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Theory of Modeling and Simulation 2nd Edition

Article · January 2000

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Bernard Phillip Zeigler Herbert Prähofer


The University of Arizona Johannes Kepler University Linz
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Tag Gon Kim


Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. SMC-9, NO. 1, JANUARY 1979 69

where An is the amplitude and wo, is the reference frequency. Chapter 2 this fact, provides theoretical background and methodological guidance
describes the PFM elements. In general, pulse-frequency modulators are necessary to develop models of various types of systems and to define their
nonlinear, which makes them difficult to treat analytically. However, interfaces with real systems and computers.
methods exist by which one can obtain a closed-form solution. In linear Another important fact in modeling derives from the definition of
modulation theory, the error is a function of the spectrum of the message, "model" given by Minsky: "An object A is a model of an object B for an
the transmitted power, and the noise (usually white) level. For a given observer C if C can use A to answer questions that interest him about B."
spectrum and noise level, the only way to decrease the mean-square error The central issue is "the questions that interest an observer about a
is to increase the transmitted power. PFM elements are simple to realize; system." This issue, extremely well elaborated by Zeigler, leads to the
they are reliable and light. In this chapter the authors deal with the general concepts of "experimental frame" and "partial models." The former char-
properties of PF modulators, amplitude-dependent PF modulators, sigma acterizes a limited set of circumstances under which the real system is to be
PFM and its mathematical description, integral PF modulators, PF mod- observed or experimented with. The notion of partial model is important
ulators of Types I and II, and components of the general PF modulator because a given system is going to be represented by a collection of
model. models, each of them having different scopes.
Chapter 3 discusses the state-space description of open and closed-loop The book consists of three parts and three appendices. Part one is an
PFM systems. In a closed-loop control system, the PFM controller informal and intuitive treatment of several concepts in modeling and simu-
usually precedes the plant. The topics covered in this chapter are descrip- lation and therefore can readily be grasped by people not having back-
tion of the PFM control system, application of phase variables, Jordan ground in system theories.
canonical state-variables, and solution of the state equations of PFM It covers informal description of models; the five elements in modeling
control systems in closed form. Chapter 4 deals with the problem of stabi- and computerized simulation: the system under investigation, the experi-
lity of PFM systems. After an overview, the Lyapunov stability theorem mental frame, the base model, the lumped model, and the computer;
and its extension to PFM systems is examined; stability theorems, asymp- methods of model simplification; concept of state and state variable
totic stability of the PFM closed-loop system, determination of stability properties; and formal specification of several types of models: autono-
regions, limit cycles, and computation of nonlinear oscillations are dis- mous, nonautonomous, continuous-time, discrete-time, significant event,
cussed in great detail. Lastly, Chapter 5 is concerned with the optimiza- deterministic, and probabilistic.
tion of PFM closed-loop control systems. Starting with the definition of Part two provides the necessary system theoretic concepts to under-
controllability for PFM systems, the chapter proceeds to deal method- stand the last part. It covers time base; trajectories; observations; iterative
ically with the existence of the optimal solution, controllable initial con- specification of systems: general concepts and specialization to differential
ditions in PFM closed-loop systems and fixed control-time, and the equation and significant event; specification of networks of sequential
modified maximum principle. machine, differential equation, or significant event systems; structured
An extensive bibliography with more than 100 references is included. system specifications; and hierarchy of preservation relations such as
From the standpoint of specific background, some knowledge of elemen- morphisms.
tary probability theory, linear algebra, and matrix theory will be required Part three, which is the formal part of the book, restates the contents of
of the student. With the exception of only a negligible number of typogra- the first part in terms of the system theoretic concepts presented in the
phical errors, the book is clearly and accurately produced. This book is previous part. It comprises a framework for modeling and simulation:
unique and invaluable to the reader who seeks an understanding of the fundamental postulates and general problems in modeling and simula-
theoretical as well as the practical aspects of pulse-frequency modulated tion; valid model construction and simplification by several types of dec-
control systems. omposition such as parallel, series, and feedback decomposition; model
approximation and error tolerance; state identification, validation, and
prediction; structural inference; simulation program verification and com-
plexity reduction.
Several examples are given in full detail throughout the book along with
methodological developments. The majority of the chapters end with sug-
gested problems and comprise several useful exercises.
TIheory of Modelling and Simulation-Bernard P. Zeigler (New York: Zeigler's book, which brings important "system" concepts to the finger-
Wiley-Interscience, 1976, 435 pp.). Reviewed by Tuncer I. 6ren, Depart- tips of the simulationist, is an excellent textbook for graduate or senior
ment of Computer Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, undergraduate level courses offered to provide the foundations of simula-
KIN 6N5. tion especially in interdisciplinary programs or in systems engineering or
computer science departments. It would also be highly desirable to have it
Zeigler's book is a drastic departure from about 300 books that exist on adopted in first simulation courses offered in other disciplines to eliminate
several aspects of simulation. Most modeling issues do not depend on the the tunnel vision in modeling that students otherwise tend to develop.
particular nature of the system under investigation. Zeigler, elaborating on Serious simulationists also will find the book very useful.

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