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Network Architecture:

It defines how data is transmitted from one computer to another computer.

In other words, it simply defines as the services of the network. Moreover it also defines
as the resource allocation & privileges.

Network Topology (LAN Topology):

A network defines the physical connection of various network
resources with the help of transmission/network media.
Each computer or device in a network is called node. The arrangement or connection
pattern of computers or nodes and other devices of the network is known as network
topology. Simply it is called Cabling System of network. That means how computer is
connected with the help of Cable.
The objective of network topology is to maximize the efficiency & minimize the
cost of the network.

Characteristics of Network topology are:-

1. Speed and performance of the computer network depends on topology used.

Mainly the following types of network are commonly used.

1. Bus Topology
2. Ring Topology
3. Star Topology
4. Mesh Topology
5. Tree Topology
6. Hybride Topology

1. Bus Topology:

Computers are inter-connected with each other with the help of main wire
called Bus. Computers are connected with the help of “T” Connector and connecting
wire. Server is placed on one-side of Bus and on other-side terminator is used. It is
based on Client server architecture(Broadcaste).

Characteristics of Bus topology are:-

1. Computers and other devices are arranged in a linear format.
2. It uses a common backbone or wire to connect all computers and devices. The
backbone is also called Bus.
3. Data are transmitted on the network through the backbone using the common
destination address. If the address matches with the workstation’s address then it
receives the data else passes to next & so on.
Advantages of Bus topology are:-
a. It is reliable, cheaper & flexible topology. So, any number of
terminals can be added or removed easily.
b. It doesn’t require additional network equipments. It requires
minimum number of cables. So, it is inexpensive.
c. If any number of computer is down, even the computer work
Dis-advantages of Bus topology are:-
a. Since all data are transmitted from the central wire(Bus),data
traffic is high. So, there may be chance of data collision.
b. If there is problem in main Bus then the entire network fails.
c. It is very difficult to identify and troubleshoot any problem in main
d. The limited length of the cable in a network may restrict to connect
the workstation or devices.
e. The network slows down if additional numbers of computers are