bore cut, but do not meet. With all fiber servered, the tongue and groove will prevent the tree from
rolling.
Figure 50 - Tongue and Groove

47
6. Performance technique
The use of engineer equipment is the most rapid and efficient method of clearing. The use of such
equipment is limited only by un-usually large trees, stumps, and terrain that decrease the
maneuverability of the equipment and increase maintenance requirements. This type of equipment
includes bulldozers; tree-dozer, tractor mounted units; tractor-mounted clearing units; winches; power
saws; rippers; and motor graders. In addition, pioneer tools are used for some clearing operations. Table
1 summarizes the limitations and proper applications of engineer equipment in clearing operations.

Table 2 - Application and limitation of engineer equipment for land clearing

Equipment Applications Limitations


Bulldozer Primary equipment for all land Trees over 6 inches in diameter require
clearing special and slower methods of removal
Excellent for removing brush, trees, by dozer
and stumps upto 6 inches in Maneuverability limited in muddy or
diameter. swampy terrain and in dense, heavy
Push, pull or skid cleared material for growth
disposal
Tree – dozer, Medium clearing of brush and trees Skilled personnel required for cutting of
tractor mounted at ground level rather than tree; other units required for
unit uprooting completion of clearing when burning is
not permitted.
Tractor mounted For extensive clearing operations Skilled personnel required for rigging
clearing unit requiring heavy pulling Slow in clearing an area; other units
Uprooting trees and stumps of required for speedy completion
almost unlimited diameters
Skid cleared material for disposal
Extricate mired equipment
Excellent for operation in jungles,
swamps, and bottom land with
heavy growth
Winches (Towing)
Tractor mounted For general light and medium pulling Pulling capacity limited by size of tractor
Uproot trees and stumps upto 24 Terrain effects maneuverability of
inches in diameter tractor
Skid cleared material for disposal
Extricate mired equipment
Truck mounted Expedient for light pulling of trees Rigging personnel required
upto 6 inches in diameter Terrain must be suitable for truck use
Skid small trees and bushes Pulling capacity too limited for most
Extricate mired equipment operation
Felling equipment
Chain saw Controlled felling of trees of almost Other units required for uprooting
unlimited diameter stumps and disposing of felled timber
Saw timber for salvages Pneumatic saws are very dangerous to
Rapid felling use on steep, rugged ground.

48
Air hoses frequently are fouled and
broken by rolling logs and chunks.
Gasoline chainsaw are far easier to
handle than the pneumatic ones
because there are no hoses to contend
with. They can be used in any type of
terrain with reasonable degree of safety
if operated by skilled operator.
Circular or chain Saw timber for salvages Other unit required for uprooting
saw mounted on Rapid felling stumps and disposing of felled lumber
tractor Excellent for clearing heavy, dense Maneuverability limited in muddy or
growth in rough and broken terrain swampy terrain and in terrain too steep
for tractor to negotiate
May bind a unbalanced tree, requiring
extensive looping of tractor pull line
Ripper Cut free roots Depth of shank penetration limits use to
Loosen surface boulders shallow roots
Loosen soil for stripping Maneuverability limited in muddy or
swampy terrain and in dense, heavy
growth
Grader Light clearing of grass, weeds and Maneuverability limited to level terrain
small brush/vegetation. free of trees, stumps and boulders
Windrow cleared material Careful operation required to prevent
Grade cleared area for drainages damaging blade

49
7. Area Clearing Operations
The first step in organizing the cut area is to establish the daily work area. Areas which are difficult to
clear and those in which the vegetation conceals a gully, stream, or other hazard, should be cleared first.
By clearing these hazardous areas with the most experienced operators, the remainder of the area can
be cleared by less experienced operators with little or no delay. Select these areas and give them
priority during the first part of the operation. When cutting heavy vegetation, the most efficient
procedure is to bypass the large trees and engage only the undergrowth and smaller trees that can be
pushed down in a single pass. A special team of skilled operators should be assigned to follow up and
thin out the large trees as desired. If large trees are engaged in the initial pass, many tractors must sit
idle while one operator works on a tree that he is unable to see clearly. Damage which may affect both
tractor and operator under these circumstances can also be severe because of falling trees. In areas
which contain streams, gullies, or other hazards, continuous observation and control of the clearing
tractors may be necessary. At the close of each work day, allow sufficient time a minimum of 2 hours of
daylight for maintenance of the tractors.

