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-ul-Quran, Monthly Ishraq (From January 1st 2009 to December 31 2009) Thesis submitted to Institute of Communication Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MS in Communication Studies
Under the supervision of
Dr. Bushra H. Rahman
Institute of Communication Studies
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Certificate of Approval
This is to certify that Sabir Ali, MSCS (2008-2010), has completed his thesis “Critical and Comparative Analysis of Religious Journals: Monthly Bayyinaat, Monthly Muhaddis, Monthly Tarjuman-ul-Quran, Monthly Minhaj-ulQuran, Monthly Ishraq (From January 1st 2009 to December 31 2009) ” in accordance with the requirements for the partial fulfillment of the Master Degree in Mass Communication.
Dr. Bushra H. Rahman
To My Family
Islam is the axis of all activities for a Muslim. Islam is complete, final, authentic, revealed system of command and control. Allah Almighty commanded Muslims through revelation on His beloved and last Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Muhammad preached those commands throughout his holy life and controlled the Islamic society forming an Islamic state based on the revealed system. Whatever he did, allow and ordered to his companions became Shari’ah along with Holy Quran as the practical example. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) preached oneness of Allah and invited the whole society to accept this invitation of Islam. Those who accepted Islam became devoted companions of Prophet and those who denied this were warned off consequences. Preaching Islam was not an easy task. Prophet (PBUH) had to fight battles to protect Muslims, and the Islamic state. It was not a defensive measure but Holy War was made obligatory to all Muslims and Allah Almighty ordered Muhammad (PBUH) to persuade Muslims towards Jihad. The main reason behind this was the dominance of Islam that Islam is the only acceptable Deen to Allah. Fundamental pillars of Islam are Kalima, Prayer, Fasting, Zakat, and Hajj. A Muslim is bound to abide by these commands. Basic beliefs in Islam include belief in Angels, Holy Books, Holy Prophets, Resurrection, and the Day of Judgment. Allah is Almighty, Creator of this Universe, Conscious, all Mercy, all Seeing, all Knowing, and
Benevolent. Muhammad (PBUH) is the Last Prophet and his obedience obligatory and necessary to be a Muslim. Then there are some collective and common matters of Islam. An Islamic state with one Caliph is common and collective duty of all Muslims. State controls Islamic society and individuals to Holy Law of Shari’ah following Sunnah as set by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). It is the duty of State to establish Mosques for Prayers, Bait-ul-Maal for collection of Zakat, educational system, and Jaish (Army) to defend. In this way, the major responsibility of Islamic state is to promote Ma’aroof (virtues) and to prohibit Munkir (Vices). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) died after the theoretical and practical completion of Islam. His heirs were Ulema to guide Ummah. Upon this conception Abu Bakar Siddique (R.A), obviously Alim and companion of Prophet became first caliph. Similarly, Umer Farooq (R.A), Usman bin Affan (R.A) and Ali bin Abi Talib (R.A) were completely on the path of Prophet (PBUH). No Muslim can claim that they were not Ulema. They were authoritarian under the umbrella of Shari’ah. After the death of Hazrat Ali (R.A), some people created a group in the Ummah, the Shiites. Hazrat Amir Ma’aviah (R.A) nominated his son, Yazid, as caliph. Yazid deviated from Shari’ah and the tragedy of Karbala divided Muslims into more groups. The political rivalry of Abbasids and Umayyad created another trend of Tasawuf (mysticism). Despite the vicissitudes, Islam remained dominated until the nineteenth century. Many dynasties were established and declined. In 1924, Caliphate ceased to be in power. This long journey of political rivalry, personal disputes, and personal benefits declined the glory of Islam and created sects. Although Shari’ah was there but practice was no more live. When Muslims deviated from the right path, West dominated. Colonialism, Enlightenment and Modernism severely damaged the practice and thought of Islam. There Muslims were divided into
distinct classes. These classes are composed of men that often transcend sectarian boundaries. Orthodoxy/Traditionalism/Fundamentalism The term Orthodoxy generally describes a religious attitude or organized movement that adheres to a holistic approach to religion, one that sees religion as a complete moral or legal code, providing answers for all life’s questions; a tendency toward literal understanding of scriptures. A belief in a foundational golden age, when the principles of the faith were perfectly applied, and a desire to recreate such a period today; suspicion and sometimes renunciation of not only people of other faiths, but also supposedly hypocritical adherents of the same faith; and discomfort with or rejection of many aspects of modern, secular societies. From the 1970s to the present, there has been an increased social mobilization and political activism because of religion. Islamic fundamentalism is found today, in varying degrees of strength and popular support, in every Muslim-majority country and in many countries with large Muslim minorities. Although they do not form a monolithic movement, fundamentalists do share certain common features in both their ideology and their organization. Twentiethcentury Islamic fundamentalism is in many ways a modern phenomenon, a product of both foreign and indigenous influences. The fundamentalist worldview is premised on the idea that most societies, including nominally Muslim societies, are in a state of jahiliyya, or “ignorance,” akin to the jahiliyya that prevailed in Arabia before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad’s mission. Only a small, committed vanguard of true Muslims discern the corrupted state of Muslim affairs and the proper means to remedy it. Their initial mission is to withdraw mentally and even physically, if need be, from the jahiliyya in order to inculcate truly Islamic values within themselves and their organization. This hijra, or “flight,” is the first type of jihad
that they must wage. On the instructions of the leader, the Muslim vanguard must transform their inner jihad into an outer jihad aimed at overthrowing the un- Islamic order and correcting societal ills. The details of an authentic Islamic political system are left vaguely defined in most fundamentalist writings. The basic principle of such an order, however, is declared to be hakimiyyat Allah, or the “sovereignty of God.” This requires the application of divine law, or shari_a, in all its dimensions. The fundamentalists generally do not feel bound to any one school or to the entire corpus of classical jurisprudence that defined shari_a. They feel empowered to perform ijtihad, that is, to derive law themselves through their own reading of the Qur_an and sunna. Compared to the modernists, who also claim the right to ijtihad, the fundamentalist reading of scriptural sources is far more liberal and conservative. Liberalism Islamic liberalism may be defined as a movement to reconcile Islamic faith with liberal values such as democracy, rights, equality, and progress. Islamic liberalism forms one strand of Islamic modernism, which also encompasses modern values that are not associated with the liberal tradition, such as state building and scientific authority. Islamic liberalism emerged in the mid-nineteenth century as a response to the hypocrisy of European liberalism, which was introduced to the Islamic world by the highly illiberal means of imperial conquest. Since that time, conservatives have consistently accused Islamic liberalism of being overly enthralled with European traditions. Yet Islamic liberalism’s self-understanding centers on Islamic traditions, including the sacred sources that require or allow liberal practices and the precedents in Islamic history for tolerance and peaceful coexistence. In the late twentieth century, a new form of Islamic liberalism added the argument that human interpretation of revelation is inherently fallible and pluralistic. In this view, the
repression of Islamic liberalism is an illegitimate exercise in hubris, because no mortal can presume to know the meaning of divine revelation with any certainty. Islamic liberalism has generally been a minority position in the Islamic world. Its representatives have sometimes fared well when elections are free and fair, though more frequently liberalism has been blocked by hostile responses of traditionalists, revivalists, and secularists. Modernism Modernism is a movement to reconcile Islamic faith with modern values such as nationalism, democracy, rights, rationality, science, equality, and progress. Islamic modernism is distinguished from secularism by its insistence on the continuing importance of faith in public life; it is distinguished from other Islamic movements by its enthusiasm for contemporary European institutions. The movement emerged in the middle of the nineteenth century as a response to European imperialism, which pitched the Islamic world into crisis, but also—in the view of the modernists—offered solutions to the crisis. Influential early figures included Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1838– 1897), Muhammad _Abduh (1849–1905), and Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817–1898). Islamic modernism generated a series of novel institutions, including schools that combined Islamic education with modern subjects and pedagogies; newspapers that carried modernist Islamic ideas across continents; theaters, museums, novels, and other cultural forms that were adapted from European models; constitutions that sought to limit state power; and social welfare agencies that brought state power into ever more sectors of social life. Islamic modernism justified each of these institutions as being more consistent with the original spirit of Islam than were the existing institutions of the Islamic world. In some regions, Islamic modernism declined in the mid-twentieth century, losing popularity to revivalist and secularist movements. Yet it appeared to have revived in the late
twentieth century, spurred in part by a dramatic global increase in modern education. Secularism Islamic secularism is a movement seeking to limit the scope of religious authority, parallel to similar movements in other faith traditions. from The limitation or may be ideological, as in secularist it may and be experiential, media as on in the movements to remove religious authority from state institutions or social relations; by encroachment consumerism mass activities
previously regulated by religious authority. Ideological secularism arose in the nineteenth century, when atheists such as Mirza Fath Ali Akhundzada (1812–1878) rejected Islam as inherently incompatible with modern ideals of progress. In the twentieth century, ideological secularism gained adherents among devout progressives as well. Major statements were drafted by Muhammad Husayn Na_ini (1860– 1936), who warned against “religious despotism”; _Ali _Abd al-Raziq (1888–1966), who argued for a separation of religious and political authority; and Nurcholish Madjid (b. 1939), who called for the “secularization” of worldly matters so as to leave the divine to God. A generation of military leaders in the middle of the twentieth century, beginning with Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (1881–1938), forcibly secularized many Muslim societies, subjugating religious authority to increasingly intrusive lay supervision and stripping it of institutions it previously monopolized, such as courts and schools. At the same time, experiential secularism spread in the daily practices of Muslims. For example, alcohol consumption and interest-based bank accounts increased despite widespread prohibition by Islamic authorities. Nonetheless, secularism remains a taboo concept in many Muslim communities, where it is associated with atheism and Western cultural imperialism.
