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Arterial Branches of the Abdominal Aorta  External Iliac Artery

= enters the thigh, where it

Celiac Trunk becomes the femoral artery.
 The first branch of the abdominal aorta. Femoral Artery and its branches
 A single vessel that has 3 branches:
 L. Gastric Artery = supplies the  Deep Femoral Artery
stomach = serve the thigh
 Splenic artery = supplies the spleen  Popliteal Artery = splits into the
 Common hepatic artery = supplies anterior and posterior tibial arteries
the liver  Anterior and Posterior Tibial
arteries = supply the leg and foot
Superior Mesenteric Artery  Dorsalis Pedis Artery = supplies the
 Supplies most of the small intestine and dorsum of the foot.
the first half of the large intestine, or
Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation
 Most deep veins follow the course of
Renal Arteries (R. and L.) major arteries
 Serve the kidneys  The naming of these veins is identical to
that of their companion arteries.
Gonadal Arteries (R. and L.)  Major systemic veins branch off the
aorta, whereas the veins converge on
 Supply the gonads
the vena cava, which enter the right
 Ovarian arteries = females (serving
atrium of the heart.
the ovaries)
 Veins draining the head and arms =
 Testicular arteries = male ( serving
empty the superior vena cava
the testes)
 Veins draining the lower body =
Lumbar Arteries empty into the inferior vena cava

 Several pairs of arteries serving the Veins Draining into the Superior Vena Cava
heavy muscles of the abdomen and
 Veins draining into superior vena cava
trunk walls.
are named in a distal to proximal
Inferior Mesenteric Artery direction (same direction the blood
flows into the vena cava)
 Small, unpaired artery supplying the
second half of the large intestine.  Radial and Ulnar Veins
= deep veins draining the fore arm
Common Iliac Arteries (R. and L.)
= unite to form the deep brachial
 Final branches of the abdominal aorta vein
 Internal Iliac Artery
= supplies the pelvic organs (
bladder, rectum, and so on.)
Brachial Vein =join to form the superior vena
= drains the arm and empties into cava
the axillary vein in the axillary
region.  Azygos Vein
= drains the thorax and enters the
 Cephalic Vein superior vena cava before it enters
= provides for the superficial the heart
drainage of the lateral aspect of the
arm and empties into the axillary
vein. Veins Draining into the Inferior Vena Cava

 Much longer that the superior vena

 Basilic Vein cava
= a superficial vein that drains the  Returns blood to the heart from all
medial aspect of the arm and body regions below the diaphragm
empties into the brachial vein  Distal to proximal direction
 Anterior and Posterior Tibial Veins
 Median Cubital Vein and the Fibular Vein
= join the basilic and cephalic veins =drain the leg (calf and foot)
at the anterior aspect of the elbow
= often chosen as the site for blood Posterior Tibial Vein becomes the
removal for blood testing popliteal vein at the knee and
Femoral Vein in the thigh
 Subclavian Vein
= receives venous blood from the  Great Saphenous Veins
arm through the axillary vein and = longest veins in the body
from the skin and muscles of the =receive the superficial drainage of
head through the external jugular the leg
 Common (R. and L) Iliac Vein
 Vertebral Vein =formed by union of external iliac
= drain the posterior part of the vein and internal iliac vein (drains
head the pelvis)

 Internal Jugular Vein  R. Gonadal Vein

= drains the dural sinuses or the = drain the right ovary in female
brain =drains the right testicle in males

 Brachiocephalic (R. and L) Veins  L. Gonadal

= receive venous drainage from the = empties into the left renal vein
subclavian, vertebral, and inter superiorly
jugular veins
 Renal (R and L) Veins Circle of Willis
= drain the kidneys
=Complete circle of connecting blood vessels
 Hepatic Portal Vein = surrounds the base of the brain
= single vein that drains the
digestive tract organs = protects brain by providing more than one
= carries blood through the liver route for blood to reach brain tissue in case of a
before it enters the systemic clot or impaired blood flow
Hepatic Portal Circulation
 Hepatic ( R. and L) Veins = drain the digestive organs, spleen, and
= drain the liver pancreas

