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BouesMag

Magazine trimestriel du programme de boues de vidange

N°02 - Anglais
Mai 2014

The call center for fecal sludger:


An innovative tool to reduce
the cost of desludging services

Mechanism desludges
in Dakar : Profile, work
and services
Ibra Sow
AAAS President
“Delegation is for
us a real blessing”
summary
Editorial
Focus
Collection and transportation of sludge The Innovation
The facts are there and they are dramatic. People in poor countries suffer
a lot from the failure of services for waste collection and proper disposal.
Many reasons explain this situation: population growth, habitat structure
and economic constraints. p 27
Hub
It is almost superfluous to say that there is a major informative value in a
news magazine for such a strategic project as the Fecal Sludge Market
Structuring Program (PSMBV). A year and a half after the launch of the
P. 03 Editorial
P. 04 News ... towards an innovative PSMBV, the arrival of “Boues Mag” will finally complete its value chain
P. 04 • Technical Committee of the PSMBV and cost-effective management which is the substrate of the program launched by the National Office of
P. 06 • The call center for fecal sludge of fecal sludge Sanitation in the vulnerable neighborhoods of Pikine and Guédiawaye with
P. 07 • Information and sharing with stakeholders at the
municipality level support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. With a nice-looking
P. 09 Project dynamic presentation and attractive content, it presents itself as the indispensable

Innovation
P. 09 • A guarantee fund for desludgers medium for the dissemination of timely information on the life of the
P. 12 • Complementary Project for flood-prone areas in
Pikine and Guédiawaye PSMBV, but more importantly, as a critical relay of exchange and sharing
P. 14 • Mechanical desludgers in Dakar : profile, work and of scientific and technical knowledge, experience and other innovations.
services offered
P. 16 • Organizing the transportation of sludge:
The quarterly issues of “Boues Mag” offers significant time to design,
A new approach in progress
P. 18 • Testing Platform for innovative sanitation technologies Alioune Badara DIOP collect, select, and deliver structuring information, accessible to all targets
Management of sludge is one of the
P. 20 • Fecal Sludge: A Promising Market major environmental and health audiences. Many news topics or themes will be open so that through the
P. 24 Innovation problems in small, medium and large editors’ diversity and perspective, the adequacy of their analysis, the depth of their forward thinking, innova-
P. 24 • After the PAQPUD ... towards an innovative and cost-effective cities in developing countries. p 24
management of fecal sludge tive ideas permeate the sector and drive expected changes.
P. 28 Focus
P. 28 • Collection and transportation of sludge Therefore, institutional, technical, financial, social and other partners, as well as operators and other stake-
P. 33 Interview
P. 33 • M. Ibra SOW, president of the Association of
holders involved in some way in the process of production, collection, treatment, and processing of fecal
Sanitation Stakeholders in Senegal (AAAS) sludge will all find an ideal forum for fruitful reflection that is free and qualitative.

Obviously, none of the essential issues related to the value chain of sanitation will be left out. “Boues Mag”
Mid-term technical and financial is the hub, resource center, and voice of all those who have a say in the field of sanitation, with all the conse-
assessments quences on public health, hygiene, and environment – in short sustainable development. To be honest, “Boues
The technical committee of the PSMBV held its third working Mag” offers a gleaming showcase to ONAS. It is the voice of our values and the dynamic reflection of our
session on Thursday, Dec. 26, 2013, to mid-term technical and finan- commitment to earn the trust of the State of Senegal and the beneficiaries, in this vital sector of sanitation.
News

cial assessments of program activities. . p 4


“Boues Mag,” as you are well aware, is a contracted combination of the French words for Sludge and Maga-
zine. This modern touch shows our ambition to create a communication tool in the same standards as quality
journals. Its social base reflects its title in our common local language Wolof, “Boues Mag” refers to eleva-
Directeur de publication : Alioune Badara DIOP tion and everything that is great. Beyond its quality content, this is the double label we chose to give this
Coordinateur général : Mbaye MBEGUERE Mechanical desludgers in Dakar :
Rédacteur en chef : Bassirou SOW profile, work and services offered magazine.
Ont participé à cette édition :
Abdoulaye FAYE,
Ousmane SOW,
Project dynamic

Ahmadou KANDJI, A team of 17 investigators and


Sarah Nehrling two supervisors have worked
Françoise TOURE, for 8 days in June 2012 in Dakar
Papa Mamadou MANGANE to identify and interview the Alioune Badara DIOP
Bassirou SOW mechanical desludgers in the General Director ONAS
Abdoulaye FAYE, Dakar region, using a question-
El hadji Mamadou Sonko naire developed by IPA with
Moustapha LO support from WSA. p 14
Momar Seyni NDIAYE
Gaspard BADJI
Mbaye MBEGUERE
3
News Technical Committee phases, the Call Center recorded 59 Regarding the Marketing compo- The Biogas component was also

of the PSMBV oil changes done with a downward


trend in the cost due to the behavior of
nent, the implementation of the
communication strategy is in full
successful as the Committee noted
that three planned studies have been
the market (law of supply and swing: Broadcasting 20 TV ads and conducted and the reports are
demand) with satisfaction rates 220 broadcasts on the radio. finalized and available, and 3 others

Mid-term technical and financial


between 93 and 98% for Quality of 14 information sharing workshops are in progress. A workshop to share
Service. held in municipalities, with a wide the results was organized with all

assessments In addition, a workshop was organized


to the attention of the Regional
dissemination of materials (posters,
T-shirts, brochures, etc.).
The Delegation of the management of
partners and the private sector in
attendance.
In addition, the technical committee
Services of ONAS and private FSTPs, for its part, was materialized decided to prepare the meeting of the
desludging operators in Saly. For with the signing of the contract Steering Committee in order to hold it
desludgers, training was held on the between ONAS and DELTA/VICAS in March 2014 according to the
optimal use of the Guarantee Fund. group. Since November 1, private calendar of the Secretary General of
Following the call for tender launched operators have been working at the the Ministry of Water and Sanitation.
by ONAS to select a bank that will plants. An organizing committee will be
host the guarantee fund, BSIC has Moreover, in terms of the ONAS/ established for the preparation of the
been chosen with preferential benefits OXFAM partnership agreement to agenda and any related documen-
(competitively fair rate capped at build toilets adapted to flooded areas, tation.
12%, outstanding balance available various studies are already underway
for lending: 800,000,000 CFA, etc...). (or in progress) for the design and
Desludging service providers will marketing of the types of toilet to Bassirou SOW
receive credit once their applications design. Expert IEC
are validated. It should also be noted
that 11 monthly reports were
prepared and the disbursement rate is
29 %.