7.1 Cutting and Piling Patterns

Clearing with an angled shear blade is conducted by the tractors from the outside of the rectangular
area toward the center in a counterclockwise direction. The cut sheds off the training (right) end of the
blade and leaves the uncut area free of fallen debris. If the cut material will not shed, the operator
should make a sharp right turn, followed by a sharp left turn and resume the original line of travel. The
areas must be more carefully laid out if the vegetation is to be windrowed after felling. Piling is most
efficient if windrows are oriented 90° to direction of cut. After the boundaries have been established by
the initial trace, spoil areas for disposal and windrows are selected on the basis of the following factors:
shortest haul, downgrade slope, and general accessibility. Care must be taken when locating windrows
so as not to disrupt the natural drainage of the area. All windrows restrict off-road maneuverability, so
they should be burned or disposed of as quickly as possible. When the diameter and density of the
vegetation is such that the tractor can move forward almost continuously, the most efficient production
is obtained by laying out long areas 200 to 400 feet wide, clearing and piling the vegetation.
Before committing a tractor equipped with the tree-dozer mounting, investigate the soil condition in the
area of operation to determine if it will support the equipment. Use the tree-dozer mounting to make
cuts through any kind of forest except heavy swampland. Shear trees at ground level; sweep them into
piles or windrows, and dispose of them. One tractor equipped with a tree-dozer mounting can clear
approximately 1 to 2 acres per hour, depending on the tree density and size. Use one of the following
clearing methods:
When the tractor can move forward almost continuously, it shears to ground level anything in
its path, Fast production can be obtained by laying out long areas (200 to 400 feet wide) that
can be cut from the outside toward the center in a counterclockwise direction. The cut material
then slides off the trailing (right) end of the tree-dozer mounting and leaves the uncut area free
of fallen debris. The windrows are placed lengthwise on the borders of the areas. Piling is done
by sweeping with the tree-dozer mounting. Sweep a blade width at a time. Work from the
center of each area, at a right angle to the border (figure 51).

50
Another method is shown in figure 52. Again, long areas are laid out in 200-to 400-foot widths,
but the cutting is done from the center toward the sides in a clockwise direction. This allows the
cut material to fall toward the center, which becomes the windrow site. The piling is done with
the tree-dozer mounting, following the pattern outlined on the right side of figure 52. When
windrowing, the operator keeps the cutting edge on the ground while pushing into the windrow
and raises it when backing away. This allows accumulated soil to sift away and lessens soil
deposits in the windrow.

On extreme slopes, rapid production is obtained by working in a semicircular pattern, from left
to right, at approximately right angles to the windrow (53). If the terrain is steep, the windrows
should be on the contour, and the tractor should work from the uphill side and push downhill to
the windrow.

Where the vegetation is dense and small, the highest production can be obtained by cutting and
windrowing simultaneously. Work from left to right at a 90-degree angle to the windrow, with
the trailing edge of the tree-dozer working against the uncut material. This prevents cut material
from sliding off the moldboard and allows the cut material to accumulate on the moldboard.
Figure 51 - Cutting Vegetation to ground level and piling cut material by counterclockwise method

51
Figure 52 - Cutting Vegetation to ground level and piling cut material by the increasing rectangles method

These methods are the best for most relatively level areas. On steep slopes, rapid production is obtained
by working in a semicircular pattern from left to right, pushing the vegetation down slope (fig 53). If the
terrain is steep the windrows should be piled on the contours and the tractor should work from the
uphill side. On level terrain, if the vegetation is dense and small as in light brush, highest production can
be obtained by cutting and windrowing simultaneously. By working counterclockwise in increasing
rectangle, with the trailing edge of the blade working against the uncut material, the operator can
prevent the cut material from sliding off the blade and allow the cut material to accumulate on the
blade. When the blade is filled, the operator stops the tractor, deposits the cut material, forming a
windrow, then turns to the left twice to the starting point and repeats the operation, as shown in figure
54.

52
Figure 53 - Clearing on Steep Slope

Figure 54 - Cutting and pilling dense growth of small diameter vegetation on level terrain

When the moldboard is filled, the operator should stop the tractor and deposit the cut material. The
operator should then reverse to the starting point and repeat the operation to the right ( Figure 54),

53
reducing the time lost in backing up. When the tractor reaches the previously cut material, the operator
should deposit cut material and form another windrow.
The area of vegetation should be laid out as shown in Figure 34, with the operator working in patches,
from inside to outside in a counterclockwise direction and at right angles to the windrows. Sweeping
and piling the resulting debris can be accomplished much faster when tractors are used in teams
traveling abreast.
This technique reduces the time spent. All of these methods of piling are 20 to 30 percent faster with
three to five tractors working abreast. The tractors should work close together when piling the
vegetation to obtain this increased efficiency, but when clearing, the tractors should be a minimum of
30 meters apart to preclude felling trees on each other, colliding due to limited visibility. See figure 55
for a typical fleet operation.
Figure 55 - Fleet operation

7.2 Chopping and Disking Patterns

There are two basic patterns used when clearing growth with a rolling chopper or disk harrow, as shown
in figures 56. Variations of these two basic methods are made to fit the topography or shape of the area
being cleared. When cutting poles, bamboo, or large saplings, the recommended procedure is to cut in
the same direction as the previous pass using increasing or decreasing rectangles.

