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Charter 08 (Língbā Xiànzhāng) is a manifesto initially signed by over 350 Chinese intellectuals and human rights activists to promote

political reform and democratization in the People's Republic of China.[1] It was published on 10 December 2008, the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopting name and style from the anti-Soviet Charter 77 issued by dissidents in Czechoslovakia.[2] Since its release, more than 8,100 people inside and outside of China have signed the charter.[3][4] One of the authors of Charter '08, Liu Xiaobo, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010. Charter 77 (Charta 77 in Czech and in Slovak) was an informal civic initiative in communist Czechoslovakia from 1976 to 1992, named after the document Charter 77 from January 1977. Founding members and architects were Václav Havel, Jan Patočka, Zdeněk Mlynář, Jiří Hájek, and Pavel Kohout. Spreading the text of the document was considered as a political crime.[1] After the 1989 Velvet Revolution, many of its members played important roles in Czech and Slovak politics. The group was linked to the National Endowment for Democracy.[2][citation needed]
A new language in Arunachal Pradesh

team of linguists working with National Geographic's Enduring Voices project uncovered this hidden language, known as Koro, in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. A member of the TibetoBurman language family, it has only 800 to 1,200 speakers and is unwritten. Koro is very distinct from other languages spoken nearby, and the researchers hypothesize it may have originated from a group of people enslaved and brought to the area, though more research is needed. Koro is so different from other Tibeto-Burman languages that the researchers have not been able to identify any in the language family that are closely related to it. The people who live in the area speak Aka languages, also very rare, and learn Hindi and English to speak to outsiders. Koro was discovered when the research team went to the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh in 2008 to find out more about two poorly documented languages, Aka and Miji. To their surprise, they also began to hear a third, unknown language, Koro, which was not listed in any of the scientific literature. Koro brings the number of known languages worldwide up to 6,909, Harrison says. He documents the discovery in a new book, The Last Speakers: The Quest to Save the World's Most Endangered Languages(National Geographic, $27). A scientific paper on Koro will be published in December in the journal Indian Linguistics.

GLIESE 581 G
A team of U.S. planet hunters has discovered an Earth-sized body orbiting a nearby star in the middle of the star's habitable zone, where liquid water could exist on the planet's surface and the planet could sustain life as we know it.

professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz says. said Vogt. the planets around Gliese 581 have nearly circular orbits. "Any emerging life forms would have a wide range of stable climates to choose from and to evolve around. said Vogt. The planet Gliese 581g is tidally locked to the star. depending on their longitude. is about three to four times the mass of Earth. the most yet discovered in a planetary system other than our own solar system. The surface gravity would be about the same or slightly higher than Earth's. More than 500 planets have been found outside our solar system. The most habitable zone on the planet's surface would be the line between shadow and light." Vogt said.2 to 1. . The researchers estimate that the average surface temperature of Gliese 581g is between -24 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit (-31 to -12 degrees Celsius). Like our solar system. its diameter would be about 1." Water has been discovered on moons of Jupiter and Saturn and even much farther away in the Orion Nebula where stars and planets being born.The planet. Actual temperatures would range from blazing hot on the side facing the star to freezing cold on the dark side. This brings the total number of known planets around this star to six. it's everywhere in the universe. so that a person could easily walk upright on the planet. Vogt said. named Gliese 581g. but discoverer Steven Vogt. One effect of this is to stabilize the planet's surface climates. meaning that one side is always facing the star in perpetual daylight. The scientists say this mass indicates a rocky planet with a definite surface and enough gravity to hold onto an atmosphere. "This is the first exoplanet that really has the right condititions to allow liquid water to exist on its surface. with surface temperatures decreasing toward the dark side and increasing toward the light side.4 times that of the Earth. "Water is a very common consitituent. If Gliese 581g has a rocky composition similar to the Earth's. while the side facing away from the star is in perpetual darkness." The scientists report the discovery of two new planets around Gliese 581.

