Environment and energy

Statistics in focus
43/2010

Author: Rita KEENAN

Statistical aspects of the energy economy in 2009
This publication provides a first overview of the
energy economy in 2009 based on monthly
cumulated data for each EU Member State.
Production and consumption trends are
outlined for the principal energy commodities –
oil, natural gas, solid fuels, nuclear and primary

electrical energy. Main indicators such as
energy dependence rate and energy intensity
are presented. In addition, heating degree days
calculated on the basis of a common Eurostat
methodology are also included.

Energy dependency fell by 5.7%

Gross inland consumption fell by 5.5% in
2009

Energy intensity dropped for the sixth
consecutive year

Production of primary energy sources
dropped for the third consecutive year

Russia was once again the main supplier of
oil, natural gas and coal

Energy intensity
Figure 1: Energy intensity

Energy intensity is a measure of how much energy
is used to produce a unit of economic output. The
decoupling of increasing economic activity from
increasing energy consumption is a goal for
sustainable development.

190
185
180
k g e p /1 0 0 0 E u ro

For the sixth consecutive year EU-27 energy
intensity (gross inland consumption divided by
gross domestic product) dropped while GDP
continued a general upward trend over the same
period. Exceptionally cold weather conditions may
account for years registering high energy
consumption.

175
170
165
160
155
150
2000

2001

2002

2003

EU-27

Source: Eurostat (tsien020)

2004

2005

EA-16

2006

2007

2008

2009

Energy consumption trends
Figure 2
EU-27 Gross inland consumption
2009
Renewables
9.0%

Hard coal
10.7%
Lignite
5.5%

Nuclear energy
13.3%

Oil
36.6%

Natural gas
24.9%

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

When compared to 2008, EU-27 gross inland
consumption (GIC) dropped in 2009 to levels last
seen in the mid 90's.
Belgium alone recorded an increase in GIC
(+3.1%) while Cyprus remained stable. All other
Member States showed a decrease with values
ranging from -14.2% in Romania to -1.8% in
Portugal.

Production trends

Primary energy production dropped by 4.7%
between 2008 and 2009, continuing the downward
trend observed over the previous decade. Both
natural gas (-10.1%) and hard coal (-9.2%) showed
an important decrease. Renewable energy alone

With a share of 36.6% EU-27 oil remained the fuel
with the highest contribution to total gross inland
consumption in 2009. The share of all other fuels
remained more or less stable except for coal, the
share of which dropped from 12.0% in 2008 to
10.7% in 2009. The consumption of coal dropped
by 16.3% in 2009.

recorded a considerable increase (+8.3%) and
accounted for 18.4% of total EU-27 primary
production, just behind natural gas with 19.3%.
With 28% of total EU-27 primary production,
nuclear energy continues to hold the largest share.

Figure 3
EU-27 Primary production
2009
Renewables
18.4%

Hard coal
9.6%
Lignite
11.6%

Oil
13.1%
Nuclear energy
28.0%
Natural gas
19.3%

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

2

43/2010 — Statistics in focus

Summary energy balance
January - December
Million tonnes of oil equivalent
Primary
Production (1)
EU-27
2008
831.3
792.6
2009
Euro area
2008
446.6
2009
429.9
BE
2008
13.0
2009
14.1
BG
2008
10.1
2009
9.7
CZ
2008
33.0
2009
31.5
DK
2008
26.0
2009
23.5
DE
2008
128.8
2009
120.3
EE
2008
4.2
2009
4.1
IE
2008
1.5
2009
0.9
EL
2008
11.2
2009
11.5
ES
2008
28.5
2009
28.9
FR
2008
128.6
2009
124.1
IT
2008
27.3
2009
26.2
CY
2008
0.1
2009
0.1
LV
2008
1.8
2009
1.8
LT
2008
3.6
2009
3.9
LU
2008
84
2009
84
HU
2008
10.5
2009
10.5
MT
2008
0.0
2009
0.0
NL
2008
68.1
2009
62.8
AT
2008
10.1
2009
10.4
PL
2008
70.8
2009
66.7
PT
2008
3.9
2009
4.5
RO
2008
29.1
2009
28.0
SI
2008
3.6
2009
3.4
SK
2008
6.5
2009
5.8
FI
2008
15.7
2009
16.8
SE
2008
32.3
2009
29.5
UK
2008
163.2
2009
153.4

