Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” Cluj Napoca Faculatea de Geografie Masterat Administrarea Teritoriului şi Resurse Umane, limba engleză

Human Resource Motivation
Case study: shop manager
= dissertation paper =

Coordinating teacher, Şef Lucr. Tit. Dr. Kovács Csaba Miklós

Absolvent master, Neagoe Adriana


Table of Contents:


1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................3 2. Chapter I: Human Resource Motivation..............................................................................5 2.1 Motivation Concept.........................................................................................................5 2.2 Theories and Definitions of the Human Resource motivation……................................7 2.3 Why to Motivate the Personnel? ...................................................................................18 2.4 Reward Systems Evolution............................................................................................21 3. Chapter II: Case Study: Shop manager..............................................................................24 3.1 General Presentation of the Company...........................................................................25 3.2 Importance given to the Human Resource Motivation within the Company................25 3.3 Shop Manager’s Role related to the Human Resource Motivation…………………...26 4. Conclusions.........................................................................................................................33 5. Annex .................................................................................................................................34 6. Bibliography .....................................................................................................................38


1. Introduction
Some readers may wonder why I chose to write about such a subject like motivation. I shall briefly explain my reasons in the next lines. First of all, I am personally interested in the human factor. For decades, studies on this domain have shown the importance of this element whose presence is essential in any kind of organization. Moreover, we can say that this is the strategic element on which all the development at global level depends. Nowadays, we live in a society in which changes are succeeding rapidly and in the business world, permanent provocations and changes in approaches represent a normal thing. Or, without a capable, creative, high qualified human resource, any organization might easily be thrown out of the free, competitive market or even “doomed” to disappear. Without the presence of people who know how the things work and know when and what must be done, organizations simply cannot achieve their objectives. Due to the importance of this factor, companies make efforts into the direction of having employees who do their jobs properly. One key technique to attain this purpose is to use motivation of the human resource. Thus, the value of motivation itself is not an intrinsic one, but rather it consists in the value of the human resource. We use it (motivation) in order to obtain better results from the human component. So, I decided to realize my research project into this field. The problem was tat I had to be very specific in my study, because such a paper as dissertation, does not allow too much divagation upon a chosen subject. I decided, thus, to direct my efforts into studying a Romanian company from the Cluj Napoca area. From this point of view, my research does not pretend to be an exhaustive one. In exchange, I tried to make it as objective as I could, to present facts in the way I have received them and to avoid (as much as possible) to distort reality, by making clear difference between my personal opinions and given facts. To be ore objective, I chose a company with more than one shop in the city, to see I find a pattern related to the human resource employed by the company and ways in which it understands to motivate this human resource. About techniques of field work, I had to decide which one would be most reliable in order to obtain objective results. Because the participative observation was the best way of achieving my goal, I had to decide between two kinds of instruments: the unstructured


questionnaire (just questions) and the structured questionnaire (questions with defined answers). Because the first does not include given answers, the respondents have a great degree of liberty in answering the questions. But in my research I needed “measurable” data in order to analyze answers and to make a good comparison between different results. In this context, I chose a combination between these two options, but with high prevalence of structured questions with given answers (around 80% of the total number of questions). Even if the liberty of answering was more limited than if the first case, it gave the possibility to better quantify results and in the same time it reduced, for the respondents, the actual period of completing the task (which was an important thing due to the fact that time represented an important aspect for the persons interviewed). My research was based on studying a category of employees with major importance within a retail company: shop managers. They represent the key link between higher levels of management and the lower category of employees (sellers and shift managers). Because the last category of employees represent the interface with clients/possible buyers, on their activity depends the results of the company and implicitly, the profit. Thus, shop managers have to find ways of mutating them in order to achieve good results. We must not forget that heir task is not quite easy, mainly due to the fact that they don’t have large power of decision on this domain and so there is a continuous frustrating “battle” of achieving their goal (good results from the well done activity of the motivated personnel) with restrained resources.


2. Chapter I Human Resource Motivation
2.1 Motivation Concept
The notion of motivation is a “large” one, comprising a lot of meanings as it comes into our minds and we tend to associate it with a lot of aspects. For example, we can associate it with “positive” notions as a good salary, a well-defined purpose, a managerial spirit understanding the human psychology, knowing stimuli that keep away monotony and mediocrity or with “negative” ones like manipulating individuals1. Motivation represents the engine of our actions, the important variable that orientates our behavior and our daily life. Every action that we undertake is justified by a series of factors that energizes, activates and sustains a behavior. The answer to a question like “What did determine you to do this thing?” is hard to be given in an instant, because at the moment we find quite hard to be aware of the motivation in choosing a certain type of acting in a particular situation. Motivation research represents a large domain within the human psychology, science that tries to find the inner causes which determines a specific behavior. From the psychological point of view, the personnel motivation is linked with human needs. So, it is clear that active needs determine an inner tension which the individual permanently tries to surpass2. In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. So, in order to understand motivation one must understand human nature itself3. The Romanian Explanatory Dictionary (DEX) defines motivation as the “total amount of reasons, conscious or unconscious, which determine a person to perform a certain action or to tend to a certain purpose”4. The origin of the notion must be searched in the Latin word “movere”, with the sense of “motion” and it indicates a push towards action that shows one is alive. I move, therefore I am alive. “Dead” implies no movement. To look for life, we look for signs of movement. Motivation is the type of movement that penetrates boundaries, stimulates interplay between internal and external elements and, thereby, initiates and perpetuates mutual

Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.188 2 ibidem, p.188 3 http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html 4 http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=motivatie


impact and interaction between the individual and his environment. Motivation can be conceptualized as a part of a process, a series of movements that directs and structures life itself. A distinction will be made between motivation, which in general involves internal movement, and the actions resulting from motivation, which tend to involve external movement. The internal movement involves thoughts and emotions focused on the desire for a certain object or result, whereas the external movement involves actions that are geared towards creating or obtaining the object or result5. Acting to achieve a goal involves more than just a wish or a dream; it involves a decision to initiate the process of reaching the goal. The role of decision-making becomes clear when one considers that at any given moment an individual is faced with countless, often conflicting, possibilities. This is demonstrated by the following example in which an individual feels a strong push towards two contradictory goals. Until a decision is made to move in the direction of one of the two goals, the individual remains with both visions as possibilities, making no progress towards either goal. On the one hand, the individual is highly motivated to eat a hot fudge ice cream sundae with all the toppings. This motivation may consist of the inner feelings of desire to experience the cool, smooth texture on one’s tongue and the velvety warm chocolate in one’s mouth. Further, one may be motivated by the thought of how much one loves this brand of ice cream and how there is a special two-for-one price. On the other hand, one may be aware of how tight one’s trousers feel stretched across one’s stomach and may reflect on one’s determination to lose weight. Thus, one has two very powerful and contradictory goals. Until one actually begins eating the ice cream or turns around and walks away, one remains motivated in two directions with no action taking place. Once action begins, it becomes apparent that a decision has been made. The decision may be made consciously after the weighing of options, or it may be made unconsciously. It is possible that suddenly the person finds himself with ice cream in his mouth and thinks, for example “How did this happen? I really didn’t mean to eat it”. Acting as if unknown forces caused the events, the person relieves himself of responsibility for his actions in order to satisfy impulses without sensing any guilt. On the other hand, a person who values the control afforded by conscious choice may eat the ice cream after concluding, “I’ll probably feel guilty later, but I want to enjoy life and I can always buy bigger trousers”, or “I have stayed on the diet all week and will




allow myself to indulge this once”. In either case, consciously or unconsciously, until a decision is made, there is no action6. Zlate Mielu designates by the word “motivation”, the inner state of necessity of the organism which orientates and conducts the behavior in the direction of satisfying and in this way of removing it7. From this point of view, we can build a model of the general process of motivation, described as a necessity state or tension which exerts a pressure over the individual to behave in a certain way (as I mentioned before, to satisfy it or to remove it)8:

Lack of balance, Tension, Needs, Expectations

Behaviour or Action

Satisfying needs

Reducing tensions

Fig 1. General model of motivational process9

2.2 Theories and Definitions of the Human Resource motivation

The word “motivation” is hard to be defined. It has common roots with other terms, like “motion” or “impulse”, thus referring to changes in the fact state, existing at a certain point in time. More exactly, it refers to what it induces, causes, and initiates a motion, an action or

6 7

ibidem apud, Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.189 8 Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.189 9 ibidem, p.189


thought. So, from the psychological point of view, motivation is the psychological “cause” of a thought or behavior in a certain moment10. Motivation can be defined as “the individual, internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior”. Motivation is the personal “force” that causes one to behave in a particular way11. There are a lot of theories which refer to motivation. I will choose to explain briefly the most important ones, such as the scientific management, the Hawthorne studies, theory X and theory Y, Maslow hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's theory etc. Scientific management. Its creator, Frederick W. Taylor argued that if the management will act according to its concepts, the efficiency of the work will improve considerably and the employees will be satisfied by obtaining a greater salary. From his observations at a steel factory, he suggested in particular four steps to be followed in order to obtain greatest results: “First. The development of a true science. Second. The scientific selection of the workman. Third. His scientific education and development. Fourth. Intimate friendly cooperation between the management and the men”12. So, each job should be broken into separate tasks and then management should determine the best way to perform these tasks and the job output to expect when the tasks were performed properly. The next step would be assigning the best person to a certain job and to train that person in order to do the job properly. In the end, he supposed there should be cooperation between management and workers to ensure that jobs were performed as planned13. The greatest abuse of Scientific Management has come from applying the techniques without the philosophy behind them. It is obvious from Taylor's own observations that the above discussion would be misplaced in other workers. Taylor acknowledged the potential for abuse in his methods. "The knowledge obtained from accurate time study, for example, is a powerful implement, and can be used, in one case to promote harmony between workmen and the management, by gradually educating, training, and leading the workmen into new and better methods of doing the work, or in the other case, it may be used more or less as a club to

10 11

ibidem, p.190 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 227 12 Taylor, Frederick W., The Principles Of Scientific Management, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, p.84 13 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 228


drive the workmen into doing a larger day's work for approximately the same pay that they received in the past"14. The Hawthorne Studies. The research Elton Mayo (an Australian psychologist, sociologist and organization theorist) conducted under the Hawthorne Studies in the 1930s showed the importance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. This enabled him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace. What he found however was that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the workgroup. What did really matter was a feeling of importance. On the other hand, physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. People will form workgroups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization. He concluded that people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content. He suggested a tension between workers' “logic of sentiment” and managers' “logic of cost and efficiency” 15 which could lead to conflict within organizations. From these and other studies, the human relations movement in management was born. This was built on the assumption that employees who are happy and satisfied with their work will be motivated to perform better. The conclusion would be that the management should do its best to provide a work environment that maximizes employee satisfaction.16 Theory X and Theory Y. Douglas McGregor in his book, "The Human Side of Enterprise" published in 1960 has examined theories on behavior of individuals at work, and he has formulated two models which he calls Theory X and Theory Y. On the one hand, Theory X is a concept of employee motivation consistent with Taylor's scientific management. It is based on some assumptions like:  people dislike work and try to avoid it  because people dislike work, managers must coerce, control, and frequently threaten employees to achieve organizational goals.
 people generally must be led because they have little ambition and will not seek

responsibility. They are concerned mainly with security.17
14 15

http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/taylor.asp http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/business/mayo.html 16 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 230 17 ibidem, p. 230


These assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today, and give rise both to "tough" management with punishments and tight controls, and "soft" management which aims at harmony at work18. We can argue that both of them are "wrong" (here opinions may differ from person to person), because man needs mean more than just financial rewards at work and he also needs some deeper higher order motivation - the opportunity to fulfill him. Theory X managers do not give their staff this opportunity so that the employees behave in the expected fashion. On the other hand, Theory Y assumes that employees accept responsibility and work in order to achieve organizational goals if, by this way, they can achieve their own personal goals. This concept is accordant with the ideas of human relations movement and its premises are that
 people do not naturally dislike work and work represents an important part of

their lives  people will work toward goals to which they are committed  they become committed to goals when it s clear that accomplishing these goals will bring personal rewards  people seek out and willingly accept responsibility  employees have the potential to help accomplish organizational goals
 organizations generally do not make full use of their human resources19