named Inkayacu paracasensis. It had a long. It was about 1. distinct from the black "tuxedo" look of modern penguins. Discoveries made during the Census raised the estimate of known marine species from about 230. Among the millions of specimens collected in both familiar and seldom-explored waters. Scientists say the find shows that key features of the plumage were present quite early on in penguin evolution. Beauty of Marine Life Charted in First Global Census Marine explorers from more than 80 countries have issued the first global Census of Marine Life.200 of them. One of the highlights of the study was the presence of well-preserved feathers and scales. While some astronomers still think planet d may be habitable if it has a thick atmosphere with a strong greenhouse effect to warm it up. one on the hot side (planet c) and one on the cold side (planet d). The bird.000 to nearly 250. The team told Science magazine that the animal's feathers were brown and grey. It found that species once thought to be rare are. the largest living species. and a frog that sounds like a cricket are among 145 new species described last year in the Greater .after a scaly character in a Colombian TV series. waddled the Earth during the late Eocene period. PEDRO The fossil of a giant penguin that lived 36 million years ago has been discovered in Peru. The fossil was found in Reserva Nacional de Paracas in Peru. straight beak. A seven meter tall carnivorous plant. in fact. common. or Water King.000.Two previously detected planets in the Gliese 581 system lie at the edges of the habitable zone. much longer than that of its modern relatives. others are skeptical.000 potentially new species and completed formal descriptions of more than 1. Diversity. the Census found more than 6. The scientists nicknamed the penguin "Pedro" . the result of a decade of scientific exploration. But the newly discovered planet g lies right in the middle of the habitable zone. a fish with vampire fangs.5m (5ft) tall and nearly twice as heavy as an Emperor Penguin.

Three million years ago.the treacherous 8.the narrow land bridge that joins the two continents wreaked havoc on land. New Blood: Greater Mekong new species discoveries 2009. a poisonous pit viper and an entirely new genus of fang-less snake. Some of these short-lived particles have not existed since the Big Bang created the universe nearly 14 billion years ago.Mekong. two bats and three shrews. It was the biggest event in our planet's history since the extinction of the dinosaurs. and identifying them and charting their behavior have been principal goals of modern highenergy physics. the southernmost tip of South America. Thailand. . Japan. Now a multi-billion dollar project to widen the Panama Canal is set to reveal new secrets about the event that changed the world. Vietnam and the southern province of Yunnan in China include five new mammal species. popularly known as atom smashers. Laos. The creation of the Panama Isthmus . reaffirming the region as a one of the most significant biological hotspots on the planet ahead of the UNConvention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Nagoya. The 80km (50-mile) -long Panama Canal. The collisions generate a storm of particles flying in many directions.000 mile journey round Cape Horn. reveals an average of three new species recorded by science each week including Asia’s only bald songbird the Bare-faced bulbul and the uniquely adapted Sucker-fish. Particle accelerators. It triggered extinctions. sea and air. Positioned just north of the equator in the Caribbean. connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. diverted ocean currents and transformed climate. Other new species standouts that were discovered in this region that comprises Cambodia.at a price . Panama is a tiny country. The likely local extinction of the Javan rhino in Vietnam is one tragic indicator of the decline of biodiversity in recent times. who won the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing a device to sift through the billions of hurtling subatomic particles liberated by collisions in atom smashers. Georges Charpak. but in a perfect location. died on Wednesday in Paris. whip subnuclear particles like protons and electrons to high speeds and then force them to collide. opening the way for discoveries on the nature of matter. Myanmar. which uses its body to sucker onto rocks in fast flowing waters to move upstreamThe report says while these discoveries highlight the Greater Mekong’s immense biodiversity it also pinpoints the fragility of this region’s diverse habitats and species. He was 86. the Americas collided. completed in 1914. its famous canal is the strategic hub of the global shipping industry. Its existence means that ships can avoid .

Dr. Charpak’s device before he received his. Variants of the device now contribute to the $10 billion Large Hadron Collider put into operation this year at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Other physicists used it to earn Nobel Prizes later. Dr. After winning the prize. where Dr. in Geneva.000ft) deep. Charpak tried to apply its principles in biology and medicine. Charpak worked for decades. He worked on ways to reprogram cancerous cells so they would no longer be malignant. Lutetia. The finding is one of the first to emerge from the wealth of data gathered by Rosetta during its close flyby. Dr. Two Nobel Prizes were awarded for identifying subatomic phenomena using Dr. He developed an X-ray machine that uses one-tenth the radiation of a conventional X-ray. the multiwire proportional tracking chamber. by contrast. Earlier detectors. Charpak’s chamber. like the cloud chamber and bubble chamber (which. thus generating vastly more information. It allowed scientists testing theories to search out the one particle in a billion for which they were hunting. No longer did scientists have to scan thousands of photographs. earned Nobels for their inventors) depended on taking photographs of the tracks left by particles as they emerged from collisions. One of his first projects was to study electrical impulses in rats’ brains. His research led to the development of a camera used by NASA to monitor astronauts’ hearts. That project aims to explain the origins of the universe. evaluated and recorded. too. is covered in a thick blanket of dusty debris at least 600m (2. The invention meant that hundreds of millions of particles a second could be sensed. The data was instantaneously fed into a computer for interpretation. used many minuscule wires to capture electric pulses. or CERN. scientists say.With his invention. Aeons of impacts have pulverised the space rock to produce a shattered surface that in terms of texture is much like Earth's Moon. the giant asteroid visited by Europe's Rosetta probe in July. Charpak vastly improved the ability of physicists to measure and record what goes on inside particle accelerators. The details are being discussed thi .

NASA loosens GRIP on Atlantic hurricane season Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experimentHurricanes Earl and Karl each became important objects of observation for scientists during GRIPHormone acting as ‘molecular glue’ could boost plant immune systems The discovery of a hormone acting like molecular glue could hold a key to bolstering plant immune systems and understanding how plants cope with environmental stress. effectively kills the larvae in most cases. The study.Researchers with the Ovarian Cancer Research Program of BC (OvCaRe) reveal a major new cancer gene-ARID1A. which is featured in the Oct. Scripps Research scientists develop novel test that identifies river blindness The breakthrough will assist massive effort to eliminate the widespread tropical scourge LA JOLLA. The study also identifies the receptor’s crystal structure to provide the first molecular view of how plants ward off attacks by insects and pathogens. which congregate in subcutaneous nodules. 6 issue of Nature. ARID1A mutation and loss of function is believed to be an early event in the transformation of endometriosis into clear-cell and endometrioid cancer. which breed near fast moving rivers. manufactured by Merck and distributed free in affected areas. Humans acquire the disease after they are repeatedly bitten by black flies that harbor the worm. together they account for one quarter of all cases in North America and a greater proportion in Asia. When the flies bite a human host. called microfilariae. trigger an immune response that causes acute dermatitis and. The worms. 2010 – For Immediate Release – Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute have developed the first screening method that rapidly identifies individuals with active river blindness. eventually spread throughout the body. O. After making the initial discovery the OvCaRe team engaged national and international collaborators to determine the frequency and relevance of these mutations. a parasitic disease that afflicts an estimated 37 million people. if left untreated. . The test could change the current strategy of mass treatment in areas where river blindness. also known as onchocerciasis. reveals how the plant hormone jasmonate binds two proteins together – an emerging new concept in hormone biology and protein chemistry. CA – October 6. volvulus larvae. Mutations are frequent in this gene and link two types of ovarian cancer to endometriosis. Onchocerca volvulus. The ARID1A mutations were found in 46 per cent of ovarian clear-cell carcinomas and in 30 per cent of endometrioid carcinomas. The drug ivermectin. is suspected. Clear-cell carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma are the second and third most common forms of ovarian cancer. and has served as the principal means of onchocerciasis control. Ivermectin must be taken twice yearly over a period of 15 to 20 years – the life span of the worms. tissue destruction that can lead to blindness.

when it was in a declining part of its 11-year activity cycle. rather than warm. Following this surprising finding. causing this warming effect. rather than a small warming effect as had previously been thought. Scientists have. according to a new study published today in the journal Nature. if at all. the Earth. This effect can then allow the particles to be carried across the lining of the gut wall where they would previously simply move past with no interaction. The study. so the researchers believe it is possible that during this period. Overall solar activity has been increasing over the past century. by researchers from Imperial College London and the University of Colorado. to the mixture. which is the essence of dissolving a compound. The industry has developed many approaches to addressing this problem. the overall amount of radiation reaching the Earth decreases. shows that a decline in the Sun's activity does not always mean that the Earth becomes cooler. The tiny particle size. such as the ring-shaped cyclodextrin. This is based on what is already known about the relationship between the Sun's activity and its total energy output. This is a major problem for administering such drugs as it means they are not effective if taken by mouth. such as ethanol. means a much greater surface area to volume ratio giving access to more water molecules that can surround the particles. It is well established that the Sun's activity waxes and wanes over an 11-year cycle and that as its activity wanes. A much more effective approach would be to somehow make the drug soluble without resorting to such additives. according to a new study published today in the journal Nature The Sun's activity has recently affected the Earth's atmosphere and climate in unexpected ways. discovered that producing microscopic crystals of a pharmaceutical product can make it soluble in water even if the bulk compound is not. Today's study looked at the Sun's activity over the period 2004-2007. coupling the drug with a charged ion to increase bioavailability and in more recent times using water-soluble "carriers". the researchers behind the study believe it is possible that the inverse is also true and that in periods when the Sun's activity increases. Although the Sun's activity declined over this period. the new research shows that it may have actually caused the Earth to become warmer. Study sheds new light on how the sun affects the Earth's climate The sun's activity has recently affected the Earth's atmosphere and climate in unexpected ways. such as adding a small quantity of an organic solvent. and Wilhelm Ostwald. the Sun has been contributing a small cooling effect. Contrary to expectations. over the last decade or so. Research suggests that more than half of the medicinal drugs being developed by the pharmaceutical industry dissolve only very weakly in water. The effect can be explained in terms of the physical chemistry and mathematics known to nineteenth century scientist Lord Kelvin. it tends to cool. the amount of energy reaching the Earth at visible wavelengths increased rather than decreased as the Sun's activity declined. Herbert Freundlich. .Nano drugs Insoluble medicines can be made orally available if in nano crystal form Researchers in India have demonstrated that producing nanoscopic crystals of a pharmaceutical product can allow the medication to be absorbed by the gut even if the drug is not soluble in water.

and infrastructure creation can follow. Field coverings of tanks etc. Since conflicts in South Asia can erupt without long drawn out battle indicators. Military audacity does not come overnight. It can be envisaged that armoured formations would be loath to move forward from their cushy cantonments on the plea that an adequate infrastructure should first come up. A key component is the preparation of India's forces to be able to quickly mobilise and take offensive actions without crossing the enemy’s nuclear-use threshold. The exploitation of these demands a high order of mental resilience and an eagle eye for reading such rapidly changing battle situations. from Punjab to locations forward. it is necessary that armoured formations are moved to the general line suggested above. fluid and relentless offensive operations. Armoured Divisions and Armoured Brigades are re-located from their existing locations in Central India and in depth. In this connection. [edit] Higher Commanders Mental Robustness and Military Audacity Military operations of the type envisaged in Indian Army’s new war doctrine incorporates swift. Armoured Brigades and Strike Formations Headquarters Since the most significant aim of the new war doctrine is to strike offensively without giving away battle indicators of mobilization. If infantry formations have existed in field area conditions for decades. without the luxury of pauses and time duration spans of defensive operations to which Indian Army’s higher echelons are so conditioned to today. All such formations should be moved forward to the general line of Barmer-Jaisalmer-BikanerSuratgarh from their present locations in the interior. the author would like to observe based on his exposures to NATO armies and United States forward deployments in Okinawa and Korea that no Army wastes so much money on building huge garages etc. it is imperative that all strike formations headquarters.Cold Start is a military doctrine developed by the Indian Armed Forces. Re-location of Armoured Divisions. should suffice. If the German Panzer generals like Rommel and Guderian had been brought up in defensive . Such swift and mobile fast-paced operations present the challenges of rapidly changing tactical situations and fleeting opportunities. there is no reason why armoured formations cannot similarly exist. for their tanks. It involves joint operations between India’s three services and integrated battle groups for offensive operations. It has to be cultivated over a long period of time.

the command and control of such mechanized operations where fresh orders have to be passed every other minute. Communications. Control. so envisaged. Military orthodoxy in the Indian Army must give way to military audacity and offensive spirit. Computers and Intelligence Networks) Need Upgradation and Fine Tuning: Mechanized offensive operations by joint Army and Air Force cooperation require a highly upgraded and fine tuned C4I network. the blitzkrieg’ lightening operations with which they covered themselves with glory would not have come their way. The entire Indian Air Force planning will have to undergo a significant re-orientation in terms of concept of operations. Indian Defence Ministry needs to speed up AWACS acquisition.but this is not enough by itself. PGMs (Precision guided munitions) would be used extensively in such operations. [edit] Indian Air Force (IAF) Planning and Concept of Operations The Indian Air Force may have a marked superiority over its traditional enemies in terms of sophisticated combat aircraft and advanced training. it may not be a problem. . In the interim explore for a lease. which is secure. Extensive stocks should be built up from now. Advanced C4I systems and use of AWACS system is a must. C4I-(Command.mindsets of the Indian Army and the Indian political leadership. and the Indian Army higher commanders should ensure that it becomes the hallmark of junior leaders too. Systems to paralyse and jam enemy radar and air defence networks would be a high priority. there will be a generation of high density traffic on C4I networks. [edit] The following points need to be noted • • • • • New war doctrine of the Indian Army would call for more massed air operations as against compartmentalized sorties and small scale air operations in vogue so far. having scrambling and unscrambling features including digital voice fax and telex encryption capabilities. Since line communications become redundant in such a war doctrine. Alternative and duplicate means will also have to be provided due to disruptions and destruction by enemy action. IAF should be able to generate very high sortie rates round the clock with effective maintenance support. The Indian Army would have to create an extensive C4I network which can handle high density traffic on the move.

This would need to be backed by an effective C4I system integral to the air defence system. And by defensive it is meant that the enemy goes in for in first strike and by offensive it is meant the scenario in which India resorts to “second strike” in response. Mobile air defence weapon systems for the strike formations. [edit] Integration with Nuclear Warfare Plans Both Defensive and Offensive India’s new war doctrine has to take into account that in the execution of its “Cold Start” War Doctrine and if lightening success comes their way. It must be remembered that an effective air defence system for IAF bases would enable release of that many combat aircraft on air defence duties to support combat operations. In both cases strike formations of Indian Army will have to operate on a nuclear battlefield. India’s air defence planning should now also incorporate ballistic missile defense systems as the enemy has a vast array of ballistic missiles.All of this supported by a highly sophisticated C4I battle management system including engagement radars. It is named as ALMUZ 83 M6 India was considering acquisition of these mobile systems but the “considering” has now to be translated into 'fast track' acquisition. the enemy could use its nuclear weapons or even tactical nuclear weapons it might have. India’s execution of its new war doctrine must be integrated with nuclear warfare plans both defensive and offensive. rear areas air defence networks for VAs and VPs and of all air bases calls for significant investments. [edit] Air Defence Networks and Systems A sizeable expansion of India’s air-defence network would be required with multi-layered air defence in terms of surveillance. combat area air defence networks. In the Russian arsenal. The fourth generation of S-300 that is S-300PMU-1 system entered in service in 1995. . Here one is not talking of the NMD or TMD level of ballistic missile defences but of the US PATRIOT or the Russian S-300 systems.The aim of the IAF in support of the Indian Army’s new war doctrine should be to combine mass with technology and PGMs and advanced munitions to paralyse the enemy’s reaction and destroy his war waging materiel and potential. a battery of this system includes 48 48N6 missiles mounted on 12-transporterector-launchers. range capabilities and engagement ranges. The missiles have a range of 5–150 km and a maximum altitude of 27 km.

India’s EW capabilities must cater for jamming and neutralizing of the enemy's nuclear command and control systems. with special reference to movements of enemy’s reserve formations. [edit] Concluding Observations The Indian Army needs to make an exhaustive study of United States military operations in Gulf War I and Gulf War II. [edit] Imperatives of Digitalised Real Time Information and Satellite Coverage India’s intelligence penetration of traditional enemies such as the Pakistan Army in terms of human intelligence is not satisfactory. This limitation has to be off-set by technical means encompassing high attitude surveillance aircraft and satellite imagery with high resolution. More importantly. India’s technological capability in electronics and allied systems and Information Technology should enable it to use cyber-warfare as a force multiplier. the Indian Army has been focusing on this aspect from the 1980s. It means that all tanks and APCs. The Chinese have painstakingly gone through every detail of US military operations to draw the relevant lessons. air-defense and surveillance system jamming and a complete paralysis of the enemies C4I system in the battlefield area of India’s strike formations. provision of NBC combat suits for personnel and systems within strike formations As a corollary of the above it follows that on first priority. and allied vehicles. .[edit] NBC proofing of tanks/APCs. A national will is now required for a “Fast track ’’materialisation of these missiles in India’s missile arsenal. command and control tanks. such technical means should be geared to provide real time digitalized information to strike force commanders. have NBC sealing kits and that strike formations are equipped with decontamination vehicles and kits and that all personnel are equipped with NBC suits to undertake battle operations in NBC scenario. [edit] Indian Army’s Electronic Warfare (EW) Capabilities Enhancement Fortunately. but the demands of the new war doctrine call for an effective enhancement of existing EW capabilities. India’s ICBM and SLBM Development: India’s new doctrine would be unable to generate its full potential without an ICBM and SLBM back-up. the Indian Army’s strike formations to be used in the new war doctrine are well equipped for battlefield combat under NBC conditions. Both in the Congress regimes and in the BJP regime. external pressures have impeded their development. The Indian Army has to devise and acquire systems for such capabilities.

