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School of Social Work A project report submitted to Faculty Of Human Resource Management In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF ARTS IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS February 2010
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report on the “STRESS MANAGEMNT” is a bonafide
project work done by Ms.Natasha Devika SriRam and Ms.Ishbeer Kaur Virdi , full time students of the Department of MA.HRM, Madras School of Social Work in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Arts in Human Resource Management of the University of Madras during the year 2010-2011
………………. Project Guide
…………………….. Head of the Department Of MA.HRM
We, Ms.Natasha Devika SriRam and Ms.Ishbeer Kaur Virdi hereby declare that the report fulfills all the requirements for the award of the degree in Masters in Human Resource Management and is a record of original work done by us during the period of February 2011, under the guidance and supervision of Professors Mr.John Paul & Mr.SivaPragasam
…………………… Signature of the Faculty Guide
…………………….. Signature of the Candidate
Sivapragasam who guided us throughout the project. We also acknowledge all the staff of MA. We thank Mrs.HRM department for their valuable guidance.HRM for her inspiration and guidance throughout the course of our study in the institution. Jeyanthi Peter.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We offer our special thanks and prayers to God Almighty for showering his blessings on us and bestowing us with the skills and abilities to carry out this study. John Paul & Mr.Fatima Vasanth for her support. We thank the principal Dr. We cordially thank Madras School of Social Work for giving us the opportunity to undergo our project work. Head of the Department of MA. Last but not the least we also extend our gratitude and thanks to our families and friends who have been a constant source of encouragement and support. We also extend our heartfelt gratitude to our faculty guides Mr. 4 .Mrs.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INTRODUCTION INDUSTRY PROFILE SCOPE & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY REVIEW OF LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS FINDINGS SUGGESTIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE 8 16 20 21 22 37 42 66 67 69 70 72 LIST OF TABLES & PIE CHARTS 5 . NO.TABLE OF CONTENTS S.NO CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF CHARTS PG.
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 .2 1.1 1. 1 2 3 4 1.7 1.NO.10 1.6 1.13 TITLE AGE OF RESPONDENTS GENDER OF RESPONDENTS WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN SLEEPING RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN CONCENTRATING RESPONDANTS WITH FINANCIAL PROBLEMS RESPONDENTS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE RESPONDENTS AND FREQUENCY OF ANGER RESPONDENTS WITH JOB PESSIMISM RESPONDENTS WITH SLOW RECOVERY DURING ILLNESS RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL ISOLATED RESPONDENTS WITH NO CONTROL OF LIFE RESPONDENTS WITH BAD EATING HABITS RESPONDENTS WHO OVER REACT TO CONFLICTS RESPONDENTS WHOSE WORK EXCEEDS ONE'S CAPACITY RESPONDENTS CAUGHT BETWEEN FAMILY AND WORK PRESSURE 6 PAGE NO.8 1.5 1.11 1.4 1.12 1.9 1.3 1.
20 65 INTRODUCTION 20TH century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history. Peter Drucker has called 7 .PAR AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORK DAY RESPONDENTS WHO SHY AWAY FROM SOCIAL CONTACT WITH COLLEAGUES RESPONDENTS WHOSE APPEARANCES ARE COMMENTED UPON RESPONDENTS WITH NO TIME FOR THEMSELVES RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL MISUNDERSTOOD/ UNAPPRECIATED BY OTHERS RESPONDENTS WHO ARE COPERS FOR FAMILY/ COLLEAGUES WITH NO SUPPORT FOR THEMSELVES RESPONDENTS WHO TAKE A DAY OFF JUST TO RECUPERATE EMOTIONALLY.1.14 1.16 1. MENTYALLY & PHYSICALLY 59 50 61 62 1.15 1.19 64 1.18 63 1. Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period.17 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL UNDER .
Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. starting with the birth of a child and enduring with the death of a dear one. pressure. forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. water supply is disrupted. If on the other hand. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or 8 .it “The Age of Discontinuity”. its stimulant as well. John Galbraith has called it “The Age of Future Shock” and Hari Albrecht called it “The Age of Anxiety”. we feel frustrated and then stressed. Stress has become the 21 century buzz word. Stress refers to individual’s reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. and psychosomatic illness. children perform poorly at school etc. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent. In fact. meaning to draw tight. Stress is part of modern life. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Various events in life cause stress. The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. The telephone goes out of order. People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. stomach problems. stress experience is above the optimum level. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform to full capacity. from the high pervading corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants’ nurseries we find this world liberally used. the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes. From the view point of physical sciences. bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia. strain or strong-front”. Urbanization. some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results. If the stress experience is below the optimum level. rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged. power is shut down. Every material steel. it leads to too many conflicts with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors. the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when they are subjected to “force. industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for rising stress. then the individual gets bored. Stress is highly individualistic in nature. The word stress is derived from a Latin word “stringere”.
change in social activities. poor quality of supervision. Some of well known time management principles include. REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS There are two major approaches to reduce stress. family problems. relaxation training. constraint. or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. change to a different line of work. aggressive. behavioral deviations in a person. insecure political climate. and hardworking. In short stress is a response to an external factor that results in physical. implementing time management techniques. They set high goals and demands of themselves and others. Individual strategies that have proven effective include. increasing physical exercise. role conflict and ambiguity. Personality traits are ‘Type A’ personality. o Making daily list of activities to be accomplished 9 . Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life.. emotional. Job related factors are work overload. ambitious. difference between company values and employee values. time pressures. and expanding the social support network. prolonged illness in the family.situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity. eating habits. Person related factors are death of spouse. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which include his experience and personality traits. etc. competitive. Time management Many people manage their time very poorly. or of a close friend. They are. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety. • • Individual approaches Organizational approaches INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES An employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level. They are impatient.