The technical committee of the the benefit of all stakeholders in the Nevertheless, a correction has been
PSMBV held its third working management of sludge. made on the evaluation period by
session on Thursday, Dec. 26, 2013, shifting the measurement of the
to mid-term technical and financial About the license that will be impact of the program to late 2014
assessments of program activities. established for desludging operators, because the program is just in its
Under the chairmanship of Mr. it was observed that the process is second year of implementation.
Adama Mbaye, National Director of being finalized because the latest With regard to the testing of the
Sanitation in Senegal and Chairman report on the laws and regulations has subscription to the desludging service,
of the Technical Committee, who been validated. In addition, the report it should be noted that the first phase
welcomed the compliance to the describing the certification process as has been completed (data collection).
calendar for the holding of that well as the desludgers’ manual are The next step will be the launch of the
meeting and compliance to the available and have been the subject of “Mobile Money” service with tests to
baseline planning related to the several sharing and validation works- improve service.
execution of program activities, hops with stakeholders. Briefings
attendees appreciated the progress were held with the police, SNH, and Experimentation of the Call Center is
of the project components. AAAS to share the certification underway with the current pilot phase.
process. However, the scaling-up was decided
Committee members highlighted that, and should happen no later than the
in fact, studies on “situational analy- Besides, the mapping of sanitation end of January. Note however that
sis” and “market research” are valida- services has been finished. This some problems have been
ted and the final versions are activity helped to have a database of encountered and partners are working
available. And the PCU (Program 59,000 referenced septic tanks and a to find solutions. In its Beta and pilot
Coordination Unit) will hire a consul- list of all mechanical desludgers
tant for the compilation of the key operating in the region of Dakar.
results of all studies in a document for

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News

The call center for fecal sludge Information and sharing


with stakeholders at the
municipality level
An innovative tool to Consolidating the
reduce the cost of Participative Approach
desludging services
The organization of information and information and experience sharing. of vehicles, lack of protective equip-
sharing workshops in 21 Municipali- Local stakeholders we met are more ment for servants (drivers and
ties in the departments of Pikine and aware of the health and environmental apprentices), flexible hosepipes
Guédiawaye continues as part of the risks of manual desludging and of the patched in several places and various
implementation of communication tools proposed by the PSMBV to breaks caused the superstructure of
the program area (Pikine and
activities for behavior change aiming access quality mechanical desludging septic tanks, etc. Also, some trucks are
Guédiawaye). During this phase,
to instill a sense of ownership of service at an affordable cost. unable to drain some types of septic
the lessons learned from previous
mechanical desludging via the innova- A few lessons learned: tanks, like traditional pits, as they are
phases will be used to improve the
tive tools of the PSMBV program and unable to access certain areas and
performance of the service on a
To bridge the gap between clients The implementation of the call raise people’s awareness about the 1. High cost of service, aging their staff is generally unqualified.
larger scale. Trade policy will be
and service providers by increasing center consists of four key phases: dangers of manual desludging. Partici- fleet, lack of equipment,
defined at the end of this phase to
the market share of operators pants include representatives of the conflicts with users... Because the mechanical desludging
clarify, among other things, mana-
administration of municipalities and service costs much more, between 25
through the generalization of • The beta stage already launched gement of customers, desludgers
several opinion leaders (imams, neigh- The workshops provided an opportu- 000 and 30 000 F, manual desludging
mechanical desludging based on a on July 15 lasted a month and a and client/desludger interactions,
borhood delegates, women’s groups, nity for the association of desludgers to (15 000 F) is not affordable for most
strategy to reduce the costs of half. During this period, the call as well as sources of sustainable
Cultural and Sports Associations...) talk directly to people about several households in poor neighborhoods of
desludging, the operability of a call center has registered a total of 44 funding for the continuity of the
whose feedback is gathered. This aspects of their activities and to share the departments of Pikine and
center is being tested. Let us actual desludging services subsi- call center service.
communication campaign is accompa- the difficulties encountered. Indeed, Guédiawaye.
remind that the average cost of dized up to 13,500 CFA per deslud-
nied by the performance of a skit many argue that because the Please, note that the truck carrying
desludging in the program area of ging. The objective of this phase • The operational phase, contrary
currently broadcast on local TV and mechanical desludging service fecal sludge to the treatment plant
the departments of Pikine and was to test the functionality of the to the “beta”, “pilot”, and
radio stations. Nineteen out of twen- providers charged with an increase in represents the sewer network for
Guédiawaye is around 30,000 CFA tools developed through the Call “scale-up” phases, will be the
ty-one municipalities have been the price, we are witnessing a
per rotation and, according to the Centre at a very small scale. The responsibility of ONAS. In other 1PSMBV is the French acronym for the Market
visited, with an average of four works- proliferation of manual desludging.
objectives of the program, inclined test took place in the Ouest Foire words, at the end of “scale-up” Structuring Project of Fecal Sludge for the
hops per month. These workshops that Also, users report several other
to eventually drop at least 30%. District in Dakar, in its part that is phase, the call center will be rede- benefit of households in the suburban areas of
attracted the membership of grass- problems when they empty their septic
not connected to the network. ployed at ONAS that will then be Pikine and Guédiawaye.
roots actors were rich in exchange of tanks, such as mechanical breakdowns
The call center is the result of in charge of updating the trade
work done by experts in social, •The pilot phase, which is curren- policy, whenever necessary, to
environmental, economic and com- tly being implemented and will last optimize its operation.
puter science, commissioned by five months, aims to put into prac-
the National Office of Sanitation tice the call center on a small scale
(ONAS) through the Market to understand the variability of
Structuring Program of Fecal desludging costs.
Sludge (PSMBV) funded by the Moustapha LO
Bill and Melinda Gates Founda- • The scale-up phase is the spread Monitoring evaluation expert
tion. of call center services throughout

6 7
News
Project dynamic

households with private sanitation


A guarantee fund
works. However, the current state of
the desludging truck fleet is a problem. for desludgers
Most currently operational trucks are
older than 20 years and can only take
the effluents. Let us specify that there
Easier Access to Financing
are two types of trucks currently used:
vacuum trucks that collect the
effluents and hydro-cleansing trucks
that do the cleansing and therefore
take out the mud.

2. Conversion of “bayes-
pelles” (or manual deslud-
gers)

This is a question that often comes at


the workshops and that shows that
participants are very interested in the
impacts of the implementation of
PSMBV.
Also, it is clear from discussions that
we must make the difference between
the professional “baye pelles” and the
occasional “bayes pelles” who
practice this activity depending on the
circumstances and often empty the
septic tank of the family home and
neighborhood with modest incentive.
Regarding professional “baye pelles”,
they are a relatively small number of
practitioners for whom the PSMBV Parameters that influence the cost of mechanical desludging:
reflects on their conversion into
workers at the sludge treatment Depending on their experience, it is clear from discussions with workshop parti-
plants, salespeople of fertilizers from cipants that the parameters that influence the cost of mechanical desludging are,
the treatment of sludge or managers among others, the high pump price of gasoline, the distance between the house-
of kiosks of purified water, among hold and the treatment plant, taxes for dumping et the plant, police harassment
others. on the way to the plant, old fleet of trucks that significantly increase fuel
consumption...
The structuring program of the sludge market (known by its French acronym PSMBV) has a budget of two
hundred and two million five hundred thousand CFA francs (CFAF 202 500 000 CFA) for the establishment
of a guarantee fund for desludging companies in Dakar.
Mme GUEYE Khadidiatou DEME
Sanitary Engineer - Cabinet EDE

8 9
Project dynamic

Easier Access to Financing

Its main objective is to promote • a 25% counter-guarantee of the a) Financial Responsibility:


the development of desludging amount of the credit;
companies by easing their access • a maximum of 20 million CFA • Understand the importance of
to credit for the renewal of their francs for trucks and 5 million CFA bank liabilities;
vacuum trucks as well as their francs for spare parts; • Emphasize the consequences of
acquisition of spare parts, and to • a credit period of 60 months for non-payment by a desludger;
ultimately enable them to comply trucks, and 24 months for spare • Raise awareness about the
with future requirements related parts; importance of financial statements,
to the implementation of the • a grace period of 6 months; a forecast balance sheet and a
operation license for the deslud- • a 1% application fee; projected operating statement;
ging activity. • an Annual Percentage Rate • Raise awareness about the
(APR) of > = 12%. importance of having an internal or
Management of the guarantee In this respect, two training external accountant.
fund has been entrusted to the workshops were organized to
BSIC bank (Sahel-Saharan Bank explain to desludgers the b) Tax Liability:
for Investment and Trade) through mechanism of the funds and to
the signing of a financing agree- raise awareness about their • Understand the importance of
ment with ONAS. responsibilities for proper tax obligations; c) Corporate Social The next steps in the implementa- • preparation of credit reports at
operation. The workshops were • Emphasize the consequences of Responsibility: tion of the guarantee fund are: the individual level or at the asso-
In order to ensure proper opera- facilitated by Mr. Almamy Sagna, non-payment of taxes; ciation level for desludgers who do
tion of the guarantee fund, deslud- the expert consultant, with the • Raise awareness about the • Understand the importance of • the establishment of the Stee- not have a management system
gers are introduced to the participation of the BSIC, a tax importance of the statement of the PSMBV project and its social ring Committee of the guarantee able to allow them to provide the
workings of the guarantee fund inspector, the Project Coordination existence, its monthly and annual impact; fund which will be composed of documents requested by the BSIC;
through training, which is a condi- Unit (PCU) staff and technical tax returns; • Emphasize the consequences of PCU staff members, a representa-
tion to be able to apply for a credit partners. • Raise awareness about the non-payment by a desludger; tive of each technical partner, two • the introduction of the first loan
at BSIC and to participate in the importance of having a contact • Raise awareness about the representatives of the BSIC and a applications from desludgers.
call center. The desludgers’ responsibilities on person at the Tax Service. importance of achieving this representative of desludgers;
The conditions of this funding which the facilitator focused his funding access program for deslud-
agreement which aims to facilitate awareness-raising are: gers; • accreditation of suppliers (truck
access to credit for desludgers in • Raise awareness about the vendors, freight forwarders, Gaspard Diabigha BADJI
the PSMBV are the following: future prospects if desludgers mechanics, etc.) whose objective is Chief Financial Officer of the PSMBV
behave as “good fathers” vis-à-vis to obtain discount on the prices of Email : gaspar.badji@onas.sn
the guarantee fund of the PSMBV. various services provided by them;

10 11
Project dynamic

acronym in French) implemented by a 3. Develop a business plan describing Project Activities


consortium 6 partners including IPA, how communities will ensure massive
WSA, EDS and OXFAM, and coordi- sanitation works acquired at identification of target households,
nated ONAS. It operates mainly in the affordable prices, and sustained baseline study on the determinants of
9 municipalities in Pikine: Diama- commitment to do the maintenance on behavior regarding hygiene and
Complementary Project gueune - Sicap-Mbao Tivaoune-Diak-
sao, Guinaw Rail Nord, Guinaw Rail
a regular basis (daily cleaning and
adoption of mechanical desludging).
health, development and implemen-

for flood-prone areas in


tation of a communication strategy for
Sud, Yeumbeul Nord, Yeumbeul Sud, behavior change and the promotion of

Pikine and Guédiawaye


Keur Massar, Thiaroye sur Mer, 4. Make it easier for 1,000 families hygiene and sanitation, advocacy with
Djiddah Thiaroye Kao, and 3 munici- (living in the target area) to acquire local authorities for a joint
palities in Guédiawaye: Madina new technology options and their commitment and dedication to
Gounass, Wakhinane Nimzat, and replication in flood-prone zones. improving hygiene and sanitation
Ndiarème Limamoulaye. conditions for the populations of
5. Encourage communities, partners Pikine and Guédiawaye, study and
The general objective is to reduce and local authorities to get actively design of autonomous sanitation

Improving health conditions the risk of epidemics, mortality and


morbidity due to oral contamination of
involved so that the needs of the most
vulnerable populations in public
works that are adapted to flooded and
flood-prone areas, establishment of a
in the future fecal origin in the most vulnerable
households in Pikine and Guédiawaye,
health and sanitation are taken into
account.
funding mechanism adapted to the
purchasing power of the population,
enabling people to sustainably benefit training of local private contractors on
from their right to sanitation. The The total project cost is U.S. $ how to build the tested and selected
Led by Oxfam America in community infrastructure, an increase promote change in people’s behavior specific objectives are the following: 2,791,976 of which $ 2,499,145 are sanitation works, financing 2,000
partnership with the NGO Eve of the incidence of vector-borne for the adoption of good hygiene, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates books for the benefit of Pikine and
(Water, Life, Environment), under diseases, the risk of fecal oral sanitation and health practices. Such Foundation. Guédiawaye populations in the
the coordination of the Coordina- contamination related to the change in behavior will focus on hand 1. Convince the most vulnerable popu- project’s area of intervention, and
tion Unit of the Program (CUP) of deterioration of sanitation conditions, washing at key times in order to lations in flooded and flood-prone Partners include local authorities, development of mass communication
the PSMBV, the complementary the deterioration of the living reduce the prevalence of childhood areas of Pikine and Guédiawaye to administrative authorities, technical to raise awareness on issues related to
project called 6th PSMBV compo- environment, etc. Floods also affect diarrhea, and promoting innovative change positively in their risk percep- services in Pikine and Guédiawaye, hygiene/health and the right to
nent aims to improve the health the purchasing power of households by technology based on the scale of tion, attitudes, norms, capacity to ONAS, MRAZI, NGO VEV (Life sanitation.
conditions of the most vulnerable contributing to the decline in investment priorities of the people in self-regulate the factors related to the Water and Environment), EAWAG,
households in flood-prone areas in opportunities for livelihoods and the area. For greater ownership of the purchase and use of adequate sanita- and the health districts of Pikine and
the big suburbs of Dakar. increased expenses caused by the project at all levels, local and tion facilities with a positive change of Guédiawaye.
natural disaster (fuel, medicines, rent, administrative authorities will receive behavior in terms of hand washing
The cities of Pikine and Guédiawaye etc.). In 2012 , the number of victims support in the promotion of a shared (after using the bathroom, after The target beneficiaries are
are heavily exposed to annual floods had already been estimated to be commitment to take charge of the cleaning children’s feces and before estimated at 120,000 households with
that have become almost cyclical since more than 200,000 people . issue of on-site sanitation, as well as eating, etc.). priority given to female heads of Dr. Astou Fall
2005, affecting 14 municipalities out water and sanitation problems in households, local and administrative OXFAM America
of 16 in Pikine and 04 municipalities To promote a better quality of life , the general to concretely improve people’s 2. Develop, test and validate in target authorities of the cities of Pikine and
out of 05 in Guédiawaye. Annual project will provide households with living conditions and quality of life. communities 2 or 3 innovative Guédiawaye.
assessments made since 2010 by latrine models that are technologi- sanitation works (prototypes) that are
OXFAM and EVE reveal three cally adapted to the geographical area Description of the project adapted to the environment and
situations: endemic areas, seasonally (stagnant water almost on the affordable
flooded areas, and areas overtaken by surface) and are financially affordable This 3-year project (November 2012-
the waters (new flooded areas). The to solve sanitation problems related October 2015) is the 6th largest
consequences are manifold and geophysical conditions aggravated by component of the project called
manifest themselves in the recurrent floods. Also, the project will "Market Structuring Project of Fecal
degradation of individual and develop a communication strategy to Sludge” (known as PSMBV, its

Photos: Example of a flooded street

12 13
Project dynamic

Niveau d’éducation des vidangeurs!


Lycée,
fin terminale

Mechanical desludgers in Dakar :


Lycée

Niveau
d’éducation CEM

Profile, work and services offered


Primaire,
fin CM2

Primaire
Pas
d’éducation
formelle!

