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Design of Concrete Structures

Design of Two-way Slabs

Dr. Rajesh K. N.
Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering
Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


(Analysis and design in Module II, III and IV should be based on Limit State
Method. Reinforcement detailing shall conform to SP34)

MODULE III (13 hours)

Slabs : Continuous and two way rectangular slabs (wall-supported)


with different support conditions, analysis using IS 456 moment
coefficients, design for flexure and torsion, reinforcement detailing –
Use of SP 16 charts.

Staircases : Straight flight and dog-legged stairs – waist slab type and
folded plate type, reinforcement detailing.

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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
Two-Way Slabs

• Initial proportioning of the slab thickness may be done by


span/effective depth ratios

• The effective span in the short span direction should be considered


for this purpose

• A value of kt ≈ 1.5 ( modification factor to max l/d ratio) may be


considered for preliminary design.

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


•For two-way slabs with spans up to 3.5 m and live loads not
exceeding 3.0 kN/m2, span to overall depth ratio can be taken as
follows, for deflection control (Cl. 24.1, Note 2):

⎧ lx
⎪⎪ 35 for simply supported slabs
D≥⎨
With mild steel (Fe 250),
⎪ lx for continuous slabs
⎪⎩ 40
⎧ lx
⎪⎪ 0.8 × 35 for simply supported slabs
With Fe415 steel, D≥⎨
⎪ lx
for continuous slabs
⎪⎩ 0.8 × 40

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• According to the Code (Cl. 24.4), two-way slabs may be designed
by any acceptable theory, using the coefficients given in Annex D.

• Code suggests design procedures (in the case of uniformly loaded


two-way rectangular slabs) for:

• ‘torsionally restrained’ slabs, whose corners are restrained


from lifting up and whose edges may be continuous or
discontinuous [Cl. D–1].

• simply supported slabs whose corners are not restrained


from lifting up [Cl. D–2].

• The flexural reinforcements in the two directions are provided to


resist the maximum bending moments Mux = αx wu lx2 (in the short
span) and Muy = αy wu lx2 (in the long span).
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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
• The moment coefficients prescribed in the Code (Cl. D–2) to
estimate the maximum moments (per unit width) in the short span
and long span directions are based on the Rankine-Grashoff theory.

• However, the moment coefficients recommended in the Code


(Cl. D–1) are based on inelastic analysis (yield line analysis rather than
elastic theory.

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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
continuous (or
fixed) edge
  ly ‘ ’

simply supported
edge
lx

“ ” • – —

Nine different types of ‘restrained’ rectangular slab panels

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


Design Problem 1
Design a simply supported slab to cover a room with internal
dimensions 4.0 m × 5.0 m and 230 mm thick brick walls all around.
Assume a live load of 3 kN/m2 and a finish load of 1 kN/m2. Use M 20
concrete and Fe 415 steel. Assume that the slab corners are free to lift
up. Assume mild exposure conditions.

1. Effective span and trial depths


Effective short span ≈ 4150 mm

Assume an effective depth d ≈ 4150 = 138 mm


20 × 1.5
With a clear cover of 20 mm and say, 10 φ bars,
overall thickness of slab D ≈ 138 + 20 + 5 = 163 mm

Provide D = 165 mm
dx = 165 – 20 – 5 = 140 mm
dy = 140– 10 = 130 mm
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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
⎧l x = 4000 + 140 = 4140 mm
Effective spans ⎨
⎩l y = 5000 + 130 = 5130 mm
ly 5130
r≡ = = 1.239
lx 4140

2. Loads:
self weight @ 25 kN/m3 × 0.165m = 4.13 kN/m2
finishes (given) = 1.0 kN/m2
live loads (given) = 3.0 kN/m2

Total w = 8.13 kN/m2

Factored load wu = 8.13 × 1.5 = 12.20 kN/m2

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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
3. Design Moments (for strips at midspan, 1 m wide in each direction)

As the slab corners are torsionally unrestrained, Table 27 gives


moment coefficients:
αx = 0.0878
αy = 0.0571

short span: Mux = αx wulx2 = 0.0878 × 12.20 × 4.1402 = 18.36 kNm/m

long span: Muy = αy wulx2 = 0.0571 × 12.20 × 4.1402 = 11.94 kNm/m

4. Design of Reinforcement
a. Shorter span M ux 18.36 × 106
= 3 2 = 0.9367 MPa
2
bd x 10 × 140
( pt ) x ,reqd = 0.275 [Table 3, Page 49, SP: 16]

(Ast)x, reqd = (0.275 × 10–2) × 1000 × 140 = 385 mm2/m

Required spacing of 10 φ bars =


1000 × 78.5 = 204 mm
385 10
Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
b. Longer span
M uy 11.94 × 106
= 3 2 = 0.7065 MPa
bd y 10 × 130
2

(Ast)y, reqd = (0.204 × 10–2) × 1000 × 130 = 265.7 mm2/m


1000 × 78.5
Required spacing of 10 φ bars = = 295 mm
265.7

⎧3d = 3 × 140 (short span)


Maximum spacing (Cl.26.3.3 b) sv ≤ ⎨
⎩ 3d = 3 × 130 (long span)

⎧⎪ 10 ϕ @ 200 c c (short span) ⇒ Ast , x = 392.5 mm 2 m


Provide ⎨
⎪⎩10 ϕ @ 290 c c (long span) ⇒ Ast , y = 270.7 mm m
2

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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
5. Check for deflection control
392.5
pt , x = 3 × 100 = 0.280
10 × 140

fs = 0.58 × 415 × 385/392.5 = 236 MPa

Modification factor kt = 1.5 (Fig. 3 of Code)

(l/d)max = 20 × 1.5 = 30

4140 — OK.
(l/d)provided = = 29.6 < 30
140

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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
6. Check for shear
• The critical section for shear is to be considered d away from
the face of the support.