It also provides motivation. because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. Some of the strategies that management want to consider include improved personal self section and job placement. and riding a bi-cycle. where one feels physically relaxed. Fifteen or twenty minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness. As such they can be modified or changed. use of realistic goal setting. ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and organizations structure are controlled by management. swimming. more meaningful work. Goal setting helps to reduce stress. and increased feedback can reduce stress. Relaxation training Relaxation techniques such as meditation. when stress levels become excessive. hypnosis and bio-feedback. The objective is to reach in state of deep relaxation. They typically proud work ships to 10 . Physical exercise Practicing physical exercises like aerobics. Wellness programs like employee counselling form on the employee’s total physical and mental condition. Social support Having families. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility. jogging. So expand your social support network that helps you with someone to hear your problems. redesigning of jobs. brisk walking. improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate wellness programmes. friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet.o Scheduling activities according to the priorities set o Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency o Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job. Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by reducing role ambiguity and role conflict. more autonomy. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. somewhat from detached from the immediate environment. Certain jobs are more stressful than others. Individual with little experience or an external lower of control tend to be more proven to stress.
Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. Generally studies shows that young adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. The American National Sleep Foundation claims that a minimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with more rational or reasonable ones. eat better and develop a regular exercise program. six hours of sleep is sufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need three or four hours. For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful at everything they do. After the age of 35. The amount of sleep one requires varies from person to person and is dependent on one’s lifestyle. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder Eustress. physiological or psychological stress. Research conducted on laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. Yield stress. Biological • • • • Stress (biological). First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress are identified. Compressive stress. One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep. control alcohol usage. It involves two step procedures. some types include: Chronic stress. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. stress caused by employment Other 11 . Sleep starved rats have developed stress syndrome. the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. TYPES OF STRESSES The different types of stress are as follows: Mechanical • • • Stress (physics).help people quit smoking. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.
as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. card game Stress (linguistics). In general. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. also called engineering or nominal stress. Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. and • is the force acting over the area . 12 .• • Stress (game). Symptoms of chronic stress can be: • • • • • • • upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. phonological use of prominence in language STRESS IN MECHANICAL TERMS : Stress (physics) Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. stress is expressed as Where. is the average stress. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum.
such as columns or truss bars -. in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. which include. columns. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. etc). A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. stress management. adequate rest. some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. 13 . which can be a factor in continued chronic stress.There are a number of methods to control chronic stress. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. compressive stress is represented with positive values. When a material is subjected to compressive stress. etc. and relaxing hobbies. cast iron. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). In long. According to the properties of the material. glass. relaxation techniques. failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. then this material is under compression. slender structural elements -. usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. exercise.an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. compressive stress applied to bars. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area). Usually. leads to shortening. healthy diet.
hyper stress and hypo stress. for example. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life.STRESS IN BIOLOGICAL TERMS: Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. and what is bad. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. Eustress. There are 4 main categories of stress. It also became a euphemism. stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable. In our everyday lives. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. muscular tension. distress. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. 14 . Here’s how we differentiate between them. short-term resistance as a coping mechanism. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. GOOD STRESS V/S BAD STRESS: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. whether actual or imagined. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. In Selye's terminology. Common stress symptoms include irritability. just "stressed out". This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism. and exhaustion. namely eustress.
Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with Eustress. and know that it is a negative form of stress. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. If the job scope is boring and repetitive. DISTRESS We are familiar with this word. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. On the other hand. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. HYPO STRESS Lastly. Acute stress is intense. chronic stress persists over a long period of time. HYPER STRESS This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. but does not last for long. resulting in a higher heart rate. hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantly bored and unmotivated. Examples include highly stressful jobs. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break.EUSTRESS This is a positive form of stress. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. 15 .
the largest centers for commerce were the ports of Amsterdam. The London Royal Exchange was established in 1565. It was the largest bank failure in history. 16 .The "Big Bang" (deregulation of London financial markets) served as a 2008 . and in the late 17th century.First joint-stock company. At that time moneychangers were already called bankers. There was also a hierarchical order among professionals. In 1609 the Amsterdamsche Wisselbank (Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was founded which made Amsterdam the financial centre of the world until the Industrial Revolution. 1930-33 In the wake of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. MAJOR EVENTS IN BANKING HISTORY 1602 . a third of the money supply in the United States. though the term "bank" usually referred to their offices. After the siege of Antwerp trade moved to Amsterdam. European financial crisis and forced many bankers out of business. Some European cities today have a Lombard street where the pawn shop was located.000 banks close. but the price they received for commodities was dependent on the ships returning (which often didn't happen on time) and on the cargo they carried (which often wasn't according to plan). London. The commodities market was very volatile for this reason. and at the bottom were the pawn shops or "Lombard"'s. wiping out 1986 . at the top were the bankers who did business with heads of state. and also because of the many wars that led to cargo seizures and loss of ships. next were the city exchanges.INDUSTRY PROFILE HISTORY OF BANKING Modern Western economic and financial history is usually traced back to the coffee houses of London. which caused a 1781 . and did not carry the meaning it does today. Banking offices were usually located near centers of trade.The South Sea Bubble and John Law's Mississippi Scheme. Individuals could participate in the lucrative East India trade by purchasing bills of credit from these banks. and Hamburg.The Bank of North America was found by the Continental Congress. 1720 .Washington Mutual collapses. catalyst to reaffirm London's position as a global centre of world banking. 9. the Dutch East India Company founded.
