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Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2016

ISSN: 2456 – 2998 (Online)
Pages: 297 – 302

Modern Imaging Systems – A Review


Department Of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Velalar College of Engineering and Technology,
Thinal, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract: This paper is revealing about the working and construction of modern imaging systems in the current
scenario and their applications in the medical fields and their technologies. And this study analyses the security
and privacy properties of these modern imaging equipment. These equipment comprise the patient safety and
patient privacy. Motivated by the desire to improve patient safety, and mindful over the conventional trade-offs
between security and power consumption for resources. Many of these equipment were been constructed and
designed for the patient choices and according to their priority.


This paper deals with the basic implementation of the modern imaging systems that revolve around our daily
life. These medicated equipments are not known to people. These application oriented equipment are useful in
treating the diseased, their condition and terms for disease continuous cause recovery of damage.


A radiological examination is one of the most important diagnostic aids available in the medical practice. It is
based on the fact that various anatomical structures of the body have different densities for the x-rays. When x-
rays from a point source penetrate a section of the body, the internal body structures absorb varying amounts of
the radiation. The radiation that leaves the body has a spatial intensity variation i.e, an image of the internal
structure of the body. The commonly used arrangement for diagnostic radiology. The x-ray intensity distribution
is visualized by a suitable device like a photographic film. A shadow image is generated that corresponds to the
x-ray density of the organs in the body section. The examination technique varies according to the clinical
problem. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation at the low wavelength end of the electromagnetic spectrum. The
x-ray in the medical diagnostic region have wavelength of the order of 10 -10 m. They propagate with a speed of
3x1010cm/s and are unaffected by electric and magnetic fields. According to the quantum theory,
electromagnetic radiation consists of photons, which are conceived as packets of energy. This interaction with
matter involves an energy exchange and the relation between the wavelength and the photon is given by,

Figure 1. Block diagram for x-ray.

© S.Lakshmipriya 297

Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2016
ISSN: 2456 – 2998 (Online)
Pages: 297 – 302

A timer is used in x-ray machines to initiate and terminate the x-ray exposure. The timer controls the x-ray
contractor which in turn, controls the voltage transformer. Timers vary widely in their methods of operation,
starting with simple mechanical timers to microcontroller based electronic timers. The timers in order equipment
were of the spring driven hand –operated type which have now mostly been replaced by electronic timers based
on the use of SCR or thyristors. However, with the variety and age of x-ray equipment presently in use, almost
all of the various types of exposure times are still in use. Radiographic practice is based on the selection of
appropriate x-ray exposure factors such as patient size, shape and physical condition, examination and
protection to be performed. This can be done by a technologist using his or her own judgement with a manually
controlled generator.

Figure 2. X-ray machine.

However, this process has been a less matter of technologist preferences and more a part of a standard protocol.
Therefore, it has led to the introduction of anatomically programmed radiography by combining all the primary
controls of the generator and the automatic exposure control. The use of machine stored parameters results in
better quality of radiographs. Electrical charges proportional to x-ray intensity seen by the pixel are stored in the
thin film transistor storage cap. A number of such pixels from the flat detector panel. The charges are
deciphered. Mammography is an x-ray imaging procedure used for the female. It is primarily used for diagnosis
of breast cancer and in the guidance of needle biopsies.

There are two main limitations of using conventional x-rays to examine internal structures of the body. Firstly,
the super-imposition of the three-dimensional information onto a single plane makes diagnosis confusing and
often difficult. Secondly, the photographic film usually used for making radiographs has a limited dynamic
range and, therefore, only objects that have large variations in X-ray absorption relative to their surroundings
will cause sufficient contrast differences on the film to be distinguished by the eye.

Figure 3. Cross sectional view of head.

© S.Lakshmipriya 298

Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2016
ISSN: 2456 – 2998 (Online)
Pages: 297 – 302

Thus, whilst details of bony structure can be clearly seen, it is difficult to discern the shape and composition of
soft tissue organs accurately in such conditions growth and abnormalities within tissue only show a very small
contrast difference on the film and consequently, it is extremely difficult to detect them, even after using various
injected contrast media.

The problem becomes even more serious while carrying out studies of the brain due to its overall shielding of
the soft tissue by the dense bone of the skill. Computed tomography differs from conventional X-ray techniques
in that picture displayed are not photographs but are reconstructed from a large number of absorption profiles
taken at regular angular intervals around a slice, with each profiles being made up from a parallel set of
absorption values through the object. The linear attenuation coefficient value of tissue is represented by the
scanner computer as integers that usually range in values from -1000to +1000. The values are normalized to the
value for water as references.

Figure 3. Interior view of CT scanner.