0 10 20 30 40 50
Fréquence

During the days of work, 10 of respondents say they use


hours a day 6 days a week, their trucks for other activi-
these desludgers perform, on ties, especially to pump water
average, 7-8 domestic deslud- during the rainy season, on
The vast majority of deslud-
gings, especially in municipa- behalf of government pro-
gers are truck drivers, and the
lities in Thiaroye, Guédiawaye grams (98%) and private
oldest are more likely to
and Almadies. Domestic compounds (79%).
undertake management tasks.
desludging is not their only
The trucks are also quite old;
activity; 78%
the average age is around 28
Organisation et… years, and one of them has
Ardeur au travail been circulating since 1955!
Almost half of vacuum trucks
in Dakar belong to companies
or EIGs, and their average
A team of 17 investigators and What have we learned from capacity is 10 cubic meters.
two supervisors have worked that survey?
for 8 days in June 2012 in
Dakar to identify and inter- We found that the population
view the mechanical deslud- of 138 desludgers is not
gers in the Dakar region, using homogeneous. Although most
a questionnaire developed by of these desludgers are aged
IPA with support from WSA. between 25 and 40, there are
From the data collected, we ten aged over 50. The majority
could describe the population, of desludgers have attended La presqu’île du Cap Vert

in order to observe its evolu- formal school: most of them Truck sizes by volume (cubic meters)
50
tion based on the activities of have attended only elemen- 50
the PSMBV in the depart- tary, school even if some went
40

ments of Pikine and Gué- up to the Terminal class in high


diawaye. school (twelfth grade).
Frequency
30

* for this study, “desludger” is defined as a


18 vacuum truck driver who drives at least 3 times
12 a week a vacuum truck; emphasis was laid on
9
trucks working primarily or partially on domes-
10

8 7
5 4
3
2 3
1 tic desludging
0

0 5 10 15 20
Truck volume (cubic meters)

14 15
Project dynamic

Organizing the
transportation of sludge:
A new approach in progress
Certification of desludging companies potential sanctions include the
could help solve these problems by withdrawal of point(s) from trucks in
reaching four objectives: violation [The idea is to give each
company 10 points when giving them
1.structuring the mechanical deslud- Damaged hoses the license and to remove a few points
ging sector with the inclusive and for each offense];
participatory adoption of new
organizational, technical, and 3. and defining the role of each
administrative standards accepted and institutional stakeholder concerned;
respected by all stakeholders; The strong support from all
stakeholders, as well as the
2. strengthening the legal framework accompanying measures implemented
governing the fecal sludge sector in by the PSMBV program (guarantee
Senegal by the “definition of the fund for retrofitting desludging trucks
conditions of collection, transport, and equipment) suggest a promising
discharge and dumping of materials future for a better organization of the
originating from emptying septic sludge sector in Senegal.
tanks” as stipulated by Article L.83 of Defective Valve
Focus group sessions with private operators and mechanical desludgers
the Code of Sanitation;
- Definition of sanctions in case of
non-compliance with legal
Individual sanitation is the most and the Sanitation in Senegal sludge sector, in order to better requirements: the different types of
widespread system for the wastewa- (ONAS), with the construction in organize the business, its profitability Dr. Bécaye Sidy DIOP
Coordinator of the PSMBV
ter management in Senegal. In Dakar suburbs of: (i) 65,000 and to reduce the cost of desludging
Water and Sanitation for
Dakar, a city facing a high popula- individual sanitation works and (ii) services in favor of the most Africa (WSA) Agency
tion growth, about 75% of the popu- three fecal sludge treatment plants. underprivileged populations.
lation has individual sanitation However, significant problems are Certification of desludging companies
(PDA by 2025). This creates a signi- noted in the sludge management is critical to this approach.
ficant production of sludge whose system, particularly in the part that The process implemented under the
transportation, done by trucks that connects domestic structures and fecal PSMBV to achieve the certification of Defective discharge valve Mechanical
are mostly old, suffers from a real sludge treatment plants, i.e. desludging companies is based on a
structuring problem. An organiza- everything that revolves around the participatory and inclusive approach,
tion process has already been vacuum truck. This part is involving all stakeholders in the sector
launched with the target outcome characterized by a deficit of to define the criteria and conditions of
of getting certification (license) for organization, a lack of training and such certification. The methodological
vacuum trucks. outdated or inadequate working tools approach is structured around a
used by desludgers (trucks and number of activities including
Taking into account the ongoing equipment). interviews and/or focus groups with
development of autonomous sanitation institutional stakeholders (ONAS,
that led to increased production of Therefore, it is necessary and urgent DEEC, SNH, CL , and Police), private
sludge whose mismanagement is a in the light of these shortcomings to operators and mechanical desludgers.
source of danger to both human health reflect on a new approach in the
Desludgers without Personal Protective
Equipment

16 17
Project dynamic

Testing Platform for innovative `


sanitation technologies
Dakar, a future laboratory
The Bill & Melinda Gates Founda- implemented by the private sector, Indeed, lack of basic sanitation is one
tion, in collaboration with various which now manages the fecal sludge of the major challenges to ending
partners, intends to make of Sene- treatment plants, following the extreme poverty and diseases in the
gal, of Dakar in particular, a testing delegation policy implemented by the poorest countries around the world.
platform for innovative technolo- sludge market structuring program This mainly relates to sub-Saharan
gies in sanitation. Indeed, under the funded by the Gates Foundation. Also, Africa where nearly 565 million
aegis of the foundation, a new type Dakar’s socio-economic context is part people lack access to adequate
of toilet called “Reinvent the Toilets of the dynamics prevailing in much of sanitation. It also affects nearly a
– RTT” is being developed. This is a the countries of West Africa. third of the world population, i.e. 2.6
new system of collection, transport billion people without access to
and treatment of sludge with the This testing platform of technologies improved sanitation facilities. In
“Omni-Ingestor,” and a special for the development of sustainable addition, according to the report of
decentralized unit for the treatment sanitation will thus aim to contribute Water and Sanitation Program of the
of fecal sludge called “Omni proces- to improving the value chain of World Bank, this lack of sanitation
sor.” autonomous sanitation through infrastructure costs nearly $ 5.5
experimentation of innovative billion a year to eighteen African
These groundbreaking initiatives technologies developed by BMGF countries.
should add value to the profitability of (storage, collection/transportation,
the system and the tools for the and treatment/valorization). On the However, despite the increasing
sustainability of the operation. other hand, the platform seeks to appropriation of more autonomous
Moreover, these technologies will validate the conditions of their sanitation by populations, this system
reinforce the new approach to the release. This will improve the still faces huge problems at different
sector which aims to transform the sanitation conditions of billions of stages of the value chain, meaning
sanitation into a market value by people living in poor countries, from sludge collection to treatment,
valorizing fecal sludge, strengthening through the provision of affordable through transport.
the private sector, diversifying the and drainable toilets, and through the
appropriate technologies, and implementation of transport and
improving the quality of service. treatment systems that are efficient
and cost-effective.
The choice of Senegal by the
Foundation is partly due to the strong
political will to develop on-site
sanitation and the availability of fecal
sludge treatment infrastructure that
can be coupled with new technologies
l’assainissement
to be tested. Also, there is in Dakar a
strong private sector that begins to
take an interest in the valorization B. SOW & M. LO
pour un meilleur cadre de vie
of sanitation by-products. This is PSMBV
evidenced by the marketing strategy

Siège Social : Cité TP Som n°4 - Hann - BP 13428 Grand-Yoff, Dakar, Sénégal
Tél : (221) 33 859 35 35 - Fax : (221) 33 832 35 31 - Numéro Orange : 81 800 10 12
E-mail : onas@orange.sn - Site web : www.onas.sn
18 19
Project dynamic

connected to a sewer have a septic tank for the mechanical desludging whose average price
management of wastewater and toilet water. is 25,700 CFA populations.
These septic tanks have been emptied at least It should be noted that the determination of
once in 70% of cases, and the last desludging was the price of desludging is often not based on
done less than 20 months before the survey in objective criteria and is often part of business
79% of cases. logic where the service provider tries to
Desludging methods used by households are make the maximum profit possible. However,
threefold as shown in Figure 1. desludging companies and informal operators
provide service to populations at an amount
they set themselves and that competition
regulates depending on the time the year.