Between 1906 and 1913. There were approximately 1100 banks. 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949 as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. mostly Europeans shareholders. Punjab National Bank Ltd. 23 of 1965). In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians. Reserve Bank of India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in india as the Central Banking Authority. Bank of Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935. Canara Bank. the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases.HISTORY OF BANKING IN INDIA The first bank in India. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established which started as private shareholders banks. During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures between 1913 and 1948. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal 17 . Central Bank of India. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks. • Phase I The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Bank of Baroda. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809). was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. As an aftermath deposit mobilisation was slow. and Bank of Mysore were set up. They are as mentioned below: • • Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. Bank of India. New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms after 1991. was established in 1786. Next came Bank of Hindustan and Bengal Bank. mostly small. though conservative. the Government of India came up with The Banking Companies Act. Indian Bank. During those days public has lesser confidence in the banks. From 1786 till today.
Mrs. Moreover. the branches of the public sector bank India rose to approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11. 1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India. Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in 1960 on 19th July. 1980 : Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore. After the nationalisation of banks. funds were largely given to traders. It was the effort of the then Prime Minister of India. 1975 : Creation of regional rural banks. Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith and immense confidence about the sustainability of these institutions. 18 . 1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major banks. it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scale specially in rural and semi-urban areas. 1959 : Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries. 14 major commercial banks in the country was nationalised. The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in the Country: • • • • • • • • 1949 : Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.000%. Indira Gandhi. 1971 : Creation of credit guarantee corporation. This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India under Government ownership. major process of nationalisation was carried out. In 1955.department was comparatively safer. Phase II Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. 1969. 1961 : Insurance cover extended to deposits. Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried out in 1980 with seven more banks. It formed State Bank of india to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all over the country.
This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime.Phase III This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its reforms measure. Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. In 1991. The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. Time is given more importance than money. 19 . and banks and their customers have limited foreign exchange exposure. the capital account is not yet fully convertible. The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. It is sheltered from any crisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries suffered. the foreign reserves are high. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. a committee was set up by his name which worked for the liberalisation of banking practices. The entire system became more convenient and swift. under the chairmanship of M Narasimham.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary objective: • To undergo an in-depth study about the existence of stress among the employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY Post .Recession. Secondary objective: • • • • To identify the factors causing stress among the employees. 20 . Stress refers to an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of such a reaction. To identify the coping strategies to manage stress. This study will help organizations know what causes stress and how to reduce the same in employees since it is a well known fact that a healthy and sound employee is a productive employee.SCOPE & SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The world today is fast changing and every individual faces a lot of pressure and demand at work. To find out the level of stress among the employees of different age groups. These pressures at work lead to mental and physical disorders. To study about the effects of stress on employees in BANKING INDUSTRY.
So the scope of sample findings was less. • • • The responses of the employees cannot be accurate as the problem of language and understanding arises. So the point of view of employees differs as per their designations.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY In spite of the precautions. The questionnaire was filled by 30 employees of different designations. • • • The questionnaires were filled be 30 employees working in various bank. vigilance and scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make the study objective. it cannot be denied that there are certain limitations. (These problems are not in all cases. 21 . The employees were reluctant to give correct information. investigator could not select a sufficiently large sample for the study.) As the study was done within a limited time. The employees from whom the questionnaires are filled are in a heavy workload so some of the questionnaires filled by the employees who are in stress cannot be called reasonable.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. Brief. and J. Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stress outcome relationship. Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect characterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension. unproductive time at the job. it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. while that of failure. Atieh*.REVIEW OF LITERATURE A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is necessary to know the areas already covered. argues that it is not safe to assume that job conditions that have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a negative impact on overall subjective well-being. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour. The research study of Jamal. humiliation or infection is detrimental. 1985. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly reviewed here. Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. pp 360-74. M* finds that job stressors were significantly related to employees’ psychosomatic problems. and absenteeism. The stress of exhilarating. creative successful work is beneficial. P. job satisfaction.” In short. Canadian Journal Administration Sciences. This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to study them in depth. personal and organizational consequences”. * Jamal M. A. M. 22 .” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative.
