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Acosta, Cathleen Joy C.


Philosophy (from the Greek word phílosophía, meaning ‘the love of wisdom’) is the
study of knowledge, or "thinking about thinking". It is a social science that study knowledge
and existence of men.

i. The discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts
of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as
genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning
ii. The search for knowledge and truth, especially about the nature of man and his
behavior and beliefs;
iii. The search for knowledge and truth, especially about the nature of man and his
behavior and beliefs.


i. Speculative Philosophy -search for order and linkage in ideas. A philosophy
professing to be founded upon intuitive or a priori insight and especially insight into
the nature of the Absolute or Divine broadly.
ii. Perspective Philosophy-opinion and ideas of thinkers. The philosophical view that
all ideations take place from particular perspectives.
iii. Occidental Philosophy-a philosophy of understanding the causes and its effects.
iv. Continental Philosophy-historical connection of all ideas.
v. AnalyticalPhilosophy- a process of logical discourse; empirical procedure of
observing evidences.
vi. Pure Philosophy - philosophy of human beings based on thought experiments.
vii. Applied Philosophy - practical application of ideas. Ex. technology


Philosophy can be divided into six branches:

i. Metaphysics
-It is called “the true nature of reality”. Forms the basis from which we perceive and
give meaning to our world.
- study of existence or study of the soul and body.

ii. Epistemology ---

-The theory of knowledge, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos
(word/speech), is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, scope and
possibility of knowledge. It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to
similar notions such as truth, belief and justification.
iii. Logic
-Logic is most often said to be the study of arguments. Logic is the study of reasoning,
or the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration.
-it is the testing of knowledge. If the knowledge tested is not arguable, then the logic is
true, and vise versa.

iv. Ethics
Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the "science (study) of morality".
In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is "good" or "right". It is concerned with
questions on morality and values and how they apply to various situations. It can be
divided into the branches of meta-ethics, normative and applied ethics.

v. Aesthetics
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the creation and appreciation of
beauty through critical analysis and reflection.

i. Philosophy analyzes the foundations and presuppositions underlying other disciplines:
Philosophy investigates and studies the underpinnings of science, art, and theology.
ii. Philosophy attempts to develop a comprehensive conception or apprehension of the
world. : Philosophy seeks to integrate the knowledge of the sciences with that of other
fields of study to achieve some kind of consistent and coherent world view.
Philosophers do not want to confine their attention to a fragment of human experience
or knowledge, but rather, want to reflect upon life as a totality.
iii. Philosophy studies and critically evaluates our most deeply held beliefs and attitudes; in
particular, those which are often held uncritically: Philosophers have an attitude of
critical and logical thoughtfulness. They force us to see the significance and
consequences of our beliefs, and sometimes their inconsistencies. They analyze the
evidence (or lack of it) for our most treasured beliefs, and seek to remove from our
perspectives every taint and trace of ignorance, prejudice, superstition, blind acceptance
of ideas, and any other form of irrationality.
iv. Philosophy investigates the principles and rules of language, and attempts to clarify the
meaning of vague words and concepts : Philosophy examines the role of language in
communication and thought, and the problem of how to identify or ensure the presence
of meaning in our use of language. It is a method--a practice--which seeks to expose the
problems and confusions which have results from the misuse of language, and to clarify
the meaning and use of vague terms in scientific and/or everyday discourse.


we study philosophy to uncover the mystery of man( creator & creature) and knowledge(
logic &reasoning)

i. Nominal Definition : it is the art of reasoning where it test the knowledge and logic.
ii. Real Definition : it is the art of reasoning where testing depends on the use of term in a
given situation.


o It develops the habit of clear thinking. It teaches how to think, either we read or hear
correctly and logically
o It is guide in the process of drawing out conclusions.
o It emphasizes the importance definition. It tells us the real and nominal definition that
conforms to reality.
o It helps us interpret the facts adequately.
o It cultivates the habit of looking for the assumptions presupposed in reasoning.
o It trains us in the technique of determining implications. It provides training in order to
develop the ability to comprehend implications and protect us with technique in
determining assumptions.
o It helps us defect fallacies and avoid self-deceptions. It gives us an auxiliary to illogical
o It helps us persuade or convince others. It therefore trains us in various methods having
a good night and right decision in thinking of others.