So, accordingly to this theory, to control and punish people are not the only solutions in order to get people to work. This important thing to be achieved is the satisfaction on the job and if so, then people will be committed to the organization and will help it to achieve its goals. The assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y are based on social science research which has been carried out, and demonstrate the potential which is present in man and which organizations should recognize in order to become more effective. McGregor sees these two theories as two quite separate attitudes. Even if Theory Y is more appropriate and effective as a guide for managerial actions, it is difficult to put into practice on the shop floor in large mass production operations, but it can be used initially in the managing of managers and
18 19

http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 231


professionals. By the other side, the way in which managers behave is more accordingly to Theory X.20 In his book, McGregor shows how Theory Y affects the management of promotions and salaries and the development of effective managers. McGregor also sees Theory Y as a way to participative problem solving. It is part of the manager's job to exercise authority, and there are cases in which this is the only method of achieving the desired results because sometimes subordinates do not agree that the ends are desirable and will not make an effort to achieve something that is not accordant to their beliefs. However, in situations where it is possible to obtain commitment to objectives, it is better to explain the matter fully so that employees grasp the purpose of an action. They will then exert self-direction and control to do better work quite possibly by better methods - than if they had simply been carrying out an order which they did not fully understand.21 Once management becomes persuaded that it is under estimating the potential of its human resources, and accepts the knowledge given by social science researchers and displayed in Theory Y assumptions, then it can invest time, money and effort in developing improved applications of the theory. McGregor realizes that some of the theories he has put forward are unrealizable in practice, but wants managers to put into operation the basic assumption that staff will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as responsible and valued employees.22 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. This theory has the premise that people want more and more, and what they want depends on what they already have. In this way, a needs hierarchy is formed, depending on their importance. Maslow sustains that this hierarchy is universal between different cultures, but recognizes that there may be individual, particular motivations, in particular cultures.23 The importance of different needs may be represented as a pyramid (at bottom, the basic needs which must be accomplished first and if so people tend to satisfy the next level up to the peak):

20 21

ibidem, p. 231 http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html 22 ibidem 23 Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.193


Fig 2. Maslow's hierarchy of needs24 In Maslow's opinion, at the very bottom we find the physiological needs, in particular those things we need in order to survive. In this category we can find things like food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep. In the employment context, these needs are usually satisfied through adequate wages. The next level is represented by the safety needs, those things that we require for physical and emotional security: job security, health insurance, pension plans, safe working conditions etc. The next step is represented by the social needs, the human requirements for love and affection and a sense of belonging. To an extent, these needs can be satisfied through the work environment and the informal organization, but beyond the social relationship at the workplace, people usually need such links with family and friends. The fourth level is that of esteem needs, represented by respect and recognition (the esteem of others) as well as a sense of our own accomplishment and worth (self-esteem). This kind of needs can be satisfied through personal accomplishment, promotion to more responsible jobs, various honors and awards and other forms of recognition. At the end, at the uppermost level, we find selfrealization needs, the needs to grow and develop as people and to become all that we are capable o being. These needs are the most difficult to be satisfied, and the means to do so may vary from one individual to another. For some people, learning a new skill, starting a new career after retirement, or becoming “the best there is” at some endeavor may be the way to satisfy the self-realization needs.25
24 25

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Boston, 1991, p. 232


The author of the theory emphasizes that this hierarchy of needs is not always respected and exceptions may occur in some situations, like for example:
 for some persons, the self-realization may be more important than love, because

in their opinion the most loved person is the most powerful, which can commend respect;
 for the persons innate creative, creativity and self-realization may be on the first

place in this hierarchy of needs, replacing satisfaction of physical needs;
 the upper needs (at the peak) may not exist for some persons, for example for

those who stayed a long period unemployed.26 A need that has been satisfied for a long period of time, tends to lose its original importance, for example people who have never suffered hunger underestimate the satisfaction of this need. Despite criticism and limits, this theory has a significant role upon the managerial practices in what concerns employees motivation in order to satisfy the needs of both organization and personnel. The employees have different needs and expectations which must be correlated with work hierarchical levels. Herzberg's Theory. To better understand employee attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed various studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. He published his findings in the 1959 book The Motivation to Work. The theory is known also as the Two Factor theory (motivationhygiene). Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction (and presumably motivation) were different from that causing job dissatisfaction. So, he found out that the opposite of dissatisfaction is not satisfaction, but the lack of dissatisfaction. Thus, the theory states that there are two different dimensions, one which might range satisfaction to no satisfaction and the other which might range from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction.27 The two categories of factors may be represented as in the following table28:


Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.194 27 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 234 28 http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/herzberg/


Hygiene Factors      Company policy Supervision Interpersonal relationships Work conditions Salary

Motivation Factors • Achievement • Recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth Satisfaction No satisfaction

 Job security Dissatisfaction No satisfaction

Even if this theory was criticized and tested by other studies in the field, it drew managers' attention upon job description and the importance of life quality at the workplace. So, managers should make hygiene as good as possible, but should then expect only short-term, not long-term, improvement in motivation. To obtain long-term personnel motivation, they must do efforts to provide the motivation factors29. Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory are very popular and widely known motivation theories. Even if they represented a big step forward from the relatively narrow views of the scientific management and Theories X and Y, they do have some weaknesses, for example both try to specify what motivates people and do not explain why or how motivation is caused or how motivation is sustained over time. More dynamic views of motivation are offered by theories like the equity theory, expectancy theory, and reinforcement theory. Equity Theory. Most often, it’s associated with Stacey Adam's studies, who sustain that there are two kinds of equity: distributive equity (which refers to individuals' perception regarding the reward compared to the effort made and to the other employees) and the procedural equity (which refers to employees' perception regarding the organizational settlement, ways of promotion and disciplinary codes). The degree in which inequity is perceived generates tensions, and the level of tensions determines the force of motivation.30 Thus, this theory helps us explain why pay and conditions alone, even if sometimes very well accomplished by the organization, do not determine motivation (fact which appears

Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 235 30 Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.201


contradictory at a first sight). This means that equity does not depend only on our input (effort) - output (reward) ratio and it depends on our comparison between our ratio and the ratio of others.31 The equity theory may be represented as a diagram:

Fig. 3. Adam's Equity Theory diagram- job motivation32

The theory is most relevant to pay as the reward. Because pay s a very real measure of a person's worth to the organization, comparisons involving pay represent a natural part of organizational life. To avoid problems rising from the inequity, managers must do all the possible to avoid inequity. For example, they can make sure that rewards are distributed according to performance and that everyone clearly understands the basis for his or her own pay.33

31 32

http://www.businessballs.com/adamsequitytheory.htm ibidem 33 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 236


Expectancy Theory. Developed by Victor Vroom, it is a very complex model of motivation that is based on a simple assumption, that motivation depends on how much we want some thing and on how likely we think we are to get it.34 On this basis, it can be represented very simplistic as a relation of this type:

Does the person want the

Does the person think the outcome


Not motivated

Not motivated

Fig. 4 Expectancy Theory35 So, this theory states that people are influenced by the results expected after doing an action. Thus, motivation becomes a relation between:
 the efforts laid down and the perceived level of performance;  the hope that the reward will be correlated with the performance;  the hope that rewards are available.36

Performance depends on the way the effort laid down and the desired outcome is perceived. An expectation is defined as a temporary belief that a particular action will be followed by a particular outcome. The theory is complex because each action we take is likely to lead to several different outcomes, some that we may want and others that we may not want. It is also difficult to apply, but it offers some useful guidelines for the managers. Thus, it suggests that managers must recognize that employees work for a variety o different reasons, that these reasons (or expected outcomes)may change over time, and that it is necessary to clearly show employees how they can attain the outcomes they desire.37
34 35

ibidem, p. 236 ibidem, p. 237 36 Porumb, Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca, 2005, p.198 37 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 237


Reinforcement Theory. This theory has perhaps the greatest potential for business application. It is based on the premise that behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that has been punished is less likely to occur.38 So, we can say that consequences influence behavior. It means that people do things (or avoid doing things) because they know other things will follow. Thus, depending upon the type of consequence that follows, people will produce some behaviors and avoid others. There are three basic principles of this theory which give different kinds of behavior:  consequences which give rewards increase a behavior.  consequences which give punishments decrease a behavior.
 consequences which give neither rewards nor punishments extinguish a

behavior.39 Based upon these principles we may try to define what a reward is and what a punishment is. An easy answer would be that a reward is anything that increases the behavior and a punishment is anything that decreases the behavior. But we may wonder what is a reinforcement and a simple definition would be that a reinforcement is an action that follows directly from a particular behavior.40 Even if they can take a variety of forms, there are in practice two main types of reinforcements: positive ones (that strengthens desired behavior by providing a reward) and negative ones (that strengthens desired behavior by eliminating an undesirable task or situation). Another kind of reinforcement is that based on extinction, which means that managers hope to eliminate undesirable behavior by ignoring it. Thus, the behavior will eventually become extinct.41 The effectiveness of reinforcement depends on which type is used and how it is timed. Each type is best in certain situations. Generally, positive reinforcement is considered the most effective and it s recommended when the manager may choose from different kinds of action. There might be some difficulties to put this theory into practice, for example it might be hard to identify rewards and punishments in a certain situation (which may vary from case to case or in time), or punishing might be difficult to be well done (to be effective, there must be accomplished several requirements like: to be: 1) immediate (right now!), 2) intense (the
38 39

ibidem, p. 237 http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/rf.htm 40 Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 238 41 ibidem, p. 238


biggest possible far a certain situation), 3) unavoidable (there is no escape), and 4) consistent (every time) .42 Nevertheless, with all its limitations this theory remains a powerful tool in order to get people motivated in the desired way.

2.3 Why to Motivate the Personnel?

There is an old saying which states that you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink only if it's thirsty - so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the “ivory tower” they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Here we can ask if people are born with the self-motivation or drive. The answer may be “Yes” or “No”. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. But why motivation is so important? One may wonder why there are so many studies related to this subject of motivation of the human resource and why continuously new and new studies and research projects are undertaken. As we easily can observe, the efforts are directed into finding new techniques and strategies of motivation, to permanently improve findings in this field. The answer might be a very simple one and is related to the fact that the human resource is a key element in the optimal functioning of an organization (company etc.). Related to this particular resource (capital) the organization may confront itself with unique issues which distinguish this resource from the other types of capital. Generally, any organization always must take into account that any resource/capital (financial, goods, human etc) is physically limited and thus it is compulsory to use them very carefully, with wisdom. The special issue about the human capital is just that we talk about human beings and not objects. In the very moment as we think about the word “human”, a lot of possible difficulties, which we might confront with, come into our minds. This is a resource who thinks, who has thoughts. For example, another capital would never judge its position into



a firm. A printing machine which lies in the very ugliest and neglected corner of the hall will never protest about this fact, but in contrast with this, the man operating that machine will obviously fell disadvantaged by finding himself in that position. Thus, this capital has its own opinions and its own particular view upon the surrounding world and if it feels that something it's wrong for it, will easily revolt against the perceived “dangerous” situation, or simply will show its dissatisfaction. Thus, what can a company do in order to “tame” it? For a moment, I was tempted to write “in order to “manipulate” it”. Probably, to manipulate at wish, whenever they want, their human resource is the desire of all companies. In this way it is almost sure that all the problems with it would be gone forever. But, and this is a big “but”, in a democratic society (because my study doesn't refer to another kinds of societies), this “desideratum” is very hard to be put into practice, if not impossible. But really this is the way the facts are? Let’s think from the perspective of the workplace safety. A company may act in the way of permanently threatening its employees with losing their jobs if they don not behave in a manner agreed by it. We may assume though that the personnel will be a obedient one. Reality though is a little bit more complex than that. Situations may differ from case to case. For example, if the company would want to keep its well trained personnel, then it cannot afford to lose it. The big advantage of the human capital is represented bay the fact that it can permanently be improved (by trainings, lectures, other means of education etc.). The solely disadvantage of the trainings, for example, is that they can be extremely expensive. They may easily reach sums of tens of thousands of Euros43 and we might think there are not many companies who are willing to spend these amounts of money. Thus, there are. It is true that we speak here about big companies who can afford this kind of expenses to have a highly trained personnel, but this shows once more the importance given to the human resource (like some experts say, one the most important resource an organization has). The human resource is in the end the “engine” of the organization's activity. Nevertheless, there are solutions for the companies to have a trustful human capital, who can perform high quality activities. One of the most efficient methods is the company to use various techniques to motivate its personnel. In this context, motivation appears like the necessary “fuel” needed by the human resource to give best results in work. The entire activity of motivating personnel has performance as its final purpose. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus:

NB: for example, a MBA training may reach 18-20,000 €


Job performance =f (ability) (motivation) 44

Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation.  Positive reinforcement / high expectations  Effective discipline and punishment  Treating people fairly  Satisfying employees needs  Setting work related goals  Restructuring jobs
 Base rewards on job performance 45

These are the basic strategies, though the mix in the final “recipe” will vary from workplace situation to situation. Essentially, there is a gap between an individual’s actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. It is inducing others in a specific way towards goals specifically stated by the motivator. Naturally, these goals as also the motivation system must conform to the corporate policy of the organization. The motivational system must be tailored to the situation and to the organization. In one of the most elaborate studies on employee motivation, involving 31,000 men and 13,000 women, the Minneapolis Gas Company sought to determine what their potential employees’ desire most from a job. This study was carried out during a 20 year period from 1945 to 1965 and was quite revealing. The ratings for the various factors differed only slightly between men and women, but both groups considered security as the highest rated factor. The next three factors46 were:  advancement
44 45 46

http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html ibidem ibidem


 type of work  company - proud to work for Surprisingly, factors such as pay, benefits and working conditions were given a low rating by both groups. So after all, and contrary to common belief, money is not the prime motivator. But, of course, the conclusions of the study were not meant to reward employees poorly or unfairly.