* A. P and J. M. Atieh, “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26. Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to emotional strives and strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in three important stages. 1. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage. Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are brought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles as a result of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic) According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading cause of loss of work time in U. S. industry. Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal individual and his environment. They designate the internal and external consultive forces as ‘pressures’ or ‘stressors’ and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress. Recent research into the interaction between the mind and body show that we may place our body on stress ‘alert’ quite unconsciously, because of our psychological and emotional attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger can produce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a concrete challenge. So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the energy created by the body to challenge or learn how to “turn off”, the response using a conscious relaxation technique.
*Stephen Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U.K, 1989 pp 499-501. *Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, “Understanding Executive Stress”, The McMillan Press Ltd, 1978 p 4. WHAT IS STRESS? Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context, it also has a positive value. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. Consider for example, the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. Similarly, many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. But it is different in the case of bank employees. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed. Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us, leading to emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive and negative stress, depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as eustress, can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives.
On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases, heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia, headaches and an inability to focus. Physical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomachaches. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress, and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. Common lifestyle stressors include performance, threat, and bereavement stressors, to name a few. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during performance appraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat, such as an economic downturn, or from an accident. Lastly, bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one, or a prized possession. Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. In order to do so, we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. STRESS AND DECISIONMAKING, PERCEPTION, AND COGNITION Stress can affect an individual’s decision making process and ability to make effective judgments. For example, Easterbrook proposes a “cue utilization model” and argues that when exposed to stressors, individuals experience “perceptual narrowing” — meaning that they pay attention to fewer perceptual cues or stimuli that could contribute to their behaviour
individuals may make decisions based on incomplete information. 26 . Furthermore. and make decisions based on oversimplifying assumptions. are fairly manageable and treatable. Friedman and Mann suggest that when under conditions of stress. the individuals may suffer from performance rigidity as a result of their reduced search behaviour and reliance on fewer perceptual cues to make decisions. individuals may fail to consider the full range of alternatives available. Stress. sleeplessness. if not escapable. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. Observe the decision making processes of individuals under time pressure. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. Stress can be looked at as a form of “task overload” (e. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. like other types of stressors. Larsen finds that. which are inter-linked with stress. Stress can also contribute to performance decrements by slowing cognition and individual information processing. be it our anxiety. tension. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. sleep deprivation can reduce an individual’s ability to reason.g. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. They may also affect our immune. Sleep-deprived (stressed) individuals in his study were more likely to obey orders without thinking and to ignore cues that implied the presence of something unusual. ignore long-term consequences. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. either quick or constant. STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress management is the need of the hour.or decision. Research on decision making under stress supports these theoretical models. We find that individuals under time pressure tend to focus their attention only on a few salient cues. Moreover. to analyze complex situations. asking an individual to perform more than one task under a time constraint) and it is seen that the addition of multiple required tasks reduces the quality of individual performance and increases the magnitude of the performance decrement as compared with the case in which the individual has only one task to perform.. can induce risky body-mind disorders. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. anxiety attacks. and to make effective decisions. Peripheral stimuli are likely to be the first to be screened out or ignored. Decision making models proposed by Janis and Mann support this hypothesis and suggest that under stress.
But. These physiological effects. risk of injury or death. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. more often than not. and current research considers an increasing number of events and conditions to be stressors.Like "stress reactions". today. Although stressors can be • • physical (biological or chemical demands on the body) or cognitive (threat of death. Unfortunately. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. The description of stressors and their impact on behaviour is an open-ended task. including extreme heat or lighting. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. For 27 . The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation. Many times. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. We cope better with stressful situation. we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. and restore the energy level. can include increased blood pressure. In cases of relocation. The knotted nerves. we tend to respond positively under stress. RECOGNIZING A STRESSOR It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. personal assault) in form. or time pressure. they are always external and produce similar physiological responses within the body. dilated pupils and increased heart rate. adventurous sports or having a baby. dizzy spells. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. when we encounter them voluntarily. lack of sleep. when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. defined as a stress response. DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESSORS As mentioned previously. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. stressors can come in a variety of forms. tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. promotion or layoff.
dissatisfaction. In turn. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. including psychological disorders (e.instance. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions.. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health care utilization.000 workers. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. and cognitive impairment (e. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.. or needs of the worker.. fatigue. tension. maladaptive behaviors (e. aggression. such as cardiovascular disease. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. anxiety. post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e. stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. resources. In a 1998 study of 46. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. WORKPLACE STRESS Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities.).g. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. depression.g.700 per person annually.g. periods of disability due to 28 . substance abuse). concentration and memory problems). Additionally. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health.g. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations.. etc. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. The increment rose to nearly 150%. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. an increase of more than $1.
including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. By one estimate. Similarly. However. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least onefourth of their working time in 1990. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. CAUSES OF WORKPLACE STRESS Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. and 2000. According to one school of thought. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. especially for women. In 1990. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. SIGNS OF WORKPLACE STRESS 29 . and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples.job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. According to the Department of Labor. increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. particularly couples with young children. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. 1995. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people.
Nonetheless. 30 . upset stomach and headache. Design jobs to provide meaning. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. In a second study. musculoskeletal disorders. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. In one study. Discrimination inside the workplace. PREVENTION A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress • • Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress. In contrast. and psychological disorders. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. and opportunities for workers to use their skills. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs.Mood and sleep disturbances.g. nationality and language ) • • • • • • St. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. (e. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. stimulation. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. and disturbed relationships with family.
Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. not all companies have such measures in place. This is important. Step 2: Identify the Cause 31 . and this has led to greater occupational stress. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations.COPING WITH STRESS AT WORK PLACE With the rapid advancement of technology. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. and use it to help you work better. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. or the onset of headaches. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. translating into greater productivity. You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. the stresses faced at work have also increased. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. irritability or the need to escape. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. hence the term “Monday Blues”. and some have not gotten it quite right. Undoubtedly. and if you are constantly worried. If left unacknowledged. If you experience any of these reactions. the problem will only snowball. However. Hence. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency. Many people dread going to work. leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. tipping the scales from positive to negative.
you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. such as the environment or your colleagues at work. REDUCING STRESS 1. We can choose to ignore this. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. These stressors can be external and internal. This can be through different methods. Job analysis: We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. The alternative is to work more intelligently. you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. Often. The risks here are that we become exhausted. If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down. that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. Alternatively. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Each of these can lead to intense stress. remove yourself from it. we can change the way that we cope with it. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. External stressors refer to things beyond your control. or that are likely stressors. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. 32 . If it is an internal stressor. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. such as taking time off.You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them. These are not instantaneous solutions.
To do an excellent job. fast-moving. with their significance having barely been noticed. criticize yourself for errors. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. and what constitutes success within it. or expect failure. Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below. just let them run their course while you watch them. you need to fully understand what is expected of you. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. doubt your abilities. which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. we do not challenge them properly. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. do their damage and flit back out again. and keep your workload under control. Instead. you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future. Negative thinking damages confidence. and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. 2. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. By understanding the priorities in your job. put yourself down. Unfortunately. 33 . negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness. Do not suppress any thoughts. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. Since we barely realize that they were there. high-pressure role. in the hurly-burly of a new. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. While this may seem obvious. Then let them go. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary.The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis.
so that these can be sorted out before the performance. • Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect. or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. • • Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. • Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? 34 . the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier: • Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned. then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance.Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation: • • Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally.
This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. positive affirmations might be: • Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events. • When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence." • Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. 35 . Continuing the examples above. then fair people are likely to respond well." • Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. If you perform as well as you reasonably can." Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. which everyone has to go through at some stage. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way." • Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking By now. take appropriate action. and don't just reflect a lack of experience. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals. then you should be satisfied. Where there is some substance. However. you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. By basing your affirmations on the clear.• Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well. you should already be feeling more positive. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. and you do the best you can. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. The final step is to prepare rational. If people are not fair.
and growth hormone. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids. which are converted to cortical in the blood stream. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine. •It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. 36 . •Reduces stress hormones (studies shows. • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. dopac. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? •Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. • It increases muscle flexion. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. cortical. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr.3. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells. Dr. LAUGHTER During stress. These have an immunosuppressive effect. associated with stress response). • Produces a general sense of well-being. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body.
analysis and interpretations. and happen to be original in character through field survey. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. data collection methods. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering. sampling methods. This approach enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation. Research can use the scientific method. In this approach. Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. Data is collected from the employees in the BANKING INDUSTRY. PRIMARY DATA The primary data is defined as the data. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. 37 . but need not do so. and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. which is collected for the first time and fresh in nature. The research methodology in the present study deals with research design. • • • A well structured questionnaire is framed. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. a problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. DATA SOURCES There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data collection. interpreting. survey.
members are selected from the population in some nonrandom 38 . SAMPLE SIZE The sample size chosen for this study is 30 as instructed by the department since it is a MINI RESEARCH PROJECT. RESEARCH TOOL A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. In probability samples. location. SAMPLING METHOD Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. systematic sampling. especially for the purposes of statistical inference. etc. Here the data are systematically recorded from the respondents. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight. and stratified sampling. each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. SAMPLE UNIT The employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY are the sample unit in the survey. Probability methods include random sampling.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. SAMPLING Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern.SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and have been passed through statistical process. DATA COLLECTION METHOD The data collection method used in this research is questionnaire method. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the respondents for their despondence. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. In non probability sampling.
manner. When there are very large populations. STATISTICAL METHODS USED Percentage analysis Pie diagrams 39 . Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. This is usually an extension of convenience sampling. These include convenience sampling. results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. even though the population includes all cities. In this research. Judgment sampling is a common non-probability method. Convenience sampling and Snowball sampling Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. When using this method. the sampling methods used are Random sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city. it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population. and snowball sampling. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. judgment sampling. it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population. When inferring to the population. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown. For example. the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. In non probability sampling. quota sampling. Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected.
Percentages are used in making comparison between two or more series of data.PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. No. of Respondents Percentage of Respondents = -----------------------Total Respondents X 100 40 . Percentage is used to describe relative terms the distribution of two or more series of data.
3 100.7 33.AGE PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 1 AGE Frequency Valid 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 Total 6 14 10 30 Percent 20.0 INFERENCE: 42 .DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 1.0 46.
0 50.Maximum respondents were in the age group of 30 – 35. 43 . 2.0 100.0 INFERENCE: There are equal number of male & female respondents.GENDER PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS TABLE 2 GENDER Frequency Valid MALE FEMALE Total 15 15 30 Percent 50.