54
Figure 56 - Parallel cuts Increasing rectangles

Figure 57 - Parallel cuts decreasing rectangles

55
Table 3 - Pros and cons of various wood waste handling options

Method Pros Cons

Pile and Burn Simple and cheap Poses fire hazard, hard to get complete
Remove most material burn, wasteful
Releases greenhouses gases, like carbon
into environment
May require permit (check with local
fire department)
Dig, Burn and Bury Simple and cheap Poses fire hazard, hard to get complete
Remove material from sight burn, wasteful
Releases greenhouses gases, like carbon
into environment
Back-filled hole after burning may
develop sinkhole properties
May require permit (check with local
fire department)
Pile and leave Very cheap Unsightly
Some wildlife habitat value Not as valuable for wildlife as
purposefully constructed wildlife brush
pile
Can harbor weed
Mulch with tub Result is useable resources (mulch) Generally more expensive
Removes all material Site variable affects cost
grinder

Waste-wood Potential income from firewood Time consuming


sales, hobby wood custom sawing, Variety of skill sets needed (sawmilling
utilization
wood chip mulch and marketing)
Maximize economic value and Variety of equipments needed
utilization

56
8. Production Estimate
It is extremely difficult to establish specific rules of thumb or other guides for selecting land clearing
equipment, and determining at what rate each type of equipment can clear land. There are simply too
many variables involved. Factors such as type of vegetation, terrain, climate, and underfoot conditions,
coupled with the purpose for clearing, quantity to be chard, and equipment capabilities and limitations
directly influence the selection of equipment and the production rate for any specific clearing job. A
number of steps should be followed in analyzing and planning a land clearing operation. This analysis,
combined with good judgment and common sense, can result in a reasonable estimate of production
rate and time required.

8.1 Project Analysis


A. The first step is a thorough study of the project requirements and specifications. This should
include–
1. Specific area to be cleared
2. Time available
3. Type of vegetation and degree of clearing required
4. Climate, rainfall, and topography data
5. Support operations
6. Security considerations
B. After a thorough study of the project requirements, the sources of information, such as map and
terrain analysis should be researched. The next step is a personal reconnaissance of the area to
determine the entire characteristic of the area which will affect the operation. General topography
and soil conditions should be determined. Note the size and number of problem areas, such as steep
slopes, rocks, or swamps, which would significantly affect production or require special techniques.
These should be expressed as a percentage of the whole area. The study of the vegetation should
include two or preferably three tree counts for each general type of vegetation within the area to be
cleared. These tree counts should be recorded as follows:
1. For secondary growth and undergrowth less than 30 centimeters (12 inches) in diameter, note
whether sparse, semi dense, or dense.
2. For trees 30 centimeters (12 inches) and above in diameter at breast height or above buttresses,
record separately the average number per acre in each of the following size ranges:
a. 30 to 60 centimeters (1 to 2 feet) diameter
b. 60 to 90 centimeters (2 to 3 feet) diameter
c. 90 to 120 centimeters (3 to 4 feet) diameter
d. 120 to 180 centimeters (4 to 6 feet) diameter
3. Record the diameter of each tree above 180 centimeters (6 feet) in diameter in each plot and
express an average number per acre. Tabulate the data obtained from this reconnaissance on a
form similar to table 1, for use in determining production rate.

57
Table 4 - Clearing Reconnaissance Form
Tree Diameter 1’ – 2’ 2’ – 3’ 3’ – 4’ 4’ – 6’ Above 6’
No. of tree/acre
% Hardwood
Vines Present Yes/No
Description of root system
Description of under growth
Description of soil
End use of land
Debris disposal method
Soil conservation to be practiced
Grade and Terrain
Water Table condition
Rainfall
Underfoot condition
C. The degree (scope, quality, and relative permanency) of clearing to be accomplished is usually
dictated by the purpose or objective of the clearing operation. However, long-range implications
should always be considered since it frequently is possible to employ alternative techniques that can
also fulfill long term requirements with little or no additional effort. This is especially true when
considering clearing subsurface vegetation and piling the cut vegetation. After determining what
items of equipment are capable of accomplishing the required clearing, production rates for each
type should be determined. The following tasks include those which may be required to accomplish
the clearing objective:
1. Hand clearing
2. Shearing
3. Chaining
4. Spade plow
5. Rolling chopper
6. Harrowing
7. Piling
8. Grubbing
9. Burning
10. Shredding

8.2 Hand Felling

Without prior experience it is difficult to determine the ability of indigenous personnel to clear land. For
average work output per man-hour, table 2 can be used as a guide. This data should be supplemented
by records maintained by the unit wherever possible to obtain a more accurate estimate. The man-
hours shown are for personnel directly engaged in the clearing task and do not allow for maintenance
and other overhead personnel.