2.4 Reward Systems Evolution

Many of the theories and models of employee motivation may be difficult to be put into practice. Those that are used generally become part of the organization's reward system, which is the formal mechanism for defining, evaluating, and rewarding employee performance. A reward system should motivate employees to work effectively to receive desired outcomes from the organization and should have a positive impact on employee satisfaction and morale.47 The employees can be motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. To be effective, the reward system must recognize these two sources of motivation. All reward systems are based on the assumptions of attracting, retaining and motivating people. One of the most important components of the reward system is represented by financial rewards, but there are other factors that motivate employees and influence the level of performance. In fact, several studies, like for example the study presented at the point 2.3, have found that among employees surveyed, money was not the most important motivator, and in some other instances managers have found money to have a demotivating or negative effect on employees. 48 So, in order to ensure that the reward system is effective and motivates the desired behaviors, it is essential to take carefully into consideration the rewards and strategies utilized and ensure the rewards are linked to or based on performance. To be effective, any performance measurement system must be tied to some compensation or some sort of reward. Rewarding performance should be an ongoing managerial activity, not just an annual pay-linked ritual.49

Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 239 48 http://www.uth.tmc.edu/ut_general/admin_fin/hr/perplan/reward.html 49 ibidem


To consider that a reward system is effective, it has to accomplish four major conditions50:  probably the most important , it has to give possibility to people to satisfy their basic needs (for example, in Maslow's hierarchy, the first two levels)
 it should provide rewards comparables to those from other companies, in this way

also obtaining, in my opinion, the employees' fidelity to their own company  within the organization, rewards should be fairly distributed in order to maintain a sense of equity and justice among the personnel
 it must recognize that different people have different needs, and these needs should

be fulfilled in different ways. There are different kinds of reward systems, and I should briefly present some of the more important ones. Due to their nature (universal exchange), money will always be an essential part of the rewards employees expect. There are two most commonly used monetary reward systems: fixed-rate systems and incentive systems. On the one hand, the first means that employees will be paid in correlation with a certain period of working time (which may vary from an hour, to a day, week, moth, year) and on the other hand, the second means that employees are paid not in correlation to time but to units they produce.51 Other rewards systems used are the followings:
 All-Salaried Work Force, which refers to the fact that the employees are paid

regardless the time they actually work and have a monthly based salary;
 Skill-Based Job Evaluation refers to the fact that employees, even if they work the

same amount of time, their payment will differ, being correlated to the particular performance of each one; thus, the more skilled employee receives the higher pay;
 Lump-Sum Salary Increases means that a company offer the employee the

possibility of taking the entire pay raise in one lump sum at the beginning of the year;
 Cafeteria Benefits Plan. A usual reward system offers not only pay but a set of

„package” of benefits. In this system, the company offers the employees the

Pride, William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1991, p. 239 51 ibidem, p. 239


possibility to “spend” a certain amount of benefits money as they see fit in the “benefits cafeteria”. Thus, they may use it to purchase whatever benefits they would like most (for example in a two-income family, one spouse might elect not to take health insurance- because the other spouse has another better plan – and to take additional vacation time instead).52

3. Chapter II Case Study: Shop Manager in Relation with Human Resource Motivation at Leonardo

ibidem, p. 239


The purpose of my research was to study human resource motivation in a Romanian company. A chose a large company which has more than one shop in Cluj-Napoca, because I was interested to see a pattern in what concerns the policy related to the shop managers, part of its human resource. I was interested in finding the importance given to this category of employees, how the company motivates them and, through them, how the company tries to motivate the lower level employees. What we have to understand is the fact that shop managers are a key link between the company and low level employees (sellers and shift managers). They are the persons who coordinate the entire activity of the store and they can do this by their daily presence in the store. Upper level managers do not exercise a permanent control over the store's activity, because they are physically there only once a month, in best cases. So, the task of motivating low level employees comes to the shop managers. One may ask why it is so important to motivate these categories of employees (low level) due to the fact that they are at the very bottom of the organizational hierarchy. Well here we must not forget that these employees are in direct contact with the clients, the possible buyers. It is now understandable that on their activity as sellers depends the entire level of company's sells and implicitly the profit. The relation is simple, the more motivated and happy the sellers, the bigger will be the amount of articles sold and the bigger the profit. From here derives the essential importance of the store manager's effort to motivate the personnel and implicitly the key importance of its activity. Thus, we see that the store manager is a key element in the equation. My question was how much importance gives a Romanian company to this element, because it is clear at this level that good results would only came with well trained shop managers, professionals who would perform a good job in the motivational field. My research was based on a questionnaire (to be found at point 5. Annex) directly addressed to shop managers to see their opinion on the subject, the facts and how trained they are related to the motivational aspect. The second and the third subsections of this chapter are based upon the answers I received from the interviewed persons. Even though I have managed to cover the entire Cluj-Napoca area, my study does not have the claim to be an exhaustive one, because the persons interviewed were limited by the number of shops present in this place. Thus, it can give an idea of how a large company is carries on its activity in the biggest Transylvanian town. We can also speculate that the situation is likely to be found in almost all (if not all) the other locations where the company is present, but this would surpass the objectivity of a scientific approach.


3.1 General Presentation of the Company

I chose to do my study in one of the most representative companies at the national level. It acts on the Romanian market by already fourteen years and it has become one of the most known brands in our country. “Leonardo’s” domain of activity is represented by the en-detail commerce of leather and footwear articles, footwear production or import from Italy. Its headquarters are to be found in Oradea, but we can find shops in all major cities 53 (in numerous cases, more than one shop) and not only. I certainly do not mistake when I say “Leonardo” is a big company, because figures do not need any furthermore explanation. At the end of 2006, it had more than 1,000 employees 54 and the turnover was ciphered at more than 75,000,000 €55. The company's plan to expand its activity includes (at the end of 2007) 150 shops in Romania, 45 in Hungary and 2 in Bulgaria.

3.2 Importance given to the Human Resource Motivation within the Company

Given the fact that I was thinking to realize my brief research in a large company, I had my own stereotypes, preconception in my mind referred to what a such company is capable (due to the large amounts of money that is at its disposal) of doing for its human resource. Prior to begin my study, I tried to imagine, to make a brief sketch of what I might find. Even if I tried not to exaggerate too much in this idea, my sketch included large “packages” of benefits (not including here salary) at “local” level, lets say. I did not think at paid vacations, paid holidays and other such examples (due to the fact that my object of study did not refer to CEOs and other top managers, but to a shop manager, which represent almost a line manager, if we exclude from here the shift manager). Of course, a scientific approach of this kind does not include too many personal opinions and I did my best in keeping a distance from my personal views and to present reality as objective as I can show it. The truth was that my prior ideas were quite far from the actual state of things.
53 54 55

NB: 32 cities NB: more precisely, 1,125 employees NB: 76,281,152 €


Maybe a first surprisingly fact is that there is not a Human resource Department within the company. With more than 1,000 employees, all the activity related to this field is performed by persons who do not have (in most cases) the necessary educational background to perform it. This does not necessarily means that they are not able to do a great job, but in this situation it is more likely that the human resource management tom be performed from “hearsay” and not at the highest standards as we could expect and implicitly the motivation activity has to suffer from that. One of the person interviewed recognized this aspect, but presented a counterargument that it is though possible to learn from experience and in time to perform better such an activity. A more interesting fact was that the shop managers were not even aware of the existence or absence of a HRD (Human Resource Department). I would hazard myself and say that (the most likely situation) they did not even question themselves or their superiors about such a department. The results were quite intriguing, because half of them responded that there is a HRD, but none of them could say how many managerial levels it has. Actually, they supposed this department existed, because they have at the headquarters (in Oradea) a location which they called “the office” (they never did go there) and (in their views) that was the probable location for such a department.

3.3 Shop Manager’s Role in Human Resource Motivation

Probably the hardest question (as all persons interviewed unanimously recognized) from the entire questionnaire was the first one: “After your opinion, what does mean a person's motivation?”. Maybe it was hard because (unlike the others) it did not offered possible answers and everyone had to find some kind of definition (even if I expressly mention the fact that I did not need a scientific description of motivation). One respondent did not have any opinion at all, but others did. And their opinions varied very much. The answers ranged from a “rational concept”, “something very objective” of motivation to a “psychic phenomena” which influences someone's behavior in a particular way. All agreed in the fact act that there should be some kind of finality of an action to determine a person to act in a certain way (a “result”, an “objective”). As we can observe, the answers were especially personal, expressing a particular point of view, but not scientific and thus we may think the respondents' education was not related to this field. The most interesting description, sounded like this: “a psychic phenomena


which set going, directs and sustains energetically an activity”. In my opinion, it is quite clear that this person knows what we talk about and if not followed a faculty in this domain, at least we can be sure that she beneficiated from training or attended a lecture or simply is personally interested about this subject. Besides from the first question, about their knowledge in this domain we can find out from the second one which referred to the motivation theories. The answers respect our expectations, the majority declaring “few” or “medium” acquaintance and just only one (the same with the good description of motivation) said she had good knowledge. The purpose of the study was not necessarily that of finding if the shop managers are experts in human resources (because most probably they are not), but to find if they have some connection with the field, due to the very nature of their work (working with people and having subordinates). After these, there were no more theoretical questions, just practical and personal ones. But, here started problems. At the begging all things seemed to work properly. It was not very hard to discuss with them, all girls or women (because this is a policy of Leonardo to hire just females56). But as far as I have noticed, Leonardo has a policy of “secretomany” (as I named it), because all employees were very reticent to say anything, to express their personal opinion about the organization57 and about themselves. Yes, the reader might argue that such a policy is very understandable on a free, competitive market where any “escaped” information might help an adversary company who may use it against you. But, as I see things, this should not mean that an employee cannot express a personal view about himself or herself. With efforts I managed to solve the problems offering the “protection” of anonymity. Because of the issues explained, I have a doubt related to the exactness of the data offered by the respondents. For example, at the thirst question (how motivated do you feel in your activity), the answers were ranged between “motivated” and “highly motivated”. It is very possible that the answers were sincere, but (due to their reticence, “fear” in responding) it remains a doubt, what if they gave an answer to show a better situation, different from the reality? But, since I cannot control their sincerity, I have to rely myself on what I have already find out. So, all Leonardo shop managers in Cluj Napoca are motivated are very motivated in their activity, which is a very encouraging thing. It is though interesting that this category of
56 57

NB: as I found out, this policy is due to some problems had in the past with boys and men NB: the managers told me there truly is a strict policy regarding informations related to the company and with this occasion all y hopes related to interviewing some of the sellers were gone, because they were not allowed to give any information, in contrast with shop managers who still have a some degree of liberty in this sense


employees are motivated, especially because Leonardo does not have a very well shaped program of human resource motivation. Thus, we can speculate here, that what motivates them is especially the work itself. Moreover, more intriguing are the answers (or better said, their absence) to the fourth question (“What does motivates you and what dissatisfies you in this moment?”). With one exception (I would say, in the given context, a “courageous one”), none responded to what dissatisfied them and with two exceptions, none responded to what motivated them. From the lack of answers related to the things that dissatisfy them, we would be tempted to conclude that in the company no one has reasons to complain about anything. So, everything is perfect and everyone is happy. So is it? Well, from my point of view, I have great doubts regarding this “state of facts”. Rather I would say that the reticence had once more a hard word to say. Maybe we can infer the truth from the other half of the question (example of things that motivated them). Here, too, we can observe the lack of answers which can give us an idea about the reality. So, they cannot say what motivates them and not even what dissatisfies them. Better said, they preferred not to express an opinion vis-à-vis these things which would indirectly imply the company. In this context, returning to the third question, once more we can question the accuracy of the answers given, when they declared themselves motivated and highly motivated. The next question was based on the Herzberg's theory (Two Factor Theory) and it asked to rate, from their point of view, some factors after their importance (from 1- very few importance to 5- very important). The results (I calculate an average of the ciphers given) are as follows: supervision- 3.16, working conditions- 3.66, interpersonal relationships- 4, pay- 4.16, job security- 4.5, company policies and administration- 4, achievement- 4.16, recognition- 3.66, responsibility- 4.5, advancement- 4.16, growth- 4.16, the work itself- 4.16, various benefices (other than pay)- 4. At first sight, it would probably seem odd the fact than not pay is highest rated factor as importance. But, if we take into consideration other famous studies, this should not surprise us, because various researches have reached the same result: not pay is the most important factor for an employee. By far, we can observe that the greatest importance is given to job security and responsibility. Related to the first one, I may argue that this s a normal thing. If we correlate Herzberg's job security with Maslow's pyramid of needs, we find out that job security is strictly related to the first level of needs, the physiological one. A person who does not have a workplace, so a source of income, he or she cannot afford a minimal standard of living,