10 YEARS > 10 YEARS Total 9 17 4 30 Percent 30.0 56.EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS 44 .3.0 INFERENCE: More than 50% of the respondents had a work experience of about 5 – 10 years. 4.3 100.WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 3 EXPERIENCE Frequency Valid < 5 YEARS 5 .7 13.
Q1.TABLE 4 QUALIFICATION Frequency Valid UG PG Total 21 9 30 Percent 70.0 30.0 100. Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? 45 .0 INFERENCE: 70% of the respondents are PG qualified with an MBA or equivalent degree.
it is observed that for most parts.3% find it difficult sometimes .16.7% of the employees find extreme difficulty in sleeping.TABLE 1.7% of the employees rarely have any trouble in sleeping . Do you find it difficult to concentrate? 46 .3 16. Therefore. Q2.7 23.0 INFERENCE: From the above table.23.1 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN SLEEPING Frequency Valid NOT AT AL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 8 8 7 5 2 30 Percent 26. it is understood that 26.7% face the problem very often and 6.7 100.the employees do not have any problems with sleeping.7 6.7 26.
7% of the employees have absolutely no difficulty in concentrating.3% sometimes and only a small group of 13.7 36.33.3% find it difficult to concentrate at work.3 13. it can be said that mostly the employees have no trouble in concentrating at work.7% of them rarely have a problem .36. Therefore.7 33.2 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN CONCENTRATING Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 5 11 10 4 30 Percent 16.3 100.TABLE1. Do financial problems get you down? 47 . Q3.0 INFERENCE: It is clear that 16.
40% of the employees feel that financial problems put them down sometimes. it is identified that financial trouble does put down people sometimes.0 26. 30% felt that it did not affect them at all and 26.7% of them felt that very often it caused them problems. Therefore. Q4. nicotine or other substances? 48 .0 INFERENCE: The table shows that.3 RESPONDANTS WITH FINANCIAL PROBLEMS Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 10 12 8 30 Percent 33.TABLE 1. Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol.7 100.3 40.
Do you get angry quickly? TABLE 1.0 16.3 100.5 49 .7% of the employees ‘‘self medicate’’ quite often.3 10. 23.4 RESPONDENTS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 7 3 5 8 7 30 Percent 23.3% resort to alcoholism etc very frequently to relieve stress while 23.3% of them do not resort to substance abuse at all .7 26.0 INFERENCE: This table indicates that 26.Table 1.7 23. It shows that most employees give into excessive alcoholism or some other forms of self medication most times to reduce stress Q5.
3 40. Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? 50 . Also 26.7 100. Therefore.RESPONDENTS AND FREQUENCY OF ANGER Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL SOMETIMES VERY OFTEN Total 10 12 8 30 Percent 33.0 26.0 INFERENCE: 40% of the employees claim that they sometimes get angry often while 33. Q6.3% feel that they do not get angry very often.7% of them say that they get very angry most of the time. it is inferred that most of the employees are relatively calm and get angry only sometimes.
Q7.0 INFERENCE: The table clearly shows that the employees have no negative thoughts about their job since 40% of them feel that it happens only rarely and 33.3 23.3 43. the rate of job pessimism or negative thinking about one’s job is very low.TABLE 1.3 100. does it take you a long time to recover? 51 .% say that it never happens.6 RESPONDENTS WITH JOB PESSIMISM Frequency Valid NOT AT AL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 10 13 7 30 Percent 33. Therefore. When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses.3.
7 RESPONDENTS WITH SLOW RECOVERY DURING ILLNESS Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 11 11 8 30 Percent 36.7 26. Q8.7%) recuperate pretty quickly from an illness while only 26.7% of them say that sometimes a long slow recovery period is taken. it is seen that most of the employees (36.7 100.Table 1. It is inferred that most of the employees get back to their feet pretty soon after an illness and do not stay in bed for excessive periods of time. Do you feel you are isolated.7 36.0 INFERENCE: From the table. with no-one to talk to? 52 .
TABLE 1.3% say it happens rarely.8 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL ISOLATED Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 14 10 6 30 Percent 46.0 INFERENCE: This table shows that majority of the people do not feel isolated or lonely. 46.7 33.7% of them do not feel any isolation while 33.3 20. Q9.0 100.it is seen that most of the employees have someone to talk to and relate with and are not isolated or alone. Do you feel out of control and as if you're not in the driving seat of your life and health? 53 . Therfore.
9 RESPONDENTS WITH NO CONTROL OF LIFE Frequency Valid RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 12 12 6 30 Percent 40.0 INFERENCE: This table shows that most of the employees have control of their lives and are in the driving seat of their own lives while only 20% felt that they are being controlled by others and not themselves.TABLE1. Q10. Do you 'snack' instead of eating 'wholesome' meals? 54 .0 20.0 40.0 100.
0 30. Q11. do you tend to over- react? TABLE 1.11 55 .TABLE 1. When conflict arises at work or at home.0 INFERENCE: The values in the table clearly indicate that all the employees indulge in snacking rather than in consumption of wholesome nutritious meals due heavy work pressure .10 RESPONDENTS WITH BAD EATING HABITS Frequency Valid SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 9 12 9 30 Percent 30.0 100.0 40.time constraints and job demands.