RATIONALE/ OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Religious journals have profound impact on the masses because readers take them as religious and hence true whatever is being presented in these journals. Most of the journals are published under the supervision of Ulama who have their own adherents. Therefore it becomes important to analyze the impact of these journals and more important to evaluate or scrutiny the religious position of these journals. Any study of such a type has significance for religious sentiments and methodologies. That is why the researcher has selected these religious journals for the research study. The intention of this research study is to evaluate and examine the religious position of religious journals. “Position” here means ‘the point of view or attitude’ and the ‘commitment’ or ‘state of competition’ according to religious point of view and context. Religious journals are five journals: monthly Tarjuman-ul-Quran, monthly Minhaj-ul-Quran, monthly Mohaddis, monthly Bayyinaat, and monthly Ishraq. The researcher wants to know what is being published in these journals whether it is unanimous or not. From religious point of view where do they stand? A systematic and categorical plan of the research will include: • Evaluation of the objectives and missions of these journals; this evaluation may be explicit or implicit in the writings of these journals, • • • Evaluation of the contents of these journals, Evaluation of their interpretation of Quarnic verses, Identification of the sectarian traces in the writings of these journals
Following points are to be addressed in special: • • •
Their stance on governing system, Their stance on banking system, Their stance on other social issues, Their stance on Jihad
Despite of many internal and external conflicts Islam is still surviving and thriving but Muslims have lost courage to defend it. Everchanging problems of modern world demands changes in Islam. Some of the Muslims are ready to do this and others have a belief that Muslims should change themselves not Islam. Reformers and armies have gone much farther from Islam to adopt modernity. Intellectual or Ulema are replacing traditional Islam in actual terms. Muslim rulers, decided to defend their territories trained their armies on modern lines to save Islamic system. In doing so, however, they undermined this system. Caliphate is no longer an issue in our politics. We have adopted democracy. In this democracy, Ulema have lost their prestigious positions as real guides of societies. Every Muslim state has established a constitution that is drafted by western-inspired lawyers, not by Ulema. Islamic institutions have, as a result, lost their real sense and have transformed into modern ones. Islamic family system is no longer a nucleus of Islamic life. We are acting in a way as was not done by our ancestors. There is a gap between governed and governors. Now opinions are shattering consensus. Reformation has already changed our life pattern and still changing. A complete, final, revealed and closed system of Islam is being mixed dynamically changing systems and societies. Modernization neither demands nor needs a revelation, a final Book, a final Prophet and even final
Success. We have illusion that we can save our tradition being modern at the same time. Secular education is neglecting religion or enlisting it in the service of secular state. Shari’ah has been ceased to be the base of morality due to democratic and reformist attitude. Because of nationalism, every state of Muslims has its own problems. (Jameelah, 1966) cites a statement that “Islam shall perish unless it comes to terms with the modern world.” She says that such a cliché is constantly on the lips of our modern-educated elite in every Muslim country. They never tire of reminding us that it is unrealistic to “turn the clock back” because nothing can reverse the trend of history. Therfore we have no choice except to conform our faith to the demands of an ever-changing secular society. In order to be strong, we are told, we must reject “traditional” interpretations of the Quran and read it “rationally” in the light of modern life. All reforms advocated by the governments of Muslim countries have this as their goal. He gives warning that the more we Muslims attempt to “reform” Islam to make it “compatible” with the modern life, the weaker we shall become. We Muslims shall grow in strength and vigor not by “moving along with the trend of time” but only by fighting agaisnt it. The Reformed Islam is no longer Islam. (Kurzman, 1999) analyses three kinds of Shari’ah in contemporary Islam: liberal Shari’ah, Silent Shari’ah, and Interpreted Shari’ah. Liberal Shari’ah argues that the revelations of Quran and the practices of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) command Muslims to follow liberal positions. Liberal say that it is un-Islamic to discriminate humanity on religious basis. Silent Shari’ah holds that coexistence is not required by the Shari’ah but is allowed. First trope holds that Islam requires democracy, and the second trope holds that the Shari’ah allows democracy. The third trope suggests that religious diversity is inevitable. The Islamic Republic in Iran appears not only to be
generating liberal ideas but even be erasing the memory of Islamist ideals. (Bielefeldt, Feb 2000) finds that Maududi rejected the western concept of human rights and held the view that it is based on western arrogance. Islam and Islamic culture often are portrayed as chief obstacle to an improvement of troubling human rights situation. Relationship between Islam and human rights is complicated and raises a number of problems. Maulana Maududi’s approach to human rights is uncritical and superficial Islamization to human rights. AnNa’im, a Sudanese scholars, wants to develop a modern version of Islamic law that is to be in accordance with international standards of human rights. Hassan has proposed a feminine reading of Quran. Abdarrazaq was one of the first advocate of political secularism in Islam. He says “Muslims are free to demolish this worn-out system of Caliphate before which they have debased and humiliated themselves.” Bielefeldt concludes that Islamization of Human Rights is irrational and must be rejected. (Lewis, January 2002) finds that in twentieth century Muslim world has become ignorant, poor and weak. He asks if Islam is an obstacle to freedom, to science, to economic development, how is it that Muslim society in the past was a pioneer in all these? Muslims fell away from the authentic Islam and thus lost their greatness, say fundamentalists. Modernists argue that this loss occurred due to retention of old customs. The road to democracy is long and hard, and full of pitfalls and obstacles. The overwhelming majority of Muslims now live in independent states, but this has brought no solution to their problems. (Scruton, 2002) finds that conflicting judgments in particular cases produced an erroneous jurisprudence. Law originates from Quran, Sunnah, analogy and consensus. This law is the will of God. Ruthen says that there is no provision in Islamic law for the corporation as a
legal person, with rights and duties of its own. Islam has an unrivalled ability to compensate for what is lacking in modern experience. Syyed Qutb preached impossibility of compromise between Islam and the world of ignorance. Scruton says that Islam originally spread through the world on the wings of military success. Islam appears, both in the eyes of its followers and in the eyes of the infidel, to be a single religious movement united around a single goal. (Stone, 2002) finds that within Islamic crescent political Islam has grown a response to social, economic, and political discontent and dislocation to modernization. Islam is both a religion and a culture. Unfortunately, this aspect is neglected in popular discussion of Islam. Islam must answer to progressives, reactionaries, socialists and capitalists, but in itself, it cannot be reduced to any one of them. Islam provides a code of law and thus, is capable of legitimizing a political authority. Popular culture should be countered through knowledge and western culture through jihad. (Najjar, 2005) finds that Islamists view globalization as a new dawa for the elimination of the boundaries between Dar-al-Islam (Domain of Islam) and Daral Kufr. It is impossible, they assert, to merge the Muslims and the infidels in the same category in the name of globalization, ‘unity of religions,’ ‘world peace,’ ‘democracy’, or ‘secularism’ because Muslims aer one nation, distinguished from all others by a true Islamic doctrine, a perfect law, a culture and a system of morals. Arab intellectuals insist that globalization will smoother the peculiarities of Arab national culture and undermine Islamic morality and lead to cultural homogenization. Globalization means the removal of Islam from thought and action, so that Muslims become subordinated to the West. Human rights, freedom, and democracy are rationalizations of the power and interests of western nations. (Alatas, 2005) says that there is a need to understand the media as a producer instead of a mere transmitter of news, with the ability to
influence views and opinions. Media is imposing grievances on Islam and Muslims. Western media is biased as far as Islam is concerned. (Nasr, 2005) concludes that the rise of Muslim Democracy suggests that political change will precede religious change. Muslim Democracy is a nascent force about which much remains to be learned. Democracy is the product of Islamic Reformation. Muslim Democracy will bring more liberal thought and practice. (Abu-Rabi, 2006) concludes that in south Asia, such thinkers and activists as Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Amir Ali, Maulana Abu-al Kalam Azad, and others represented the project of Islamic modernism. In Southeast Asia, most notably in Indonesia, the Muhammdiyyah organization and its founder, Muhammad Dahlan, represented the project of Islamic modernism. Major features of Islamic modernism were the revival of rational elements in the Islamic traditions, finding Islamic solutions to the challenges of the West, embracing the philosophical and scientific features of modernity, constructing new academics and religious institutions to meet the challenges of modernity. Islamic modernism paved the way for the foundation of nation-state in the modern Muslim world. In Pakistan, Islamic modernism has raised the sentiments of nationalism. The Aligarh movement produced a generation that sought accommodation Islamic tradition and western modernity. Jamat-i-Isalami’s main view is Islamization of state through political and intellectual agenda, in which it has failed. There is no doubt that both State and Islamism have exploited religion to advance and/or protect certain political and economic interests. (Marcotte, 2006) concludes that the disintegration of Ulema, the lost of the primacy of Arabic as lingua franca, the replacement of the traditional system of education with a western educational system, and the introduction of a western political system and institutions are responsible for the decline of Islamic scientific tradition. Modern science is uprooted from theological metaphysics. In order to develop
technologically, Muslims should work on science according to Islamic metaphysics and thus to produce Islamic science. (Turner, 2007) concludes that with the current revival of Islam, the Chinese emphasis on modernization often means that the traditional religious buildings and sites are must be razed to the grounds. The principle challenge for Islam in the new global environment is how to sustain an Islamic identity in the context of modernization, the secular state and multiculturalism. In western popular literature, journalism, and public opinion, radical fundamentalism, Islam and terrorism are often regarded as undifferentiated political movements. Islam has also become a problem of state security. The west can accept Islam provided it conforms to the western liberal model. Revival of Islam involves profound changes in law, politics, and economics and poses challenges to existing state structures. (Voll, 2007) concludes that both Islam and Democracy are compatible or not, depends upon the definitions of Islam and Democracy. There are diverse opinions; some thinkers say that democracy is compatible; others say that democracy is incompatible to Islam. Democracy is the modern ideology of political unbelief, according to Kalim Siddiqui. Elie Kedourie holds a view that the idea of representation, elections, and parliamentary assembly is alien to the Muslim tradition. Al-Fanjari says that what is called freedom in Europe is exactly what is defined in our religion as justice. (Bushra, 2000) found that the economic issue was addressed in these magazines but the frequency of such articles was low. However, qualitative research showed clarity of expression to replace the current banking system. Quantitative findings on the social issues revealed the same results as economic issues. Findings on the revival of Islam revealed that scholars lacked planned directions. On the issue of Muslim world, findings revealed that scholars are blaming west for their misery and stressing less on their internal problems. Main focus