•An average effective depth d = (dx + dy)/2 may be considered in


the calculations.

Average effective depth d = (140 + 130)/2 = 135 mm

Vu = wu(0.5lxn – d) = 12.20 (0.5 × 4.0 – 0.135) = 22.75 kN/m

where lxn is the clear span in the short span direction


Vu
τv = = 22.75 × 103/(1000 × 135) = 0.169 MPa
bd
For pt = 0.28 , τ c = 0.376 MPa (Table 19, Page 73)

k = 1.3 (Cl. 40.2.1.1) kτ c > τ v — Hence, OK.


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Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
7. Detailing
230 5000 230
230
425

10 φ @ 200 c/c
525
10 φ @ 290 c/c
4000

A A

165 mm
thick
230
PLAN OF FLOOR SLAB

525 10 φ @ 290 c/c

165

8 φ bars
10 φ @ 200 c/c
SECTION AA
Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN
Design Problem 2
Repeat Design Problem 1, assuming that the slab corners are prevented
from lifting up.
1. Effective span and trial depths

Assume D = 165 mm
dx = 165 – 20 – 5 = 140 mm, dy = 140 – 10 = 130 mm

⎧l x = 4000 + 140 = 4140 mm ly


⎨ = 1.24
⎩l y = 5000 + 130 = 5130 mm lx

2. Loads

Factored load wu = 12.20 kN/m2

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


3. Design Moments
As the slab corners are to be designed as torsionally restrained, from
Table 26 (Cl. D–1), the moment coefficients for ly/lx = 1.240 are:

1.240 − 1.2
Short span: αx = 0.072 + ( 0.079 – 0.072 ) × = 0.0748
1.3 − 1.2

Mux = αx wu lx2 = 0.0748 × 12.20 × 4.142 = 15.61 kNm/m

Long span: αy = 0.056

Mux = αy wu lx2 = 0.056 × 12.20 × 4.142 = 11.69 kNm/m

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


4. Design of reinforcement

a. Shorter span

M ux 15.61 × 106
= 3 = 0.844 MPa
2
bd x 10 × 140 2

( pt ) x ,reqd = 0.2465 [Table 3, Page 49, SP: 16]

(Ast)x, reqd = (0.246 × 10–2) × 1000 × 140 = 334 mm2/m

1000× 50.3
Required spacing of 8 φ bars = = 150.7 mm
334
Maximum spacing permitted = 3 × 140 = 420 mm, but < 300 mm.

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


b. Longer span
M uy 11.69 × 106
= 3 = 0.714 MPa
2
bd y 10 × 130 2

( pt ) x ,reqd = 0.206 [Table 3, Page 49, SP: 16]

(Ast)x, reqd = (0.206 × 10–2) × 1000 × 130 = 264 mm2/m

1000 × 50.3
Required spacing of 8 φ bars = = 191 mm
264
Maximum spacing permitted = 3 × 130 = 375 mm, but < 300 mm.

⎧ 8 φ @ 150 c c (short span)


Provide ⎨
⎩8 φ @ 190 c c (long span)

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


5. Check for deflection control

pt , x = 0.2465

fs = 0.58 × 415 × 334/335 = 240 MPa


Modification factor kt = 1.55 (Fig. 3 of Code)

(l/d)max = 20 × 1.55 = 31
4140
(l/d)provided = = 30.4 < 31 — Hence, OK.
140

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


6. Corner Reinforcement [as per Cl. D–1.8]

As the slab is ‘torsionally restrained’ at the corners, corner


reinforcement has to be provided at top and bottom (four layers),

• over a distance lx/5 = 830 mm in both directions


• each layer comprising 0.75 Ast, x.

spacing of 8 φ bars
(
830 × π × 82 4 ) ≅ 160 c/c
0.75 × 334

Provide 8 φ @ 160 c/c both ways at top and bottom at each corner over
an area 830 mm × 830 mm.

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


230 5000 230

230
B B
425

525 8 φ @ 150 c/c


8 φ @ 190 c /c

830 4000
A A

5 nos 8 φ bars
(U–shaped) 830
both ways (typ)
at each corner 230

PLAN

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


525 8 φ @ 190 c/c

160

8 φ @ 150 c/c
SECTION AA

830

160

5 nos 8φ
U–shaped
bars SECTION BB

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN


Summary

Slabs : Continuous and two way rectangular slabs (wall-supported)


with different support conditions, analysis using IS 456 moment
coefficients, design for flexure and torsion, reinforcement detailing –
Use of SP 16 charts.

Staircases : Straight flight and dog-legged stairs – waist slab type and
folded plate type, reinforcement detailing.

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN