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ASQ Joint Dinner Event 1510 & 1515

Tropical Acres Restaurant

Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312
January 2018

Linda Linnus, MA / LSSBB / ISO 9001

How to pronounce it?

A really famous sports car has the same problem!

Do you pronounce it Kaizen or Kaizan? Which is it?
This Kaizen training includes three separate topics

Part 1 - Overview Part 2 - Execution Part 3 - Facilitation

• Kaizen Overview • Preparation and • Facilitation skills

Execution deep
• When to choose drive • Leading Teams
Kaizen over Lean • Idea Generation
or Six Sigma • Detailed Pre-
Planning and & discussion
• Kaizen Research phase • Tool selection
• Execution • Overcoming
• Team selection Roadmap roadblocks
• Principles • Post Kaizen • Project Mgmt.
• Lean Tools and steps (e.g.
Techniques Report out)
• Action Plan
Today’s “WHAT” -- Kaizen Overview

• When to choose Kaizen

• Pre-Planning
• Execution
• Post Follow-up
Kaizen Office example ~ movie clip from the “Pursuit of Happyness”
What is a Kaizen?

• Structured approach to
problem solving
• Bias towards action – the
output of a Kaizen is an
actionable plan for changing
an existing process
• Based on the philosophical
belief that everything can be
Kai = Good Zen = Change • A select team work a
problem within a short
amount of time
• Applies to all processes,
even those that cross
organizational boundaries

Kaizen is a rapid focused application of Lean principles to reduce waste and

improve a process
When should we choose Kaizen?

Understand Six Sigma, Lean, and Kaizen methodologies in order

to create an effective business improvement strategy
When should we choose Kaizen?

Organization’s LEAN / Kaizen / or Six Sigma ???

Quick results LEAN projects typically take 1-3 months
Focused on reducing costs LEAN or Kaizen – identifies waste resulting
in reduction in non-value added process
steps, which will reduce overall costs
associated with a process.

Reducing defect rate on Six Sigma – eliminates defects by definition

customer deliverables of 3.4 defects per million opportunities
Reduce variation in process Six Sigma – reducing variation from a
and/or output process
Limited data analysts or trained LEAN or Kaizen require far less data and
experts capable of carrying out minimal statistical analysis
data analysis
Targeting an IPO (Initial public LEAN – less costly and faster method to
offering – i.e., purchasing a new deliver results
solar site) in the near future
Is it a Six Sigma, Lean, Lean Six Sigma or Kaizen
problem? So….When should we choose Kaizen?

Less Complex More Complex




Use Project management and Utilize change management
change management principles principles, Six Sigma and Lean



Use change management
Utilize change management
principles, DMAIC or DFSS
principles and Lean tools

Understand Six Sigma, Lean, and Kaizen methodologies in order to create

an effective business improvement strategy
Let’s Get Started!
To Kaizen, or not to Kaizen ~ that is the question…

• Is the scope narrow enough for a Kaizen event?

• Is the problem/situation linked to the strategic plan?
• Is the data readily available?
• Have the process owner(s), stakeholders, subject
matter experts been identified?
• Is the process highly visible to staff or customers?
• Does the project have a high probability for
What is the difference between a Workshop, Blitz & Event?
Activities Kaizen Blitz Kaizen Event
1 to 2 months Perform Needs Analysis – Determine which approach is needed
prior GEMBA - Go See
Time Frame 1 - 2 days 3 - 5 days
Scope Smaller scale problems Larger more complex problems
Pre- Kaizen Meet with Sr. Leadership
Develop Team Charter
Current State Map
Data Collection & Analysis
Select Team Members
Identify / Interview SMEs
Select Activities for Event
Team Training
Kaizen Review VOC requirements
Map Future State
ID improvements
Create Action Plan
Daily out-briefs / Report outs
Create Plan for follow-up actions (BLITZ ONLY)
Post Kaizen Track action items and primary metric
Status reporting
30 / 60 / 90 Day follow-ups
A Kaizen event is a process focused improvement method