of the magazines has been on obituaries, historical accounts of the personalities belonging to that particular school of thought, book reviews and party activities. Findings revealed a predictable message to do jihad but to achieve what, was missing. (Imran Baig, 2004) concludes that religious scholars are not fully attending to the task of reconstruction of Islamic society. Tarjuman-alQuran is a representative of a religious political party and has a clear concept of revival of society. It has the view that Muslims should enter politics. Mohaddis has a view that there should be Islamic reforms. Findings revealed that main focus of these magazines was on obituaries, historical accounts of personalities belonging to that particular school of thought. (Amina Cheema, 2007) concludes that there is a great impact of religious magazines on our youth. Young minds that used to read these religious magazines not only instigated towards jihad but also misguided about the teachings of jihad. Ulamas are rigid about Islamic concepts. These magazines hypnotize against state. people who read these magazines. These magazines are virus. They are providing rebel
Holy Quran and Ahadith provide guidelines for the preaching and communicating of Islam. Holy Quran and Ahadith clearly state that
what to preach and how to preach. These guidelines are interpreted and explained in the exegesis of Holy Quran and Ahadith. Here are the Quranic guidelines and teachings about Da’wa. Do you enjoin the righteousness upon mankind and you forget yourselves, while you recite the Scripture. Have you then no sense. (Al-Baqrah 44) Ibn Kaseer writes the interpretation of this verse under the heading “Special Orders to Communicators of Religion”. Here we should keep in mind that what is criticized here is to orders others to do right deeds while not practicing it, not the act of ordering to do right deeds itself. To say to do right deeds is a virtue in itself, also a duty. Nevertheless, one oneself should practice it. To say to do right deeds is one duty and to do right deeds is another duty. One duty should not be abandoned if second is not fulfilled. If both duties are abandoned, then there is double punishment. The scholar who teaches virtues to other but himself not practice it, is like a lamp. Allah will not be as strict to ignorant as to scholars. Ignorant and scholar are not equal. It is proved that Tableegh (communication of Islamic principles) is a duty of Ulema. But the important question is what should be the proper way? Where, to whom and in what way communication should be done? These are the important questions. Prophet’s method was address to individual. Now a day, scholars say that we should benefit from the opportunity of mass media. Islam was preached through interpersonal communication and face-to-face communication. Now Islam is completed; the task of Da’wa is still there. The question is what would be Da’wa and how? Holy Quran syas, Call (O Muhammad) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is better. Indeed, your Lord knows best of him who has gone astray
from His way, and He is best Aware of those who are guided. (An-Nahl 125) Wisdom and exhortation does not meant that people’s mistakes and deviations should be ignored or undervalued mere to win their opinions and support. Whatever the reality is should be communicated without any fear. So proclaim that which you are commanded, and withdraw from the idolaters. (Al-Hijr 94). But to proclaim Da’wa to Muslim community is not like the community of idolaters. Today their place has been filled with governmental and political powers. If a government is not working according to Shari’ah and they are not willing to implement Shari’ah. Holy Quran guides us what we should do in this situation. Most of the Islamist parties for the revival of Islam are striving through democratic process. But the replacement of democracy through democracy is illusion. To damage a constitution by abiding by the constitution is self-contradictory. Enemy of Islam will never agree to enforce Islam easily. The alternative is jihad. Permission is given to those who fight because they have been wronged. And indeed Allah is Able to give them victory. (Al-Hajj 39). Muhammad Qutb analyses that sanctions to Ulama to fight is applicable only when some necessary conditions are fulfilled. o When there is clear dispute between Islam and Kufr. o Legitimacy of Power o Concrete home work for social support o Wide circle of supporters o Sincere members of the League It should be clearly distinguished to the callers of Da’wa that all the laws other than Shari’ah all null and void. Even minor acceptance of
these laws is pollutant for Faith. At this time some agree while others disagree on the methodology through which Islam will be revived. They are judging the situation. Is it the judgment of the time of (pagan) ignorance that they are seeking. And Who is better than Allah for judgment to a people who have firm faith. (Al-Maidah 50) At least the preachers of Islam should be clear that all the laws are derived from Shari’ah, Shari’ah itself refutes all others sources and all other laws. Why should we choose from other systems? Our Shar’ah is complete. No other piece of law can be grafted in this Shari;ah. The law that is not derived from Shari’ah, their obedience and application and acceptance is Kufr. It is the duty of Muslims to fight against all such laws. Ibn Kathir writes in his famous Tafseer under the interpretation of above Holy Verse: It is Jahiliyah to derive laws from one’s own analogy, outside of Shariah. They, who derive laws against Shari’ah as per their wishes, are Kafir and against them Jihad is Wajib. This is because they should return to Shari’ah and follow Sunnah in all the affairs no matter how minor and slight the affair is. Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Vol.2, p.82 More or less this situation is present completely in the Muslim world. However, jihad is postponed by Ulema. It is postponed on the claim that it is not possible. To make it possible, Ulama should get the masses informed about real Islamic principles. This postponement is legitimate only in the situation if they are working to change society to return to Islam. No Imam and Jurisprudent of Islam has talked about democracy. Now a majority of Muslims believe it Islamic. Ulama should teach that Democracy is illegitimate. Right deeds should be dome through right path. They should tell that Shari’ah is not a choice but a duty. For this purpose, social change is necessary.
Social change means the above rule of Islam should be communicated to the masses. Not only communication but the masses should be saturated to the degree so that they are willingly ready to quit the bad habits. To exert social influence, Muslims need the reminders of their collective duties. These guidelines are provided in the Holy Quran. • And it is not for a believing man, nor a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter (for them), that they should (thereafter) have any option in their matter. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then certainly he has strayed in error manifest. (Al-Ahzab 36)
Many of the people of the Scripture wish if they could turn you back as disbelievers after your belief. Out of envy from their own selves, after the truth has become manifest to them. So forgive and overlook, until Allah brings His command. Indeed, Allah has power over all things. (Baqrah 109)
These are the limits (ordained by) Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah, then it is those who are the wrongdoers. (Al-Baqrah 229)
Beautified for mankind is love of that they desire of women, and sons, and heaped up sums of gold, and silver, and horses branded, and cattle, and tilled land. That is enjoyment of the life of the world. And Allah, With Him is the excellent return. (AlImran 14)
You are the best nation raised up for mankind. You enjoin to right, and forbid from wrong, and you believe in Allah. And if the People of the Scripture had believed, it would have been better for them. Among them are believers, and most of them are disobedient. (Al-Imran 110)
If any good happens to you, it grieves them, and if any misfortune befalls you, they rejoice at it. And if you are patient
and fear (Allah), their plot will not harm you at all. Surely, Allah is surrounding that which they do. (Al-Imran 120)
And do not have intimate relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf (confining yourselves) in the mosques. These are the limits by Allah, so approach them not. Thus does Allah make clear His verses to mankind that they may become righteous. (Al-Baqrah 187)
believe, obey Allah, and obey the messenger
(Muhammad), and those who are in authority among you. Then if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if you are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more commendable in the end. (AlNisa 59)
And indeed, there is among you he who lingers behind, then if a disaster befalls you, he says: “Indeed, Allah has been gracious to me in that I was not present with them.” (Al-Nisa 72)
So let those fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter. And whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killedor gets victory, We shall bestow upon him a great reward. And what is (the matter) with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and those weak among men, and the women, and the children who say: “Our Lord, take us out from this town the people of which are oppressors. And appoint for us from Yourself a protecting friend, And appoint for us from Yourself a helper. . Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of evil ones. So fight against the friends of the devil. Indeed, the plot of Satan is ever weak. Have you not seen those to whom it was said: “Withhold your hands, and establish prayer, and pay the poor due,” Then when fighting was ordained for them, behold, a party of them feared men as they feared Allah, or even greater fear.
And they say: “Our Lord, why have You ordained upon us fighting. If only You had given us respite for a short period.” Say (O Muhammad): “The enjoyment of this world is little. And the Hereafter will be better for him who fears (Allah). And you will not be wronged (even as much as) the husk on a date-stone.” (Al-Nisa 74-77)
Allah, there is no god except Him, the ever Living, the Sustainer of all that exists. (Al-Imran 2) You will certainly find the most intense of people in hostility to those who believe, (to be) the Jews and those who associate others (with Allah). And you will certainly find the nearest of them in affection to those who believe, (to be) those who say: “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks, and because they are not arrogant. (Al-Maida 82)
Surely, His is the creation and the command. (Al-Aaraf 54) Those who, if We give them authority in the land, establish prayer and give charity and enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong. And with Allah rests the outcome of (all) matters. (AlHajj 41)
And if the truth had followed their desires, truly the heavens and the earth and whoever is therein would have been corrupted. But We have brought them their reminder, then they from their reminder turn away. (Al-Mouminoon 71)
And the slaves of the Beneficent are those who walk upon the earth humbly. And when the ignorant people address them, they say: “Peace”. (Al-Furqan 63)
Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: “We believe, and they will not be tested.” And certainly, We have tested those who were before them. Thus Allah will surely
make evident those who are truthful, and He will surely make evident (those who are) the liars. (Al-Ankaboot 2-3) • • They know what is apparent of the life of the world, and they are heedless of the Hereafter. (Ar-Room 07) Corruption has appeared on land and sea because of (the evil of) what the hands of people have earned, that He may make them taste a part of what they have done, that perhaps they may return. (Ar-Room 41) • Allah puts forth a similitude, a man belonging to many disputing partners, and a man (belonging) exclusively to one man. Are the two equal in similitude. Praise be to Allah. But most of them do not know. (Al-Zumr 29) • Indeed, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah.” Then remain upright, the angels will descend upon them (saying): “Do not fear, nor grieve, and receive the good tidings of Paradise which you have been promised.”(Hameem Al-Sajdah 30) •
And I have not created the jinn and the mankind except that they should worship Me. (Al-Zaariat 56) That which Allah gave as booty to His messenger from the people of the townships, it is for Allah, and for the Messenger, and for near relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarers, so that it does not become commodity among the rich of you. And whatever the Messenger gives you, so take it, and what he forbids you from, refrain. And fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is severe in punishment. (Al-Hashr 7)
you who believe, do not take My enemies and your enemies as friends, extending towards them affection while they disbelieved in that which has come to you from the truth. They drive out the Messenger and you because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have come forth to strive in My way and seeking My good
pleasure, you show them affection secretly, and I know of what you have concealed, and what you have declared. And whoever does so from among you, then he has indeed gone astray from the right way. If they gain the upper hand over you, they will be enemies to you and will extend against you their hands and their tongues with evil, and they wish that you would disbelieve. Al-Mumtahina 1-2 • He it is who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth that He may manifest it over all religions, however much the idolaters may dislike. O you who believe, shall I tell you of a bargain that will save you from a painful punishment. You should believe in Allah and His Messenger, and should strive in the cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives. That is better for you if you only knew. (Al-Saff 9-11) • And they were not commanded except to worship Allah, (being) sincere to Him in religion, true (in faith), and to establish the prayer, and to give the poor-due. And that isthe true (and right) religion. (Bayyinah 5) On the above mentioned Quranic guidelines it is clear what to preach and how to preach.
METHODOLOGY The interpretation of religious text is a serious and sensitive task. It demands extensive knowledge of the established principles and guidelines. My task is not to interpret the holy verses of the Holy Quran or Ahadith. I am going to interpret the interpretation and doing comparison of different interpretations. In religious journals, every
scholar tries to deduce laws and principles from the holy scriptures. Veteran and trained scholars may feel no difficulty in doing this but others fail to follow the principles and misinterpret the text. Unintentional mistakes are natural in this process. However, some scholars do this intentionally to corrupt the body of knowledge. Ghulam Ahmad Pervez and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad are the best examples of this. Since I am not authorized to do direct interpretation of religious journals, I’ll do it with the help of three famous exegeses of the Holy Quran: Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Maarif-ul-Quran by Mufti Muhammad Shafi, and Taiseer-ul-Quran by Abdurr Rehman Kelani. Tafseer Ibn Kathir is a standard commentary among all the commentaries of the Holy Quran. Maarif-ul-Quran is also a standard commentary because it uses all the authentic commentaries as citation and source. Taiseer-ul-Quran is the most standard commentary of the Holy Quran. The reason for the selection of these commentaries is that these are written in simple language that is much easy to understand and translate; authentic scholars of Islam consider these commentaries. The five journals cover diverse topics about Islam and the contemporary world. I am not going to analyze all sorts of topics discussed in these journals but a few issues and viewpoints. I’ll not discuss the sectarian debates and Fiqhi differences, if there are, because it is established that Muslims follow different Fiqh and all of them are held true to certain extent. Then there are excellences (Fazayil) of different Islamic values and traditions; there are attributes, obituaries, book reviews and historical and political articles, I will not discuss them. I will choose only those articles, viewpoints, and statements that are directly related to Nasus (authentic and final commandments) about Islamic teachings. Democracy, media, women’s issues, Islamic banking, Human Rights, and Jihad are most commonly debated topics.
These topics are of my focus. However, I will also discuss those separate issues that are not common among all the journals but bear being novel to Islamic teachings such as the Issue of liberalism, modernism, secularism, terrorism. I will try to find out the differences among these journals and the peculiarity from mainstream Islam. The method of my work is that I will state the stance of a journal on a specific issue with supporting arguments for that issue. If arguments contain a holy verse from Quran, I will present the commentaries I have selected for that holy verse to judge the weight of the argument. In the case, there is no holy verse but a Hadith or historical quotation, then I will check the reference whether provided or not. The standard method to quote from a Hadith is that the Arabic text and complete reference is provided with the translation in Urdu religious texts. Mere translation of Hadith or holy verse is discouraged. Therefore, if the case is not this, the argument will be considered suspicious. The third case is that there is no holy verse, no Hadith, no historical reference but a mere personal statement; then, I will analyze the logical validity of the statement presented in the light of Holy Quran and selected commentaries. Generally, these types of statements are passed in the question answer section of the journals. At this point, I will also present the counter-argument, if there is any, from other selected journals and beyond that. Statistical analysis and calculations are not important because the frequency of statements merely shows the intensity of a belief but the position is same. Another aspect to find out the line of difference of consensus among the journals is the status of Muslim Ummah. For this purpose I will present the opinions of the journals regarding the challenges to Ummah, problems of Ummah and causes of decline and the solutions or suggestions provided by them.
Final aspect of analysis is the identification of logical contradictions in the writings of these journals. Contradictions and opposing statements confuse the reader and become fatal for true believers. This angle of study is based on critical examination of the whole volumes of these journals. The advantage of this methodology is that the standard scales are fixed forever. Holy Quran is there, collection of Hadith and commentaries are there. Anyone can use them carefully to check the validity of the opinions of any scholar.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter the researcher analyses theses journals applying his methodology as explained in the previous chapter.
Bayyinaat is the monthly journal of Jamia Banuri Town. It belongs to Deobandi school of thought. Moulana Saeed Jalal Puri (now late) is editor of this journal. Generally, Ulama write for this journal but queries and the articles of other writers are also accepted. A council of Ulama gives the answers of the questions. This journal is the representative of Jamia Banuri Town. Its mission is social change,
purification of Muslims, to spread teachings of Islam, defending Ulama and covering the Fitnas. It is published from Karachi.
1. Pakistani constitution is not Islamic.
It supports this statement with the following arguments: • • • • •
Islam is not superior in every state matter. No belief, value, principle and law of Islam is protected constitutionally. Courts are not bound to Shariah. Islamic Penal code is not operative. Muslims are not bound to fulfill their Islamic duties. There is no punishment for the negation of Islam.
2. Democracy and elections are un-Islamic. No argument supports this stance. However, in the favor of Caliphate, the following verse is quoted without reference. And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then it is those who are the disbelievers. This holy verse is from Surah Al-Maidah, 44. Holy Verse 45 and 47 of this Surah also narrate the related statements. Ibn Kathir writes the interpretation of this holy verse in this way: “Although this verse is revealed for the Jews and Christians but Muslims are also have to follow this divine order. Ibn Masood (R.A) said that bribery is prohibited and any Fatwa against or judgment against the Shariah in case of bribery is manifest Kufr. Sadi said that he who gave a decision against revelation, knowing that it is against Shariah, is a Kafir, in case of Jews an oppressor and in case of Christians a corrupt. Ibn Abbas said that the person doing against this verse is negating this verse.
Tauoos said that he is not a Kafir like the one who negates Islam. Atta said that he is excluded from Muslim Ummah.” Mufti Shafi deduced the following five injunctions from the holy verses 44 to 50:
the initial verses
that the case
brought to the Holy Prophet by the Jews was decided by him. The decision was in accord with the Shari'ah of the Torah. This proves that the religious injunctions in force in the previous Shari'ahs remain in force until abrogated by the Holy Qur'an or Divine Revelation as it was in the cases of the Jews where the injunction concerning equality in Qisas (Law of Retaliation) and stoning to death (Rajm) in punishment of adultery (Zini) was there in the Torah as well. Then, the Quran too retained it as it was.
Similarly, in the second verse (45), the Holy Prophet
enforced the injunction of Qisas about the Retaliation for Wounds, which has been mentioned with reference to the Torah, in Islam. On this basis, the rule of procedure with the majority of the 'Ulama of Islam is that injunctions of previous Shari'ahs which have not been abrogated by the Quran are valid, enforceable and obedience-worthy in our Shariah too. That is why, in the cited verses, the people of the Torah have been asked to decide, judge and obey in accordance with the Torah and the people of the Injil have been asked to decide, judge and obey in accordance with the Injil though both these Books and their Shariahs stand abrogated after the appearance of the Holy Prophet. The outcome is that the injunctions of the Torah and InjIl, which were not abrogated by the Qur’an, are obedienceworthy even today.
The third is
injunction which is
stands proved from the injunctions and Kufr (disbelief in
that ruling contrary to
revealed by Almighty Allah
rejection of Faith) under some conditions specially when it is combined with belief in its being not true. And under some conditions, it is Zulm (injustice) and Fisq (disobedience, sin) - when belief-wise, one does accept them as true, but, in practice, does what is contrary to it. 4. The fourth injunction, which appears in these verses, is that taking bribe is absolutely Haram (unlawful) specially, the taking of bribe in a judicial case, which is far too grave. 5. The fifth injunction, which emerges clearly from these verses, is that all prophets, may peace be upon them, and their Shari'ahs agree in principle, but there is that difference in minute and subsidiary injunctions with them - a difference which is based on considerations of great wisdom. Maulana Kailani interpreted these verses as under: Although this Holy Verse address the Jews but it is also applies to the Muslims. Whoever takes decision against shariah and divine orders, commits Kufr. 3. Jihad is forever. No reference or argument supports this stance. 4. Islamic banking is illegitimate. It is argued that Islamic banking is not different from capitalist banking which is based on interest. On this principle, Islamic banking is illegitimate and any kind of job in these banks is prohibited. In August 2008, more than 32 Ulama of Pakistan issued a unanimous Fatwa of 390 pages that Islamic baking is illegitimate. They extensively worked on the issue and supported the Fatwa with many
kind of arguments. I am mentioning the only two instances, which Ulama stated as against Shariah. Expenses: The bank may, without any further express authorization from the customer, debit any account of the customer maintained with the Band for: (i) All expenses, fees, commissions, taxes, duties or other charges and losses incurred suffered or sustained by the Bank in connection with the opening/operation/maintenance of the Account and/or providing the services and/or for any other banking service with the Bank may extend to the Customer. (ii) The amounts of any or all losses, claims, damages, costs, charges, expenses or other amounts which the Bank may suffer, sustain or incur as a consequence of acting upon the instructions. Account Form "All funds deposited in the account to be opened pursuant to this application. and all transactions in relation theretro will be governed by the Terms and Conditions for Accounts and Services, Policies of Meezan Bank Ltd. and all laws, regulations,rules, decrees, by-laws, applicable to Meezan Bank Ltd. Including regulations, directions and circulars, issued by the State Bank of Pakistan and all amendments that may be made from time to time to all or any of the above. I/We agree to provide any documents requested by Meezan Bank Ltd.... [etc.] 5. The Appearance of Ulama on T.V channels is not good. This is also a Fatwa attached with the Fatwa on Islamic baking. 6. Human Rights are un-Islamic. There is no supporting argument. 7. Grafting of Human limbs is un-Islamic. It is argued that man is not the owner of his body so he cannot donate his limbs. It is said that amputation of limbs and organs is prohibited in Ahadith. Ahadith and opinions of Ulama are quoted with complete references. 8. Pakistani Government is not Islamic government. It is a statement; no argument supports this. However, the arguments presented on the issues of constitution and Democracy are enough to
support this statement. Moreover, Surah Al-Asr is mentioned in this regard so we will see the interpretation of this Surah. Ibn Kathir writes that: Man is in loss except those who have good faith, do virtues, and advise others to do the good deeds and to do virtues. Muslims should advise each other to do right deeds and forbid each other to do wrong ones. Mufti Shafi stated that: This Surah lays down the important principle of guidance for the Muslims that inviting other Muslims to keep to the true faith and good deeds is as much necessary as their own submission to the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Without sincere efforts, to the best of one’s ability, to invite others to the right path, one’s own good deeds are not enough to one’s salvation. Especially, if a person does not take care of the spiritual and moral welfare of his wife, children and family and turns a blind eye to their unrighteous deeds, he is blocking his way to salvation - no matter how pious he himself might be. Therefore, the Quran and the Sunnah make it obligatory upon every Muslim to do his best to invite others to the good deeds, and warn them against the evil acts. Unfortunately, let alone the public, many learned people are lax in this matter. They think it is sufficient for them to be concerned about their own moral and spiritual well-being. They are not concerned about the well-being of their family and children. May Allah grant us the ability to act upon this verse! Maulana Kailani writes that: This Surah reveals that Islam gives due importance to collective social life. Individuals must do right deeds and advise others to do the same.