58
Table 5 - Clearing by hand
Operation Unit Man-hours per unit

Light clearing (Brush and small trees) Acre 125

Medium Clearing (Trees 7’’ to 12’’) Acre 350

Heavy Clearing (Trees 12’’ to 30’’) Acre 800

Light Clearing (10 meter wide) 100 25


linear
meters
Medium Clearing (10 meter wide) 100 70
linear
meters

8.3 Quick Estimates


Table 3 has been assembled for use in making quick estimates for area clearing and should be used only
when a detailed reconnaissance and tree count are not possible. The production rates presented are for
average areas, and adverse conditions can reduce these rates significantly. If quick estimates for strip
clearing are required, multiply the time required per unit in table 3 by 1.6.
Man or equipment hour per unit
Method Unit Light (less than Medium (12” – Heavy (more than
12”) 18”) 18”)
Hand tolls and Chain saws 1000 sq m 22 53 77
Bulldozer Medium Tractor acre 2.5 5 10
(180 HP and less)
Bulldozer Heavy Tractor acre 1.5 3 8
(more than 180 HP)
Spade plow medium tractor acre 1.33 2.2 3.9
Shearing blade Medium acre 0.4 0.8 1.3
Tractor
Shearing blade Heavy acre 0.3 0.5 0.8
Tractor

59
9. Land clearance at three levels of investment
9.1 A labour-intensive set using 20 times as many man days to clear an area (capital-intensive set)

For use by a team of 6 people


Approximately 120 man-days to clear one hectare
The team could clear one hectare in about 20 days.
Equipment required: Machetes (4), axes (4), digging hoes (4), man-saw (2), Hand operated winch and
small root hook.
With the exception of the winch and the saw all of this equipment can be made or repaired in a small
workshop or blacksmith. Skill is needed to use a two-man-saw, but the rest of the equipment can be
used by relatively unskilled labourers. All of the equipment can be transported by hand. A team of 6
people with this equipment could clear land of any type of tree growth. Such a team would be very
suitable for clearing isolated small areas of trees, at a rate of about one twentieth of a hectare per day.

9. A moderately capital-intensive set


For use by a team of 3 people
Approximately 30 man-days to clear one hectare
The team could clear one hectare in about 10 days
Equipment required: 60 HP wheel tractors fitted with safety cab, Tree extractor with stump extractor
attachment, Chain and V hook, Rear mounted winch, Chainsaw, 2 axes, 2 machetes and 2 digging hoes
This set of equipment could be used to clear any type of tree growth from any land accessible to a
tractor. Skilled operators and proper maintenance facilities would be essential. This set of equipment
would be suitable for use by a tractor hire unit or a farmer's cooperative, which already owns tractors
and has the necessary operators and servicing facilities. The rate of work would be approximately one
tenth of a hectare per day.

9.3 A capital-intensive set costing about 500 times as much as the most labour-intensive set

To be used by a team of 12 people


Approximately 6 man-days to clear one hectare
The team could clear one hectare in about half a day
Equipment required: Two 150 HP tracklayers, Front mounted rake, Front mounted shearing blade, Rear
mounted root plough, Rear mounted winch, Knockdown chain fitted with swivels, 60 HP wheeled
tractor, Horizontal axis slasher for wheeled tractor, Low loading trailer to be pulled by wheeled tractor,
3 chainsaws, 6 axes, 6 machetes and 6 digging hoes.
This set of equipment would be justified only where large areas of trees had to be cleared. Specially
trained operators and special servicing facilities would be needed. The rate of work could be two
hectares per day.

60
10. Forestry Tools:
Figure 58 - Abney Level: Measures slope of the ground Figure 62 - Biltmore Stick (Measures tree diameter, log
and tree height height, and the volume of timber in a tree)

Figure 63 - Caliper Tree (Measures the stem diameter of


small trees)
Figure 59 - Altimeter: Measures elevation or altitude

Figure 60 - Backpack Fire Pump (Manually operated


water pump for fighting forest fires)

Figure 64 - Cant Hook (To roll or turn logs)

Figure 61 - Bark Gauge (Determines the thickness of tree


bark)

Figure 65 - Chainsaw (Manually felling trees, delimbing &


bucking)

61
Figure 66 - Clinometer (Measures tree height & slope) Figure 69 - Drip Torch (Starts controlled prescribed burns
in forests and prairies)

Figure 67 - Cruising Vest (To carry equipment for field Figure 70 - Fiberglass Tape (Measure horizontal distance)
work)

Figure 71 - Fire Rake (Removes leaf litter and duff to


create fire lines)

Figure 68 - Diameter Tape (Measures the outside


diameter of the main stem of trees)

