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STUDOVANÝ OKRUH (downloaded for me by Anoud):

Dtto otázky v tištěné verzi, které jsem procházel jako první (kompletně to samé až na první část
“dodatků” z nichž jen výběr toho, co není jinde, nebo co opětnovně podporuje opačné mínění, nežli
mám já sám + výňatek ze dvouvolných listů – poznámek kohosi – opět to, co nemám jinde)
Zkratky: BOS = base of support (short base of support)

1- one of the following is not an aerobic exercise:

a- weight lifting
b- jogging
c- running a marathon
d- runnin1000 meters

2- one of the following dose not use phosphotognase of the body: ???
a- weight lifting (anaerobic)
b-jogging (aerobic)
c-running a marathon (aerobic)
d- diving (aerobic)

??? phosphotognase
Phosphofructokinase – 1 (exists) - key glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase (40%)

Glycolysis is the process for preparing, and breaking down, glucose to make pyruvic acid, which is
used in anaerobic respiration or as one of the starting reactants in the citric acid cycle. Three
points in the process of glycolysis occur with a large negative free energy and are therefore,
irreversible. These three points are hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase; of these
three PFK is considered the major regulatory point for glycolysis in muscle with a ΔG= -25.9 kJ/mol. [3]

:Internet discussion
Glycolysis is anaerobic because it does not rquire oxygen. The citric acid cycled does not require
?oxygen but is considered aerobic. Why
Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP). It is the preferred method of
pyruvate breakdown from glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the mitochondrion to be fully
oxidized by the Krebs cycle. The product of this process is energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine
Triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2.

3- one of the following is not depends on oxygen of the body:

a- weight lifting
c-running a marathon
d- diving

4- - one of the following is not depends on oxygen of the body:

a- aerobic
b- anaerobic

5- physiotherapist asks pt to flex the wrist and abduct it; which muscle acts in this
action ? (abduction is radial duction)
a- flexor carpi ulnaris
b- flexor carpi radialis
c-flexor digitorum profundus
d- biceps brachii
6- physiotherapist asks pt to flex the wrist and adduct it ; which muscle acts in this
action ?
a- flexor carpi ulnaris
b- flexor carpi radialis
c-flexor digitorum profundus
d- biceps brachii

7- which method used in the measurement of shoulder abduction:

c-visual analogue scale

8- all of the following are objective measurements used in evaluation except:

a- time used for performance activity (time for training, repetitions, …)
b- visual analogue scale (someone tick this)
c- goniometric ROM
d- disability disease

9- normal ROM of hip joiont :

a- extension 35 --- flexion 125
b- extension 10 ---- flexion 125
c- extension 0 -----flexion 125

10- when pt has burn third degree in anterior neck aspect; you have contraindication
in ttt of this case: (ttt = treatment) (dtto no 44 1. okruh – stretching is important)
a- put the neck in hyper extension
b- put the neck in flexion to avoid deformity
c- put the neck in side bending

11 – U.S has these frequencies :

a- 1 or 3 HZ
b- 1 or 3 MHZ
c- 1 or 5 MHZ
d- 1 or 5 HZ

12 – When you treat patient using U.S in deep muscle strain to decrease pain you can
use :
a- pulsed us 1MHZ
B- NON pulsed US 1MHZ
c- non pulsed us 3 MHZ

US – kontinuální (non pulsed) – přímý myorelaxační účinek (↑teploty – myorelaxace)

- pulsní (pulsed) – je atermický (not raising temperature)
povrchní TrP (superficial Trp) – 3 MHz
hluboké TrP (deep Trp) – 1 MHz

13- when you treat knee with elevated layer of fat you can use:
a- IR (infra red was ticked by someone, but is it has superficial effect)
b- U.S
c -S.W (short wave is used for deep healing)
d – TENS

14- PHYSICAL THERAPIST IS Evaluating patient who is unable to open the door
using supination; so he expects weakness of :
a- brachioradialis
b- biceps brachii
c- anconeus
d- flexor carpi ulnaris

15 – physical therapist is evaluating elbow flexion from neutral position; which

muscle should be evaluated ?
a- biceps brachii
b- brachialis
c- brachioradialis
d- anconeous

16 – U.S can be mostly absorbed by skeletal muscle as it mostly contain

a- adipose tissue
b- connective tissue (ticked by someone)
c- nerve endings

17- meaning of rigidity is :

a- decreased ROM
b- Muscle stiffness

18-when evaluating Parkinson’s pt; you observed uniform muscle resistance; this
means: (uniform = jednotný, konstantní, rovnoměrný, stejnoměrný, stejný, identický, jednotvárný)
a- cogwheel rigidity
b- leadpipe rigidity
c- spasticity