the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.100 people inside and outside of China have signed the charter. Zdeněk Mlynář. and Pavel Kohout. Jan Patočka.It would be wrong to surmise that the US military has been ineffective in Iraq because of the present problems that have now surfaced. The group was linked to the National Endowment for Democracy. Salient features of the National Biofuel Policy • • An indicative target of 20% by 2017 for the blending of biofuels – bioethanol and bio-diesel has been proposed. Jiří Hájek. It was approved by the Union Cabinet on 11th September. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010.[2] Since its release. adopting name and style from the anti-Soviet Charter 77 issued by dissidents in Czechoslovakia. These problems are post-war and are political in nature and do not detract from the US military’s use of high-technology war-fighting to subdue the enemy by demoralization of the Iraqi military machine in the war fighting phase. The only caveat being that it calls for national political will to use military power ruthlessly and the military hierarchy of India to be militarily audacious and relentless in offensive operations Charter 08 (Língbā Xiànzhāng) is a manifesto initially signed by over 350 Chinese intellectuals and human rights activists to promote political reform and democratization in the People's Republic of China. 2008.[1] It was published on 10 December 2008. many of its members played important roles in Czech and Slovak politics. This is not pontificating but an accurate appraisal of the achievable in relation to strategic means available.[1] After the 1989 Velvet Revolution. named after the document Charter 77 from January 1977. . Charter 77 (Charta 77 in Czech and in Slovak) was an informal civic initiative in communist Czechoslovakia from 1976 to 1992. Liu Xiaobo. Founding members and architects were Václav Havel.[3][4] One of the authors of Charter '08.[2][citation needed] National Biofuel Policy The National Policy on Biofuel was prepared by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Spreading the text of the document was considered as a political crime. Bio-diesel production will be taken up from non-edible oil seeds in waste / degraded / marginal lands. more than 8.

In case of biodiesel. a Sub-Committee under the Steering Committee would be constituted led by the Department of Biotechnology. the MPP should be linked to the prevailing retail diesel price. 2008. The National Biofuel Coordination Committee is to be chaired by Hon’ble Prime Minister The Bio-fuel Steering Committee is to be chaired by Cabinet Secretary In regard to research in bio-fuels. Bio-diesel plantations on community / Government / forest waste lands would be encouraged while plantation in fertile irrigated lands would not be encouraged. Major thrust to be given to Research. biodiesel and bio-ethanol may be brought under the ambit of “Declared Goods” by the Government to ensure unrestricted movement of biofuels within and outside the States. National Biofuel Policy The National Policy on Biofuel was prepared by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. enshrined in the National Biofuel Policy. The details about the MSP mechanism. Minimum Purchase Price (MPP) for the purchase of bio-ethanol by the Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) would be based on the actual cost of production and import price of bio-ethanol. processing and production technologies including second-generation cellulosic bio-fuels.• • • • • • • • • • The focus would be on indigenous production of bio-diesel feedstock and import of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) based such as oil. would not be permitted. palm etc. Salient features of the National Biofuel Policy • • • An indicative target of 20% by 2017 for the blending of biofuels – bioethanol and bio-diesel has been proposed. The focus would be on indigenous production of bio-diesel feedstock and import of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) based such as oil. would be worked out carefully subsequently and considered by the Bio-fuel Steering Committee. . namely. Ministries of Agriculture & Rural Development and coordinated by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The National Biofuel Policy envisages that bio-fuels. It was approved by the Union Cabinet on 11th September. Development & Demonstration with focus on plantations. Bio-diesel production will be taken up from non-edible oil seeds in waste / degraded / marginal lands. Minimum Support Price (MSP) with the provision of periodic revision for biodiesel oil seeds would be announced to provide fair price to the growers. It is also stated in the Policy that no taxes and duties should be levied on biodiesel. would not be permitted. palm etc.