Dakar has about 53 desludging companies


Fecal Sludge: that are active. A count of desludging
companies shows a predominance of entities
A Promising Market 60% 53%
without legal status over formal entities with
a trade register and a NINEA (identification
50% 44% number in the Senegalese national register
40% of companies and associations).
30%
20%

The analysis of current sanita- municipalities in a semi-collec- objective is to promote the 10% 3%
tion policies in urban centers, tive network. This program has populations’ better access to 0%
implemented by ONAS, allowed the achievement of quality desludging services at Vidange Vidange manuelle Vidange combinée 70% 66%
provides information on new three fecal sludge treatment low cost. mécanique
60%
Source : Surveys by WSA/IPA, 2012
national guidelines focusing on plants in Cambérène, Rufisque
50%
the promotion and diversifica- and the Niayes. In the departments of Pikine Desludging methods practiced in Pikine and Guédiawaye
tion of on-site sanitation - The and Guédiawaye, these 40% Société Anonyme à
responsabilité limitée
systems and breaking, de facto, project to build 12,000 indivi- programs have participated in Mechanical desludging appears to be the most 30% 23%
with past strategies that often dual works in the suburbs the creation of a significant widely desludging method used in the departments 20%
Entreprise individuelle

advocated the “everything in funded the GPOBA (Global market for desludging services of Pikine and Guédiawaye with an access rate of 11%
10% Entreprise sans tatut
the sewerage.” Partnership for Output-Based for public and private service 56%. However, among the households that had juridique

The renewed interest in on-site Aid) whose main objective was providers (98% of the used mechanical desludging, 3% adopted a 0%
Société Entreprise Entreprise sans
sanitation is evidenced by the to build autonomous works population is served by on-site combination of mechanical and manual methods. Anonyme à individuelle statut juridique
responsabilité
implementation of programs (septic tanks, Pour Flush Toilets sanitation). For this demand, it limitée
Source : Surveys by WSA/IPA, 2012
and ambitious projects whose (PFT), PFT with shower, VIP is necessarily to master the
results have positively impacted with two septic tanks, showers local realities in particular to However, the proportion of households using Figure 2. Status of Mechanical Desludging Companies
people’s quality of life. Among with pits, laundry tubs with pits) define mechanisms combining manual desludging remains high (44%) mainly
these programs, we can list the for areas neither covered by a performance and profitability of because of the relatively high cost of mechanical
following: sewerage network nor by a desludging companies on the desludging for a good segment of the population Administrative non-compliance of the majo-
- The Project for the Improve- semi-collective network for one hand, and cost reduction of that is often poor, and because of inaccessibility of rity of companies is, for them, a handicap
ment of Sanitation in Peri-ur- areas that have it. mechanical desludging, espe- some compounds. Indeed, the cost appears to be because only those with formal legal status
ban Areas of Dakar (known as - The Sludge Market Structu- cially for the most vulnerable the most important criterion in the choice of and in good standing with the tax and social
PAQPUD, its French acronym) ring Program (PSMBV) in the households. desludging methods for 55% of households. services are allowed to bid for public
which enabled the construction departments of Pikine and Gué- With an average cost of 14,500 CFA per contracts such as pre-rainy season operations,
of more than 60,000 autono- diawaye initiated by ONAS and The surveys of 4,000 house- operation, manual desludging is the least management of fecal sludge treatment
mous works in several munici- funded by the Bill and Melinda holds carried out by WSA/ H2O expensive method of emptying and is more plants, maintenance of sewage treatment
palities of Dakar and its suburbs Gates Foundation, whose main show that 84% of compounds accessible to the poorest people, as compared to plants and septic tank emptying during major
(Pikine and Guédiawaye), and that are not religious events.
coverage of at least seven

20 21
Project dynamic

80% - customers maintain contact Plan also known as ORSEC (organization of aid, enrollment in
70%
68% Most desludging companies (68%) have only one
with mechanical desludgers; desludging activities in religious cities, etc. For some large companies
60%
truck because of their weak financial capacity that
- easy payment; with legal status, revenue from non-domestic activities may reach up
50%
does not enable them to acquire additional trucks
- recommendations to other to 70% of annual revenues.
40%
and make profit out of their businesses. They also
customers; However, it should be noted that the expenditures of these companies,
30%
have difficulties in accessing bank loans. These
- social desludgings for the least whether small, medium-size or large, suggests a structure of expenses
20%
companies often have very dilapidated trucks,
fortunate. mostly related to operating costs and staff salaries, investments being
7% 9%
6% 5% 5%
contrary to companies with a fleet 5 trucks or more,
10% While the mechanical deslud- a small part of it.
which often correspond to the companies with legal
0% ging market is dynamic, it
1Camion 2Camions 3Camions 4Camions 5Camions status.
5
Camions
nevertheless appears that the
Source : WSA/H2O, 2012 supply of services, provided by
Figure 3. Number of trucks per desludging company private operators, still faces
several major challenges that 80% 74% 72%
68%
threaten the very sector. These 70%
difficulties are primarily rela- 60%
The number of desludgings performed by service providers remains very low. Half of vacuum trucks make 50%
ted to: 40%
less than 10 trips per week, i.e. less than 1.4 trips per day. The maximum number of trips that the most 20% 25%
- dilapidated trucks, 30% 18% Charges de
efficient desludgers make is between 40 and 50 trips per week, i.e. 5.7 to 7.1 trips per day. - non-regulation and deregula- 20% 6% 7% 10%
fonctionnement

The production of mechanically drained sludge gradually goes up due to the increase and intensification of 10%
tion of the sector, 0% Rémunération du
the population and living standards which will directly affect the equipment of households with latrines - difficulties in accessing fun- Petites
entreprises
Moyennes
entreprises
Grandes
entreprises
personnel
and insulated pits instead of the traditional latrines. ding,
Annuité des
- the dizzying and redundant Source : WSA, 2012
amortissements
increases in fuel prices, Figure 5. Distribution of the operating cost structure of desludging companies
- administrative constraints,
Figure 4. Evolution of the daily production of sludge in the study area (cubic meter/day)
- etc.
These difficulties negatively Fuel charges are the main operating cost for desludging companies.
2012 2013 2014 2015 This is a real concern of desludgers who denounce the continued
affect the profitability of drain
as they are small (one truck), increase in fuel prices which prevents the development of mechanical
Guédiawaye 249 254 259 265 medium (2-5 trucks) or large desludging.
(more than 6 truck) sizes.
Pikine 738 753 769 785 Small and medium-sized
desludging companies have a
Total 987 1 007 1 028 1 050 positive but low profitability
rate with respectively 10.13% Although the market for mechanical desludging is promising in the
and 14% of their revenues. departments of Pikine and Guédiawaye, this activity alone does not
Large companies, on the other currently allow desludging companies to have a net profit equal to the
hand, have a positive and satis- minimum profit rate of 20% of total revenues due to the high cost of
With an estimated daily production of 1,007 cubic meters per day, a growing number of mechanical factory profitability rate
desludgings approximating 125 operations per day, and an annual turnover of around 918 887 500 F CFA operation and the small number daily rotations.
approximating 30%, which is Therefore, it is urgent to think about an economic model that reduces
(market study, WSA, 2012), the mechanical desludging market remains promising, dynamic and scalable justified by more significant
despite a service request still affected by the practice of manual desludging. companies’ operating expenses to diminish desludging. ONAS will
income generated from diversi- have to find a solution to reduce the proportion of households using
Manual desludging, which is prohibited by national legislation and whose health and environmental fication activities such as opera-
impacts are felt by people, is unfortunately a recurring practice in the departments of Pikine and Gué- manual desludging, make the mechanical desludging activity profi-
tions before the rainy season, table and participate, de facto, to improving the quality of life of
diawaye. This trend is mainly due to the households’ low income (only 2 out of 12 people per household intervention in the National
are active with an average salary of 60,000 CFA) and the high and fluctuating cost of mechanical deslud- urban dwellers.
Contingency
ging.
However, despite the deeply rooted practice of manual desludging in certain segments of the population,
it appears that mechanical desludging, used by most people, constantly wins market share mainly because
of the following reasons: Papa Mamadou MANGANE
H20 Engineering

22 23
Innovation After the PAQPUD ...
market structuring of fecal increasing demand for mecha- Steering bodies set up by the
sludge for the benefit of vulne- nical desludging service by State of Senegal for close
rable households in Pikine and improving access to informa- monitoring of program acti-
Guédiawaye. tion and raising awareness at vities
the household level (III); faci-
A program to reduce the litating access to fecal sludge The Minister of Water and
cost of desludging and to treatment plants and their Sanitation established by
improve health conditions of performance (IV). decree the Steering Commit-
the population tee (SC) of the program
A program with six compo- whose general aim is to contri-
The market structuring nents and four implementing bute to the achievement of the
program of fecal sludge partners program’s objectives and to
(PSMBV) aims to improve the ensure its supervision. It will
... towards an innovative living conditions of low-in-
come residents of peri-urban
The program is divided into six
components: a research com-
specifically prepare all the
consultations with the various
and cost-effective areas of Dakar region, by faci-
litating access to hygienic and
ponent managed by IPA
(Innovation for Poverty
program partners, both in
public and private sectors (I);
management of fecal sludge affordable mechanical deslud- Action) and WSA (Water and monitor the implementation of
ging and by reducing the Sanitation for Africa), an the partners’ commitments
prevalence of manual deslud- infrastructure component (II); submit to the Government
Management of sludge is To cope with this situation, the sanitation companies in the ging that is highly prejudicial managed by EDE (Water decision proposals based on
one of the major environ- State of Senegal established sub-region, but also helped to the population’s health and Waste Environment), a sanita- studies and the program work,
mental and health problems in 2000 an extensive sanita- funding of new projects by the to the environment. This will tion component in flood-prone and ensure the implementa-
in small, medium and large tion program in peri-urban Global Partnership Output entail encouraging the deve- areas controlled by Oxfam tion of Government decisions (
cities in developing coun- areas of Dakar (PAQPUD), a $ Based Aid (GPOBA) and UN- lopment of the private sector America, a biogas component, III); supervise on behalf of the
tries. The rapid and often 20 billion CFA program Habitat. of sanitation through delega- a marketing component, and Ministries of Finance and
exponential population funded by the World Bank to Still under the PAQPUD, in tion of Fecal Sludge Treatment finally a coordination compo- Sanitation and, upon request,
growth in these cities is not improve people’s quality of June 2011 Senegal organized Plants (I); improving the qua- nent managed by ONAS. take care of all other matters
often accompanied by life. Implementation of a “Workshop for the definition lity of service offered by the relating to this program (IV);
suitable sanitation programs PAQPUD has covered 32 local of a project on the operational drain private operators (II) ; participate in awareness-rai-
to ensure development cor- communities in the suburban mechanisms for universal sing activities for communi-
related with health infras- areas, affecting 22% of house- access to mechanical deslud- ties, associations and residents
tructure. Group or individual holds not served by sewerage. ging services” in which all the in the program area (V).
solutions implemented 66,732 individual works, 16 operators and stakeholders in
urgently often fail to ade- public toilets, 76 school toilet the sector have come up with
quately and effectively meet blocks, 03 fecal sludge treat- priorities to improve the func-
the needs in this sector. This ment plants and 130 semi-col- tioning of this sector. This
is particularly the case in the lective systems have been workshop resulted in a grant
Dakar suburbs that, due to built. agreement amounting to
rapid natural increase of the nearly 7 billion CFA between
population, exacerbated by a This success has not only the Bill and Melinda Gates
massive rural exodus, face attracted the interest of seve- Foundation and the State of
many problems among which ral development partner, as Senegal, for the establishment
a huge deficit sanitation well as many water and of an innovative program of
infrastructure.

24 25
Innovation

The Steering Committee is It is composed of Departments In addition to this delegation, center that will reform the Prospects in the short term will have a biogas production
chaired by the Secretary of Sanitation, Economic and the program is setting up a field of autonomous sanitation. unit . The study phase is almost
General of the Ministry of Financial Cooperation, Public certification program for With a phone, you can order a The subproject called Sanita- finished, and construction will
Water and Sanitation and Hygiene, Environment and desludgers. As stipulated by desludging service at ONAS tion Program of Peri-urban in start later in 2014.
meets at least twice a year at Classified Establishments, the Code of Sanitation, a set of who, through open competition Areas of Dakar (PAQPUD),
the invitation of its Chairman. Energy, the National Office of measures will be taken to between desludgers (auctions), implemented between 2000 The objective of ONAS
It is composed of sectorial Sanitation in Senegal regulate the desludging sector offers the best deal possible and 2008 had allowed the through the activities carried
ministries, departments and (ONAS), the Program for for service providers. To this for households. It will thus National Office of Sanitation out in Pikine and Guédiawaye,
programs involved in the Drinking Water and Sanitation end, in addition to consultation bring supply and demand of in Senegal (ONAS) to set up is to have a sustainable deve-
program, and local beneficia- in the Millennium (PEPAM), with stakeholders, advocacy desludging services closer. The three Fecal Sludge Treatment lopment model of autonomous
ries. the Association of Sanitation activities are being done beta phase of the call center is Plants (FSTP). Due to their sanitation implanted in other
A Technical Committee was Stakeholders in Senegal towards authorities, after over; the five-month pilot popularity, these plants are in cities in the country. Beyond
also established, chaired by (AAAS) and implementing which a bill will be proposed phase has started; the last a situation of overexploitation the technical considerations, a
the Director of Sanitation of partners of the program. by the Ministry of Sanitation phase of scaling-up covering and receive three or four times model of communication and
Senegal. The Technical Com- in the National Assembly. To the entire area of intervention their normal volume. To involvement of local communi-
mittee oversees the prepara- Innovation at the heart of do so, the program will help will begin in the month of relieve these plants and bring ties is about to be imple-
tion of reports to the Steering the program desludgers research funding to January 2014. dumping sites closer to the mented at the program level
Committee (I), gives an upgrade their activity through beneficiaries, and to reduce not only to facilitate its appro-
opinion on technical studies For the first time in Africa, the establishment of a gua- desludging costs, the Bill and priation by the target popula-
(II), validates the procedures fecal sludge treatment plants rantee fund in a financial insti- Melinda Gates Foundation has tions, but also make easier
manual (III), makes recom- are delegated to the private tution. agreed as part of this program future replication of this inno-
mendations on appropriate sector not only to encourage The Program, in collaboration to fund a fourth Fecal Sludge vative program whose success
communication policies on the investment in the sanitation with its research partners Treatment Plant in the district will allow us to consider a defi-
program, and also to deslud- sector which used to be consi- “WSA/IPA” is also in the of Keur Massar, and this plant nite improved sanitation for
ging professionals and benefi- dered a non-market sector, but process of setting up a call millions of people living in
ciaries of autonomous works also to optimize the public poor areas of developing
in the Pikine-Guédiawaye service management system of countries. This is the objective
area (IV), and assists, if neces- autonomous sanitation vulne- pursued by the Gates Founda-
sary, ONAS in the conduct of rable households. tion.
program activities (V).

Dr. Mbaye Mbéguéré,


Program Coordinator

26 27
Focus
Collection and
transportation of sludge An exhausting and dangerous
operation

Stop individual In Senegal, manual desludging It should be noted that in


solutions among morbidity and
diarrheal diseases ranked
is performed by desludgers
called “Baay Pelles” in Sene-
Dakar, the activity of manual
desludging is performed either
second for death after mala- gal and “Puisatiers” in Côte by professional desludgers for
ria. d'Ivoire. These people work in whom that is the main occupa-
Developing countries are cha- In these poor places, indivi- the largest informal sector. tion or by occasional deslud-
racterized by a significant dual sanitation (septic tanks, In addition, individual sanita- Their job, in most cases, gers (artisans, masons...) who,
increase in their population latrines, etc.) appears as the tion systems are characterized consists of operations they call during their frequent periods
that is concentrated mainly in best solution for achieving the by the presence of individuals “cleansing,” i.e. removal of of inactivity, engage in this
cities where economic activi- Millennium Development Goal or small-size companies that sand and pasty sludge remai- practice. In addition, some
ties are much more dynamic to halve, by 2015, the propor- often informally ensure the ning in the septic tank after households mobilize members
than in rural areas. For tion of the population without collection and transport of vacuum trucks have finished of the family for a desludging,
Dr. Mbaye Mbéguéré,
example, in the case of Sene- sustainable access to safe sludge to dumping sites that desludging. Families that sometimes at night. In
PSMBV Coordinator
gal, Dakar which occupies only drinking water and basic sani- are illegal, or authorized but cannot afford the services of a Bamako, manual desludging is
0.3% of the national territory tation. Moreover, this affects for the most part inappro- vacuum truck for this operation sometimes done by farmers
The facts are there and they is home to 22% of the total nearly one third of the world hire the service of manual who agree with households to
priate. These desludging ope-
are dramatic. People in poor population (DPS, 2002). This population, i.e. about 2.6 desludgers. Sometimes, they provide their free service
rators, whether manual or
countries suffer a lot from demographic situation explains billion urban dwellers in deve- are asked to completely empty because they use the sludge as
mechanical, play a central and
the failure of services for why it is difficult for govern- loping countries. However, the septic tank by themselves. fertilizer for their crops.
essential role in the individual
waste collection and proper ments to meet the different individual wastewater systems sanitation system.
disposal. Many reasons needs in basic services of popu- produce large amounts of fecal Manual desludging is usually Manual desludging is not only
explain this situation: popu- lations, among which sanita- sludge that should be regularly done in teams of two people. practiced in Africa. In India
lation growth, habitat struc- tion is central (United Nations, emptied and disposed of One of them enters the pit and, for example, more than 1000
ture and economic 2007). This results in inade- properly to avoid harmful 1. Manual Desludging using a bucket, sends the mud manual desludgers have been
constraints. Survival strate- quate collection of waste, and effects on the population’s to the second person who counted despite the existence
gies generally consisting of its improper disposal in the health and the environment. In dumps the content into a hole of a law prohibiting the prac-
individual solutions are streets and vacant lots the city of Dakar only, about previously dug in the yard or in tice. In this country, such acti-
developed with the sub- (Medina, 2000). 1,500 cubic meters of fecal front of the house (photo 1). If vity is performed by the social
sequent high production of sludge is removed from on-site they are unable to dig a hole class of the Dalits, a lower
fecal sludge that requires sanitation systems daily. This (insufficient or unsuitable class regarded as untouchable.
the implementation of inno- Severe diarrheal diseases waste is often dumped directly space) for the fecal sludge, Their habitat is often located
vative solutions for their into the environment as the they put it into bags to be in the periphery of the city and
disposal to protect popula- Moreover, mainly due to habi- outskirts of cities, rivers, and thrown into dumpsters or in they are not allowed inside the
tions from diarrheal diseases tat structure and economic streams. In Senegal, the vacant lots. The operation concessions they are supposed
and parasites, and increase constraints, it remains unlikely health statistics of the continues until the full collec- to clean. However, in terms of
the chances of reducing the that conventional sanitation Ministry of Health ranked tion of the sludge in the pit. income, they are not the poo-
high mortality rates obser- through a sewerage system diarrheal and parasitic rest in the village.
ved in these countries. will be widespread as an diseases, all related to water
option for these countries. and these practices, fourth

Photo 1 : Manual Desludging

28 29
Focus
Dossier
Most stakeholders in the rainwater and wastewater, in • Condition of the truck
In addition to difficulties in • Health Risks desludging sector have only industrial desludgings and in fleet
this activity and lack of These risks are mainly due to one truck; these operators are the cleaning of drainage Currently, out of one hundred
hygiene that characterizes it, the fact that the manual essentially individual entities. works. desludging trucks available in
manual desludging is badly desludgers enter into the pits, Big operators hold only 6% of The mechanical desludging Dakar, only 3 are hydro-clean-
perceived by people. It is bare-chested, with no protec- the fleet. The best equipped activity in Dakar includes a sing trucks. The rest consists of
ignored by the authorities tive equipment (mask, gloves, operator in Senegal had a large fleet of nearly 130 regular vacuum trucks and
despite the important role that boots, etc.). Under these fleet of 15 trucks in 2010. trucks, but overall they are liquid manure tanks. This is a
these desludgers play in the circumstances, they are in Desludging companies are rather dilapidated. None of the problem that affects to the
desludging market. However, direct contact with feces with often members of an associa- trucks in use is less than 10 ability to desludge all septic
it is recognized that this possibilities of skin infections, tion. This legally registered years of age. If one were to tanks. So after desludging,
method of emptying septic respiratory and oral infections divide the number of trucks by much of the solid sludge
tanks, highly prejudicial for that can be immediate or the number of households with remains in the septic tank and
the environment and public long-term (chronic). In some an individual sanita- only the floating matter is
health, will expand as long as cases, the disposal of sludge in tion system, the ratio taken to the dumping site.
vacuum trucks remain inac- the immediate vicinity of would be one truck Besides the technical
cessible to people in deve- latrines or directly on the for about 11,538 problems this creates at the
loping countries. streets causes the spread of people who have indi- treatment plant, this poses
pathogens in the environment, Certains gestes sont nocifs vidual sanitation, or also social problems between
with real health risks for popu- one truck for 1,154 the desludging service provi-
lations. Raising awareness of by pollution, which jeopardizes households. ders and people who, because
Risks associated with manual
desludging desludgers about the risks to economic, recreational and The equipment poten- of the rapid filling of their pit
their business and improving consumption activities that tially available on the after emptying, consider that
Manual desludging is an acti- regulation will, in the short characterize these water market is sometimes the work has not correctly
vity with many risks related to term, improve the working resources. In Dakar for reduced by frequent been done.
example, water is heavily La vidange mécanique une pratique fructueuse
the physical integrity of conditions in this activity prior breakdowns that
desludgers, their health and to its disappearance in the polluted with nitrate in Thia- association plays the role of often require spare parts that Second hand trucks are mainly
that of the populations, and agenda of autonomous sanita- roye because, among other interface between their mem- are not available locally. The imported from Europe, mainly
the environment. tion. things, of the daily unautho- bers and the government percentage of trucks occasio- from France, Belgium and the
rized burying of fecal sludge in services. Its role is first to nally unusable affects the cost Netherlands. In the case of
• • Risks related to the phy- • Risks to the Environment neighborhoods. work towards the recognition of desludging because it affects Senegal, the import of this
sical integrity of desludgers In addition to the unpleasant of the desludging work, and the ratio between supply and type of truck for specific use is
odor and aesthetic discomfort secondly to work on the forma- demand. If 50% of trucks facilitated by the existence of
• Risk of collapse of the floor they may cause, sludge poses a 2. Mechanical desludging lization of the sector, regula- became unusable for some tax incentives (tax exemption,
of the pit, serious risk to the environ- tion and limitation of the fleet reason, the number of vacuum customs duties amounting to
• Risk of explosion due mainly For more professionalism in trucks per household would be 5% as opposed to 30% for
ment because a vacuum truck and, more importantly, on the
to gas produced during the the sector one truck in 2308 households. other types of vehicles, 50%
dumping its content out in the transparency of public procu-
anaerobic digestion in Private operators in mechani- This explains the widespread reduction of insurance fees,
open is equivalent to about rement contracts.
progress inside the septic cal desludging consist mainly use of manual desludging that and 100% free vignette).
5,000 people defecating in the
tanks (CH4, H2S) of two categories: companies is highly prejudicial to the
open air! With the high pollu- Furthermore, it is important to
• Risk of suffocation and burns formally registered and indivi- population’s health and the These measures that seem
tion loads they carry, note the hybrid nature of com-
related to the intense heat in dual operators. environment. interesting have so far not
underground water and panies that operate not only in
the septic tanks, 78% of individual operators supported the renewal of the
surface water are threatened the collection and transporta-
• Risk of injury associated own only one truck that they fleet because, according
tion of domestic fecal sludge,
with sharp objects in the septic manage by themselves in a
but also in the pumping of
tank, such as glasses, knives, totally informal manner.
blades.