Total
Total
Change in
Gross
Consumption
Imports (2)
Exports (2)
Stocks (3)
1456.2
464.4
-10.8
1815.2
1378.8
444.2
-16.4
1713.7
1131.7
302.1
-6.2
1272.2
1077.4
294.7
-8.4
1206.4
77.6
26.5
-1.6
62.8
70.0
22.9
0.6
62.2
15.0
4.2
-0.5
20.4
11.6
3.5
0.1
17.9
21.1
8.8
-0.4
44.6
20.3
8.7
-0.4
42.5
14.4
19.7
-1.1
20.0
13.5
18.1
-0.8
18.6
248.0
41.7
0.7
335.7
235.4
36.9
-2.4
316.3
1.9
0.2
0.1
5.9
5.3
1.7
0.3
-0.1
15.3
15.1
1.3
-0.1
14.2
1.0
-0.2
14.0
32.7
7.3
-0.3
36.3
31.2
9.0
0.6
34.3
135.6
13.3
-2.8
148.2
124.8
14.2
-0.9
138.8
173.1
34.7
-0.7
266.6
162.9
28.7
-0.4
258.2
184.2
29.3
-0.7
183.3
167.8
28.7
0.9
168.4
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.1
2.9
0.0
0.0
3.1
3.5
0.3
0.2
4.7
3.6
0.5
-0.2
4.4
13.2
7.7
0.1
9.2
11.9
7.4
0.1
8.4
4.5
0.2
0.0
4.4
4.2
0.3
0.0
4.0
26.8
21.9
4.9
-0.6
24.6
18.7
4.0
-0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.9
0.0
-0.1
1.7
157.7
126.4
-1.3
98.4
164.9
132.6
-4.3
91.2
28.3
6.1
-0.3
32.2
28.0
7.2
-0.1
31.4
43.8
12.6
-0.6
101.6
41.8
11.7
-1.6
95.4
23.9
2.6
0.0
25.1
23.2
2.5
-0.5
24.6
16.5
5.4
-0.9
39.3
11.2
4.7
-0.7
33.8
5.0
1.2
0.0
7.3
4.5
1.3
0.0
6.6
16.3
4.6
0.0
18.1
17.4
16.6
4.6
-0.4
35.3
26.5
6.8
-0.1
25.0
6.6
-1.1
34.1
33.0
13.6
-0.9
50.9
30.4
12.9
-0.2
46.8
140.4
84.9
0.0
219.5
136.8
77.9
-3.7
209.5

Gross Inland
Consumption
Bunkers
54.0
1761.2
1664.6
49.1
48.0
1224.2
43.1
1163.3
9.5
53.3
7.2
55.0
0.0
20.4
0.1
17.7
0.0
44.6
0.0
42.5
1.0
19.1
0.5
18.1
3.1
332.7
2.8
313.5
0.0
5.9
5.3
0.0
15.2
0.1
0.1
13.9
3.2
33.1
2.2
32.1
9.0
139.2
9.0
129.9
2.6
264.0
2.6
255.6
3.8
179.5
3.3
165.1
0.3
2.8
0.2
2.8
0.2
4.5
0.3
4.1
0.1
9.1
0.1
8.3
0.0
4.4
0.0
4.0
26.8
0.0
24.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
0.7
15.9
82.5
14.1
77.0
0.0
32.2
0.0
31.4
0.3
101.3
0.2
95.2
0.6
24.6
0.5
24.1
0.0
39.3
0.0
33.8
0.0
7.3
0.0
6.6
0.0
18.1
17.4
0.0
35.3
0.0
0.0
34.1
2.1
48.8
2.2
44.6
2.4
217.2
2.5
207.1

(1) Including hard coal recovered
(2) Including Intra-EU trade
(3) Opening stock minus closing stock. Negative values represent a stocks build-up during the reference year

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

Statistics in focus — 43/2010

3

Figure 4
Gross inland consumption
1900
1800
1700

mio toe

1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004
EU-27

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

EA-16

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

Energy dependency
climate e.g. drop in demand or interruption of gas
supply.
Denmark, continuing the trend set in 1999 as a net
energy exporter, was the only Member State with a
negative dependency in 2009. The United
Kingdom who became a net importer in 2004,
continued the trend in 2009 with an EDR of 28.5%
rising from 25.7% in 2008.

Figure 5
LU
CY
IE
IT
PT
ES

When compared to 2008, Germany, Ireland, Latvia,
Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and the United
Kingdom all show an increase in their EDR. Latvia
showed the biggest increase rising from 58.2% in
2008 to 63.4% in 2009. France remained stable
and all other countries experienced a drop.
Romania experienced the highest overall decrease
in EDR dropping from 28.4% in 2008 to 19.4% in
2009.

BE
EL
AT
Euro area
SK
HU
DE
LT
LV
FI
EU-27
BG
FR
SI
SE
NL
PL
RO
EE
CZ

2008
2009

UK
DK
-30

-10

10

30

50

70

90

110

Source: Eurostat (tsdcc310)

When compared to 2008 EU-27 net imports
(imports minus exports) fell (-5.7%) in 2009. The
EU-27 total energy dependence rate (EDR) showed
a slight drop, going from 54.8% in 2008 to 54.7%
in 2009. However, these figures should be
examined in the light of the prevailing economic
4

The EU-27 EDR of gas increased from 61.5% in
2008 to 64.3% in 2009. Denmark and the
Netherlands both have a negative dependency. Of
the six biggest gas consumers, EDR fell in Spain
and Italy in 2009 but grew in the United Kingdom,
Germany, France and Netherlands.
The European Union's main energy suppliers differ
according to the type of energy being imported. In
2009 EU-27 imported natural gas from Russia
(33.2%), Norway (28.8%) and Algeria (14.7%).
Crude oil and feedstocks came from Russia
(30.8%), Norway (13.5%), Libya (8.5%), Saudi
Arabia (5.1%), Kazakhstan (4.7%) and Iran (4.5%).
The main suppliers of coal remained Russia
(30%), Columbia (17.8%), South Africa (15.9%)
and USA (12.8%).
43/2010 — Statistics in focus

Climate profile - heating degree days
Actual heating degree days
January - December
Jan
EU-27
BE
BG
CZ
DK
DE
EE
IE
EL
ES
FR
IT
CY
LV
LT
LU
HU
MT
NL
AT
PL
PT
RO
SI
SK
FI
SE
UK