Contradictions In the May Issue, it is said that Pakistani government is not an Islamic government and Pakistani constitution is un-Islamic. In the same article, it is said, “Jihad must be announced by the Government.” If the government is not Islamic, how can it announce Jihad? This stance means government should announce Jihad against itself.
Tarjumanulqran is the representative journal of religio-political party, Jamat-e-Islami. It is published from Lahore. Prof. Khorsheed Ahmed is editor. Its mission isTableegh, Moral improvement, and Nifaz-e-Islam. 1. Islam can be implemented only through Democracy, there is no other way. There is no logical argument to support this stance even the nature of Democracy. 2. Muslims and non-Muslims have similar citizen rights and this is actually a religious pluralism. There is no reference and argument to support these two positions. 3. Girls can watch cricket matches and T.V dramas. No reference from Islamic scriptures is provided in this regard.
4. There is no candidate, no election campaign regarding the selection of Ameer in Jamaat-e-Islami. Why Jamaat-e-Islami is not following the democratic rules in its internal matters while promoting democracy in its journal and practicing it in politics? This is a contradiction. 5. Islam gives Democracy as a political system. Following arguments support this stance: I. Ruler is to be chosen according to the will of people. II. Its different models should be experimentally tested. There is no evidence and proof that these two principles are the teachings of Islam. If these two are the Islamic teachings or rules then it must be stated anywhere in Quran and/or Hadith, but journal provides nothing. 6. Allah has created man to conquer the universe. No argument supports this stance. Following Verses from the Holy Quran negate this statement: And they say: Allah hath taken unto Himself a Son. Be He glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the heaven and the earth, His. All are subservient unto Him. (Al-Baqrah 116) Lo! your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then mounted He the Throne. He covereth the night with the day, which is in haste to follow it, and hath made the sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command. His verily is all creation and commandment Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the Worlds! (Al-Aaraf 54) And he hath constrained the night and the day and the sun and the moon to be of service unto you, and the stars are made subservient by His command. Lo! herein indeed are portents for people who have sense. (Al-Nahl 12) Hast thou not seem how Allah hath made all that is in the earth subservient unto you? And the sap runneth upon the sea by His command, and He holdeth back the heaven from falling on the earth unless by His leave. Lo! Allah is, for mankind, Full of Pity, Merciful. (AlHajj 65) So We made the wind subservient unto him, setting fair by his command whithersoever he intended. (Saad 36) He it is Who hath made the earth subservient unto you, so walk in the paths thereof and eat of His providence. And unto Him will be the resurrection (of the dead). (Al-Mulk 15) 7. Islamic banking is becoming popular and developing.
There is no discussion about the legitimacy of Islamic Banking. It is said that HSBC and Deutsche Bank are initiating this Banking. It is taken for granted that these capitalist banks are promoting interest free banking. A reader responds, in the next Issue that “there is disagreement among Ulama on the issue of Islamic banking; it must be made clear to the readers.” 8. Beauty parlor training and business is allowed. No argument supports this stance. Moreover, the readers, in the next Issues in the following words criticize this stance: “It is not a legitimate business in Islam. Many beautician techniques are strictly prohibited in Ahadith, such as to make eyebrows, facial threading, and make-up. How can you legitimize it?” In September Issue, a reader says that “it is an act of ignorance and negation of Ahadith.” 9. TV dramas are full of glamour, vulgarity, fashion, and offensive ads. They are corrupting our youth and wiping out Islamic traditions. This point is contradictory to third point discussed previously. 10. The worst Democracy is better than the best autocracy. This argument supports the stance: Democracy means the sovereignty of Law, protection of Public interest, superiority of feelings and Will, sovereignty of the Parliament, freedom of judiciary and protection of fundamental (human) rights. No supporting evidence is provided ensuring that these characteristics of Democracy are deduced from Quran and Hadith. 11. Sovereignty belongs to Allah. His is the Sovereignty. There is no God save Him. How then are ye turned away? (Al-Zumar 06) This stance, support by the Verse of Holy Quran negates the above stance and is clearly contradictory to it. 12. The Ameer of Muslims must be elected by Majority votes. No evidence supports this stance. In addition, it is contradictory to point 04 discussed earlier.
Minhajulquran is the monthly journal of Minhajulquran. Allama Tahirul-Qadri is the founder of this Organization. It belongs to Barelvi school of thought. It is the representative of Minhajulquran. Its policy is to promote Minhajulquran and to capture the audience of Minhaj Movement. Its mission is “Reform of Islam, Sufism, and Peace.” Editor is Ali Akbar Qadri. It is published from Lahore. 1. This journal frequently uses pictures, even of young girls. 2. Hazrat Imam Hussein faught with Yazid because he converted Islamic system of Khilafat into Kingship. Yazid was not following democratic values, fundamental rights and political freedom, political freedom and Human rights. There is no historical reference or any argument from Holy Quran and Hadith to prove the stance.
3. To kiss foot and hands of respected ones is Sunnah. No reference is provided for this stance. 4. Surah Al-Kafiroon gives the right of religious freedom. Ibn Kathir writes in the commentary of this Surah; This Surah declares disapproval of the actions of nonMuslims and there is Commandment to worship only Allah purely. Although, the immediate addressee are Kafireen of that age but it is a universal declaration. Holy Prophet (PBUH) was advised by revelation to declare this annoyance. Every religion other than Islam is not accepted and denied. Mufti Safi writes: Ibn Ishaq reports from Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas & that Walid Ibn Mughirah, 'As Ibn Wail , Aswad Ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib and Umayyah Ibn Khalaf approached the Messenger of Allah and proposed a compromise to him to the effect that he should worship their idols for a year, and they would worship Allah for a year. [Qurtubi]. According to Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas &, as recorded in Tabarani, the pagans of Makkah proposed to the Messenger of Allah: "We shall give you so much of wealth that you will become the richest man in Makkah; we shall give you whichever woman you like in marriage; we are willing to follow and obey you as our leader on condition that you do not speak ill of our gods. If you do not agree to this, then let us agree that you worship our gods for a year and we would worship your God for another year". According to Abu Salih's report, Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas & narrates that the pagans of Makkah made the following proposal for compromise:
"At least touch some of our gods, we will believe in you." Upon this, Jibra'il descended with Surah Al-Kafiroon. This Surah is the Surah of disavowal from the actions of the pagans, and enjoins the Muslims to worship Allah alone to the exclusion of all forms of pagan worship. The Traditions cited above indicate that the pagans had made many proposals to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) & not once or in a single session, but on different occasions and in different sessions in the hope that at one time or another a compromise might be reached. Therefore, there was a need to respond to all the proposals definitely and decisively, and thus frustrate their hope once and for all. All these incidents might have taken place at different times and different places. The purport of the Surah is to prevent or prohibit any such compromise. In this Surah, the statements are repeated. The repetition has been explained in different ways by different authorities. Bukhari explains it thus: When two identical, or near identical, expressions occur side by side, many commentators interpret one of them as happening in the present time and the other as going to happen in the future time. Thus, there is no meaningless repetition. The second and the third verses refer to the present time, meaning 'I do not worship at the present time what you are worshipping, nor do you worship at the present time what I am worshipping'. That is, 'I believe in Oneness of Allah and worship Him only, whereas you believe in multiple gods and goddesses and worship them'. Verses [4 and 51 refer to the future time, meaning 'neither is there a possibility that I will ever worship what you are going to worship in the future, nor will you worship what I will persist in
worshipping.' In other words, 'I will persist in my belief of Divine Oneness and worship of Him and you will persist in belief of multiple gods and goddesses and worship of them'. Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi has preferred this interpretation in Bayanul-Qur'an, (and the translation given above is based on it.) However, he disagrees with Bukhar’s interpretation of the word din, which Bukhari interprets as 'the religion of disbelief and the religion of Islam' respectively, in verse  "For you is your faith, and for me, my faith" meaning the proposed compromise or peace agreement is not acceptable. I shall continue to follow my faith and you may go on following your faith, and suffer its disastrous consequences. In Bayanul-Qur'an, however, the word din has been interpreted as jazza, ‘retribution, or requital'. In this way, verses [2 & 31 show that the objects of worship are different from each other and verses [4&51 show the differences in the modes of worship. In sum, 'neither our objects of worship, nor our manner of worship, are commonly shared by us; they are different.' In this way, it is seen that there is no real repetition, because while the formal expressions might be identical or near identical, but deeper semantic meanings are different. The mode of worship was revealed to the Prophet by Allah and passed on to the Muslims through him. The pagan manner of worship is self-fabricated. Other commentators have interpreted the two sentences in a third way. According to them, the particle is retained in both places as a relative pronoun, and in both the sentence is taken as representing present tense. They in fact maintain that the repetition of the two sentences have
been used as a rhetorical device and employed by deliberate design to secure emphasis. Not every repetition is unpleasant or meaningless, even though the same idea may be reiterated by the same wording, as for instance in [94: 5-61(Undoubtedly, along with hardship there is ease. Undoubtedly, along with hardship there is ease) Verse  is the repetition of verse  and is deliberately reiterated to secure emphasis, as well as to reject outright the several proposals made on different occasions. Peace Treaty with Unbelievers is Permissible in Some Cases but not in Others Surah Al-Kafiroon dismisses out of hand the many proposals of compromise offered by the pagans and declares dissociation from them. However, the Holy Qur'an itself has said in [8:611] (And if they tilt towards peace, you tilt towards it." that is, enter into peace treaty with the infidels or pagans or non-Muslims. Moreover, when the Holy Prophet migrated to Madinah, he entered into peace treaty with the Jews. Therefore, some of the commentators have opined that Surah Al-Kafiroon has been abrogated. Their basic argument pivots around the verse (For you is your faith, and for me, my faith). They contend that this is apparently in conflict with the ordinances of jihad, but this is not true, because the verse does not guarantee, nor does it even permit, the infidels to maintain their infidelity. It simply means what is stated in [28:55] (For us, our deeds, and for you, your deeds), that is, as you sow, so shall you reap. In fact, the correct position held by the majority of the scholars is that this Surah is not abrogated. The proposals of compromise that were offered by the pagans at the time of the revelation of the present Surah
are still prohibited, and the peace treaties allowed by 8:61 or entered into by the Holy Prophet are still permissible. It is necessary to understand the circumstances and conditions of the treaty and take a proper decision accordingly. In one of his Traditions, the Holy Prophet laid down the general principle of peace treaty with the infidels and pagans, thus: (Every compromise is permitted except the one, which turns prohibited things into lawful and lawful things into forbidden.) If the various peace proposals made by the pagans are carefully analyzed, they were all certainly and definitely purported to mix elements of pagan beliefs and practices with Islamic beliefs and practices, thus creating confusion; and in some cases they required Muslims to renounce Islam [albeit temporarily] and commit themselves to paganism. Surah Al-Kafiroon denounces such treaties, and declares dissociation from paganism. Analyzing the peace pact with the Jews, on the other hand, it is seen clearly that it did not in any way require Muslims to denounce or renounce Islam, nor did it require them to mix elements of un-Islamic beliefs with the true faith. Islam is the religion that stands for tolerance, kindness, politeness and peace more than any other religion. However, all these ethical principles can be applied in the matters of human rights. There is no room for compromise in the matter of Divine Law or the basic tenets of Divine religion. Maulana Kailani writes: There is no tolerance and flexibility in the matter of Shirk. Islam forbids any tolerance in this matter.
5. Islam is a religion of Peace. No one is allowed to kill any Muslim or non-Muslim. Contradicting to it, the journal cites the Verse 12 from Surah Anfal; “When thy Lord inspired the angels, (saying:) I am with you. So make those who believe stand firm. I will throw fear into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Then smite the necks and smite of them each finger.” 6. This journal is devoted to interreligious dialogue and argues that it is permissible in the light of Quran. It supports this stance deducing from the Verse 64 of Surah Al-Imran. This Verse is, “Say: O People of the Scripture. Come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partners unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside Allah. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him)” Ibn Kathir writes the interpretation of this Verse in the following words: In this verse Jews and Christians are addressed to worship only one God. It is a preaching of Tauheed which means that Jews and Christians are warned that they should not worship the Cross or the Son. Mufti Shafi writes: This verse unfolds an important principle of Tabligh (Preaching) and Da’wah (Preaching Islam). The principle requires that a person, who desires to carry his call to a group, which holds beliefs and ideas different from his own, should follow a particular method. That method is to induce that group to unite only on what they both can agree to, for instance, when the Holy Prophet gave the Byzantine ruler, Heraclius the call to Islam, he picked up a particular point on which there was mutual agreement, i.e., on the Oneness of Allah Almighty. That invitation is reproduced below:
I begin with the name of Allah who is All-Merciful, Very Merciful. From Muhammad, servant of Allah, and His messenger: To Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor. Peace be on him who takes the right path. After that, I invite you to the call of Islam. Embrace Islam and be in peace. Allah will bestow upon you a twofold reward, but should you turn away, then, on you shall be the sin of your subjects. "O people of the Book, come to a word common between us and you that we worship none but Allah, that we associate nothing with Him and that some of us do not take some others as Lord instead of Allah." (Al-Bukhari) The statement, 'you be witness ...' in the last sentence of the verse teaches us a lesson, that is, should someone refuse to accept the truth, even after it has been proved clearly, then the proper course is to re- state one's own belief and conclude the conversation. Entering into further debate and verbal altercation is not appropriate. Maulana Kailani gives same commentary as Ibn Kathir does. Only Liberal based Rational interpretation of Islam is the correct interpretation. No evidence ensures the validity of this stance. It is a personal statement because no reference or principle is presented in support. 7. Holy Prophet (PBUH) constituted a democratic society based upon consultation. of Madinah. There There was were a grass root democracy. There were 50 elected member in the Parliament local bodies consisting 10 members each. Women also were a part of this Parliament. No historical reference, no Hadith, no Verse from Holy Quran is presented to prove the stance. Tahir-ul-Qadri says that he is the source of this information and you cannot find these statements in books. 8. Any killer of a non-Muslim citizen, he will go to hell. Those who are committing terroristic acts from Pakistan
and Afghanistan and claiming it is Jihad, they do not know what is Jihad. It is forbidden. No evidence supports this stance. It is the text of Tahir-ul-Qadri’s speech that is accommodated in the journal.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi is the owner of this journal. It is published from Lahore, Al-Mawrid organization. This journal belongs to Islahi school of thought. Modernism and reconstruction of religion is general theme of this journal. Editor is Khurshid Ahmad Nadeem with two assistant editors. 1. Democracy Ghamidi incites a part of holy verse from Holy Quran for the justification of Democracy. This holy verse is from Al-Shura, Chapter 42. And those who answer the call of their Lord and establish worship, and whose affairs are a matter of counsel, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them. (Al-Shura 38)
Ibn Kathir writes: Do not do the most important affairs without counseling. Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was advised by Allah to counsel Sihaba in most of the matters. Therefore, Holy Prophet did counsel on the occasions of Jihad so that Sihaba are pleased and contented. Similarly, when Hazrat (R.A) was wounded, he appointed a council of six Sihaba for the appointment of his deputy with their mutual consultation. This council unanimously chose Hazrat Usman (R.A) as their head (Ameer). Mufti Shafi writes: The word amr is applied for several shades of meaning in the Arabic language. In common usage, it refers to any saying or doing which is of great importance. It is also used to mean an injunction, order, command, rule or authority, the last one being what is meant in the Qur'anic expression. Then, the word is also applied to mean a particular attribute of Allah Almighty which finds mention in several verses of the Holy Qur'an, such as: (Beware, for Him alone is the creation and the command - 7:5?); (To Him the whole matter shall be returned - 11:123), (The whole thing belongs to Allah - 3:154); (His matter is upto Allah - 2:275) and according to authentic scholars, the use of the word, (Say: 'The spirit is by a command of my Lord') (17:85) carries the same meaning as identified in the verses appearing immediately above. As far as the meaning of the word, amr, in the Qur'anic verses (And consult them in the matter -3:159) and (And a matter of theirs is (settled) by a consultation between themselves -42:38) is concerned, it can be said that there is the possibility to assign both the first as well as the second. If it is said that the word has been used here in the first sense while the second meaning is inclusive therein, that would not be something far-fetched since affairs relating to command and authority are all very important. Therefore, the word, amr as used in the verses quoted immediately above means every matter or affair that is particularly important irrespective of whether it belongs to the area of authority or mutual dealings. The Arabic words, Shoora (counsel), m a s h w a r a h (consultation) and M u s h a u r a r a t (mutual consultation) mean the soliciting of advice and counsel in something that needs deliberation. Therefore, the expression in the present
verse means that the Holy Prophet has been commanded here to consult with or seek the advice of his noble Companions in matters that need deliberation, which include those of authority and government. The Status of Consultation in Islamic Law From the statements of the Holy Qur'an cited above and from related ahadtih of the Holy Prophet, it becomes clear that mutual consultation in a matter likely to have more than one opinion, whether it be related to the concerns of authority or to an issue other than that, is a sunnah of the Holy Prophet, and the noble Companions, and is a source of blessings in the mortal world and in the eternal life of the Hereafter. This view has the support of the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith. As far as matters that relate to people, such as the affairs of authority and government, are concerned seeking consultation in them is obligatory. Maulana Kailani writes: Consultation has the following main points: A). Consultation in individual matters such as the Holy Prophet (PBUH) counseled on the matter of Ifk. b). Consult with the person who is capable of this. Everyone is not necessary to be consulted. In collective matter, Ameer selects a Shoora for the purpose of consultancy. C). Consultation is allowed only in those matters about which there is not definite order in Quran and Sunnah. D). Consultation reveals all the aspects of the matter under consideration. Its main purpose is to reach at a valid and argumentative point. E). In Shoora everybody is free to express his opinion on the matter under consideration. F). When there are no opposing arguments or the opposing arguments come in logical balance then majority is given preference. The Selection of Ameer Majority of Ulama agree on that Ameer is not elcected or selected by consultation. This matter lies outside the range of consulatation. First argument is that this Surah is the Makki and at that time there was no concept of Islamic state. Second argument is that the Prophet is Ameer as well and he is not elected by consultation. Third argument is that none of the four Caliphs of Islam was selected by only one method. Hazrat AbuBakr was selected by a few companions in Madinah. Hazrat Umer was appointed by Hazrat Abu-Bakr. Hazrat Usman was selected by a committee of six members. Hazrat Ali was selected by the assassins of Hazrat Usman. It is clear that the selection of Ameer is not bound to the consultancy of masses.
2. Media There is no article about the legitimacy of media. 3. Islamic Banking There is no article on Islamic Banking. 4. Human Rights There is no article on Human rights. 5. Head Scarf for women Ghamidi says that there is no headscarf for women in Islam. He provides no reference for this statement. 6. Hijab of face and hands It is stated that the Hijab of face and hands is neither habitually nor religiously obligatory for Muslim women. A number of Ahadith and their interpretation supports this article. Important Ahadith are presented here and discussed. Ghamidi says that there is no need of Mehram for women when they travel for pilgrimage. His argument is that now time has been changed so these orders should be changed accordingly. 7. Denial of Holy Quran Ghamidi interprets the Holy verse of Holy Quran that contemporary Jews and Christians are our friends not enemies. O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk. (Al-Maidah 51) Ibn Katthir writes: Allah has prohibited the friendship of Jews and Christians. They cannot be friends of Muslims because they have malice for Islam and whoever will have soft corner for them will be one of amongst them. Holy Quran guides Muslims on other places in this matter.
O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for friends. Do ye give them friendship when they disbelieve in that truth which hath come unto you, driving out the messenger and you because ye believe in Allah, your Lord? If ye have come forth to strive in My way and seeking My good pleasure, (show them not friendship). Do ye show friendship unto them in secret, when I am best Aware of what ye hide and what ye proclaim? And whosoever doeth it among you, be verily hath strayed from the right way. (Mumtahina 1) There is a goodly pattern for you Abraham and those with him, when they told their folk; Lo! we are guiltless of you and all that ye worship beside Allah. We have done with you. And there hath arisen between us and you hostility and hate for ever until ye believe in Allah only save that which Abraham promised his father (when he said): I will ask forgiveness for thee, though I own nothing for thee from Allah Our Lord! In Thee we put our trust, and unto Thee we turn repentant, and unto Thee is the journeying. (Mumtahina 4) O ye who believe! Take not for intimates others than your own folk, who would spare no pains to ruin you; they love to hamper you. Hatred is revealed by (the utterance of) their mouths, but that which their breasts hide is greater. We have made plain for you the revelations if ye will understand. (Aale-Imran 118) 8. Hijab was only for the Wives of Holy Prophet (PBUH) Ghamidi mentions Surah Ahzab in this regard but does not provide the verse number, however, there is the Holy verse from Surah Ahzab which states that Hijab was not only the wives of Holy Prophet (PBUH). O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad). That will be better, that so they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful. (Ahzab 59)
Monthly Mohaddis represents Salfi school of thought. Islamic Research Council publishes it from Lahore. Its mission is to conduct dialogue transcending sectarian boundaries, to defend Islamic traditions, to secure Islam from invasions, to bring politics under the umbrella of Deen, to counter The Ignorance. Editor is Hafiz Hassan Madni. Policy is independent. 1. Relationships with non-believers and believers Muslims should love for Allah and hate for Allah. Jihad is enmity with non-believers and fundamental in Islam. Friendship with Jews and Christians is prohibited. Following Verses from Holy Quran supports this stance along with a number of Ahadith: O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk. (Al-Maidah 51) Ibn Kathir writes the commentary of this Verse as under: In this verse, Allah Almighty is prohibiting the friendship with non-believers because they are the opponents of Islam and have a special malice. They are friends of each other. One (from Muslims) who takes them as friends is one of them. Mufti Shafi writes:
Muslims can deal with non-Muslims in the spirit of tolerance, sympathy, goodwill, equity, justice, favour and kindness, almost everything within that line of conduct. In fact, they should do that for they have been taught to do that. But, what is not permitted is the kind of fast friendship and indiscriminating intimacy which may garble the distinctive hallmarks of Islam. This is the issue known as the 'Tark al- Muwdat' to refrain from deep (friendship) in Islamic terminology. The second principle stressed upon is that should the Muslims of any time and place shift away from the first principle stated above and develop an intimacy of this nature with non-Muslims, then, let them not be under the impression that their conduct could harm Islam in any manner whatsoever - because Allah Almighty has Himself taken the responsibility of seeing that Islam remains duly protected. It cannot be eliminated by anyone. However, if a set of people still go out of their minds, break the limits of Islamic modality of doing things and, let us presume, decide to leave the very pale of Islam, then, Allah will bring in another set of people who will uphold and establish the principles and laws of Islam. Once we know the positive and negative aspects in perspective, it becomes evident that the real friendship of a Muslim - deep, intense, profound and reliance-worthy - can only be with Allah, the Highest of the high, His Messenger, and with those who believe in them. Maulana Kailani writes: In general, Muslims can tolerate the non-believers in their social interactions, especially if they are Zimmi but they cannot be taken as trusted friends in any matter. Doing against this is the act of Kufr. O ye who believe! Choose not for friends such of those who received the Scripture before you, and of the disbelievers, as make a jest and sport of your religion. But keep your duty to Allah if ye are true believers. (Al-Maida 57) Ibn Kathir writes: In this verse, Muslims are advised not to take non-believers as friends. This rule might be strictly followed.
Mufti Shafi and Maulana Kailani’s commentaries for this verse agree the above commentary. O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith. Whoso of you taketh them for friends, such are wrong doers. (Al-Taubah 23) Ibn Kathir writes: Allah prohibits the friendships with non-believers irrespective they are fathers, mothers, sisters, daughters and sons. Mufti Shafi writes: These verses mention the merits of Hijrah and Jihad which require that one leaves his country, relatives, friends, companions, wealth and property, all in one stroke. As obvious, surrendering all these attachments is most difficult and painful. Therefore, the text disapproves of limitless attachment with these things and thereby prepares Muslim minds to welcome Hijrah and Jihad. It was said: those who believe do not take your fathers and your brothers as friends, if they prefer infidelity over Faith. And whoever from you has friendship with them, then such people are the wrongdoers. As for the need to maintain strong bonds of kinship with parents, brothers and sisters and other kinsfolk and to treat all of them generously, the Qur'an remains full of relevant instructions. But, this verse has made it very clear that each relationship has a limit. Every relationship out of these, whether that of parents and children or that of real brother and sister, has to be bypassed when it stands in competition with one's relationship with Allah and His Messenger. Should these two relationships come on a collision course on some occasion, then, the relationship that has to be kept intact is one's relationship with Allah and His Messenger. All relationships competing against it are to be ignored. Maulana Kailani’s commentary is same. O ye who believe! Choose not disbelievers for (your) friends in place of believers. Would ye give Allah a clear warrant against you? (Al-Nisa 144) Ibn Kathir writes: Allah prohibits friendship with non-believers. This act will result severe punishment from Allah.
Mufti Shafi writes: The sense of 'having become like them' can be explained either as: 'God forbid, if your own thoughts and feelings are such that you show your liking for and are satisfied with their expressions of disbelief, then, in reality, you too are a disbeliever (kafir), because liking kufr is nothing but kufr.' Otherwise, if that is not the case, 'being like them' would mean: 'By your participation in the activity of those who are busy hurting Islam and Muslims through their falsification of the Faith, you too, by your abetment of their conspiracy, have become, God forbid, like them.' Maulana Kailani writes: Allah forbids the friendship with non-believers. If anyone will take them as friends will bear loss in this world and hereafter. 2. Muslim states are not Islamic states. There are five reasons for this position: • Now there are nation-states. Nation-state concept is alien to Islam. Islamic state is a jihadist state because it widens to preach Islam • In democratic states, people are considered as citizens (autonomous) instead of subjects. Democratic state is the representative of people’s wishes. Democracy mean all the decisions and policies of state would be based on people’s wish and will. In this way, human wishes are the source of Good and Evil. Contrary to it, Caliphate is to bring people’s wishes under the constraint of Shari’ah. The more a democratic state, the more non-Islamic it is. • Islamic state means the social and structural dominance of Islamic concept of knowledge. Scientific epistemology is vanishing Islamic epistemology. Science means to conquer the nature according to human will to maximize satisfaction. Science means to be God. • Human Rights or constitution negate sovereignty means everybody has a right to determine Good and Evil, everybody is equal regarding his wishes, and everybody has a right to want whatever he wants. Human rights or constitution is opposite alternative to Quran. • Civil society is the opposite of religious society. All the states where Human Rights are protected are not Islamic states.
Constitution of 1973 is not Islamic because it can be changed by any amendment while Quran not. Above-mentioned stances are based on purely philosophical arguments. 3. Review of Ghamidi’s book ‘Meezan’. Writer criticizes the book on different religious grounds: • Ghamidi says that there are only ten qualities of man but there are many • Shari’ah introduced in the book is against Islam • It is a liberal edition of Islam • Ghamidi says that there are only 27 Sunnat. • Shari’ah do not determine Halal and Haram but human nature • In Shari’ah only four things are Haram • There is no jihad • Hazrat Eesa (A. S) are dead and they will not come again • Qurbani is not wajib Writer concludes that what is presented in this book is Christianity. Criticism is based on the quotations from original book and with a wide range of arguments from Hadith principles. 4. Islamic Banking This journal agrees with Bayyinaat on the issue of Islamic Banking. 5. Nafaz-e-Shari’ah Restoration of caliphate is the responsibility of Ulama. It is the solution to all our problems. Democracy is Kufr, but Ulama disagree how to demolish it. Logical contradiction: there is no doubt that Jihad is wajib against America, Britain, Israel, India and their Allies. In Pakistan, we will struggle peacefully. Contradiction: Pakistan is front line Ally of America. If war against her allies is wajib then why Pakistan is an exception? 6. Fallacies of Modernism Articles on Islamic Philosophy cover the following issues: • Justice mean to give right to anything according to it qualification. Islam tells us what the right of anything is. This right cannot be determined outside Islam. Islamic Shari’ah is the scale to measure everything; Shari’ah is Justice, in other
words. Every struggle for other system is rebellion against Allah. • Islam is human nature. Whatever commands Islam gives, is the demand of human nature. We cannot know our nature other than outside Shari’aj. • Humanism is antonym to Islam or religion. We are Muslims on the first place then humans. Humanity is accident of being Muslim. • Dominance of west is due to Evil that a majority of human beings has accepted and a good. • Freedom is the rejection of Abdiyat • Equality is the rejection of Tazkia-e-Nafs • Progress is the rejection of Allah’s Closeness • Humanism is the rejection of being a Muslim • Plurality of Goods is the rejection of Islam as The Good • Tolerance is the rejection of Amr bil Maru’f wa Nahi anil Munkar • Human Rights are rejection of Huquq-ul-Ibad • Human Rights are rejection of Morality • Human Rights are rejection of Islam as being The Truth • Human Rights are rejection of Amer bil-Maru’f wa Nahi anil Munkar Above-mentioned points are discussed purely on the philosophical grounds in the defense of Islamic epistemology, discovering fallacies of popular modern thought. 7. Democracy Democracy is not an Islamic concept. Shoora is appointed by caliphs not by votes. Caliphate can be transferred to other person, a deputy can be appointed by Caliph. Islamic government is defined as “A Government of Allah, for the Peace and Justice, by the Quran and Sunnah.” Articles present references from Islamic history and Ahadith.
Summarized analyses of the journals
Issues Media Islamic Banking View
Highly criticized or rejected Current banking system and Islamic banking rejected Human Rights criticized as being violated Rejected or opted only as tactic Wajib
Frequency (articles= 93)
%age= fx100/9 3
Human Rights Democracy Jihad
4 4 1
4.3% 4.3% 1.07%
Issues Views Frequency %age= Total articles: fx100/97 97
Democracy Media Human Rights Islamic banking Jihad
Islam gives Democracy as political system. Praised and necessitated Islam gives Human Rights Islamic banking is Islamic. No article
3 3 3 0
3.09% 3.09% 3.09% 0.0%
Issues Views Frequency %age= Total fx100/99 articles: 99
Human Rights Democracy
Actually given 5 by Prophet (PBUH) Actually developed Prophet (PBUH) Jihad prohibited 9 by is 13
Frequency ------------------------Total articles: 48
Human Rights Islamic Banking Media Jihad
Democracy is totally against Islam and a tool of modernism and captalism Human Rights are opposite and rejecting Islam Islamic banking totally rejected Criticized Wajib
5 2 3 1
10.42% 4.16% 6.25% 2.08%
Issues Views Frequency ------------------------Total articles: 44 %age= fx100/44
Democracy is Islamic Human rights No article Islamic No article banking Jihad No more jihad Media No article
5 0 0 1 0
11.36% 0.0% 0.0% 2.72% 0.0%
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
After reading all the journals in detail and by analyzing the text, the researcher summarizes the study in this way.
This journal presents authentic Islam. All the articles all logically and coherently presented. There are frequent quotations from the Holy Quran and Ahadith. Generally, Ulama write the articles. This journal has no sectarian bias although it clearly represents Deoband School of Thought. Its main focus is the purification of individual and society according to the preaching of Islam. It criticizes government and guides according to Islamic principles. It knows the responsibility of Ulama and urges them to do play their role. This journal clearly rejects media, Islamic Banking and educational system of Pakistan. This journal views Democracy as western model and rejects but adopts a dogmatic approach instead of epistemological style. It is the case with Human Rights, sometimes they are criticized and sometimes they are rejected. It is not clear to this journal whether Pakistan is an Islamic country with an Islamic
constitution or not. It presents mixed opinions. It gives primary stress on pure action and views Science and Technology as secondary options. It second main theme is to counter the strife or Fitna such as Qaydiyaniat. It defends Ulama and responds to critics in a forceful way. It views that decline of Ummah is due to the evil deeds of Muslims as they have turned back to Islam. It presents solutions from Islamic tradition to all of the evils. It demands Islamic state as an obligation of Muslims and solution to the problems. It expects that Islamization of society will change the situation.
This journal also presents authentic Islam. All the research articles are of a standard with frequent quotations from Quran and Hadith with Arabic text and full references. It presents more diversity because of its independent policy. This journal presents no sectarian elements although it belongs to Salfi School of Thought. Its focus is Islamic education, purification of individual and political guidelines according to Islamic teachings. This journal criticizes government and advises to turn to Islam. The journal believes in an inter-sectarian dialogue to solve the problems. This journal does not reject modern media although criticizes it. It agrees with Bayyinaat that Ulama should not appear on TV, Islamic Banking is illegitimate and digital video and pictures are illegitimate but provide some flexibility for ID Cards etc. it does not reject modern educational system clearly instead it gives full stress on Islamic education.
This journal is clearly and argumentatively says that constitution of Pakistan, its judicial system, and other democratic institutions are unIslamic and secular. It rejects Democracy and Human Rights, Equality and Tolerance, Freedom and Liberty as being Kufr. Contrary to it, this journal introduces Islamic concepts for these conceptions. This journal accompanies the Bayyinaat and counter the Strife or Fitna such as Modernism and Liberalism as presented by Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and Ghulam Ahmad Pervez, There are no book reviews and historical essays as other journals have. It pays attention to purification of individuals through Islamic education and provides political analyses with a unique style. It gives secondary value to Science and Technology for the dominance of Islam. It demands Caliphate, as does Bayyinaat.
This journal presents a mixture of Modern and Liberal Islam in a politicized manner. It presents Maudoodi’s Thought and is silent to every other school of thought. Its main focus is politics where it takes the position that Democracy is an Islamic system of government. It does not reject Human Rights and western educational system. It criticizes the existing educational only because there is not one system for all. Being a representative of a religious political party, it focuses the purification of individual but it speaks primarily to the members of the party. Political analyses of this article are not different from any mainstream journals and dailies. It presents an isolated position. It appreciates Islamic banking although knows that Ulama have issued a Fatwa against it. It appreciates media and adopts it as a modern and efficient tool for
communication of ideas. Islamic education attracts no special attention. This article calls towards Islam but not aware of modern western ideals. It knows only secularism as a challenge to Islam. It believes in parliamentary process to make this state an ideal Islamic state. Constitution and state is Islamic in the view of this journal. It views the equal participation of women in Hijab. Quranic Verses and Ahadith are quoted but often only Urdu translation without full references. Science and technology has equal importance. It views that Ummah is economically dependent due to lack stable Democracy. It says that worst Democracy is better than dictatorship. Queries are answered in each issue but by a single person not by a council of Ulama this is why sometimes readers are misguided.
This journal is highly Liberal and Modern explicitly violating some Islamic principles. It may be called a personality magazine due to primary coverage to Tehreek Minhaj-ul-Quran and Tahir-ul-Qadri. Although it represents Barelvi School of thought but sometimes, it appears from Qadri School of thought. Its focus is purification through mysticism and Reformation of Islam. Historical events and Ahadith are often presented without any reference and text. Main articles are the speeches of Tahir-ul-Qadri or excerpts from his books. This journal says that Democracy and Human Rights are guaranteed by Islam right form inception. In doing so, it frequently presents a sectarian biasness and criticizes other Ulama. Interestingly, it views west and western scholars as friends contrary to Muslim scholars.
Dialogue with Christianity, Birthday celebrations, Lamentations, Bible recitations in Churches and conferences in Norway and Denmark reveals a different Muslim scholar, Tahir-ul-Qadri. When the whole Ummah is protesting against blasphemous cartoons, he is receiving awards in Oslo. It adopts a harsh attitude towards Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan and calls them Kafir. It states that “Jihad is prohibited” and “Liberal interpretation of Islam is best”. There is no logical argument to prove Democracy, Human Rights, and Muslim-Christian Dialogue. Workshops for Sufi adherents and great stress on Sufism also isolate this journal from Major Muslim School of Thoughts. Reports about Tehreek Minhaj-ul-Quran and Tahir-ul-Qadri constantly cover more than ten pages in every issue. An in-depth study reveals the commercial nature of Minhajulquran and Tehreek Minhaj-ul-Quran and it project of Sufism.
This journal presents Ghamidi Fiqh. It is highly Modernist and in certain aspects secular. It denies accepted principles about Hadith and in this way, leads to Denial of Hadith. This journal presents exegesis of the Holy Quran in a different style borrowing references from Bible. It denies Jihad. It denies authentic and undoubted orders of the Holy Quran. This journal is promoting a new Islam very close no Islam. Rejecting Islam and violating authentic rules, this journal has no place in the religious journals. CONCLUSION Mohaddis presents authentic Islam in a radical style. Bayyinaat presents authentic Islam in conservative style. These two journals show some collaboration.
Tarjumanulquran presents Islam with a tune of Modernism and Liberalism in political style. Minhajulquran is presenting highly Liberal, Modernistic, and Reformist Islam. These two journals are isolated. Ishraq challenges and questions Islam instead of promoting Islam.
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Cheema, A. (2007). Impact of Religious Magazines on Youth. University of the Punjab, Lahore. Jameelah, M. (1966). Islam and Modernism. Lahore: Muhammad Yousaf Khan. Kurzman, C. (1999). Liberal Islam: Prospects and Challanges. Middle East Review of International Affairs , III (3), 11-19. Lewis, B. (January 2002). What Went Wrong? The Atlantic Monthly . Mamdani, M. (Jan/Feb 2005). Wither Political Islam. Foreign Affairs . Marcotte, R. D. (2006). Review of Islam and Science. Ars Disputandi . Najjar, F. (2005). The Arabs, Islam and Globalization. Middle East Policy , XII (3). Qutb, M. (2008). What Should be the Paradigm of Da'wa? (2nd ed.). (H. Kamal-ul-Deen, Trans.) Lahore: Eeqaz Publications. Rudnyckyj, D. (2009). Market Islam in Indonesia. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute , 183-201. Scruton, R. (2002). The Political Problem of Islam. The Intercollegiate Review . Stone, L. A. (2002). The Islamic Crescent: Islam, Culture and Globalization. Innovation , XV (2), 121-131. Turner, B. S. (July 2007). Islam, Religious Revival and the Sovereign State. The Muslim World , 405-418. Vali, N. (2005). The Rise of Muslim Democracy. Journal of Democracy , XVI (2), 13-27. Voll, J. O. (2007). Islam and Democracy: Is Modernization a Barrier? Religion Compass , I (1), 170-178. Taiseer-ul-Quran by Maulana Adur Rehman Kailani Tafseer Ibn Kathir Maarif-ul-Quran by Mufti Muhammad Shafi
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