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Grade 9 Physical and 

Health education  

Unit two: are you fit enough to play? 



The human body, like any other complex 
entity, relies on a number of di erent 
systems to function e ciently for it to be 
Statement of Inquiry: 

The human body, like any other 

complex entity, relies on a 
number of di erent systems to 
function e ciently for it to be 

Key Concept  Related  doing so. In the context of 

this unit we need to 
Concepts  understand that the human 
body is an extremely 
Systems: sets of interacting  Energy: is a fundamental  e cient system that is able  
or interdependent  entity that is transferred 
components that form an  between parts of a system in  to quickly adapt to di erent 
integrated whole. Our body  order for that system to  environments to conserve 
relies on multiple systems  function. Energy levels  energy. As such we need to 
working together to provide  influence all aspects of  change the type of exercises 
the structure and processes  human life, from our ability  we are are doing to ensure 
that they need in order to  to think and make e ective  we can achieve the fitness 
function e ectively.  choices, to our ability to be  goals we set ourselves. 
physically active. The   
In the context of this unit we 
restoration of an 
will be focusing on the 
individual’s energy levels is 
function of the respiratory  Global  
determined by a variety of 
system (gas exchange), the 
factors such as rest,  Context 
digestive system (absorbs 
nutritional intake and time.  
nutrients, breaks down 
complex molecules into  Function: A function is the  Globalisation and 
simple molecules such as  action or role that  Sustainability: the 
glucose and lactose) and  something is specifically  interconnectedness of 
circulatory system  designed for or used to do.  systems. In the case of this 
(transportation system).  In the context of this unit we  unit we will define 
can say, the function of the  sustainable as being a 
cellular respiratory system  system that maintains its 
  is to produce the ATP  own viability by using 
required for us to do just  techniques that allow for 
about everything we do.  continual reuse. The human 
  body, like any other complex 
entity, relies on a number of 
Change: is a transformation  di erent systems to 
from one state or to  function e ciently in order 
another. Inquiry into the  for it to be sustainable.  
concept of change involves 
  understanding and 
  evaluating reasons for  

Lines of Inquiry 
● What is energy? 
● What is cellular respiration? 
● What is the di erence between aerobic and anaerobic exercise? 
● What are some of the di erent systems in the body, and what is their function? 
● What do we mean by sustainability? 
● What do we mean by sustainability in the context of this unit? 
● What is a balanced workout? 
● Are “sports drinks” such as gatorade healthy? Explain. 


Perseverance & Self-motivation  Information Literacy Skills 
➔ Demonstrate perseverance and  ➔ Collect, record and verify data 
persistence  ➔ Access information to be informed 
➔ Practice delaying gratification  and inform others 
➔ Practice managing self-talk  ➔ Present information in a variety of 
➔ Practice managing self-talk  formats and platforms 
  ➔ Evaluate and select information 
  sources and digital tools based on 
their appropriateness to specific 
➔ Create references and citations, use 
footnotes/endnotes and construct a 
bibliography according to 
recognized conventions 

Use the websites listed below and any others you made find to complete your journal. Make 
sure to write in complete sentences and using YOUR OWN WORDS. These sites have 
information on the components of fitness amongst other things: 
Components of Fitness 
Fitness is defined as a condition in which an individual has enough energy to avoid fatigue 
and enjoy life. Analyze your day. Do you have lots of energy, or do you get tired easily? 
Physical fitness is divided into four health- and six skill-related components. Skill-related 
fitness enhances one’s performance in athletic or sports events. Health-related fitness is 
the ability to become and stay physically healthy. 
Health-Related Components  Skill Related Components 

● Cardiovascular fitness  ● Agility 

● Muscular strength and endurance  ● Balance 
● Flexibility  ● Power 
● Speed 
● Coordination 
● Reaction time 

Component  Definition  Examples  Tests 
Cardiovascular  The ability of the heart to supply oxygen to  jogging,  beep test 
the muscles for an extended period of time.  swimming, 
The higher your level of cardiovascular fitness  cycling 
the longer you are able to exercise without 
getting tired. 