62
Figure 72 - Fire Swatter (Extinguishes slow spreading Figure 76 - Helmet System (Combination hard hat, ear
ground fires) and eye protection required in logging)

Figure 77 - Hip Chain (Measures distance over any terrain


Figure 73 - Fire Weather Kit (measure weather conditions and through forests)
and determine danger risk levels for forest fires)

Figure 78 - Increment Borer (Extracts small cylinders of


wood from the bark to pith of a tree. Used to age and
determine growth of trees)
Figure 74 - Haga Altimeter (Measures tree height and
ground slope)

Figure 79 - Plastic flagging (to mark an area or object)


Figure 75 - Hand Level (Determines horizontal level)

63
Figure 80 - Pulaski Axe (An axe and grubbing hoe tool Figure 83 - Soil Sampler (Soil Probe)
that can trench and cut roots commonly)

Figure 81 - Tree Caliper (Measures tree diameter very Figure 84 - Soil Test Kit
accurately)

Figure 85 - Garden (Spading) Fork

Figure 82 - PH Meter (to determine the pH)

Figure 86 - Hoe

64
Figure 87 - Pruning Saw Figure 91 - JCB 16 tonne Excavators

Figure 88 - Cutting Tree Shears

Figure 92 - Tree Removal machine

Figure 89 - Logging Bar Saw (Grips tree, cuts and drops)

Figure 93 - Tree Cutting Machine

Figure 90 - Grapples (Move cut logs out of woods to level)

Figure 94 - Tree cutting machine

65
Figure 95 - Energy Wood Harvester Figure 98 - Feller Buncher - Wheeled

Figure 96 - Feller Buncher (Tracked - Fixed)

Figure 99 - Forestry Swing Machines

Figure 97 - Feller Buncher (Tracked - Leveling) Figure 100 - Forwarder

66
Figure 101 – Harvester Tracked Figure 104 - Cable Skidders

Figure 105 - Grapple Skidders


Figure 102 - Harvester Wheeled

Figure 103 - Harvesting Heads

67
11. Annexure

List of manufactures and suppliers of forestry equipments

Sl.N. Company Name Address Country Email & Web Site Product / Service Types

Angle Grinders, Chain Saws, Compressor Parts,


Shop No.1, Dagdi Chawl,
Nakoda Machine Compressors , Cutting-Off Machines, Drills (Tools), Grooving
Tejpal Road, Near Railway Station,
1 Tools India Machines, Industrial Equipment and Supplies, Nailers,
Vile Parle (East), MUMBAI, Punjab
Nibblers (Hand Tools), Planers (Machines), Routers (Tools),
400 057 India
Screwdrivers, Staplers (Tools)

3655-h Chowk, Mori Gate, Delhi -


B. D. J bdjinternational@rediffmail.com;
2 110006; +91-22-26181962 India Brush Cutters, Chainsaw, Power Tillers
INTERNATIONAL http://www.horticultureequipment.in
/26121883

Manufacturers of chain saw, electric chain saw, intensive


chain saw, heavy duty chain saw, professional chain saw,
professional pruner, pruning chain saw, brush cutters, electric
trimmers, heavy duty brush cutter, professional brush cutter,
lawn mowers, electric lawn mower, push type lawn mower,
self propelled lawn mower, hedge trimmers, electric hedge
trimmer, petrol hedge trimmer, vacuum cleaners, backpack
30, Rani Jhansi Road, Motia Khan, info@greenplanet.in;
Green Planet blower, hand held blower, earth auger, garden tractors, rotary
3 New Delhi - 110055; +91-11- India http://www.gardenlawnmachines.co
Machines Pvt. Ltd. tillers, wheeled brush cutters, power cutter, rotary tillers,
23522807, +91 - 09868154407 m
wheeled brush cutters, power cutter, fogging machine, mini
fogging machine, electric brush cutter, paddy cutter, weed
cutter, crop reaper, mini tiller, power tiller, rotary tiller, ride on
mower, concrete cutters, power tiller, mulcher, machines
spare parts, knapsack sprayers, generator engines, pressure
washers, hedge trimmers, chainsaw, garden equipment,
grass cutter and garden machine.

12, Chemin de la Forge, L 'Islet


info@ammachinery.com ;
4 AM Machinery (Québec) Canada Grapples; Timber Trailers, Bush Cutter, Log splitter
http://www.ammachinery.com
G0R 1X0, Canada; (418) 247-7709

Arbor Eater
PO Box 76; Hassocks; West Sussex sales@arboreaters.co.uk ;
5 Brushwood UK Log Splitters, Wood Chippers, Saw Benches, Shredder
BN6 0BX +01273 832009 http://www.arboreaters.co.uk/
Chippers Limited

68
Schinkelstraße 97
ATIKA GmbH & 59227 Ahlen info@atika.de;
6 Germany Log Splitters
Co. KG +49 2382 892-0 http://www.atika.de/t3
+49 2382 81812

Fillmannsbach 9
St. Georgen am Fillmannsbach
Circular Saws; Log Splitters (horizontal and vertical);
5144
7 Binderberger Austria Firewood Processors; Timber Grabs and Grapples; Timber
Österreich / Austria
Trailer; Forestry Machinery; Log Trailers & Log Cranes
+43 / 7748 / 8620 - 0, +43 7748
8620-11

Jas P Wilson
Industrial Site
spares@jaspwilson.co.uk;
Coast Road winches; wood chippers; trailers and cranes, harvesters and
8 Jas P Wilson Scotland info@jaspwilson.co.uk ;
Dalbeattie forwarders; Used Machines
http://www.jaspwilson.co.uk/
Scotland
DG5 4QU; 01556 612233

winches, wood chippers, cranes and trailers and firewood


9 Farmi Forest Finland http://www.farmiforest.fi/
processors

6750 Millbrook Road Remus MI


10 Bandit Industries USA 49340 989-561-2270/800- USA http://www.banditchippers.com/ Wood Chippers, Used Equipments, Stump Grinders, Mowers,
952-0178

Blount International Inc.


4909 SE International Way
Blount Outdoor, Industrial & Power Equipment, Chainsaw
11 P.O. Box 22127 (97269-2127) Portland cej@blount.com
Internatonal Inc. Accessories(Oregon), bars and sprockets
Portland, OR 97222-4679; Tel:
(503) 653-8881, 503-653-4573

Carlton Company
P.O. Box 68309
12 Carlton Company Milwaukie, Oregon 97268-0309 USA http://www.sawchain.com/ Saw Chains, Bars & Sprockets
U.S.A.
(49) 2255 953 416, (800) 524 0685

69
Via del lavoro, 6
A complete line of Lawn & Garden Equipment from Italy -
Castelgarden I-31033 Castelfranco Veneto
13 Italy http://www.castelgarden.com Tractors, Riders, Mowers, Trimmers, Chainsaws, Blowers,
*New (Treviso) - Italy
Tillers and more...
+39 0423 450111

Post box 70 04 20, 22004,


14 Dolmar Germany http://www.dolmar.com Chainsaws, Mowers, Power Hand Tools (Also see Makita)
Hamburg, 4940669860

DR® Power Equipment


Meigs Road
DR Power specialmkts@drpower.com; Trimmer/Mowers, Field & Brush Mowers, Power Wagons,
15 Post Office Box 25 USA
Equipment http://www.drpower.com/ Chippers, and Cordless Electric Mowers
Vergennes, Vermont 05491 U.S.A
1-802-877-1200 ext. 1054

ECHO Incorporated
400 Oakwood Road marketing@echo-usa.com; Chainsaws, Trimmers, Brushcutters, Edgers, Blowers,
16 Echo USA
Lake Zurich, IL 60047-1564 http://www.echo-usa.com/ Shredders, Tillers, Drills, Etc.
(847) 540-8400

GB Manufacturing Pty. Ltd.


44-46 Berkshire Road, Sunshine
Griffiths & P.O. Box 211
17 Australia http://www.gbbar.com.au GB Chainsaw Guide Bars and Associated Products
Beerens (GB) Melb., Victoria 3020
Australia
+61 3 9300 5555

Husqvarna
Husqvarna AB, SE-561 82
18 International SWEDEN http://international.husqvarna.com/ Chain Saws, Lawn and Garden Power Equipment
Huskvarna, SWEDEN
Canada

Roresanden 109, N-4885 Grimstad, corporate@igland-as.com , Forestry Winches; Timber Trailers & Loaders; Firewood
19 IGLAND AS Norway
Norway; +47 37 25 62 00 www.igland-as.com Processor, Mower

ITS (Shanghai) Machinrey Co., Ltd,


International Tool Room 409, No.188, Wei Fang info@itspowertool.com; Lawn Mowers, Chain Saws, Brush Cutters, Blowers,
20 China
Service Road,Pu Dong, ShangHai. http://www.itspowertool.com/ Generators etc from China
200122,P.R; +86 21 2934 4659

70
Central Spares; 3-7 Brook Road; sales@centralspares.co.uk ;
21 Jonsered Wimbourne ; Dorset; BH21 2BH UK http://www.jonsered.co.uk, Equipment for Forests, Parks & Gardens
01202 882000 www.centralspares.co.uk

MacKissic Leaf Shredders & Cyclers, Chipper/Shredders,


MacKissic Inc. PO Box 111, Parker Info@mackissic.com;
22 MacKissic Inc. Canada Stump Cutters, Powered Sprayers, MerryTiller Garden Tillers
Ford, PA 19457; (610)495-7181 http://www.mackissic.com/
and Johnson Big Wheel Mowers