Special Circulations =deliver blood to liver through hepatic portal


Arterial Supply of the Brain and the Circle of Inferior Mesenteric Vein
= draining the terminal part of the large
 Brain is supplied by two pairs of arteries intestine
 Internal Carotid Arteries
=drains into the splenic vein (drains the spleen,
= Branches of the common carotid
pancreas and the left side of the stomach)
=run through the neck and enter Superior Mesenteric Vein
the skull
= divides into Anterior and Middle =drain the small intestine and the first part of
Cerebral Arteries (supply most of the colon
the cerebrum)
*The splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein
join to form the hepatic portal vein.
 Vertebral Arteries
= pass upward from the subclavian L. Gastric Vein
= joins to form the single basilar =drains the right side of the stomach
artery (serves the brain stem and
=drains directly into the hepatic portal vein

 Posterior Cerebral Arteries

= supply the posterior part of
Fetal Circulation Physiology of Circulation

 lungs and digestive system are not yet Vital signs

functioning in a fetus
 all nutrient, excretory, and gas = taking arterial pulse and blood pressure
exchange occur through the placenta measurements along with respiratory rate and
body temperature

 Arterial Pulse
 Umbilical Cord
= contains three blood vessels: Pulse
One large umbilical vein and two
= alternating expansion and recoil of an
smaller umbilical arteries
artery that occurs with each beat of the
left ventricle creates a pressure wave
Umbilical vein = carries blood rich
in nutrients and oxygen to the = travels through the entire arterial
fetus. system

Umbilical Arteries = carry carbon Pulse rate (pressure surge per minute)
dioxide and debris-laden blood equals the Heart rate (beats per
from fetus to the placenta. minute)

Pulse = 70-76 beats per minute in a

 Fetal lungs are not functional and
normal resting person
 Some of the blood entering the right Pressure Points
atrium is shunted directly into the left
atrium through the foramen ovale = easy way of counting heart rate

= compressed to stop blood flow into distal

 Foramen Ovale
tissues during hemorrhage.
= opening in the interatrial septum
Blood Pressure
 Ductus Arteriosus
= short vessel that connects the = pressure the blood vessels exerts against the
aorta and pulmonary trunk. inner walls of the blood vessels

= force that keeps blood circulating

 At birth or shortly after, the foramen
continuously even between heartbeats
ovale closes and the ductus arteriosus
collapses and is converted into Blood pressure Gradient
ligamentum arteriosum

= hardening of the arteries

Measuring Blood Pressure

 Systolic Pressure = the pressure in Hypertension

arteries at the peak of ventricular
contraction =a condition of sustained elevated pressure of
 Diastolic Pressure = pressure when 140/90 or higher.
the ventricles are relaxing Chronic Hypertension

= a common and dangerous disease that warns

Blood Pressures are reported in millimeters of of increased peripheral resistance.
mercury (mmHg), with the systolic pressure = slowly and surely strains the heart and
written first. damages the arteries.

120/ 80 (120 over 80) = called the ‘silent killer’

Auscultatory Method Congenital Heart Disease

= used to measure blood pressure in the = defects account for about half of infant deaths
brachial artery of the arm resulting from all congenital defcts

Homeostatic Imbalances = maternal infections and ingested drugs during

the first three months of pregnancy seem to
Hypotension cause such problems.
= generally considered to be a systolic blood = include ductus arteriosus that does
pressure below 100 mm Hg not close, sepal openings, and other
Orthostatic Hypotension structural abnormalities of the heart.

= temporary low blood pressure and dizziness

when they rise suddenly from a reclining or
sitting position.

Chronic Hypotension

= may hint at poor nutrition and inadequate

levels of blood proteins

Acute Hypotension

= One of the most important warnings of

circulatory shock.

= a condition in which blood vessels are

inadequately filled and cannot circulate