0 43.7% of them tend to over react in some situations.3 26. Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity to do? 56 .RESPONDENTS WHO OVER REACT TO CONFLICTS Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 9 13 8 30 Percent 30. Q12.7 100.0 INFERENCE: It is seen that most people do not over react to conflicts either at home or at work. Only 26.
their workload exceeds their capacity. Q13. Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family and work life? 57 .0 : INFERENCE: The table shows that most of the employees feel that their job demands and requires more than what they are actually capable of doing. In most cases.7%) felt that it was not so.7 100.7 36.0 16. Only a small group (6.7 40.12 RESPONDENTS WHOSE WORK EXCEEDS ONE'S CAPACITY Frequency Valid RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 2 11 12 5 30 Percent 6.TABLE 1.
0 6.20% feel caught often and 16. Do you feel under – par at the beginning of the day? 58 .7 20.7% felt that it happened very rarely. Q14.7 46.13 RESPONDENTS CAUGHT BETWEEN FAMILY AND WORK PRESSURE Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 3 5 14 6 2 30 Percent 10.0 INFERENCE: From the table it is seen that 46.0 16.7 100.7% of the employees feel that sometimes they are trapped between the pressures of home and work .TABLE 1.
3 100.7 3.3 53.PAR AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORK DAY Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 4 16 8 1 1 30 Percent 13.14 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL UNDER .3% of the employees rarely feel under-par even at the beginning of a working day and only a handful of employees (3. 59 .0 INFERENCE: The table clearly shows that 53.3%) actually feel under-par on working days.3 3.3 26.TABLE 1.
0 100. 60 .0 INFERENCE : It clearly shows that majority of the employees are actively sociable and do not shy away from social contact especially with colleagues.0 10.Q15. Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and friends? TABLE 1.15 RESPONDENTS WHO SHY AWAY FROM SOCIAL CONTACT WITH COLLEAGUES Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 18 9 3 30 Percent 60.0 30.
0 INFERENCE: From the table and the pie chart. Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance? TABLE 1.3 100. it is clearly understood that most of the employees are well dressed and maintain a certain level of grooming and therefore are not commented upon for shabby appearances by their colleagues. 61 .0 3.Q16.3 3.16 RESPONDENTS WHOSE APPEARANCES ARE COMMENTED UPON Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 16 12 1 1 30 Percent 53.3 40.
62 .17 RESPONDENTS WITH NO TIME FOR THEMSELVES Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 1 1 11 10 7 30 Percent 3.3 100.7 33.3 3.3 36.0 INFERENCE: The pie chart and table values clearly indicate that most of the employees are so busy and caught up with work pressure that they barely have any time for themselves.3 23. They have almost no time for their hobbies and self interests. Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests? TABLE 1.Q17.
3 20. Only 20% feel that at certain times they are misunderstood.Q18.0 INFERENCE: Here again. 63 .18 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL MISUNDERSTOOD/ UNAPPRECIATED BY OTHERS Frequency Valid NOT AT AL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 17 7 6 30 Percent 56. friends or family members? TABLE 1. most of the employees are satisfied and not misunderstood or unappreciated by their colleagues or family members.7 23. Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues.0 100.
one group(40%) feel that very rarely do they have to be copers for everyone else with no support for themselves while the other group also of 40% feel that sometimes they have no one to seek support from.Q19.19 RESPONDENTS WHO ARE COPERS FOR FAMILY/ COLLEAGUES WITH NO SUPPORT FOR THEMSELVES Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 1 12 12 5 30 Percent 3.0 40. 64 . Do you feel you have to be the 'coper' for the family or for colleagues.0 16. with no option for seeking support for yourself? TABLE 1.0 INFERENCE: Here there are 2 strong groups.7 100.3 40.
65 . just to keep your 'head above water' emotionally. mentally and physically? TABLE 1.0 3. MENTYALLY & PHYSICALLY Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 6 1 12 10 1 30 Percent 20. not because you feel ill but overwhelmed.mentally and emotionally.Q20.3 3.0 33.0 INFERENCE: The chart and table indicate that many employees call in a sick day at work not because they are really sick but because they are too overwhelmed and need time to recuperate physically.20 RESPONDENTS WHO TAKE A DAY OFF JUST TO RECUPERATE EMOTIONALLY.3 100.3 40. Would you take a sick day.
5. Role overload is the major cause of stress.FINDINGS 1. Most of the respondents have many years of long association with the organisation 2. The respondents are sociable and have no problems interacting with their colleagues. Most of the employees feel that they have no time for themselves and their personal lives because of work overload. 3. 4. The respondents face a moderate level of stress 66 . Employees’ are satisfied with the working conditions. 6.
because it stimulates the brain and the body. dealing with marital and other family problems. working in the banking industry. So considering this factor. Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we can reduce the overload of work. who are undergoing stress. The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees. Introduce Flexi time Organisations must introduce recreational zones within the premises for the employees to unwind. because counseling is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in order to help the employee cope better. the topic becomes one of the most important part of the project as it consists of the opinion of the employees who work in 67 . It means instead of carrying the pressures of the work to home. the suggestion is to start the unwinding process during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind. EMPLOYEES’ SUGGESTION TO REDUCE STRESS This project consists of the information about the employees. and coping with health problems. because there is a strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse. handling conflicts at the work place. Counseling the employees when they face problems. managing personal finances. Adopt the work to home transition strategy.SUGGESTIONS The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by they can complete their work within the specified time. Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise. Also the employee must practice meditation and yoga regularly.