» Identify an opportunity
» Analyze the process
» Develop an optimal solution
» Implement the solution
» Study the results
» Standardize the solution
» Plan for the future

Iteration is the continuous repetition of an operation or procedure –

hence the term “continuous improvement”…
SIPOC The First “Go-To” Process Map

» Hold Pre-Planning Meetings

˃ Map it out:
+ Current State

» Obtain agreement with potential

Sponsor and Process Owner on
process maps
Pre-planning the Kaizen Event

» Develop and distribute a schedule prior to the

actual Event
˃ List Days
˃ Time slots
˃ Activities
˃ Lunch
˃ Include morning prep meetings and end of day daily summary
˃ Final
» Once developed STICK TO IT!
Kaizen Mirrors the DMAIC Framework

» Define ( Prep one month prior to event)

˃ Clearly define the Kaizen objective
˃ Select team members, perform logistics, notifications, data
collections, and prepare project charter
˃ Create Current State (“as is”) process map
» Measure (Collect baseline current state data one
month prior or first day of event)
˃ Create or validate the value-stream map including a
resource flow layout for all the process (people, paper,
material, information)
˃ Carefully observe, then collect needed metrics for tasks or
steps in the selected process
Kaizen Mirrors the DMAIC Framework

» Analyze (Mid-Event)
˃ Quickly validate root causes and identify sources of waste
˃ Review waste elimination techniques, then brainstorm process
improvements for eliminating non-value added tasks and
reducing variation
» Improve (Mid-Event)
˃ Map the ideal state and / or future state process (see next
˃ Test the improvements, if possible, then fine-tune to ensure the
process is capable
˃ Create action item list to accomplish improvements
» Control (Post Event)
˃ Create Standard Operating Procedures and training for
˃ Present results to Management Team for immediate approval
˃ Complete follow-up, monitor results over time
Kaizen It Is ~ So Let’s Get Started!

• Draft a Problem / Goal statement

• Select Key Attendees (process owner, stakeholders,
subject matter experts)
• GEMBA – go see, observe, and ask process users /
customers questions
• Research, verify, and validate information
• Determine data collection plan
• Collect baseline data (current state performance)
Establishing a Code of Conduct at the beginning of Kaizen
Events fosters openness, innovation and teamwork

1) Turn off / tune in – it is a FAST rollercoaster

2) Management is visible to support
3) There is no rank among team members
4) Be open minded – no agendas
5) Respect each other
6) Stay on task and on time
7) Foster a positive attitude
8) Encourage participants to ask questions
and actively participate
9) Think of “out of the box” ideas -
go for Quantity

TEAM = Together Everyone Achieves More!

Walk the process to gain a high level understanding of the
flow, inputs, outputs and current opportunities

• Interview SMEs

• Ask open ended questions

• Build SIPOC and Process Map based

on real-time observations

• Document issues and opportunities

Conduct data analysis to understand current trends and
identify potential root causes

• Analyze the data

• Look for trends and
• Define measurement
• Use statistical tools to
validate current data
(Run charts, Pareto,
Hypothesis Testing,
Source: HR Direct
Initials: LKL
Planning and Preparation Phase

» Helpful in setting goals for the Kaizen

» Collected to document current state process


» Process & Output indicators measure performance

» Essential in identifying a process performance gap

Planning and Preparation Phase – Identify the Business Case

» The business case can be defined as a discrepancy

between our customer's expectations and/or
requirements and actual process performance.
» Identify the performance gap?
» Examples of a business case for a Kaizen include:
˃ Reduce lead times
˃ Increase delivery performance
˃ Eliminate scrap
˃ Reduce inventories
˃ Increase capacity
˃ Eliminate bottlenecks
˃ Reduce changeover time
˃ Reduce machine failures
˃ Quality improvements
Planning and Preparation Phase – Set Goals

» Quantify the gap – is it measurable?