2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008
2007
2008

453
466
352
378
362
587
455
504
404
431
404
437
595
581
341
345
284
357
344
306
351
362
313
346
208
244
559
586
532
581
408
436
406
515
64
56
345
367
473
519
453
515
274
224
430
611
433
480
472
537
817
714
754
648
357
377

Feb
439
404
323
359
364
413
411
436
441
384
380
397
767
494
325
332
272
307
239
248
288
322
268
320
160
199
746
481
700
469
355
384
362
400
88
114
338
370
401
441
506
430
187
167
413
445
358
411
420
457
928
662
748
587
344
363

Mar
354
402
319
373
312
274
382
438
355
441
346
405
439
539
337
354
221
180
258
241
315
333
245
264
122
54
411
512
391
483
351
412
292
341
78
47
311
373
385
431
359
435
186
183
322
332
327
383
347
417
558
717
538
664
348
384

Apr
224
270
141
273
187
153
222
290
250
312
177
293
380
338
214
295
113
97
150
146
107
243
79
159
34
11
376
315
350
291
125
302
156
181
14
11
161
274
189
294
268
281
108
101
210
187
159
240
228
247
477
489
429
462
221
318

May
131
134
96
59
24
67
120
132
195
163
109
100
210
246
202
144
4
20
68
82
83
50
21
20
0
0
181
224
164
199
108
63
39
48
0
0
109
82
111
123
119
145
41
62
38
69
66
77
83
105
318
350
316
320
216
159

Jun

Jul

42
57
17
53
1
0
15
29
48
69
19
35
48
99
97
135
0
0
11
19
17
35
4
5
0
0
31
76
21
42
26
41
0
0
0
0
13
46
15
34
13
26
3
2
0
1
3
13
4
8
150
173
138
160
100
132

25
23
26
18
0
1
21
14
34
15
23
12
8
13
81
61
0
0
1
2
9
4
2
1
0
0
8
0
15
0
41
23
0
1
0
0
19
11
29
24
15
4
0
1
1
0
7
3
5
7
46
84
88
79
81
62

Aug
33
38
28
7
1
0
21
15
30
6
22
9
35
42
72
50
0
0
2
0
12
4
3
1
0
0
31
23
33
17
40
8
0
0
0
0
19
11
23
15
23
13
0
0
1
2
0
0
4
4
87
170
115
162
83
52

Sep
119
136
100
126
40
78
163
161
128
119
123
142
186
221
108
155
3
16
14
21
72
96
23
39
0
0
171
200
147
185
130
151
88
112
0
0
92
113
165
163
132
156
2
1
74
110
109
127
145
145
296
323
291
287
130
147

Oct
234
222
236
234
151
123
308
273
280
248
276
251
335
282
180
257
51
28
91
102
187
184
108
49
0
0
331
286
320
278
253
262
222
154
3
0
244
233
301
255
302
251
26
53
215
166
251
188
284
225
402
421
411
423
220
269

Nov
405
372
352
343
381
298
484
388
386
359
420
375
524
454
260
306
196
144
261
296
345
315
264
214
29
7
514
458
513
447
409
383
415
326
11
0
334
333
479
403
481
387
159
227
445
362
401
355
469
368
632
595
608
596
316
336

Dec
484
484
447
485
534
436
574
523
437
470
500
516
514
563
335
392
347
284
350
366
425
449
385
358
141
126
530
564
538
553
493
530
572
462
73
80
438
482
601
551
551
522
272
279
600
492
563
504
615
504
600
636
632
688
403
443

Total
2943
3008
2437
2707
2357
2430
3175
3204
2988
3017
2798
2971
4041
3873
2552
2827
1489
1434
1789
1829
2212
2397
1715
1776
694
640
3889
3725
3724
3543
2738
2993
2552
2541
332
307
2424
2694
3171
3252
3222
3164
1258
1299
2750
2776
2678
2782
3076
3023
5312
5336
5068
5076
2818
3043

Source: Eurostat (nrg esdgr a) and IPSC/Agrifish Unit/MARS-STAT Action

Statistics in focus — 43/2010

5

6
Subdivision of principal aggregates
of the energy balance sheet

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

EU-27
(1)

2008

2009

EA-16
2009/2008

2008

2009

BE
2009/2008

2008

2009

BG
2009/2008

2008

CZ

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

2009/2008

1761.2

1664.6

-5.5%

1224.2

1163.3

-5.0%

53.3

55.0

3.1%

20.4

17.7

-13.0%

44.6

42.5

-4.7%

of which:
Hard coal
Lignite
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind plus electricity trade balance
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