enshrined in the National Biofuel Policy. Ministries of Agriculture & Rural Development and coordinated by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Advantages . namely. The National Biofuel Policy envisages that bio-fuels. processing and production technologies including second-generation cellulosic bio-fuels. For example. This biomass passes through various cycles producing different forms of energy sources.• • • • • • • • • Bio-diesel plantations on community / Government / forest waste lands would be encouraged while plantation in fertile irrigated lands would not be encouraged. The widespread use of biomass is for household cooking and heating. a Sub-Committee under the Steering Committee would be constituted led by the Department of Biotechnology. The types of biomass used are agricultural waste. charcoal or dried dung. would be worked out carefully subsequently and considered by the Bio-fuel Steering Committee. It is also stated in the Policy that no taxes and duties should be levied on biodiesel. fodder for animals that in turn produce dung. The current availability of biomass in India is estimated at about 120-150 million MT per annum covering agricultural and forestry residues corresponding to a potential of 16. The details about the MSP mechanism. agricultural waste for cooking. wood. In case of biodiesel. Usage Biomass is an important source of energy accounting for about one third of the total fuel used in our country and in about 90% of the rural households. Biomass What is biomass The plants fix solar energy through the process of photosynthesis to produce biomass. Minimum Support Price (MSP) with the provision of periodic revision for biodiesel oil seeds would be announced to provide fair price to the growers. biodiesel and bio-ethanol may be brought under the ambit of “Declared Goods” by the Government to ensure unrestricted movement of biofuels within and outside the States. Minimum Purchase Price (MPP) for the purchase of bio-ethanol by the Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) would be based on the actual cost of production and import price of bio-ethanol.000 MW. Development & Demonstration with focus on plantations. Major thrust to be given to Research. the MPP should be linked to the prevailing retail diesel price. The National Biofuel Coordination Committee is to be chaired by Hon’ble Prime Minister The Bio-fuel Steering Committee is to be chaired by Cabinet Secretary In regard to research in bio-fuels.

but it can be blended at any level with petroleum fuel to create a biofuel blend. Biofuel contains no petroleum. . biodegradable. non-toxic and essentially free of Sulphur and aroma. Technologies for productive use of biomass Technologies that enable efficient use of biomass are becoming prevalent in rural areas. The efficiency of fuel usage is increased by • • • • use of improved designs of stoves which double the efficiency such as smokeless energy efficient chulhas compressing the biomass to form briquettes which not only occupy lesser space but also are more efficient conversion of organic matter into biogas through anaerobic digestion which apart from meeting fuel needs also gives digested manure for farms conversion of biomass into producer gas through partial combustion of biomass under controlled air supply Biofuels Biofuels are predominantly produced from biomass feed stocks or as a by-product from the industrial processing of agricultural or food products. It can be used in conventional healing equipment or diesel engine with no major modification. Biofuel is simple to use.• • Available locally and to some extent abundantly It is a relatively clean fuel when compared to fossil fuels. or from the recovery and reprocessing of products such as cooking and vegetable oil. In a way biomass also cleans our environment by trapping Carbon di-oxide Disadvantages • • • Drudgery involved in collection of fuel During indoor cooking and in the absence of sufficient ventilation fuels such as dung cause air pollution which is a serious health hazard Unsustainable and inefficient use of biomass often leads to destruction of vegetation and hence environmental degradation.

has a vision to develop low cost health solutions for the masses by involving volunteer researchers through a global platform. an infectious disease widely prevalent in India. the 'Open Source Drug Discovery' (OSDD). India's first scientific mission to the Moon. initiated by CSIR.. yet commercially viable business model linked to the economic prosperity of a large section of the Indian Population.SCI & TECH COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCHIts recent programme namely 'CSIR-800' presents a socialistic. Leshmaniasis. acoustic testing. Modeled on development of 'www' and 'Linux'. In this forum the best minds can collaborate and collectively endeavor to solve the complex problems associated with discovering novel therapies for neglected tropical diseases like Malaria.INDIA YEAR BOOK …. Another programme. Tuberculosis. As many seven CSIR laboratories have contributed in significant way to this prestigious mission. Another significant achievement is the development of Indian Genome Variation Database (IGVDB). Contribution to 'Chandrayaan': In October 2008 India launched Chandrayaan-I. wind tunnel tests. designing of various civil structures etc In the area of Healthcare: One of the major initiatives is launching of OSDD. zinc oxide-based microelectromechanical systems acoustic sensor. To begin with. etc. this programme was launched on September 15. which houses Single . It includes space weather information/alerts. 2008 and so far more than 1300 registered participants are on the portal. OSDD seeks to develop low cost molecules for the treatment of tuberculosis.