˃ Example: Time, Money, Defects
» Does the Business case align with the organization’s
strategic goals and objectives?
˃ Example: Safety, Quality, Delivery, Cost
» How much can the process be improved?
˃ Is the process capable of improving at a target of at
least 50%?
» Define Scope - SIPOC
Planning and Preparation Phase

» Identify key process Stakeholders

» Set maintenance support to cover Kaizen needs
» Create a Communication Plan with Stakeholders
» Set labor to cover customer needs during the
Kaizen or work ahead
» Adjust work scheduled of selected area during
» Create a Response plan aka a “recovery” plan to
be implemented if necessary after Kaizen
improvements fail
Kaizen preparation is critical for the success of the event

Conduct pre-planning meetings with all Stakeholders

to develop the Charter with your team - include the

• Problem Statement
• Project Goals
• Attendees
• Scope
• Timeline
• Project Sponsor(s)
• Data Sources

» Planning and Preparation phase

+ Identify the business case
+ Set goals & define scope
+ Select the team
+ Collect baseline data
+ Plan activities for the Kaizen Event
» Holding the Kaizen Event
» Implementing improvement during Event
» Report out (or call it Out brief?)
» Follow-up on remaining open Action Items
Kaizen preparation is important for the success of the event

Weeks Prior to Event

8 6 4 1 1+ 4+

6 to 8 weeks 4 to 6 weeks 1 to 4 weeks Event Day Post KAIZEN

o Define problem o Collect data to o Meet with core team o Arrive early to o 30/60/90 day
o Identify scope understand current to review data setup room & check-in
o Select participants performance o Finalize data test presentation o Lesson learned
o Create charter o Interview SMEs analysis equipment o CELEBRATE!!!
o Identify metrics o “Walk the o Present initial o Establish flip o Measure the
o Select event dates process”/ GEMBA findings to sponsor charts for effectiveness of
& location o Determine o Establish meeting “Parking Lot”, improvements –
o Forward “Save the objectives (SMART agenda for Kaizen “Action Items” did the team
Date” meeting goals) event o Help team create accomplish
invite to attendees o Confirm Event date o Inventory required a Code of what they set
and time with event materials Conduct out to do?
attendees (sharpies; post-its; o Designate roles
flip charts, etc.) for individuals
o Forward an Event
calendar reminder
Kaizen Pre-work Prep Phase

• Draft a Problem / Goal statement

• Select Key Attendees (process owner, stakeholders,
subject matter experts)
• GEMBA – go see, observe, and ask process users /
customers questions
• Research, verify, and validate information
• Determine data collection plan
• Collect baseline data (current state performance)

Review the agenda with the team to illustrate the day’s

• Introductions
• Designate Roles (Parking
Lot, Timekeeper)
• Develop Code of Conduct
• Review VOC
• Validate Customer
• Create and review Current
State vs. Future State
process maps
• Brainstorm solutions /
identify opportunities for
• Review Data Analysis
• Create Action Plan
The team leader should choose the appropriate tools that best suit
the problem being addressed
Lean Tools:
• Value Stream Mapping
• Value Added vs. Non-Value added vs. Business Value Added
• 8 Wastes (TIMTWOOD)
• 5s (aka 6s&7s)
• Process Mapping
• Fishbone / Root cause Analysis
• Brainstorming / Affinity Diagrams
• Poka Yoke (aka Mistake Proofing)
• Visual Management
• Standard Work
Do we use ALL the Lean tools?
No - we pick and choose the most appropriate ones!
“We don’t know what we don’t know, and we won’t know until we
map the out the process…” – Dr. Mikel Harry

• Provides a visual sequence to the process activity

• Identifies who is responsible for each activity step
• Uncovers costly errors resulting in rework
• Allows the team to designate activity steps as:
• value add (VA),
• business value add (BVA) and
• non-value add (NVA)
Identifying NVA & VA (Waste)

Current Process

Value Added Value Enabling Non-Value Added

Customer Need Business Need Waste

Lean Process

Value Added
Value Enabling
Customer Need Business Need

To lean out a process – identify waste and remove it!