30 31
Focus
Dossier Dossier Interview

to the operators, despite these


conveniences, the import
Moreover, beyond
renewal, reflection should
this Also, the development of new
truck models to reduce the M. Ibra SOW,
prices of second-hand vacuum
trucks remains very high
focus on the conditions of
profitability of desludging
operating costs of desludgers
and to increase efficiency of
president of the
(between $ 25,000 and $
45,000 USD depending on
companies that are a true
mobile sewer network for indi-
the desludging service will
undoubtedly help to modernize
Association of
whether it is a pumper or a
hydro-cleansing truck).
vidual sanitation. Only
successful and well organized
the sector and to make auto- Sanitation
companies can make it
nomous sanitation become an
attractive sector for private Stakeholders
• Plans for the future
The renewal of the truck fleet
possible to improve access to
mechanical desludging for the
operators. This way, new
public-private partnership will in Senegal
for desludgers has become a
must, not only for the sustaina-
poor. The establishment of
dumping sites near areas
be launched for the benefit of (AAAS)
bility of desludging services, where fecal sludge is produced
sanitation for the most vulne-
rable households. This is the “ Delegation is for us
but also to lower prices for
participating in the reduction
helps to reach this objective by
reducing the cost of transpor-
objective of the Gates Founda-
tion in its project to invent a a real blessing”
of operating costs for deslud- ting sludge but also by the new vacuum truck called Omni
ging companies. This will also introduction of value-creating Ingestor.
help them have equipment systems leading to the reduc-
suitable for emptying various tion of taxes related to the
individual sanitations. dumping of sludge. Driver at the beginning of his Does delegation make it rainy season, we could easily
career, Mr. Ibra SOW became possible to optimize sludge pump rainwater during the day
a highly respected entrepre- management? and empty a few septic tanks
neur in the desludging at night. Now we can no longer
sector. He has a fleet of Delegation will be very impor- do that and the desludging
fifteen trucks and is presi- tant for the management of sector suffers from the fact
dent of the association of sludge. Indeed, if one day we that we cannot do more than
desludgers in Senegal. manage the plants where we one or two desludgings per
Privileged interlocutor of dump fecal sludge, we can night, and that is unfortunate
civil society and the govern- already say that the deslud- for septic tank owners.
ment on issues relating to ging activity will be more
sludge management, he profitable. We have always
encourages and supports criticized the hours and days So during the rainy season,
changes in the sector. In this of opening and closing of the you stop emptying septic
interview, he gives the posi- dumping sites that are not tanks?
tion of desludgers on the helpful at all to our business.
Market Structuring Program Closing at 5PM does not Of course; that time of the
for the Sludge Sector, parti- enable us to provide a conti- year, it is much more profi-
cularly on the delegation of nuous desludging service and table to pump rainwater –
fecal sludge treatment does not give us the opportu- which we do almost every day
plants and the introduction nity to maximize our revenue from 8AM to 6PM – upon
of a call center to bring opportunities. For example, request from ONAS, the
supply and demand closer when the Bel Air dumping site Ministry of Sanitation, or City
together. was functional during the Halls of flooded areas.

32 33
Entretien

Have you assessed the What support can then bring Desludgers, we are involved in
impact on the sludge you the call center that is all activities and regularly
sector? currently being tested? consulted in decision-making.
Moreover, we participate in all
Households face enormous meetings of the governing
challenges that time of the A huge support! This call bodies of the program. Also,
year to empty their septic center is welcome. Normally most of the meetings of the
tanks. I can assure you that it we do not do hype; the call Association of Desludgers are
is very difficult to find a center will allow us to better held in the conference room of
desludging truck during the publicize and make ourselves the CUP that often helps, at
rainy season because of the more accessible. On the other our request, to facilitate our
demand for removal of hand, the auction system that relationship with the General
rainwater that is more profi- will be introduced in the call Directorate of ONAS. This
table. Some of us, however, try center is a good thing for the reassures us and puts us at
to increase their revenues and client. In fact, the client will ease.
secure gas money by emptying not pay excessive amounts of
a few septic tanks at night. But money to desludge their septic
maybe they do not know that tank because costs will inevi- When you look at the
the dumping sites do not ope- tably decrease since the user ongoing initiatives, what do
rate at night. In fact all that will have the possibility to you see as the prospects for
fecal sludge will be dumped in choose the lowest bidder. the sector?
the sewerage network of Besides, it will also allow us to
ONAS, thus causing a great significantly boost our sales The profession has become
nuisance. with the expected increase in attractive due to the opening
the number of customers. of the fecal sludge treatment
Where we used to have two or plants: there is less dumping
Then, how do you plan on three desludgings per day, we out in the open. The trucks are
optimizing the management expect to double or even triple no longer as dilapidated as
of the sludge sector? the number. As a result our they used to be and we see a
turnover will increase due to lot of newcomers to the
If we one day, thanks to dele- the proximity that will be desludging business. We have,
gation, we end up managing created by the call center as of January 2013, a very
dumping sites, we will work 24 between supply and demand. credible association gathering
hours a day, if ONAS allows us 99% of desludgers, i.e. 87
to do so. So, we will substanti- service providers, including 17
ally increase our revenues and The PSMBV is changing the companies and individuals.
at the same time valorize sludge sector! Are you The advantage is that all
sludge and the by-products of involved in the execution members are required to
its treatment. This is where process? comply with the local stan-
the future of the sector lies. If dards of hygiene and environ-
we manage well, we could one mental protection. With coa-
day pay households to Yes, indeed! I must even say ching from the program, we
desludge their septic tanks that ONAS involved us since will be better organized. A
thanks to what we will get the time the program was license system will be esta-
from the valorization if we being developed. Then, with blished and former misbeha-
study it well. For us deslud- the establishment of the Coor- viors will no longer be tolera-
gers, delegation is a real bles- dination Unit of the Program ted. The result will be more
sing. (CUP) that set up an office in customers and more revenue
its headquarters to accommo- for us.
date the Association of
Interview by Bassirou SOW

34