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U08780 Multiservice Networks

Tutorial 2

Question 1

AAL-1 has a small overhead of 1 byte per cell. The overhead per ATM cell is 5
bytes for the ATM header, plus 1 byte for the AAL header. This means that
the payload is 47 bytes long (53-6 bytes=47 bytes).

Calculate bandwidth waste on overheads:

Message length 1000 bite

This needs to be divide into 47 byte pieces, to calculate numbers of cells:

1000 / 47 = 21.27 it is 22 cells

So

22 x 53 = 1166 bits

That means that 1166 bytes will be sent to transport this 1000 byte packet.

So percentage bandwidth waste on overheads will be:

Lets take 1166 bits as 100 % so 1000 bits will be:

X = (1000 x 100) / 1166 = 85.76%

Waste bandwidth is 100 – 85.76 = 14.24 %


Case AAL5

The AAL-5 trailer in each ATM cell is source of an important overhead. The
AAL-5 is specified with a trailer of 8 bytes per packet (In the AAL terminology,
packets are called CPCS-PDU or Common Part Convergence Sublayer--
Protocol Data Unit). If the CPCS-PDU fits within one ATM cell, there is an
overhead of 8 bytes per cell. If the CPCS-PDU is 2 cells long, there is an
overhead of 8 bytes for 2 cells: this is a way to reduce the overhead by a
factor of 2. However, the receive side must wait for the reception of the
whole packet before sending it to the upper layer, and the delay is increased
by a factor two.

So in this case, a 1000 byte packet would be wrapped in an 8 byte header,


and 8 byte trailer, and become a 1016 byte PDU. This needs to be divide into
48 byte pieces, to calculate numbers of cells:

1016 / 48 = 21.16 so 22 cells

So

22 x 53 = 1166

That means that 1166 bytes will be sent to transport this 1000 byte packet.

So percentage bandwidth waste on overheads will be:

Lets take 1166 bits as 100 % so 1000 bits will be:

X = (1000 x 100) / 1166 = 85.76%

Waste bandwidth is 100 – 85.76 = 14.24 %

In this case there is no difference whether use AAL1 or AAL5, but it will be
differenc in high amount information. For example 1 000 000 bits message
Waste bandwidth for ALL1 = 11.5% and for AAL5 = 9.5 % Difference between
ALL1 and ALL5 is that in AAL1 for every cell is needed add 1 bit but in ALL5
for all massage is needed add 16 bits.
The AAL-1 header is not useful in the great majority of cases. Most of the
functions like Structure Data Transfer (SDT) or Synchronous Residual Time
Stamp (SRTS), are not necessary for a Workstation. SDT and SRTS are mainly
devoted to network nodes in order respectively to multiplex various channels
within one ATM VP/VC flow (SDT) or to maintain the clock integrity thru the
network (SRTS). Multiplexing and clock recovery are complex and expensive
functions requiring additional hardware such as buffers or Phase Lock Loops
(PLL). The AAL-5 function is well known and available
in every Workstation. AAL-5 provides services for the support of data, video,
and signalling traffic and can be used also for voice.

Question 2

Connection-management messages are used to establish an ATM connection


in the following manner. First, a source end system sends a setup message,
which is forwarded to the first ATM switch in the network. This switch sends a
call proceeding message and invokes an ATM routing protocol. The signaling
request is propagated across the network. The exit switch that is attached to
the destination end system receives the setup message. The exit switch
forwards the setup message to the end system across its UNI, and the ATM
end system sends a connect message if the connection is accepted. The
connect message traverses back through the network along the same path to
the source end system, which sends a connect acknowledge message back
to the destination to acknowledge the connection. Data transfer can then
begin.

The source end system sends a release message, which is forwarded to the
first ATM switch. This switch sends a release message to the exit switch that
is attached to the destination end system. The exit switch forwards the
release message to the end system, and the ATM end system sends a release
complete message. The release complete message traverses back through
the network to the source end system. Connection is cleared.
Question 3

ATM adaptation layer 2 is used in the 3G/UMTS mobile network to transfer


data, voice and video traffic. AAL2 is suitable for VBR (Variable Bit Rate)
traffic. The AAL2 process uses 44 bytes of the cell payload for user data and
reserves 4 bytes of the payload to support the AAL2 processes. VBR traffic is
characterized as either real-time (VBR-RT) or as non-real-time (VBR-NRT).
AAL2 supports both types of VBR traffic.