What distinguishes Value-Add from Non-Value Add?
Value-Added Activities
All activities in any process fall into one of the following
Value-Add (VA) – No waste Business Value Add (BVA) –
Waste we are willing or required
Value-add activities must meet all to live with
three criteria. They must:
Activities that are required for
1. Add form, features or function financial, legal, or other business
to a product or service – reasons. Often called value
physically change it enabling activities
2. Be done right the first time
AND Non-Value Add (NVA) – Pure
3. Be something the customer is
willing to pay for Everything else!

At least 75%-90% of activity in most processes is waste

Value Stream mapping is a tool used to show how activities,
materials, information, and “value” flow to the customer
Process Improvement – Determine Root Cause

• Once all potential root causes are identified on the

fishbone, circle or highlight the most likely root
causes for further analysis
• To determine most likely root causes, look for causes
‒ Are repeated throughout the diagram
‒ Make sense to the individuals who have the most experience with the
‒ Appear to have a substantial impact on the problem
‒ Were found as causes to problems in other areas
‒ Were identified through other data or process analysis

Trust your team’s instincts ~ then validate!

Process Improvement – Determine Root Cause

» Use data analysis, process analysis and fishbone

analysis combined to find and verify the root cause of a
» Summarize your results using a simple Root Cause
Verification Matrix
Which Potential Roost Cause to Choose?

• There are a variety of Countermeasure Matrix templates

• A countermeasures matrix can also be used to help select the
appropriate improvements to implement
• It is used to organize potential countermeasures and evaluate them
based on predetermined criteria that are important to the decision
making process
• Also see Solution Selection Matrix
We found the root cause to our problem, now let’s create a
Future State Map

» When it’s time to implement the solutions generated in the

Kaizen Event
» Start with an Ideal State process map
˃ Simply take the "Current State" functional map or VSM and
eliminate non-value adding events
˃ Provides a benchmark of what could be possible and
encourages out-of-box thinking
» Then create the proposed Future State process map
˃ Bridges the gulf between the current and ideal states
˃ Incorporates the realities of technical
limits, budgets and time
˃ Documents how the solutions will be
implemented in the new process
» If possible, take the initiative to close out any Action Items as
soon as they are identified
Process Improvement – Identify and Eliminate the Waste

The 8 Deadly Wastes

T Transportation

I Inventory

M Motion

T Talent (Intellect)

W Waiting

O Overproduction

O Over-Processing

D Defects

MUDA – Japanese word for waste

[see APPENDIX “A” for TIMTWOOD examples of waste]
5s is a Lean tool used for workplace organization


4 2
Standardize Set in


A place for everything ~ AND everything in its place

5s also has a 6th & 7th S – Safety & Security




It’s all about Visual Management


Poka Yoke is an error proofing method to improve processes

We See Examples of Poka Yoke Everday

Carbon Monoxide Garage door Gas Pump (Regular

Monitor sensors vs. Diesel)
Shadow Boarding our work tools makes us and our
processes better, faster, more efficient!

Inventory Control at a glance

Tool shadow board Equipment box Tool box casing

Why would we apply 5s to our electronic folder structure?

“BEFORE” electronic document folder structure

So we can increase accuracy and efficiency

1st Level Drill
Down By Year

2nd Drill Down

By Month

FINALLY 3rd Drill Down

By Sub-Report Data
Now let’s look at “why our process is having problems”?
Let’s use the KJ Analysis…
Kawakita Jiro (inventor):
1. Identify what you are trying to
2. Team members write all ideas
on 3" x 5" cards or Post-its
3. Key principle - everyone
works together in silence
4. After all ideas are exhausted
individuals then group similar
ideas together
• Members are allowed to
move post-its – even if it
is someone’s idea else
5. Once team members stop
adding or moving ideas into
similar groups stop to
discuss how to group them
under header/categories
Completed Affinity
Diagram of a
company’s exit
interview process
Root Cause Analysis – It’s all about the 5 “Whys”….

• Uncovers potential root causes of a specific issue or

failure within a process
• Identifies potential factors causing an overall effect
Leading Kaizen Teams

Have you ever worked on a project team?

What are the characteristics of an effective
project team leader?
» __________________________
» __________________________
» __________________________
» __________________________
» __________________________

TEAM – Together Everyone Achieves More!

Leading Kaizen Teams

“Informal Authority” is the ability, without formal position of power, to

inspire people to willingly follow your direction
Leading Kaizen Teams

• Identify stakeholders
• Interview stakeholders
• Document project scope
• Plan a risk-management strategy
• Create a project schedule
• Develop a communication plan

In the Define phase of your project, initiating and planning are

used to develop the project charter
Leading Kaizen Teams

• Create a cadence of accountability
• Hold performance conversations
Monitor & Control
• Report project status
• Manage scope change
• Document lessons learned
• Close the project
Focusing on these process group activities will guide you through
Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control phases to project completion
Leading Kaizen Teams

» Strong facilitation skills are critical to engaging all

the participants and getting the most out of a team
˃ Prepare for the event: Place, time, materials
˃ Get the right people involved
˃ Set expectations: Goals, objectives, scope
˃ Establish and enforce ground rules

» A facilitator’s role is to facilitate the outputs from

the team – not to have all the answers themselves
» Facilitation takes practice – build opportunity for
feedback into your events
How is facilitation different from managing or leading a team?
Leading Kaizen Teams

Who should attend the Kaizen event?

• Subject matter experts
• Process owner(s)
• Additional process Stakeholders
• One or two front-line workers (individuals that
perform the process on a regular basis)
• An outside novice (a “None” - someone unfamiliar
with the process) if applicable
• A facilitator from outside the functional area with
Kaizen experience to prevent that individual from
unconsciously steering the event in a particular

ANYONE who touches the process!!!

Leading Kaizen Teams

» Effective Meetings require good facilitation and planning

» Be sure to answer these questions:
˃ Do you really need a meeting? Is there a clear purpose/goal?
˃ Do you have the right size and group of people?
˃ What is the right meeting duration? Shorter is better
˃ Who will facilitate? It is not always the project leader
˃ What are the ground rules? (Follow them)
˃ Is there an agenda? (Follow it)
+ Send it out ahead of time, if possible
+ Follow up with meeting minutes that include clearly stated
action items with names and due dates for completion
+ Delegate this task if needed

Publish agenda and minutes for all to see

Leading Kaizen Teams

• Team Meetings
• 1st Meeting (Share the Vision):
 Sponsor Kick Off
 Review Project Charter
 Set Expectations
• Subsequent Meetings:
 Follow the PowerPoint template - continually update it
 Work on team activities
 Make sure to schedule time appropriately
 Updates – 30 min to 1hr
 Team activities – approximately 3-4hrs (see next page)
Leading Kaizen Teams

Team Activities Individual Activities

SIPOC Updating the project template
Customer requirements Scheduling meetings
Data collection (Clean & Audit) Meeting agenda & minutes
Process mapping Stakeholder Analysis
Fishbone Minitab charts and tests
C&E  Graphical Summary
FMEA (before and after)  Control Charts
Countermeasure brainstorming  Capability Analysis
 Hypothesis Testing
Control Plan
NPV – Net Present Value
Delegate – you don’t have to
do all the work!!!
Leading Kaizen Teams

» Effective leaders value the styles of all the team

» Understand and leverage the various styles on your
Contributor Collaborator Communicator Challenger

• Task-oriented, • Goal-directed, • Process-focus, • Question-

sets high wants clear good listener and focused, speaks
standards vision / mission facilitator up, honest

• Values data, likes • Team player, • Likes casual • Risk taker, not
to provide open to new comfortable afraid to disagree
expertise options / ideas environment

• Dependable, • Cooperative, • Considerate, • Candid,

organized, flexible, giving encouraging, outspoken,
efficient helpful truthful
Leading Kaizen Teams