Leadpipe rigidity results when an increase in muscle tone causes a sustained

resistance to passive movement throughout the whole range of motion, with no

19- when evaluating Parkinson’s gait;

a- festinating and shuffling gait
b- short BOS (BOS = base of support) short base of support ???
Shuffle = 1.(walk) šouravá chůze; walk with a shuffle šourat se 2.(of cards) zamíchání, promíchání
shuffle one´s feet přešlapovat z nohy na nohu

20- knee joint ROM:

a- flexion 110 – extension 0
b- flexion 130 – extension 0
c- flexion 140 – extension 0

21- when use iontophoresis; it is a type of:

a- low frequency TENS
c- direct current (someone ticked this)
d- Russian current

Direct or galvanic current:

It represents a constant electron flow from the negative to the positive electrode with no alterations
(with constant polarity).
* Continuous direct current: This type of direct current is used only for iontophoresis.
- Continuous mode: If its rate (frequency) exceeds 50 Hz, it is then becoming tetanizing, being used for
relaxation of muscle spasm.

22- when treating chronic pain which type of TENS used:

a- brief (acute)
b- conventional (acute)
c- burst (A>C)
d- acupuncture

23- ankylosing means :

a- loosed packed position
b- joint stiffness
c – closed packed position

24- pt complain of groin pain with limited abduction with external rotation; you
expect the diagnosis is:
a- inguinal hernia
b- adductor strain
c- abductor sprain
d- external obliques weakness

25- when measuring ROM of the wrist; put the axis in:
a- trapezoid
b- trapezium
c- lunte (proximal line (middle)) pivot – centre of goniometer, axis
d- capitate

Samah helped me with this

26- which muscle make hip abduction; flexion; internal rotation :

a- gluteus medius
b- external oliques
c- sartorious (flexe kyčle, kolene a zevni rotace)
d- tensor fascia latae (+ navíc extenze v koleni, dtto m.glutaeus anterior)

27- which muscle make shoulder; flexion; external rotation: ???

a- subscapularis (internal rotation)
b- teres major (internal rotation)
c- teres minor (external rotation – flexion ???)
d- pectoralis major (internal rotation, flexion)
m.supraspinatus, m.infraspinatus, m.teres minor – inervace n.suprascapularis, všechny 3 svaly se
upínají na tuberculum majus humeri → zevní rotace ramene (svaly rotatorove manzety spolu s
m.teres major – inervace jako m.subscapularis z nervus subscapularis a spolu s ním má i stejnou
funkci vnitřní rotace v rameni; přikládá se na dorzální stranu šlachy m.latissimus dorsi a s ním se upíná
na crista tuberculi minoris → vnitřní rotace ramene (neradi se ale ke svalum rotatorove manzety)

28- which muscle close the mouth :

a- masseter
b- lateral ptyrgoid
c- buccinators

29- when evaluation of hip abduction of Lt hip; it was poor grade; so:
(probably means poor grade of MMT – 2nd grade)
a- can apply full ROM of abduction in side lying
b- can apply full ROM of abduction in supine
c- can apply half ROM of abduction in supine
d- can apply full ROM of abduction with max resistance in supine

someone´s notice: poor – (= ½ ROM in supine); poor + (= full ROM in supine)

30- in ttt of parkinsonion’s pt:

a- strengthening of elongated muscles and stretching of rigid flexors
b- strengthening of elongated muscles and stretching of rigid extensors
c- strengthening of flexors & extensors
d- none of the the above

elongate = prodloužit

31- old pt comes with fever; productive cough; and pulmonary congestion; diagnosis
a- cystic fibrosis
b- pulmonary odema ???
c- heart disease
d- bacterial & viral pneumonia

31- when evaluation inspiration capacity using spirometer:

a- max inspiration after normal expiration (from Pocketbook of Physiotherapist´s)
b- max inspiration after max expiration
c- normal inspiration after normal expiration

32- pt with sever spinal deformity 32 years old has difficulty in respiration is due to:
a- ms weakness
b- usage of spinal orthosis
c- decrease lung capacity

33- when using conventional TENS it depends on:

a- gate control theory
34 – which of the following muscles compress the checks;
a- buccinators
b- corregator
c- frontalis
d- depressor angulii

35- which of the following draws the eyebrow downward

and inward, with vertical wrinkles:
a- buccinators
b- corregator
c- frontalis
d- depressor angulii