212.1
95.4
638.3
440.0
228.6
34.1
112.7

177.5
91.0
609.9
414.3
222.2
37.0
112.7e

-16.3%
-4.6%
-4.5%
-5.8%
-2.8%
8.5%

111.9
51.6
479.4
298.6
179.6
24.1
79.0

92.7
49.6
455.8
288.1
170.9
27.2
79.0e

-17.1%
-3.8%
-4.9%
-3.5%
-4.8%
12.8%

4.5
0.0
22.7
11.9
11.2
1.0
2.1

3.0
0.0
23.4
14.2
12.3
0.0
2.1e

-31.7%
-71.4%
3.3%
19.2%
9.7%
-102.9%

3.0
4.9
5.1
2.8
4.0
-0.2
0.7

1.9
4.7
4.6
2.1
3.9
-0.1
0.7e

-38.8%
-5.1%
-10.1%
-25.3%
-3.0%
49.4%

5.4
14.2
9.8
7.1
6.9
-0.8
2.1

4.5
13.7
9.5
6.7
7.1
-0.9
2.1e

-16.4%
-3.7%
-2.7%
-6.3%
2.5%
-19.1%

2. Net Imports (2)

995.0

937.8

-5.7%

832.0

785.0

47.5

-7.6%

10.8

8.1

-25.1%

12.1

11.4

-5.3%

132.9
558.8
270.6
11.2
1.1
3.2

110.8
518.3
266.4
23.5
1.2
3.2e

-16.6%
-7.2%
-1.5%
109.6%
14.1%

94.2
476.7
216.4
25.7
1.7
2.4

80.8
440.4
214.0
32.5
2.2
2.4e

-5.6%
-14.3%
-7.6%
-1.1%
26.6%
28.4%

51.4

of which:
Hard coal
Crude oil
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Electricity
Biomass & waste

4.4
33.8
11.9
0.9
0.9
0.4

2.5
31.8
14.0
0.9
-0.2
0.4e

-43.1%
-6.0%
17.8%
-0.7%
-117.2%

3.2
7.2
2.8
-2.0
-0.5
0.0

1.7
6.2
2.1
-1.5
-0.4
0.0e

-46.6%
-14.6%
-26.0%
27.7%
5.2%

-2.7
8.1
7.0
1.4
-1.0
-0.2

-3.0
7.2
7.0
1.9
-1.2
-0.2e

-11.1%
-11.4%
-0.1%
39.2%
-19.0%

831.3

792.6

-4.7%

446.6

429.9

-3.7%

13.0

14.1

8.6%

10.1

9.7

-4.5%

33.0

31.5

-4.6%

84.0
94.8
111.0
170.1
228.6
33.0
109.8

76.3
91.8
104.0
152.9
222.2
35.7
109.8e

-9.2%
-3.1%
-6.3%
-10.1%
-2.8%
8.3%

16.6
50.8
17.2
83.2
179.6
22.4
76.8

13.7
50.2
16.0
77.2
170.9
25.1
76.8e

-17.7%
-1.1%
-6.5%
-7.2%
-4.8%
11.6%

11.2
0.1
1.7

12.3
0.1
1.7e

9.7%
37.6%

0.0
4.9
0.0
0.2
4.0
0.2
0.7

0.0
4.6
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.3
0.7e

17.6%
-5.5%
0.0%
-93.7%
-3.0%
43.4%

8.5
14.6
0.4
0.2
6.9
0.2
2.3

7.3
14.0
0.4
0.1
7.1
0.2
2.3e

-13.1%
-4.1%
2.0%
-8.3%
2.5%
18.3%

54.8%

54.7%

65.4%

65.1%

81.8%

76.4%

52.8%

45.2%

27.0%

26.8%

84.6%
61.5%

84.6%
64.3%

97.4%
72.5%

97.0%
74.3%

103.6%
99.8%

99.6%
98.7%

100.5%
99.8%

99.3%
98.8%

97.2%
98.7%

95.8%
105.3%

3539.1

3331.1

3742.4

3539.8

4999.3

5115.0

2667.3

2329.6

4300.7

4064.3

1. Gross Inland Consumption

3. Production of Primary Energy
of which:
Hard coal (3)
Lignite
Crude oil and condensates
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

43/2010 — Statistics in focus

4. Energy Dependence Rate (EDR)
Total
of which:
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
5. Gross Inland Consumption
Per Capita in kgoe

(1) GIC = primary production + recovered products + net imports + stock changes - bunkers
(2) Net Imports = Imports minus exports
(3) Including recovered products
e: Estimate

Source: Eurostat (ngr 102m)

Subdivision of principal aggregates
of the energy balance sheet

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

Statistics in focus — 43/2010

DK
2008
(1)

DE

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

EE
2009/2008

2008

IE

2009

2009/2008

2008

EL

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

2009/2008

19.1

18.1

-5.1%

332.7

313.5

-5.8%

5.9

5.3

-9.9%

15.2

13.9

-8.7%

33.1

32.1

-2.9%

4.0

4.0

7.3
4.0
0.7
3.0

6.6
3.9
0.6
3.0e

0.1%
-10.0%
-3.1%
-15.9%

42.5
37.3
115.9
77.0
35.8
0.0
24.3

34.5
36.1
109.2
76.4
32.5
0.5
24.3e

-18.8%
-3.1%
-5.8%
-0.7%
-9.1%
1162.5%

0.0
3.5
1.1
0.7
-0.1
0.6

0.0
3.3
0.9
0.5
0.0
0.6e

-61.2%
-4.9%
-22.9%
-31.3%
139.4%

1.6
0.6
7.9
4.5
0.3
0.3

1.5
0.0
7.4
4.4
0.4
0.3e

-7.3%
-100.0%
-6.6%
-4.3%
24.4%

0.4
9.8
17.8
3.5
0.5
1.2

0.1
9.7
17.3
3.0
1.0
1.2e

-70.9%
-1.0%
-3.1%
-14.0%
105.2%

2. Net Imports (2)

-4.9

-4.1

15.8%

206.3

198.4

1.3

-16.9%

13.9

13.3

-4.1%

25.4

22.3

-12.5%

4.4
-6.3
-4.8
1.6
0.1
0.4

3.9
-5.0
-3.6
0.4
0.0
0.4e

-10.8%
19.7%
25.4%
-72.9%
-76.8%

27.3
105.3
64.7
9.2
-1.7
-0.1

23.3
97.9
67.3
10.4
-1.1
-0.1e

-3.8%
-14.5%
-7.0%
4.0%
12.8%
38.9%

1.6

of which:
Hard coal
Crude oil
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Electricity
Biomass & waste