cannot buy food, cannot offer himself (herself) a shelter, clothing, so cannot satisfy the very basic needs of his (her) body. On the other hand, the other important factor is responsibility. I would argue here (returning to Maslow's hierarchy of needs) with the fact that responsibility is important for a human from the point view of esteem and self-esteem. This is because responsibility is not given to everyone. Generally, it is allotted to capable, trustful persons, trained persons who can manage various situations and in who someone may trust. From here derives the fact that the person in cause (who gained a degree of responsibility) feels important in the context of work relations and not only. He or she feels that his (her) person really counts for someone and the others must take into account this aspect. There is an interesting aspect about these two most important factors, that one takes part from the hygiene factors (job security) and the other from the motivation factors (responsibility). Related to responsibility, we see other motivation factors that shop managers find important, like achievement, promotion and the work itself. We can imagine here a close link between these three and responsibility. All of them offer a sentiment of personal importance, beginning from the work itself (as more important the work performed, the more important the position in the company) to promotion (as it s considered, in an equitable system, only the best are promoted, so if a person obtains a promotion that means the person is important to the organization) and nonetheless personal achievement (which gives a feeling of self-esteem, the person appreciates himself/herself, knows that has realized something in life and once again we have to take into consideration the fact that the person feels important, this time for himself/herself). Returning to the hygiene factors, besides the importance allotted to job security, we find that pay occupies a significant place among them. This is not a surprising fact. Let’s think that a person has a secured job and does not have to worry anymore about satisfying his/her basic physiological needs. As Maslow says in his theory, the person shall permanently trie to satisfy other and other needs. To do so, pay plays an essential role in order to realize this, even beginning again from the bottom of Maslow's hierarchy of needs: buy better food, have a better shelter, more expensive clothes and passing through the other levels. The next question (the sixth) referred to the importance given to the motivation of subordinates. Once again, the answers are in the area, all shop managers considering this aspect important and very important. It is pleasant to see that this important field (as I have explained throughout my paper) is not neglected and they really care about it. And it is true that here I don't have any reason to suspect any false declaration. The issue appears when we try to


compare these results with those from the seventh question (methods used by shop managers to motivate their personnel). That because the company does not allot shop managers a great power of decision in this field. So, they can do just what the company allows them to do. When we talked about bonuses for performance given to subordinates for good results, I found that this did not take part from their competency area and the answers were eloquent. Thus, one responded said she gives such bonuses, but I suppose she referred to the fact that the company offers employees a percentage from sales. But this aspect is part of the contract signed with the personnel and not an extra benefice. The most common method (used by everyone interviewed) was proved to be giving to subordinates a certain degree of responsibility and some of them said they apply also punishments for weak results. When asked about the efficiency of the methods used, it was interesting to observe one fact. Those who apply only the first method consider it efficient, but in contrast with that, those who apply both methods (and implicitly can compare them) consider using punishment to be more effective than the other. In what concerns the ninth question (referring to the promotion possibility within the company), even if the answer, theoretically, could not differ from person to person, it is important to see in which measure this fact influences employees’ motivation. The result was that there are possible just two levels of promotion: from seller to shift manager and from shift manager to shop manager. Quite intriguing, if we realize that the shop managers cannot be advance any further and thus, this aspect cannot be considered having a positive influence upon their motivation, at the most having a neutral if not negative influence. The more intriguing aspect, found from my discussion with the regional manager (for Transylvania), was that in fact shop managers can be promoted to regional manager level. Naturally, in the very next moment we ask ourselves why then shop managers said there is not any way of promotion. And here I just can speculate over the subject, because the real reasons of this state of fact are unknown to me. An answer might be that they were not informed about this, fact which has no reason from the point of view that this information would bring just advantages to the company on the field of motivation. Even if, supposedly, they are cheated in the fact that they know can promote and in fact they cannot, though there be some advantages: on short time, they would live with the hope of promotion and would make efforts in obtaining good results. Another possibility would be that shop managers intentionally hided from me the truth. Here we confront again with an absurd situation, because I cannot see any reason for them to behave in this way.


Referring to the wage policy related to employee motivation (the tenth question), because it is a question strictly linked to the company policy, the answers should have been the same. Well, the reality proved itself (once again) much more complex than we would have expected. The solely universal answer given referred to the percentage from monthly sales. In the rest, everybody had her own opinion (even if the company treats all them in the same way). Thus, some said there are periodical financial bonuses (extra wage) for good results some did not mention it, other said there is a policy of growing wages (the base fixed salary which does not depend on sales) after a period of time with good results, but not all did mention it, other said there are extra wage benefices (like phone) and once again not al of them did mention it. From here, we can conclude that they don’t really know how the facts really are and everyone thinks reality in different ways. For two of them I am sure they are (percentage from monthly sales and phone), but for the others I don’t have reliable informations, so related to them, I cannot conclude in any way. The eleventh question was even more eloquent referring to the way the company sees to motivate its personnel, because unanimously (finally) all respondents said the company does not stimulates in any way competition, socialization, nor team spirit. It would seem a lack of interest in this domain, but the reality was other. From what I found out, the company has a special policy related to this state of things. In order to avoid conflicts, the company does not want employees to become friends or to become too close one to another, to know each other better. From this point of view, it is clear why socialization and team spirit are not encouraged at all. In what concerns competition, there are no explicit actions to encourage it. Every seller competes with another not for the “glory” to have the biggest sales per month, but she want to sale more just to gain more from the financial point of view. From this point, it is up to each one how much wants to sale, for her own benefit. In the final part of the questionnaire, I was interested to see what the level of education of each shop manager was in order to find out if there was any pattern applied by the company. I must mention here that in order to occupy a place of shop manager, there is no requirement of university degree. Thus, the majority has a university degree, but specializations differ very much and in same cases it doesn’t have any link to the economic field or sales domain. Some examples include the Faculty of Geology and Biology, the Technical University, the Mathematics-Physics High School etc.