7349 Statesville Road, Charlotte, Chainsaws, Trimmers, Reel Mowers, Electric Shredders and
23 McCulloch Europe http://www.mccullochpower.com/
NC 28269 More

BLOUNT EUROPE SA
Rue Emile Francqui, 5 info@blount.be;
24 Oregon Belgium Saw chain, Accessories for Chainsaws, Lawnmowers, etc.
B 1435 Mont-Saint-Guibert, www.oregonchain.eu
Belgium; +32 10 30 11 11

Qingdao Kaiwo sales@kaiwo-qd.com; Brush Cutters, lawn Mowers, Chainsaws, Mister-Dusters,


25 86-532-88915192/3 China
Machinery Co. http://www.power-machine.com/ Shredders & Blowers from China

Remington Power Tools. toolscustomerservice@desaint.com


2901 Industrial Drive ;
26 Remington Canada Electric Mowers, Chainsaws, Blowers, Edgers & Trimmers
Bowling Green, Ky 42101; # 1-800- http://www.remingtonpowertools.co
626-2237 m

1020 S. Sangamon Ave.


Tractor Mounted Rotary and Flail Cutters, Rotary Tillers, and
27 Rhino Gibson City, IL 60936; 217-784- USA http://www.servis-rhino.com/
Landscape Rakes.
4261, 800-446-5158

Products for the commercial lawn care, tree care,


105 School House Road, Cheshire, sales@salsco.com.; construction and agricultural industries, including Wood
28 Salsco, Inc New York
CT 06410 http://www.salsco.com Chippers, Chipper Shredder Vacuums, Shaving Mills,
Truckloaders, Greens Rollers and more… Used Equipments

SOLO Kleinmotoren GmbH


Stuttgarter Str. 41
D-71069 Sindelfingen info@solo-germany.com;
29 Solo Germany Chain Saws, Trimmers, Sprayers
Germany, P.O. Box 60 01 52 http://www.solo-germany.com/
D-71050 Sindelfingen
07031 - 301-0

71
Andreas Stihl Pvt Ltd.
Delphi Warehousing Complex,
Andreas Stihl Pvt Gut No.-2337 / B / 01, India
30 http://www.stihl.in/ Chainsaws and Power Tools
Ltd. Behind Pune Trade Centre, (Germany)
Wagholi, Pune – 412 207 India;
020-66214242

custsvc@nikko-tanaka-usa.com;
31 Tanaka 1-888-482-6252 USA Trimmers, Edgers, Augers, Chainsaws, etc.
http://www.tanaka-usa.com/

customerservice@Windsoropg.com
32 Windsor 866-393-4400 USA Forestry Tools, Saw Chain, Bars etc.
; http://www.windsorforestry.com/

Wood-Mizer Canada
ContactCanada@woodmizer.com;
33 Wood-Mizer 217 Salem Road Canada Portable Sawmills and Forestry Equipment
http://www.woodmizer.ca/
Manilla, Ontario K0M 2J0

Jinhua Industry Zone,NO.727


ZHEJIANG
ShenLi
PIONEER manager@chinapioneer.com.cn; Chainsaws, Brush Cutters, Multifunctional Garden Tools,
Road,Jinhua,Zhejiang,China.32101
34 MACHINERY & China http://www.chinapioneer.com.cn/lx Hedge Trimmers, Augers, Cut Off Saws, Mowers and Tillers
6
ELECTRON wm.aspx from China
86-579-82812368 82811737
CO.,LTD
82812399

7, Changi South Street 3,


Makita Singapore
35 Singapore 486348 Singapore http://www.makita.com.sg Chainsaws, Mowers, Power Hand Tools
Pte. Ltd.
+65-6546-8700

North & West Africa DemimpexRus South AfricaBell Equipment


Arthur Maes 100,B-1130 CompanyGriffiths Road, Jet Feller Bunchers, Skidders; Knuckleboom Loaders; Forestry
36 John Deere BrussellsTel: +32 (2) 7249067Fax: Park1459, South AfricaTel. +27 11 Swing Machines; Energy Wood Harvester; Harvesters;
+32 (2) 724 90 60Email: 928 9700Email: Forwarders; Crawler Dozers, Used Equipments
sv@demimpex.com pieraldod@bell.co.za

tractors, balers, combines, hay tools, planters, seeders,


CNH International S.A. sprayers and tillage equipment as well as forage, coffee,
Switzerlan international@cnh.com,
37 Case Riva Paradiso, 14 grape and sugar cane harvester; forklifts, mini-excavators,
d http://www.caseih.com/
6902 Paradiso - Lugano Switzerland telehandlers as well as backhoe, compact track, mini-wheel
and skid steer loaders.