These integers have been given the name ‘hounsfind units’, and are abbreviated as H. They are also denoted by
CT numbers. The purpose of the scanning system is to acquire enough information to reconstruct a picture for
an accurate diagnosis a succulent number of indecent readings must be taken to allow picture reconstruction
with a required spatial resolution and density discrimination for diagnostic purposes. In CT scanners, the highest
image quality, free from disturbing blurring effects, is obtained with aid of pulsed X-ray radiation. During
rotation, high voltage 120kv is applied at all times. A grid inside the tube prevents the electron current from
striking the anode except when desired, allowing the X-ray to be emitted in bursts.


Radio-isotopes are used in medicine both for therapeutic equipments as well as diagnostic applications. In
diagnostic practices, small amounts of radioactive chemicals, called tracers, are injected into an arm vein or
administered through ingestion or inhalation. The amount of radioactivity at different points within the patient’s
body or in body fluids is then examined by radiation detectors. The unit of radioactiy is curie and is abbreviated
as Ci or ci. This was originally defined to represent the disintegration rate of one gram of radium. The fact the
interaction of radioactive with matter gives rise to ionization makes it possible to detect and measure the
radiation. When an atom is ionized, it forms an ion pair. If the electrons are attracted towards a positively
charged electron and the positive ions to a negatively charged electrode. Scintillator is a crystalline substance
which produces minute flashes of light in the visible or near ultraviolet range, when its absorb ionizing
radiation. In such cases, the number of fluorescent photons is proportional to the energy of the radioactive

© S.Lakshmipriya 299

Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2016
ISSN: 2456 – 2998 (Online)
Pages: 297 – 302

Figure 4. NMR imaging system.

The flashes occur due to the recombination and de-excitation of ions and excited atoms produced along the path
of the radiation. In radioactivity measurements, the individual practices are detected as single electrical impulses
in the detectors. Also, various types of detectors can be set up to operate in a region in which the particular
particle produces an electrical impulse with the height proportional to the energy of the particle. The
measurement of the pulse height is thus a useful tool of energy determination. Gamma cameras are used to
produce images of the radiation generated by radio-pharmaceuticals within a patient’s body in order to examine
organ anatomy and function, and to visualize bone abnormalities. The measurement of pulse height is thus a
useful tool for energy determination. Emission computed tomography, provides in vivo three-dimensional maps
or a pharmaceutical labeled with a gamma ray emitting radio-nuclide. The three dimensional distribution of
radionuclide concentrations are estimated from a set of two –dimensional projection. Apart from some basic
modes and those indented only for whole-body studies, most stationary and some mobile gamma cameras can
perform spect a nuclear medicine technique used to create a three-dimensional representation of the distribution
of an administrated radio-pharmaceutical. SPECT cameras detect only radio-nuclides that produce a cascaded
emission of single photon.

Figure 5. Nuclear imaging system.


Magnetic resonance imaging or Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography has emerged as a powerful imaging
technique in the medical field because of its high resolution capability and potential for chemical specific
imaging. Although similar to the X-ray computerized tomography, it uses magnetic fields and radio frequency
signals to obtain anatomical information about the human body as cross-sectional images in any desired

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Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2016
ISSN: 2456 – 2998 (Online)
Pages: 297 – 302

direction and can easily discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue. MRI images are essentially a map of
the distribution density of hydrogen nuclei and parameters reflecting their motion, in cellular water and lipids.

Figure 6. Block of MRI scanner

The total avoidance of ionizing radiation, its lack of known hazards and the penetration of bone and air without
attenuation make it a particularly attractive non-intensive imaging technique. All materials contain nuclei that
are either protons or neutrons or a combination of both. Nuclei containing an odd number of protons or neutrons
or both in combination, process a nuclear spin and a magnetic moment which has both magnitude and direction.
In body tissue or any other specimen, the magnetic moments of the nuclei making up the tissue are randomly
aligned and have zero net magnetization. In NMR, at room temperature, there are more protons in a low energy
state than in a high energy state.

Figure 7. MRI scanner.

The excited proton tends to return or relax to its low-energy state with spontaneous decay and re-emissions of
energy at a later time ‘t’ in the form of radio wave photons. This decay is exponential in nature and produces a
free induction decay signal that is the fundamental form of the nuclear signal obtainable from NMR systems. To
summarize, if in a static field, RF waves of the right frequency are passed through the sample of interest, some
of the parallel proton will absorb energy and be stimulated or excited to a higher energy n the anti-parallel
direction. Sometimes later, the same frequency as RF source.

© S.Lakshmipriya 301

Volume 1, Issue 7, December 2016
ISSN: 2456 – 2998 (Online)
Pages: 297 – 302


During the two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of electronic equipments in the medical
field for clinical and research purposes. However, it is difficult to find all these in contented paper. The field of
biomedical engineering is fast developing and new equipments are been evolved.


1.Rienmann H.E. and Marholff, The clinical value of X-ray television with a high number of scanning lines.
2.Ring. E.F.J, The historical development of thermograph and thermal imaging.
3.Ragheb.T, Geddes L.A. Electrical properties of metallic electrodes.

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