» Weekly meeting with your QDL – to stay on track

» Weekly / bi-weekly meetings with your team – to get
the work done
˃ Delegate to team members
˃ Hold others accountable
» Follow the Project Template – it’s your roadmap
» Have your Sponsor/Champion kick-off your first
team meeting and conduct regular tollgate reviews
with them to keep them engaged and abreast of the
team’s progress
» Update Journal entries in on a regular basis showing
your progress
˃ Tip: Set a weekly Outlook reminder to update Journal
Leading Kaizen Teams

• Getting to know the • Self-Oriented

team Behaviors
• Roles & purpose • Purpose is clear,
may be unclear relationships blurry
• Set ground rules
1. 2.
Forming Storming
5. Adjourning

4. 3.
Performing Norming
• Task-Oriented • Commitment to team
behavior – goals
Teamwork • Roles and
• Committed to relationships are
performance clear
• Strategic focus

Effective teams don’t just happen, they take planning, developing,

and managing
Leading Kaizen Teams
Team Exercise

Assign one stage per team

Using the slides on the next 5
pages as reference:
1. What team behaviors are
present at that stage (draw
from your experience as team
2. What challenges were
3. How did the team manage
through the stage?
Have you seen these stages Discuss for 10 minutes and
in team activities? prepare to report your
findings to others
Leading Kaizen Teams

1. Forming

• ‘Uncertainty’ & ‘Politeness’

• Provide a framework for the
team meetings:
1. • Assist in task and role
2. Storming
• Use team members
strengths and learn about
3. Norming their working styles
• Share information and
encourage members to ask
questions of one another
• Agree on ground rules

Transition stage - from individual to team member focus

Leading Kaizen Teams

2. Storming
• ‘Conflict’, ‘Alliances’ &
• Focus on common goals
1. Forming 2. and objectives
• Approved project charter:
project description,
objectives, scope, key
3. Norming performance indicators
and milestones
• Drive decision making
• Encourage joint problem

Self-directed behaviors take away from focus on shared project goals

Leading Kaizen Teams

3. Norming

• ‘Stable’, ‘Organized’ &

‘Team responsibility’
• Teach and show process
1. Forming
Storming leadership
• Keep team moving
forward towards project
4. 3.
Performing Norming
• Celebrate actual progress
and achievements
• Talk openly about issues
and concerns

Team is now able to make real progress toward the project goals
Leading Kaizen Teams

4. Performing

• Team members are in sync

• Continue to challenge the
team and have the team set
1. Forming 2. Storming
aggressive goals
• Focus on completing the
project and delivering
expected results
3. Norming

Team displays task-oriented behaviors and gets high quality work done
Leading Kaizen Teams

5. Adjourning

• Team shares and briefs

2. improved process
1. Forming
Storming • Bittersweet sense of
accomplishment mixed with
some reluctance to end
3. Norming
• End of positive note
• Recognize accomplishment
• Celebrate group success
• Maintain relationships with
5. Adjourning project team members

Team completes all project work and celebrates success!

Leading Kaizen Teams

Follow the GRPI model

to promote team
What activities take place after the Kaizen event?

The Action Plan created should include:

• Specific Action items with detailed milestones
• Identifies POC (point of contact)
• Un-resolved action items
• Target Due Dates
• Final results
• Actual Completion Dates
• A structured communication plan:
• Schedule re-occurring meetings to track action
• Conduct 30/60/90 check–in with Project sponsor

Be sure to track the primary metric!

Report Out to Team Participants and Sr. Management

» Hold Daily and Final Report Outs - Report Outs tell the story about
how the team progressed from the Define phase through to
˃ Usually delivered by the Kaizen team to leadership on the last
day of the event
» Informs local management and Project Sponsors of workshop
findings and solicits approval to proceed with implementation
» Formalizes expected results and clearly communicates ownership
of open action items and ensures sustainment of improvements
» Provides the opportunity for management to publicly congratulate
team members and express appreciation for their dedicated
This is a good time to obtain management approval to
implement improvements
Follow-up and Follow Through

» Create a detailed Action Plan listing the following:

˃ Issue to resolve
˃ Improvements / Control measures to implement
˃ Responsible persons name and job title
˃ Target due date for milestone
˃ Current status with details (i.e., In progress or Completed)
˃ Actual completion date
˃ Verification of completion (by who and when)
» Ensure each team member and Sponsor receive a copy of the
Action Plan based on pre-determined schedule for status
» Follow-up on past due Action items
» When needed get Sponsor involved to remove any obstacles or
» When completed celebrate with the entire Team!