On a map of Cluj Napoca I tried to see if there is a pattern of distribution of personnel with superior studies and of that with medium education.

Fig. 5. Distribution of personnel in Cluj Napoca As we can observe, there is not any pattern of localization and persons with medium education may find themselves in the center of the town and also at the periphery. The interesting aspect I could observe was the correlation between studies and age. Thus, there is a obvious tendency that employees with university degree are younger, the range of age being between 25 and 30 years, than those with high school degree, where the range of age is situated around 39-40 years. So, we can say that the company prefers especially two categories of employees: on the one hand those less experienced, but high qualified and on the other hand those with less qualification but more experienced. In this way, we might argue that company's vision it is probably to find equilibrium between experience and qualification.

4. Conclusions
As any reader can easily observe, throughout my paper, I tried to emphasize the aspect that the human resource is a precious (if not the most precious) one an organization has. In order to achieve the desired objectives with the help of the human factor, it is necessary that


this factor should at its highest rated capacity. There are several ways which can be used by management to obtain these results (personnel who well do its job) and maybe the most efficient is to have motivated personnel. There are a large number of studies undertaken upon this subject and so, there are various possibilities for management to choose the one it fits best. Because I chose a large Romanian company, I supposed that there is no obstacle (financial, logistic nor from the point of view of management) in the way of implementing the best solution correlated with the human resource motivation. The image I have formed myself about the operating motivational plan of the company, prior to begin any research, it proved to be in contradiction with reality. Probably what did surprise me more was the fact that I did not find within the company a major interest related to motivation. Of course, I heard arguments that the employees are motivated starting even from the work contract that they have signed. In this contract it is clearly stipulated the fact that the personnel receives a bonus, a percentage from the monthly sales (as usual in the sales domain). Thus, as higher the sales, larger the bonus they receive. Yes, it is perfectly true that this fact does have a positive influence upon personnel motivation. But the company forgets a very important thing and that (as shown in the many previous scientific studies) is the fact the pay is not the only element which influences employees' motivation. Even more eloquent is the fact that pay is not even the most important element which has an influence upon motivation. Other factors, which not belong to the financial aspect, have shown their importance: job security, responsibility, interpersonal relationships, promotion, working conditions etc. From my research, there is evidence that these aspects are neglected (in a smaller or larger degree) by the company and this situation (if there not taken any improvement measures) will show its disadvantages on long-term, resulting in demotivated and dissatisfied personnel.

5. Annex- Questionnaire


Univ. „Babes-Bolyai” Cluj Napoca Fac. de Geografie Masterat Administrarea Teritoriului Resurse Umane Masterand: Neagoe Adriana

Chestionar Resurse Umane

1) După părerea dvs., ce înseamnă motivaţia unei persoane?

2) Ce cunoştinţe aveţi despre teoriile motivării?

a) nu am auzit de aşa ceva b) puţine c) medii d) bune e) excelente

3) Cât de motivat(ă) vă simţiţi în activitatea pe care o desfăşuraţi?

a) foarte puţin b) puţin c) oarecum motivată d) motivată e) foarte motivată


4) Ce vă motivează şi ce vă dissatisface în acest moment? (pot fi foloste şi exemple din întrebarea nr. 5)

Motiveză a)

Dissatisface a) b) c)


5) Ce importanţă acordaţi următorilor factori în motivaţia unei persoane? (1- foarte puţină, 2puţină, 3-moderată, 4-mare, 5-foarte mare)

a) supervizarea b) condiţiile de lucru c) relaţiile interpersonale d) salariul e) securitatea locului de muncă f) modul de administrare şi politicile companiei g) realizarea personală h) recunoaşterea pe plan social i) responsabilitatea j) promovarea k) munca în sine l) diverse beneficii (exceptând salariul)


6) Ce importanţă acordaţi motivării personalului dvs.?

a) deloc b) puţină c) moderată d) multă e) foarte multă

7) Prin ce metode obişnuiţi să vă motivaţi personalul?

a) bonusuri entru performanţă
b) acordarea unui grad de responsabilitate

c) măsuri punitive pentru rezultate slabe d) Altele:....................................................

8) Ce rezultate (experienţă) aveţi în privinţa metodelor aplicate în motivare?

9) Ce posibilităţi de promovare există în firma dvs.?

10) Care este politica salarială din punctul de vedere al motivării?


a) bonus procentual din vânzări b) prime periodice pentru performanţă c) creşteri salariale periodice ca urmare a rezultatelor bune obţinte într-un interval de timp dat d) acordarea de beneficii extrasalariale (telefon, maşină de serviciu sau transport gratuit, bonuri de masă etc.) e) altele:....................................................................................................................... f) niciuna

11) Cum sunt stimulate în firma dvs. următoarele:

a) competitivitatea :..............................................................................

b) socializarea:......................................................................................
c) spiritul de echipă:.............................................................................

12) În firma dvs., există un departament de Resurse Umane?

a) DA b) NU

13) Dacă DA, pe câte nivele manageriale este dezvoltat?

a) 1 b) 2


c) 3 d) 4

14) Ce studii aveţi? (eventual instituţia)

a) medii:...............................................

b) superioare:........................................





6. Bibliography

1. http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=motivatie 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs 3. http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html 4. http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/rf.htm


5. http://www.businessballs.com/adamsequitytheory.htm 6. http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/business/mayo.html 7. http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/herzberg/ 8. http://www.practical-philosophy.org.uk/Volume5Articles/Motivation.htm 9. http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/taylor.asp 10.http://www.uth.tmc.edu/ut_general/admin_fin/hr/perplan/reward.html
11. Porumb,

Elena-Marilena, Managementul resurselor umane, Ed. EFES, Cluj Napoca,

12. Pride,

William, Hughes, Robert, Kapoor, Jack, Business, 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin

Company, 1991 13.Taylor, Frederick W., The Principles Of Scientific Management, Kessinger Publishing, 2004


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