i. Formal Logic: It is the study of inference with purely formal and explicit content.
: Uses language of arguments to reach a hypothetical conclusion.
ii. Informal Logic: logic where it doesn’t need arguments. The truth is exact and direct to
the point.
iii. Symbolic Logic: it requires symbols as a point of argument.
iv. Mathematical Logic: Both the application of the techniques of formal
logic to mathematics and mathematical reasoning, and, conversely, the application
of mathematical techniques to the representation and analysis of formal logic.
v. Deductive Logic: is one in which the arguments flow logically and correctly into the
conclusion. From all evidences gathered, one specific conclusion is deducted.
vi. Inductive Logic: from specific definition to broad explanation.The statement flows
logically from particular to general or universal.


i. Simple apprehension is the first act of the intellect wherein by the acts of our senses we
mentally grasp a thing without affirming or denying anything about it or it is the
absolute truth.
ii. Judgement is the second act of the intellect wherein we join two understood terms
obtain or acquired in simple apprehension and deconstruct them either by affirmation
or by negation. It requires evidence, agreement & argument.
iii. Reasoning is the third act of the intellect wherein we draw conclusion from a given act of

Language is the bridge that enables the transfer of knowledge from one person to
another. Without language, there is no knowledge.
 Active transfer of knowledge is logic.
 Passive transfer of knowledge is ignorance.

A concept are formed from the combination of one ideato another that is enacted to
have a positive objective.

I. Concept based on intention
i. First Intention: a concept by which we know a thing independent of our mind. E.g.
Humans have two legs.
ii. Second Intention: a concept by which we conceive a thing in reality in so far as the
mind understands it. E. g. The Philippines is the Pearl of the Orient Sea.
II. Concept based on Subject and Form
i. Concrete: It creates a form and subject in the mind. E. g. Black dress.
ii. Abstract: A concept endowed with form only. E. g. Blackness.
III. Concept based on Substance and Accidents
i. Absolute: A concept that manifests itself to the mind as a substance and as an
independent reality.
ii. Connotative: A concept that manifests itself to the mind as an accident connected to
a substance.
IV. Concept based on Existence and Possession
i. Positive: An essential characteristic of this classification is that it formulates the
concept in an affirmative form.
ii. Negative: It expresses an object that lacks something or that which is stated in
negative form.

A term is an external sign of a concept and last element of proposition. Terms are vocal
signs which express objects as they are conceived by the intelligence; they are not the
expression of subjective concepts as such, or of things as they are in nature, but of things as
the intelligence conceives them; in a word, they designate known objects.
I. Properties
i. Comprehension – comes from the Latin word ‘comprendere’ means to understand.
It is therefore, the totality of all essential characteristics belonging to the given
ii. Extension – of the terms are terms that denote individual things or particulars that
express that totality of all the
iii. Supposition - comes from the Latin word “sub” means under and Latin infinitive
form of the verb “ponere”, means to put. Therefore, it is to put under.

II. Classifications
1) Terms According to kinds of Concept
o Abstract- is a term which pertains to the abstract quality in form only, thus
it cannot be perceived by senses.
o Concrete- is a term which pertains to the expressions of a form and a
subject. Thus, it can perceive by senses.
o Absolute- pertains to definition of a complete subject which is based on
independent reality.
o Connotative- it pertains to the object as an accident manifested in substance.
o Positive- pertains to the possession or existence of something.
o Negative- pertains to non-possession or non-existence of something.
2) Terms as Last Element of a Proposition
o Subject
o Predicate
3) Terms as a Sign of Concept
o The Significant Term- when it stands for his own existence.
o The Insignificant Term- when it does not stand for his existence like the
demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns.
4) Terms as to Incompatibility With Other Term
o Contradictory- a term which is mutually exclusive.
o Contrary- a term that is opposing to one another, similar to opposition but
there is the possibility of a middle term.
o Correlative- a term that is mutually related to each other. To the extent of
being dependent on each other.
5) Terms as to definiteness of Meaning
o Univocal- comes from the Latin word “unus”, means one and infinitive verb
of the Latin word “vocare”, means to call, in short to call one. A term with
exactly the same meaning at least in two occurences.
o Equivocal- is a term maybe considered, if it exhibits difference in meaning
wherever it is used in at two occasions.
o Analogous- terms that expresses partly the same and partly different