The Kaizen is not over until all Action Items are completed
Remember these two important points….

Improvements made today can always be improved upon

tomorrow and failures are lessons learned
May the FORCE be
with you and
remember to…

» TIMTWOOD – helps identify process

activities that do not increase the value of
the product or service but only increase cost
˃ Examine items that impact:
+ Process Flow
+ Material Flow
+ Information Flow

8 Types of Waste

T Transportation

I Inventory

M Motion

T Talent

W Waiting

O Overproduction

O Over-Processing

D Defects
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» Unnecessary movement of things in the process

increases risk of damage or loss
» Examples:
˃ Unnecessary movement of paperwork and equipment
˃ Often linked to poor office/work-site layout
˃ Using Internal Mail / Fax to hand over work to
˃ Moving supplies to warehouse that will later be sent to
˃ Copying data from one system to another
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» Storing unneeded items for later use.

» Inventory ties up money, uses valuable working
space, and increases the risk of obsolescence
and/or damage
» Examples:
˃ Extra brochures are printed ‘just in case’ we need
˃ Stationary is ordered annually and stored
˃ Piles of ‘Work In Progress’ exist between process
˃ Physical storage of completed documents
˃ Multiple instances of data exist. If it needs to be
updated, then needs to be done in multiple locations
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» Unnecessary movement of people increasing time,

frustration, and risk of injury
» Examples:
˃ Inefficient office layout, work teams not co-located
˃ Client files moved to storage while still being used
˃ Only one copier on each floor
˃ Searching for wrench in a work cell
˃ Shuffling papers around the desk to find a form
˃ Information that is keyed or captured is not used
˃ Meetings, phone calls, emails, etc. are a result of
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» A visual drawing of the actual

Product, Paper , People, and / or
Equipment work flow
» Use a spaghetti diagram to record
transportation of goods and/or
motion of people to find
opportunities to eliminate waste
» For clarity, use a different line type,
line color, or separate map for Source: GRS Crane field set up process

each object tracked

Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

• Underutilization of a worker's knowledge and

• Being employed in the wrong position
• Employee does not receive necessary training
• Employee does not receive necessary
equipment or tools
• Underutilization of people’s skills and abilities
» Examples:
˃ Overlooking or not knowing about expertise within the
˃ Ignoring suggestions of co-workers in the process
˃ Micromanaging people’s work
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» Inability to perform work due to

unavailable inputs from suppliers
» Examples:
˃ Colleagues not able to perform work as system is
˃ Only one piece of equipment (fax) available for
department – often in use
˃ Waiting (delays) for decisions before being able to
continue work
˃ Waiting on batch report to process payroll
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

• Producing more than is needed or required and

producing earlier than required
• Overproduction ties up working capital and
hides process and quality problems
» Examples:
˃ Process produces defects, so output is
increased to ensure we produce enough
quality items
˃ Running or creating reports that are never
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» Too many steps in a process

» Process steps that add no value to the
process or make the process harder
than it needs to be
» Examples:
˃ Repeat entries of the same information by different people
˃ Information is requested/sent (email everyone when not
˃ Performing work that goes beyond expressed specifications
˃ Requiring multiple unnecessary reviews or approvals
Process Improvement – Identify the Waste

» Errors that result in a product or service

that does not meet customer
expectations. Defects include the waste
of rework and correction.
» Examples:
˃ Errors in process are allowed to move to the next process
step without finding preventive solution
˃ Orders are checked 5 times before sent to the customer
˃ All orders are 100% checked vs. sampled
˃ Wrong forms used
˃ Repair parts not to specification
» Remember TIMTWOOD
» Provide an example of each type of waste in your
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