particularly of old age. enhanced dignity of human labour and cut down on the drudgery and exhaustion of pulling/peddling traditional rickshaws. a boon for patients. 'sustainable energy'. To mitigate the housing problems. increased selfemployment for the urban and rural poor at grassroots level. Even both the hip joints can be replaced simultaneously. an optimally designed. suffering from broken hips. that is to increase per capita income by Rs 15. pedal operated-motor-assisted. It has also developed an ayurvedic formulation namely 'Prostalyn' for treatment of prostate cancer. 'waste to wealth'. Apart from . CSIR-800: The programme has a mission. The focus areas are 'affordable health'.00 per day of the target group which 800 million people of India living in the bottom half of the developmental pyramid. It is expected to have four major societal effects viz. In first of its new endevours. particularly for disasterprone areas. CSIR has developed low-cost instant houses made up of natural fibres and industrial waste. Yet another significant achievement in this sector is the commercialization of nano-size synthetic hydroxypatite bone graft for dental surgery. CSIR has also developed hydroxypatite-based artificial hip joint implants.Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) frequency data in over 1000 genes from disease and drug response candidates in population representing the entire genetic diversity of India. zero carbon emission urban transport vehicle. In the area of Sustainable Energy: CSIR has developed India's first push-button type 300 W self-supported Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell System. 'potable water'. low-cost housing' and 'empowering masses'. zero pollution (no exhaust fumes). conservation of natural petroleum resources. CSIR has launched 'Soleckshaw'.

CSIR has come up with a firstever long climate simulation with a global general circulation model with a spatial . which shows excellent defluoridation properties as compared to activated alumina. Based on a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Augmenting its technology for conversion of jatropha to biodiesel. CSIR has installed ITPD plant in collaboration with Defense Research and Development Organization(DRDO). CSIR has developed and installed 300 kW and 500 kW wind mills. CSIR has developed materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.that it has developed solid oxide fuel system also towards its commitment to sustainable energy. CSIR has also set up a bench scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor for thee biological treatment of wastes containing Hexachlorocyclohexane. CSIR has significant contribution in the area of solar energy research also. In addition. CSIR has developed and installed small turbine to produce 5kW power utilizing geothermal energy from a natural geyser in Himachal Pradesh. CSIR has developed a technology for conversion of bagasse to biofuel which has already been transferred to sugar industry. registered under the Companies Act to carry out collaborative research in the area of sustainable energy. CSIR has developed bioceramic based composite adsorbent media for defluoridation of wastewater. Technology for production of solar water heater 'Nalsun' has been developed and commercialized. a section 25 company. Taking forward the concept of 'waste to wealth'. which is of immense practical importance. In the area of Ecology & Environment: CSIR has developed an eco-friendly and energy-efficient bioleaching process for low-grade uranium ores and installed 2 tonne plant at one of the sites of Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. Further. CSIR has proposed a storm surge disaster mitigation plan for the group of Andaman Islands. In the area of solar photovoltaics. This adsorbent media shows high fluoride uptake capacity and selectivity under the wide range of pH. CSIR has joined hands with Research Institute for Sustainable Energy.

retrieval. Another significant contribution is the development of 'FishMap'. industrial processes & products. including basic studies. and display of genomic information of zebrafish. CSIR has made a comparative biochemical analysis of purified protein which suggests that Leishmania actin is an unconventional form of actin that could serve as an alternative target for designing novel anti-leishmanial drugs.resolution of 20-km. In the area of Biology & Biotechnology: A traditionally strong area of research for CSIR. Another significant contribution of CSIR in this area is patenting a decentralized Secure Landfill System for sludge generated from tannery sector alone with Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) structure which has a provision to collect leachate and treat in CETPs and also to accommodate more quantity of sludge with less area. disulphide esters of carbothioic acid) with extremely potent spermicidal action that killed 100% human sperm at just 4% of EC100 of N-9 while remaining practically inert to human cervical cells and Lactobacillus at spermicidal concentration. CSIR has recently reported discovery of two spermicidal compounds (DSE-36 and DSE-37. the laboratories working in this domain contribute through high quality of research output. Yet another achievement is construction of Helical nanofibers by CSIR from suitable self-assembling . a unified and centralized resource for storage.