72
irrigation equipment, micro sprinklers, fittings, mini dumpers,
HEGDE AGRO 2 Nd Km.bk Road. Sagar-577401
38 India brush cutters, towable backhoe, earth augers, mini tillers, leaf
IMPEX PVT LTD Karnataka India India
cup machines, chain saws, irrigation equipments

87, Mahatma Phule Peth, (Old 766,


Gunj Peth) Opp. Shramadan Maruti
POONAM Manufacturers of chain saw machine, t. c. t saw blades, wood
Mandir, shapurachain@hotmail.com;
39 ENGINEERING India cutting machinery and wood cutting tools. 30 ton vertical log
Pune - 411042, Maharashtra, India; http://www.shapura.com/
WORKS spilliter
Phone(s) : 91-20-26385750 Mobile
: 9422367126

Manufacturers of chain saw, gardening tools, grass cutter,


SHARPEX Plot No. 1-5, G. I. D. C., Near L. bush cutter, portable concrete cutter, portable harvester,
40 India
ENGINEERING Type Sheds, Odhav, AHMEDABAD garden pruner plucker, mobile chipper shredder and
agriculture machinery etc

58,2nd Stage,80 Ft Road, Manufacturers of Chain Saws, Chain Sharpener and


41 SHARPEX India
Rajajinagar, Bangalore Moulding Tools

Homelite (UK) Ltd


Medina House Fieldhouse Lane sales@homelitepower.co.uk;
42 Homelite (UK) Ltd. Chainsaws, Hedge trimmer, Brush cutter
Marlow Bucks SL7 1TB; 01628 894 http://www.homelitepower.co.uk/
400

Shindaiwa Inc.
11975 SW Herman Road
43 Shindaiwa Inc. http://www.shindaiwa.com/ Chainsaws
Tualatin, Oregon 97062; (503) 692-
3070

KCD IP, LLC


Sears National Customer Relations
44 Craftsman http://www.sears.com/ Chainsaws
3333 Beverly Rd. Hoffman Estates
IL 60179; 847-286-2500

1002 Railway Rd. Attachments Crawler Dozer Feller-bunchers Log Loaders


Hill Equipment Prince George, BC, V2N 5R9, office@hillequipment.com; Skidders Backhoe Excavators Delimbers Forklifts
45 Canada
Sales Ltd. Canada http://www.hillequipment.com/ Forwarders Graders Loaders Parts Processors Sawmills
(250)614-8099 Skid Steer Trucks Wheel Loaders

73
Manufacturer of forestry attachments and components,
including high speed disc saw felling heads, intermittent disc
Quadco 30 Industrial Blvd.St. Eustache, QC, info@quadco.com;
46 Canada saw felling heads, shears, harvester heads, processor heads,
Equipment Inc. J7R 5C1, Canada(450)623-3340 http://www.quadco.com
stroke delimbers, brush cutters, saw teeth, saw discs,
Prolenc snubbers and bogie tracks.

PO Box 525
Cotton-Hutcheson cothutch@bellsouth.net; feller bunchers, loaders, skidders, track fellers, cut to length
47 Evergreen, AL, 36401, USA USA
Inc. http://www.cotton-hutcheson.com systems and harvesters.
(251)578-1812

Sturgeon Falls 125 Lisgar St.


customerservice@sturgeonfallsbru
Brush Sturgeon Falls, ON, P2B 3H4,
48 Canada sh.com; full range of land clearing and brush cutting services
Canada
http://www.sturgeonfallsbrush.com
(705)753-3883

1390 Hwy. 70-71 E.


suttle@alltel.net;
49 PO Box 530; Dequeen, AR, 71832, USA logging and harvesting equipment
Suttle Equipments http://www.suttleequipment.com
(870)584-4434

Brown 6001 East Hwy 27, Ozark, AL 36360 Tree Cutter; Rotary Cutters; Shredder; Tandem Disc Harrow;
50 Russia
Manufacturing ; (334) 795-6603 Offset Lift Disc Harrow; Aerator; Turf Aerator

Backhoe Loaders; Cold Planers; Compact Track and Multi


Terrain Loaders; Compactors; Feller Bunchers; Forest
Machines; Forwarders; Harvesters; Hydraulic Excavators;
100 North East Adams Street Knuckleboom Loaders; Material Handlers; Motor Graders;
51 Caterpilar Peoria, Illinois USA 61629 USA http://india.cat.com Off-Highway Trucks; Paving Equipment; Pipelayers; Road
1-306-955-9767 Reclaimers; Skid Steer Loaders; Skidders; Track Loaders;
Track-Type Tractors; Underground Mining; Wheel Dozers;
Wheel Excavators; Wheel Loaders» Wheel Tractor-Scrapers;
Used Equipments

74