0.0
0.7
1.0
-0.1
-0.1

0.0
0.5
0.9
0.0
-0.1e

-61.2%
-31.3%
-10.9%
110.0%

1.5
3.2
4.1
4.9
0.0
0.0

1.7
2.7
4.0
4.8
0.1
0.0e

7.1%
-16.2%
-2.5%
-1.6%
69.2%

0.4
18.2
3.5
0.7
0.3
0.0

0.1
16.7
3.0
-0.6
0.4
0.0e

-86.2%
-8.5%
-15.5%
-183.0%
32.0%

26.0

23.5

-9.5%

128.8

120.3

-6.6%

4.2

4.1

-3.7%

1.5

0.9

-40.3%

11.2

11.5

2.5%

14.0
8.8
0.6
2.6

12.9
7.5
0.6
2.6e

-8.2%
-14.8%
-3.0%

12.4
37.8
4.9
11.7
35.8
1.7
24.5

9.7
36.6
4.5
11.0
32.5
1.6
24.5e

-21.8%
-3.1%
-8.7%
-6.5%
-9.1%
-6.8%

3.5
0.0
0.7

3.3
0.0
0.7e

-4.7%
38.5%

0.6

0.0
0.0

0.4

0.3

0.3
0.2

0.3
0.2e

-100.0%
-21.4%
18.5%

9.8
0.1
0.0
0.2
1.2

9.7
0.1
0.0
0.6
1.2e

-1.0%
-11.3%
-37.5%
218.1%

-24.4%

-22.1%

61.4%

62.7%

27.2%

25.1%

90.6%

94.9%

70.1%

64.8%

-61.3%
-118.3%

-69.4%
-91.1%

96.2%
84.0%

96.7%
88.0%

93.2%
100.0%

107.9%
100.0%

101.2%
90.7%

100.1%
92.4%

101.3%
101.5%

96.9%
99.8%

3480.3

3281.7

4046.2

3823.4

4403.4

3971.6

3459.2

3124.5

2952.3

3124.5

1. Gross Inland Consumption

of which:
Hard coal
Lignite
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind plus electricity trade balance
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

3. Production of Primary Energy
of which:
Hard coal (3)
Lignite
Crude oil and condensates
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat
4. Energy Dependence Rate (EDR)
Total
of which:
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
5. Gross Inland Consumption
Per Capita in kgoe

(1) GIC = primary production + recovered products + net imports + stock changes - bunkers
(2) Net Imports = Imports minus exports
(3) Including recovered products
e: Estimate

7

Source: Eurostat (ngr 102m)

8
Subdivision of principal aggregates
of the energy balance sheet

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

ES
2008
1. Gross Inland Consumption

(1)

of which:
Hard coal
Lignite
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind plus electricity trade balance
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat
2. Net Imports (2)
of which:
Hard coal
Crude oil
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Electricity
Biomass & waste
3. Production of Primary Energy
of which:
Hard coal (3)
Lignite
Crude oil and condensates
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

