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Dr. Rajesh K. N.

Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering

Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

(Analysis and design in Module II, III and IV should be based on Limit State

Method. Reinforcement detailing shall conform to SP34)

with different support conditions, analysis using IS 456 moment

coefficients, design for flexure and torsion, reinforcement detailing –

Use of SP 16 charts.

Staircases : Straight flight and dog-legged stairs – waist slab type and

folded plate type, reinforcement detailing.

2

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

Two-Way Slabs

span/effective depth ratios

for this purpose

considered for preliminary design.

•For two-way slabs with spans up to 3.5 m and live loads not

exceeding 3.0 kN/m2, span to overall depth ratio can be taken as

follows, for deflection control (Cl. 24.1, Note 2):

⎧ lx

⎪⎪ 35 for simply supported slabs

D≥⎨

With mild steel (Fe 250),

⎪ lx for continuous slabs

⎪⎩ 40

⎧ lx

⎪⎪ 0.8 × 35 for simply supported slabs

With Fe415 steel, D≥⎨

⎪ lx

for continuous slabs

⎪⎩ 0.8 × 40

4

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

• According to the Code (Cl. 24.4), two-way slabs may be designed

by any acceptable theory, using the coefficients given in Annex D.

two-way rectangular slabs) for:

from lifting up and whose edges may be continuous or

discontinuous [Cl. D–1].

from lifting up [Cl. D–2].

resist the maximum bending moments Mux = αx wu lx2 (in the short

span) and Muy = αy wu lx2 (in the long span).

5

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

• The moment coefficients prescribed in the Code (Cl. D–2) to

estimate the maximum moments (per unit width) in the short span

and long span directions are based on the Rankine-Grashoff theory.

(Cl. D–1) are based on inelastic analysis (yield line analysis rather than

elastic theory.

6

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

continuous (or

fixed) edge

ly

simply supported

edge

lx

Design Problem 1

Design a simply supported slab to cover a room with internal

dimensions 4.0 m × 5.0 m and 230 mm thick brick walls all around.

Assume a live load of 3 kN/m2 and a finish load of 1 kN/m2. Use M 20

concrete and Fe 415 steel. Assume that the slab corners are free to lift

up. Assume mild exposure conditions.

Effective short span ≈ 4150 mm

20 × 1.5

With a clear cover of 20 mm and say, 10 φ bars,

overall thickness of slab D ≈ 138 + 20 + 5 = 163 mm

Provide D = 165 mm

dx = 165 – 20 – 5 = 140 mm

dy = 140– 10 = 130 mm

8

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

⎧l x = 4000 + 140 = 4140 mm

Effective spans ⎨

⎩l y = 5000 + 130 = 5130 mm

ly 5130

r≡ = = 1.239

lx 4140

2. Loads:

self weight @ 25 kN/m3 × 0.165m = 4.13 kN/m2

finishes (given) = 1.0 kN/m2

live loads (given) = 3.0 kN/m2

9

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

3. Design Moments (for strips at midspan, 1 m wide in each direction)

moment coefficients:

αx = 0.0878

αy = 0.0571

4. Design of Reinforcement

a. Shorter span M ux 18.36 × 106

= 3 2 = 0.9367 MPa

2

bd x 10 × 140

( pt ) x ,reqd = 0.275 [Table 3, Page 49, SP: 16]

1000 × 78.5 = 204 mm

385 10

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

b. Longer span

M uy 11.94 × 106

= 3 2 = 0.7065 MPa

bd y 10 × 130

2

1000 × 78.5

Required spacing of 10 φ bars = = 295 mm

265.7

Maximum spacing (Cl.26.3.3 b) sv ≤ ⎨

⎩ 3d = 3 × 130 (long span)

Provide ⎨

⎪⎩10 ϕ @ 290 c c (long span) ⇒ Ast , y = 270.7 mm m

2

11

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

5. Check for deflection control

392.5

pt , x = 3 × 100 = 0.280

10 × 140

(l/d)max = 20 × 1.5 = 30

4140 — OK.

(l/d)provided = = 29.6 < 30

140

12

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

6. Check for shear

• The critical section for shear is to be considered d away from

the face of the support.

the calculations.

Vu

τv = = 22.75 × 103/(1000 × 135) = 0.169 MPa

bd

For pt = 0.28 , τ c = 0.376 MPa (Table 19, Page 73)

13

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

7. Detailing

230 5000 230

230

425

10 φ @ 200 c/c

525

10 φ @ 290 c/c

4000

A A

165 mm

thick

230

PLAN OF FLOOR SLAB

165

8 φ bars

10 φ @ 200 c/c

SECTION AA

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur Dr.RajeshKN

Design Problem 2

Repeat Design Problem 1, assuming that the slab corners are prevented

from lifting up.

1. Effective span and trial depths

Assume D = 165 mm

dx = 165 – 20 – 5 = 140 mm, dy = 140 – 10 = 130 mm

⎨ = 1.24

⎩l y = 5000 + 130 = 5130 mm lx

2. Loads

3. Design Moments

As the slab corners are to be designed as torsionally restrained, from

Table 26 (Cl. D–1), the moment coefficients for ly/lx = 1.240 are:

1.240 − 1.2

Short span: αx = 0.072 + ( 0.079 – 0.072 ) × = 0.0748

1.3 − 1.2

4. Design of reinforcement

a. Shorter span

M ux 15.61 × 106

= 3 = 0.844 MPa

2

bd x 10 × 140 2

1000× 50.3

Required spacing of 8 φ bars = = 150.7 mm

334

Maximum spacing permitted = 3 × 140 = 420 mm, but < 300 mm.

b. Longer span

M uy 11.69 × 106

= 3 = 0.714 MPa

2

bd y 10 × 130 2

1000 × 50.3

Required spacing of 8 φ bars = = 191 mm

264

Maximum spacing permitted = 3 × 130 = 375 mm, but < 300 mm.

Provide ⎨

⎩8 φ @ 190 c c (long span)

5. Check for deflection control

pt , x = 0.2465

Modification factor kt = 1.55 (Fig. 3 of Code)

(l/d)max = 20 × 1.55 = 31

4140

(l/d)provided = = 30.4 < 31 — Hence, OK.

140

6. Corner Reinforcement [as per Cl. D–1.8]

reinforcement has to be provided at top and bottom (four layers),

• each layer comprising 0.75 Ast, x.

spacing of 8 φ bars

(

830 × π × 82 4 ) ≅ 160 c/c

0.75 × 334

Provide 8 φ @ 160 c/c both ways at top and bottom at each corner over

an area 830 mm × 830 mm.

230 5000 230

230

B B

425

8 φ @ 190 c /c

830 4000

A A

5 nos 8 φ bars

(U–shaped) 830

both ways (typ)

at each corner 230

PLAN

525 8 φ @ 190 c/c

160

8 φ @ 150 c/c

SECTION AA

830

160

5 nos 8φ

U–shaped

bars SECTION BB

Summary

with different support conditions, analysis using IS 456 moment

coefficients, design for flexure and torsion, reinforcement detailing –

Use of SP 16 charts.

Staircases : Straight flight and dog-legged stairs – waist slab type and

folded plate type, reinforcement detailing.

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