Pass your time with your close friends and relatives. The response of employees from major banks in the city was marvellous as they gave their valuable opinion about reducing stress as a result of the last question included in the questionnaire. “Believe in God” An employee. See oneness in all. So get positive attitude about work. All are manifested of the supreme GOD” An employee.Watching TV or listening good music. and forget the stress” An employee. about life.Bank of Baroda “Respect yourself and give time to yourself” An employee.Deutsche Bank “Get adjusted with others.the banks. lot of positive attitude.CitiBank “Working in environment welfares.HDFC Bank only that reduces stress and achieves success.Deutsche Bank 68 . The opinion of the employees were as follows: • • • • • • “Just smile away” An employee.CitiBank • “We should do such activities from which we get happiness and also make others happy. Positive attitude is HDFC Bank Going for a walk or long drive” An employee. Study the scriptures.” An employeeICICI Bank • • • “Play and watch cricket” An employee.ICICI Bank “Listen music and spend time with family” An employee. Most of the people frustrate due to lack of positivity and stress level climbs up due to that. Find and spend time for prayer.HDFC Bank “Just believe in yourself and just do what your heart wants” An employee-“Talking to family member “.
“A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee” 69 .improve physical work environment. If we enhance the psychological well being and health of the employees.. Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of rewards and praise. Organization must begin to manage people at work differently. treat them with respect and value their contribution. and more importantly. Because it is said that. by not providing individuals with the autonomy to do their work as they would like.CONCLUSION Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century.the organizational revenue increases and there is employee retention as well.
com/stress/article. C. 1998. A. 6. http://helpguide.studygs.net/stress. Johnson –“Organizational Behavior”. 2. Aswathappa. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. “Understanding Executive Stress”. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour. 3. http://www. “Organizational Behavior”.org/mental/stress_signs. 1985. The McMillan Press Ltd. Robbins. Stephen P.htm 4. Kenneth H. J. Atieh.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS 1.wikipedia. Jamal M. and Marshall.com 8.medicinenet. M. P and J. K.indiamart.com/Mind/psychology/stress/stress. 5. “Organizational Behavior”.finance. pp 360-74. Prentice Hall.helpguide.com 70 . 4. L.asp 2. personal and organizational consequences”. U . http://www. “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior. Blanchard. Canadian Journal Administration Sciences. Ltd. 1999.htm 3. 1978 p 4.Himalaya Publishing House WEBSITES 1.com/ 6. Dewey E. http://www. 1987 pp115-26. PaulHersey. Cooper. www. www.lifepositive.htm 7.K.htm 5.about. http://www. http://stress.org/mental/stress_management_relief_coping.
Sometimes d. Not at all e. Very Often b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Very Often 3 Do financial problems get you down? a. Very Often 2 Do you find it difficult to concentrate? a. Rarely c. Very Often b. Often AGE: QUALIFICATION: 4 Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol. Not at all e. Very Often b. Rarely c. Not at all e. Often b. Sometimes d.QUESTIONNAIRE NAME: GENDER: 1 Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? a. Sometimes d. Not at all e. nicotine or other substances? a. Often 72 . Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often \ 5 Do you get angry quickly? a. Not at all e. Often b. Rarely c.
Often 7 When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses. Sometimes d. Sometimes d.6 Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? a. with no one to talk to? a. Not at all e. Not at all e. Sometimes d. Not at all e. Rarely c. Very Often b. Very Often b. Very Often b. Rarely c. does it take you a long time to recover? a. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Often 10 Do you snack instead of eating “wholesome meals”? a. Sometimes d. as if you are not in the driving seat of your life and health? a. Often 9 Do you feel out of control. Rarely c. Often 11 When conflict arises at work or at home. Not at all e. Not at all e. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Very Often b. Often 73 . do you tend to over-react? a. Not at all e. Often 8 Do you feel you are isolated. Very Often b. Very Often b. Rarely c.
Very Often b. Very Often b. Very Often b. Often 14 Do you feel 'under par' even at the beginning of a working day? a. Often 74 . Not at all e. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Not at all e. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Often 15 Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and friends? a. Sometimes d. Very Often b. Sometimes d. Not at all e. Rarely c.12 Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity to do? a. Rarely c. Not at all e. Very Often b. Not at all e. Sometimes d. Often 17 Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests? a. Rarely c. Often 16 Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance? a. Rarely c. Very Often b. Not at all e. Often 13 Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family and for work? a. Sometimes d.
if any. Very Often b. Very Often b. just to keep your “head above water” emotionally. Often 20 Would you take a sick day not because you feel ill but overwhelmed. friends or family members? a. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Not at all e. Often 19 Do you feel you have to be the “coper” for your family or colleagues with no option for seeking support for yourself? a.18 Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues. mentally & physically? a. Often 21 Kindly give us your suggestions. Rarely c. Very Often b. Not at all e. to manage stress _____________ 75 . Sometimes d. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Not at all e.
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