2009

FR
2009/2008

2008

2009

IT
2009/2008

2008

2009

CY
2009/2008

2008

LV

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

43/2010 — Statistics in focus

139.2

129.9

-6.7%

264.0

255.6

-3.2%

179.5

165.1

-8.0%

2.8

2.8

0.0%

4.5

4.1

-8.7%

13.1
0.0
67.7
34.8
14.2
3.1
6.2

11.0
63.7
31.2
12.9
4.9
6.2e

-16.1%
-6.0%
-10.2%
-9.3%
55.9%

12.8
89.7
39.6
105.7
1.9
14.2

11.2
87.6
38.2
101.2
3.4
14.2e

-13.0%
-2.4%
-3.8%
-4.3%
79.3%

16.9
75.6
69.4
7.4
10.2

12.4
70.0
64.0
8.5
10.2e

-26.8%
-7.3%
-7.8%
14.9%

0.0
2.7
0.1

0.0
2.7
0.1e

-50.0%
0.4%
-

0.1
0.0
1.5
1.3
0.5
1.1

0.1
0.0
1.3
1.2
0.4
1.1e

-14.7%
-33.3%
-15.4%
-8.0%
-9.0%

122.6

110.8

-9.6%

138.8

134.6

155.7

141.3

-9.2%

3.0

3.0

-2.6%

2.8

2.8

1.0%

11.4
58.5
35.1
16.5
-1.0
0.2

9.2
52.3
30.9
15.3
-0.7
0.2e

-19.7%
-10.6%
-12.1%
-7.1%
26.6%

13.8
82.6
38.8
6.3
-4.2
0.3

10.3
71.3
39.0
15.0
-2.2
0.3e

-3.1%
-25.4%
-13.6%
0.6%
139.6%
46.4%

16.6
81.1
62.8
-14.9
3.4
0.7

12.8
75.6
56.6
-12.5
3.8
0.7e

-23.1%
-6.8%
-9.9%
16.4%
12.2%

0.0
3.0
0.0

0.0
2.9
0.0e

-38.5%
-2.3%
-

0.1
1.1
1.7
0.2
-0.4

0.1
1.4
1.5
0.1
-0.4e

-23.1%
27.9%
-9.9%
-31.8%

28.5

28.9

1.6%

128.6

124.1

-3.5%

27.3

26.2

-3.8%

0.1

0.1

0.0%

1.8

1.8

1.6%

4.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
14.2
4.1
5.9

3.9
0.6
0.0
12.9
5.6
5.9e

-5.1%
356.1%
-14.3%
-9.3%
36.7%

0.1
2.1
0.8
105.7
6.0
13.8

0.1
2.6
0.7
101.2
5.6
13.8e

-22.2%
25.9%
-4.3%
-4.3%
-7.1%

6.3
7.5
4.0
9.5

5.4
6.6
4.7
9.5e

-14.4%
-10.8%
17.0%

0.1

0.1e

-

0.0
0.3
1.5

0.0
0.3
1.5e

-

82.7%

79.8%

52.1%

52.1%

84.9%

83.9%

97.7%

96.3%

58.2%

63.4%

100.3%
101.0%

98.2%
98.9%

97.0%
97.9%

96.4%
102.3%

91.0%
90.5%

92.1%
88.5%

100.2%
-

98.6%
-

101.0%
82.1%

100.4%
114.3%

3073.3

2833.8

4125.8

3972.1

3010.9

2749.5

3607.1

3569.6

1988.6

1822.6

4. Energy Dependence Rate (EDR)
Total
of which:
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
5. Gross Inland Consumption
Per Capita in kgoe

(1) GIC = primary production + recovered products + net imports + stock changes - bunkers
(2) Net Imports = Imports minus exports
(3) Including recovered products
e: Estimate

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

2009/2008

9.6%

Subdivision of principal aggregates
of the energy balance sheet

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

Statistics in focus — 43/2010

LT
2008
(1)

LU

2009

2009/2008

2008

HU

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

MT
2009/2008

2008

NL

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

2009/2008

9.1

8.3

-9.5%

4.4

4.0

-9.3%

26.8

24.6

-8.0%

-

0.7

-

82.5

77.0

-6.7%

of which:
Hard coal
Lignite
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind plus electricity trade balance
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

0.2
0.0
3.0
2.6
2.6
0.0
0.8

0.2
0.0
2.5
2.2
2.8
-0.2
0.8e

-27.6%
-20.0%
-15.7%
-15.9%
9.4%
-386.0%

0.1
2.8
1.1

0.1
2.4
1.1

0.4
0.1

0.3
0.1e

-9.2%
-13.6%
5.3%
-20.5%

1.0
2.0
7.3
10.8
3.7
0.4
1.6

0.7
1.8
6.9
9.1
4.0
0.5
1.6e

-28.2%
-11.0%
-4.8%
-15.8%
7.1%
36.6%

-

0.7
-

-

7.7
32.9
36.0
1.0
1.7
3.1

7.1
30.3
34.7
1.0
0.8
3.1e

-8.2%
-8.2%
-3.6%
1.5%
-52.3%

2. Net Imports (2)

5.5

4.4

-18.5%

4.4

4.0

16.9

14.8

-12.7%

-

1.9

-

31.8

32.8

3.2%

0.2
9.0
2.5
-6.5
-0.1
0.0

0.1
8.3
2.2
-6.2
-0.3
0.0e

-43.5%
-7.8%
-12.4%
4.6%
-207.3%

0.1

0.1

1.1
2.8
0.4
0.0

1.1
2.4
0.3
0.0e

-9.3%
-9.2%
5.3%
-13.4%
-21.2%

1.2
6.3
9.4
-0.6
0.3
0.0

0.8
5.5
7.9
-0.1
0.5
0.0e

-33.0%
-12.5%
-15.9%
81.5%
38.2%

-

1.9
-

-

7.7
56.5
-25.4
-8.8
1.4
0.5

9.3
57.2
-22.2
-12.3
0.4
0.5e

19.9%
1.2%
12.3%
-39.5%
-68.9%

3.6

3.9

6.1%

0.1

0.1

0.0%

10.5

10.5

0.7%

-

-

-

68.1

62.8

-7.7%

0.0
0.2
2.6
0.0
0.8

0.0
0.2
2.8
0.0
0.8e

-18.8%
-9.1%
9.4%
12.8%

0.0
0.1

0.0
0.1e

0.0%

1.7
1.4
2.0
3.7
0.0
1.6

1.6
1.3
2.0
4.0
0.0
1.6e

-4.4%
-5.6%
-2.4%
7.1%
22.2%

-

-

-

2.5
61.4
1.0
0.4
2.8

1.7
57.0
1.0
0.4
2.8e

-34.8%
-7.2%
1.5%
8.0%

59.1%

52.9%

98.2%

98.1%

63.2%

60.0%

-

106.1%

32.3%

36.0%

91.2%
96.3%

90.0%
100.3%

100.1%
100.0%

100.3%
100.0%

80.5%
86.6%

80.3%
86.6%

-

106.4%
-

97.6%
-70.4%

101.1%
-64.1%

2713.6

2466.9

9186.0

8159.9

2663.9

2453.0

-

1630.4

5031.5

4673.2

1. Gross Inland Consumption

of which:
Hard coal
Crude oil
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Electricity
Biomass & waste
3. Production of Primary Energy
of which:
Hard coal (3)
Lignite
Crude oil and condensates
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat
4. Energy Dependence Rate (EDR)
Total
of which:
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
5. Gross Inland Consumption
Per Capita in kgoe