36- which of the following closes the jaw:

a- masseter
b- levator lipii
c- mentalis
d- orbicularis oris

37- which muscle raise the skin of the chin:

a- buccinators
b- levator libii
c- mentalis (mentalis - raise the skin of the chin and the lower lip will protrude somewhat, as in
d- platysma (stahuje dolů)

pout /paut/ = 1. naspuleni ust X (na)spulit usta, rty 2. (sulk) trucovite spulit usta, rty

38- which muscle close and protrude the lips, as in whistling

a- masseter
b- mentalis
c- orbicularis oris
d- depressor libii

39- bunion deformity means: (bunion = puchýř)

- hallux valgus

40- pacemaker is
a- location in AV node
b- contain connective tissues
c- contain nerve tissues
d- in SA node

41- which muscle act in medial rotation, adduction and extension of shoulder joint:
a- pectoralis minor
b- serratus anterior
c- teres minor (external rotation)
d- latissimus dorsi
Následuje několik stránek textu, který mám ve fyzické formě – z nich výběr toho, co
není jinde nebo opětovně podporuje opačné mínění, nežli mám já sám:

Physiological effect of warming up

- Decrease oxygen deficiency ???

Frequency that can make tetanic muscle contraction

- 10

Maximum stability of hip joint depends on:

a- bone, ligament, muscles (shoulder has opposite order)
b- muscles, ligament, bone
c- bone only

In phase 1 cardiac rehabilitation aim

a- prevent bed rest complication begin with passive movement to active movement
b- increase ex endurance capacity
c- assist in progress functional ADL

Which statement incorrect about passive movement (viz již jinde)

a- passive movement segment must hold gently
b- proximal part must supported
c- passive movement from proximal to distal to increase lymph and venous return

baby with flaccid klumps palsy need stimulation by:

1. galvanic stimulation (if denervation)
2. reciprocal stimulation
3. didynamic
dtto 1.okruh:
17- one of these electrical st.methods does not stimulate denervated muscle (?)
(stimulace denervovanych svalu se provadi pomoci monofazickych impulsu)
A high voltage interrupted long duration
C galvanic
D faradic

Uvedeny pouze odpovědi až na výjimky v závěru:

1. List factors affecting ROM?
Age, gender, pain and swelling

2. What are indication of AROM?

Quick screening tool, maintain it and soft tissue integrity, decrease risk of contracturem circulation,
sensory feedback, motor coordination

3. What is PROM?
Passive ROM, moving force is external to patient; no muscle contraction by patient

4. What is AAROM?
Active-assistive ROM, external assistance to complete active ROM when weakness present

5. What are the three requirements for gait?

Stability, mobility and dynamic stability

6. What is dynamic stability?

Maintaining posture while shift weight

7. When do you use parallel bars?

For a pt who needs support of are weak

8. What is orthostatic hypotension?

Change in body position when BP drops. Do ankle pumps and deep breathing to increase O2 return, get
initial BP if not DVT! ????

9. How do you use a can?

Opposite sore leg, sore leg steps with the cane.

10. List the 4 types of crutches?

Standard axillary crutch, ortho crutch, forearm (lofstand) crutch, plateform attachment

11. What is contracture?

Adaptive shortening of tissue (muscle)

12. What is PROM? (dtto no. 3)

Passive ROM, moving force is external to patient; no muscle contraction by patient

13. What is the CPM?

Continuous passive motion

14. When is CPM used?

After knee replacement, ACL, faster recovery and return of ROM, lessens effects of immobilization,
joint nourishment

15. What is the definition of stretching?

Therapeutic maneuver to length soft tissue structures to increase ROM. Taking past end-feel into
plastic region. ???

16. Before transferring a pt what do you need to think about?

1. access the pt, 2. gross screening of pt strength, cognition, following commands

17. What are the actions of the cruciate ligaments?

They stabilize the knee joint by preventing the movement of the tibia forward or backward, with the
anterior cruciate ligament preventing anterior displacement and the posterior cruciate ligament
preventing posterior displacement.

18. What are the “drawer sign” and the “terrible triad”?
The anterior drawer sign, movement of the tibia anteriorly when the flexed leg is pulled anteriorly,
indicates anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The posterior drawer sign, movement of the tibia
posteriorly when the flexed leg is pushed, indicates posterior cruciate rupture. The terrible triad is a
tearing of the medial collateral ligament, the medial meniscus, and the anterior cruciate ligament all at
the same time.

19. What does the transverse tibiofibulare ligament do?

This ligament helps to hold tibia and fibula together. It also forms a portion of the articulation with

20. What are the actions of the subtalar articulation?

This joint is pretty stiff, though it allows some inversion and eversion.