Muscle strength       








Reaction Time       

Aerobic vs Anaerobic Exercise  
Aerobic Exercise 




Formula  Aerobic respiration: ____ ATPs produced per 1 molecule of glucose  

Anaerobic Exercise 




Formula  Anaerobic respiration: ____ ATPs produced per 1 molecule of glucose  

Systems of the body -  
System  Function 





Reasons for fatigue  
● number of contractions outnumber oxygen taken in 
● size and mass of the muscle used in the exercise 
● accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle  
● lack of glucose 
Principles of circuit training (SPORT): 
● Specificity - training must be designed to suit the fitness goal 
● Progression - we must build gradual stress on our bodies in a gradual progressive 
method. If stressed is built too quickly, it may lead to injury; if built to slowly, it can 
cause boredom. The body needs time to recover and adapt to training. 
● Overload - the body will adapt to extra stress and become fitter; to improve the level 
of fitness of our body systems we need to work them harder than normal. 
● Reversibility - the training must be continuous since obtained fitness will be lost after 
several weeks unless constantly worked on. 
● Tedium - programmes must be varied to avoid tedium or boredom.  

What do you want to know? Set a purpose for 
your research.  
● Break your question down. Are there any terms you need to define? 
● Make sure your question is big enough to be worth the time you take to 
research it. 
What do I want to know:  

What do I already know?   What do I need to know? 

(Strand ii: identify prior learning and subject-specific 
knowledge relevant to the project) 


Evaluate your sources  
Learn to look at a range of di erent types of sources (primary/secondary, 
interviews, newspaper articles, YouTube clips, government documents, journals, 
magazines, artwork, photographs, blogs, and so on). 

Source  General reference format for APA: 

Copy and paste the URL address.  Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Periodical/Website, 
Add the source to your bibliography  version, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxx 
For more details check APA citations guide 

Who is responsible for presenting the 
information? What can you find out 
about the author? 

Whom is the information intended 

Triangulate your information: 
● Confirm the information with 
three separate reliable 
● Compare new information 
with what you already know - 
does it seem reasonable? 
● Is the information consistent 
with other information you 
have found? 

How old is the information, is it 
regularly updated? 
Use the Way Back Machine,. This 
shows how often the site was 
updated, when the site was updated, 
and gives links to older versions of 
the website. 

What type of source is it (newspaper, 
magazine, YouTube clip, multimedia 
presentation, etc)? 
Is the source trying to influence you? 

How will you use the information 
Now you have something relevant and useful what are you going to do with it? 
Direct Quotes:  Copy and paste any direct quotes you feel especially relevant/important into 
a separate research document, for easy access later on. Try to keep direct 
quotes to between 1 and 3 lines of dialogue. 

Paraphrasing:  Summarising information/ideas you read in your own words on in your 

separate research document. 
Important: When using direct quotes or paraphrasing the ideas of others either in your report, 
you are required to give an in-text citations (see below). The full citation appears in the 

Reflect on your research 
This would be the final step of the process.  

Have I been able to find the   
answers I wanted?   

What do I still need to find out?   

New questions   
Are there any new questions I now 
need to answer? 


Criterion A: Knowing and Understanding 
● explain physical health education factual, procedural and conceptual knowledge 
● apply physical and health education knowledge to analyse issues and solve 
problems set in familiar and unfamiliar situation 
● apply physical and health terminology e ectively communicate understanding 
Criterion B: Planning for Performance 
● design, explain and justify plans to improve physical performance and health 
● analyse and evaluate the e ectiveness of a plan based on the outcome 

Criteria A and B: PHE Fitness Circuit Design 
Task: You are to design a training circuit that has a specific fitness related goal
Your end product will include: 
● A specific fitness goal from these options: to lose weight, build power, increase 
endurance (strength/aerobic), to improve aerobic fitness, to build muscle bulk 
● An explanation of the principles of circuit training (SPORT) and how they relate to 
your circuit 
● An explanation of the main fitness components your circuit will focus on and how 
they relate to your goal 
● Explanation of how it is appropriate for someone your age 
● Explanation of your design (minimum 9 stations), and justification of how each 
station relates to your goal 
● Diagrams, pictures, lists etc that will show the description of each station, including 
the fitness component and muscle groups each exercise is working, and the circuit 
● Evaluation of the design and the assignment 
● Bibliography