(1) GIC = primary production + recovered products + net imports + stock changes - bunkers
(2) Net Imports = Imports minus exports
(3) Including recovered products
e: Estimate

9

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

10

Subdivision of principal aggregates
of the energy balance sheet

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

AT
2008
(1)

2009

PL
2009/2008

2008

2009

PT
2009/2008

2008

RO

2009

2009/2008

2008

SI

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

2009/2008

32.2

31.4

-2.4%

101.3

95.2

-6.1%

24.6

24.1

-1.8%

39.3

33.8

-14.2%

7.3

6.6

-9.6%

of which:
Hard coal
Lignite
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind plus electricity trade balance
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

3.1
0.0
13.3
7.2
3.4
5.1

2.6
0.0
13.5
7.1
3.2
5.1e

-16.9%
-31.0%
0.9%
-1.9%
-6.7%

46.1
12.3
24.6
12.5
0.5
5.4

41.4
11.8
23.8
12.3
0.6
5.4e

-10.2%
-3.5%
-3.4%
-2.0%
20.0%

2.6

2.9

13.2
4.1
1.3
3.3

12.1
4.2
1.5
3.3e

13.4%
-8.1%
1.9%
15.9%

2.5
6.7
10.1
12.0
2.9
1.1
4.0

1.0
5.9
8.3
10.4
3.0
1.2
4.0e

-61.2%
-12.2%
-17.6%
-13.4%
4.7%
4.4%

1.3
2.9
0.8
1.5
0.2
0.5

1.3
2.5
0.8
1.3
0.1
0.5e

-2.8%
-14.0%
-3.7%
-10.1%
-33.5%

2. Net Imports (2)

22.5

21.1

-5.9%

31.4

30.3

21.2

20.6

-2.9%

11.2

6.6

-41.3%

3.8

3.2

-15.1%

2.1
7.9
6.3
4.2
0.4
0.3

2.1
7.4
6.0
4.1
0.1
0.3e

-2.4%
-5.6%
-3.6%
-1.2%
-84.0%

1.6
20.5
9.1
2.7
-0.1
0.2

1.2
19.9
8.1
3.0
-0.2
0.2e

-3.7%
-24.5%
-3.2%
-11.0%
10.7%
-79.0%

2.3
12.0
4.1
1.3
0.8
--

3.1
10.4
4.3
1.6
0.4
--

32.0%
-12.8%
3.0%
31.3%
-49.4%

2.0
8.4
3.7
-3.3
-0.4
0.1

0.6
6.9
1.7
-2.9
-0.2
0.1e

-67.4%
-18.1%
-54.7%
11.9%
45.8%
0.0%

0.8
3.0
-0.1
0.0

0.8
2.5
-0.3
0.0e

-3.7%
-14.4%
-88.5%

10.1

10.4

3.0%

70.8

66.7

-5.7%

3.9

4.5

15.8%

29.1

28.0

-4.0%

3.6

3.4

-3.4%

0.9
1.3
3.0
4.9

1.0
1.4
3.1
4.9e

6.1%
8.9%
4.3%

48.3
12.4
0.7
3.7
0.6
5.2

44.7
11.8
0.6
3.7
0.7
5.2e

-7.4%
-4.1%
-13.9%
0.1%
30.9%

0.5
3.4

1.1
3.4e

117.2%

6.7
4.8
9.4
2.9
1.5
3.9

5.9
4.5
9.3
3.0
1.4
3.9e

-11.9%
-6.1%
-1.1%
4.7%
-8.1%
0.0%

1.2
1.5
0.3
0.5

1.2
1.3
0.4
0.5e

-2.0%
-10.1%
15.7%

69.8%

67.3%

30.9%

31.7%

84.4%

83.6%

28.4%

19.4%

51.6%

48.5%

94.0%
86.6%

90.5%
85.1%

97.0%
73.0%

100.5%
66.3%

101.2%
100.3%

101.8%
101.3%

50.7%
30.6%

48.0%
16.0%

100.8%
100.0%

100.3%
100.0%

3871.5

3761.5

2658.2

2496.1

2314.3

2270.9

1827.3

1570.4

3631.8

3248.5

1. Gross Inland Consumption

of which:
Hard coal
Crude oil
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Electricity
Biomass & waste
3. Production of Primary Energy
of which:
Hard coal (3)
Lignite
Crude oil and condensates
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat
4. Energy Dependence Rate (EDR)

43/2010 — Statistics in focus

Total
of which:
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
5. Gross Inland Consumption
Per Capita in kgoe

(1) GIC = primary production + recovered products + net imports + stock changes - bunkers
(2) Net Imports = Imports minus exports
(3) Including recovered products
e: Estimate

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

Subdivision of principal aggregates
of the energy balance sheet

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

Statistics in focus — 43/2010

SK
2008
(1)