21. What is the tarsal sinus?

It is the cavity lying between the talus and the calcaneus.

22. What are the actions of the foot?

Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion and eversion of the foot are the main actions of the foot.

23. What is the function of the patella?

The patella is a large sesamoid bone that developed in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle. It
pushes against the anterior articular surface of the femur´s inferior surface, and, by holding the tendon
off the lower end off the femur, improves the angle of approach of the tendon to the tibial tuberosity.

24. What are the specific techniques of chest physiotherapy in neonates and children?
Usual active physiotherapy includes gentle active vibrations and suctioning.

25. Disk prolapse and Spinal stenosis will lead to

(a) cervical spondylosis (b) nerve root pain (c) mechanical backache (d) incontinence

Internet: In rare instances, the prolapsed disc may press on the nerves to the bladder causing either
incontinence or an inability to empty the bladder.
A lumbar disc herniation resulting in conus medullaris or cauda equina syndrome may also lead to
urinary incontinence.
Any incontinence caused by a prolapsed disc needs to be treated urgently. 2 cross sections showing a
disc prolapse at L5/S1.
In severe cases of spinal stenosis, nerves to the bladder or bowel may be compressed, which can lead to
partial or complete incontinence. Anyone who experiences problems controlling their bladder or
bowels should seek immediate medical attention.

26. Severe kyphoscoliosis will lead to

(a) left rather than right ventricular failure
(b) right rather than left ventricular failure
(c) frequent respiratory infections

27. Obesity is a risk factor for

(a) osteoporosis
(b) osteoarthritis
(c) both
(d) neither

Výňatek ze dvou volných listů – otázky, které jsem dosud nenašel jinde:

The force of a tetanic muscle contraction… ??? (vlastní poznámka: the highest muscle contraction)

Presentation of Brown-Sequard syndrome:

Ipsilateral (the same side of the lesion) – loss of motor function, vibration sense and fine touch, loss of
proprioception, loss of two-point discrimination and signs of weakness
Contralateral (opposite side) of the lesion – loss of pain and temperature sensation and crude touch
(crude = surový; překládám si jako hrubé čití)

Early signs of Volkman´s contracture (also known as Volkmann´s ischemic contracture) – permanent
flexion contracture of the hand and the wrist, resulting in a claw-like deformity of the hand and fingers.
I is more common in children. Passive extension of fingers is restricted and painful. On examination
the fingers are white or blue and cold and the radial pulse is absent.
Claw toe - dorsiflexion of proximal phalanx on the lesser metatarsophalangeal, combined with flexion
of both the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints

Colles´ fracture complications – dinner fork or bayonet deformity

What is a gazette # ? # fracture (or number?) gazette = noviny

What determine muscle strength?

1. muscle size
2. number of muscle fibres
3. recruitment of muscle fibres
The scientific term / diagnosis for “stiff” big toe is:
1. hallux rigidus
2. Hammer toe
3. pes equinus
4. ???
A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second,
third or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer.
Mallet toe is a similar condition affection the distal interphalangeal joint.
Claw toe - dorsiflexion of proximal phalanx on the lesser metatarsophalangeal, combined with flexion
of both the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints

What is Colles fracture?

Colles fracture is the fracture of distal radius

What kind of laser do physiotherapists use?

1. mild laser
2. mod laser
3. high laser
4. no laser
komentář: LLLT = Low-reactive Level Laser Therapy (laserové záření nízké intensity), used in
efekt: biostimulační, potizánětlivý, naalgetický, baktericidní, viricidní, antiedematózní,vazodilatační

To stimulate tetanic muscle contraction what modality will you use?

Galvanic currents
Faradic currents

High voltage-pulsed galvanic current:

Electrical stimulation, to be effective in increasing muscle strength, it should produce strong tetanic
muscular contraction, with a low pain response. Thus, the characteristics for an electric pulse utilized
should be modified to minimize pain and discomfort by altering its waveform, duration, frequency and
intensity. It was found that the slow rising pulses have the advantage of minimizing pain and
discomfort. Recently, high voltage-pulsed galvanic current (HVPC) with its short duration and deep
penetration, compared to other low-voltage currents, might provide effective means of stimulating
muscles in order to increase strength. The term pulsed is crucial as it prevents from thinking the current
to be a continuous direct current (galvanic current), which can be substantiated by the obvious
difference in waveforms. The high voltage generators are unique in their characteristics as they
produce over 150 voltage, which may reach 500 volts, with a short duration (less than 100 msec), a
high peak (up to 2 amperes) and a low average current (less than 150 mA). Its waveform has a twin-
peaked pulse, with 40-80 msec spacing between pulses.