FI

2009

2009/2008

2008

2009

SE
2009/2008

2008

2009

UK
2009/2008

2008

2009

2009/2008

18.1

17.4

-3.9%

35.3

34.1

-3.4%

48.8

44.6

-8.5%

217.2

207.1

-4.6%

3.2
1.0
3.7
4.7
4.6
0.3
0.7

2.8
0.9
3.4
5.3
3.8
0.4
0.7e

-11.3%
-8.3%
-7.6%
14.4%
-16.9%
35.6%

3.4
1.6
10.4
4.0
5.7
2.6
7.7

3.6
1.6
9.7
3.5
5.9
2.2
7.7e

5.0%
0.1%
-7.0%
-12.3%
4.1%
-15.7%

2.1
0.3
13.6
0.8
16.0
5.9
9.9

1.2
0.3
12.3
1.1
13.5
6.3
9.9e

-43.4%
1.2%
-9.6%
34.5%
-15.9%
5.7%

35.7
75.5
86.6
12.8
2.0
4.5

29.9
77.5
76.8
16.9
1.4
4.5e

-16.2%
2.7%
-11.3%
31.8%
-28.2%

2. Net Imports (2)

11.6

12.0

3.3%

19.7

18.4

17.5

-10.0%

56.3

59.7

6.1%

3.1
5.9
4.5
-2.3
0.0
0.0

2.8
5.7
5.7
-2.6
0.1
0.0e

-10.2%
-2.8%
27.8%
-13.2%
290.0%

3.4
11.8
4.0
-0.9
1.1
0.0

3.7
11.3
3.5
-1.4
1.1
0.0e

-6.8%
8.4%
-3.6%
-12.3%
-50.5%
-4.1%

19.4

of which:
Hard coal
Crude oil
Natural gas
Petroleum products
Electricity
Biomass & waste

2.0
21.0
0.8
-4.6
-0.2

1.3
19.0
1.1
-4.4
0.4

-35.2%
-9.8%
34.5%
5.2%
338.5%
-

26.6
7.8
21.9
-5.8
0.9
0.9

23.2
10.1
24.0
-1.7
0.2
0.9e

-12.8%
30.4%
9.8%
71.3%
-74.1%

6.5

5.8

-10.6%

15.7

16.8

7.1%

32.3

29.5

-8.6%

163.2

153.4

-6.0%

0.6
0.1
0.1
4.6
0.4
0.7

0.7
0.2
0.1
3.8
0.4
0.7e

6.2%
11.3%
1.1%
-16.9%
8.1%

0.8
5.7
1.5
7.7

2.1
5.9
1.1
7.7e

150.6%
4.1%
-24.4%

0.2
16.0
6.1
9.9

0.2
13.5
5.9
9.9e

0.9%
-15.9%
-3.8%

10.6
72.3
62.7
12.8
1.0
3.7

10.5
68.0
53.1
16.9
1.2
3.7e

-1.0%
-5.9%
-15.3%
31.8%
13.4%

64.3%

69.1%

55.8%

53.9%

38.2%

37.3%

25.7%

28.5%

99.2%
95.9%

93.8%
107.2%

104.4%
100.0%

102.9%
100.0%

105.1%
100.0%

101.2%
100.0%

7.3%
25.3%

14.3%
31.3%

3343.6

3206.8

6655.0

6395.2

5313.0

4822.2

3549.5

3359.8

1. Gross Inland Consumption

of which:
Hard coal
Lignite
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind plus electricity trade balance
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat

3. Production of Primary Energy
of which:
Hard coal (3)
Lignite
Crude oil and condensates
Natural gas
Nuclear energy
Hydro & wind
Biomass & waste, solar & geothermal heat
4. Energy Dependence Rate (EDR)
Total
of which:
Crude oil & petroleum products
Natural gas
5. Gross Inland Consumption
Per Capita in kgoe

(1) GIC = primary production + recovered products + net imports + stock changes - bunkers
(2) Net Imports = Imports minus exports
(3) Including recovered products
e: Estimate

11

Source: Eurostat (nrg 102m)

ESSENTIAL INFORMATION – METHODOLOGICAL NOTES
Note 1: The tonne of oil equivalent is a standardised
conventional unit defined on the basis of one tonne of oil
having a net calorific value of 41 868 kilojoules per
kilogramme.
Note 2: With the exception of the data for biomass &
waste, solar and geothermal heat (renewables annual
data collection), all data for 2008 and 2009 in this report
represent the cumulative monthly figures, and may differ
from annual data.
Note 3: The energy dependence rate (EDR) is net
imports of energy as a percentage of gross consumption
(i.e. gross inland consumption plus bunkers). EDR

shows national energy dependence. Negative
dependency rate indicates a net exporter. Positive values
greater than 100% indicate a stocks build-up during the
reference year.
Note 4: Euro area is EA16 (BE, DE, IE, EL, ES, FR, IT,
CY, LU, MT, NL, AT, PT, SI, SK, FI).
Note 5: Heating degree days express the severity of the
cold in a specific time period. Actual heating degree days
based on the Eurostat methodology are calculated by the
Joint Research Centre at regional (NUTS 2), national
and European level.

Further information
Eurostat Website: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat
Data on "Energy and Environment"
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database
Select "Energy", "Energy statistics – quantities", "Energy statistics- supply, transformation, consumption"
Select "Energy", "Energy statistics – heating degree-days"
More information about "Energy and Environment":
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction

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Manuscript completed on: 11.08.2010
Data extracted on: 15.06.2010
ISSN 1977-0316
Catalogue number: KS-SF-10-043-EN-N
© European Union, 2010