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PROBLEM SOLUTIONS: Chapter 5

Problem 5.1
Basic equations are T ∝ ΦR Ff sin δRF . Since the field current is constant, Ff
is constant, Note also that the resultant flux is proptoortional to the terminal
voltage and inversely to the frequency ΦR ∝ Vt /f . Thus we can write
Vt sin δRF
T ∝
f
P = ωf T ∝ Vt sin δRF
part (a): Reduced to 31.1◦
part (b): Unchanged
part (c): Unchanged
part (d): Increased to 39.6◦
Problem 5.2
part (a): The windings are orthogonal and hence the mutual inductance is
zero.
part (b): Since the two windings are orthogonal, the phases are uncoupled
and hence the flux linkage under balanced two-phase operation is unchanged by
currents in the other phase. Thus, the equivalent inductance is simply equal to
the phase self-inductance.
Problem 5.3
1
Lab = − (Laa − Lal ) = −2.25 mH
2

3
Ls = (Laa − Lal ) + Lal = 7.08 mH
2
Problem 5.4
part (a):

2 Vl−l,rms
Laf = √ = 79.4 mH
3ωIf
part (b): Voltage = (50/60) 15.4 kV = 12.8 kV.
Problem 5.5
part (a): The magnitude of the phase current is equal to

40 × 103
Ia = √ = 59.1 A
0.85 × 3 460
and its phase angle is − cos−1 0.85 = −31.8◦ . Thus
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Iˆa = 59.1e−j31.8

Then
460
Êaf = Va − jXs Iˆa = √ − j4.15 × 59.1e−j31.8 = 136  − 56.8◦ V

3
The field current can be calculated from the magnitude of the generator
voltage

2Eaf
If = = 11.3 A
ωLaf
part (b):

Êaf = 266  − 38.1◦ V; If = 15.3 A

part (c):

Êaf = 395  − 27.8◦ V; If = 20.2 A

Problem 5.6
The solution is similar to that of Problem 5.5 with the exception that the
sychronous impedance jXs is replaced by the impedance Zf + jXs .
part (a):
Êaf = 106  − 66.6◦ V; If = 12.2 A
part (b):
Êaf = 261  − 43.7◦ V; If = 16.3 A
part (c):
Êaf = 416  − 31.2◦ V; If = 22.0 A
Problem 5.7
part (a):

2 Vl−l,rms
Laf = √ = 49.8 mH
3ωIf
part (b):

600 × 103
Iˆa = √ = 151 A
3 2300

Êaf = Va − jXs Iˆa = 1.77  − 41.3◦ V


2Eaf
If = = 160 A
ωLaf
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part (c): See plot below. Minimum current will when the motor is operating
at unity power factor. From the plot, this occurs at a field current of 160 A.

Problem 5.8
part (a):
2
Vbase (26 × 103 )2
Zbase = = = 0.901 Ω
Pbase 750 × 106

Xs,pu Zbase
Ls = = 4.88 mH
ω
part (b):
Xal,pu Zbase
Lal = = 0.43 mH
ω
part (c):
2
Laa = (Ls − Lal ) + Lal = 3.40 mH
3
Problem 5.9
part (a):
AFNL
SCR = = 0.520
AFSC
part (b):
Zbase = (26 × 103 )2 /(800 × 106 ) = 0.845 Ω
1
Xs = = 2.19 pu = 1.85 Ω
SCR
part (c):
AFSC
Xs,u = = 1.92 pu = 1.62 Ω
AFNL, ag
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Problem 5.10
part (a):

AFNL
SCR = = 1.14
AFSC
part (b):
Zbase = 41602 /(5000 × 103 ) = 3.46 Ω
1
Xs = = 1.11 pu = 3.86 Ω
SCR
part (c):

AFSC
Xs,u = = 0.88 pu = 3.05 Ω
AFNL, ag
Problem 5.11
No numerical solution required.
Problem 5.12
part (a): The total power is equal to S = P /pf = 4200 kW/0.87 = 4828 kVA.
The armature current is thus
4828 × 103
Iˆa = √  (cos−1 0.87) = 670 29.5◦ A
3 4160
Defining Zs = Ra + jXs = 0.038 + j4.81 Ω
4160
|Eaf | = |Va − Zs Ia | = | √ − Zs Ia | = 4349 V, line − to − neutral
3
Thus
 
4349
If = AFNL √ = 306 A
4160/ 3

part (b): If the machine speed remains constant and the field current is not
reduced, the terminal voltage will increase to the value corresponding to 306 A
of field current on the open-circuit saturation characteristic. Interpolating the
given data shows that this corresponds to a value of around 4850 V line-to-line.
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Problem 5.13

Problem 5.14
√ power, unity power factor, the armature current will be Ia =
At rated
5000 kW/( 3 4160 V) = 694 A. The power dissipated in the armature winding
will then equal Parm = 3 × 6942 × 0.011 = 15.9 kW.
The field current can be found from
4160
|Eaf | = |Va − Zs Ia | = | √ − Zs Ia | = 3194 V, line-to-neutral
3
and thus
 
3194
If = AFNL √ = 319 A
4160/ 3

At 125◦ C, the field-winding resistance will be


 
234.5 + 125
Rf = 0.279 = 0.324 Ω
234.5 + 75

and hence the field-winding power dissipation will be Pfield = If2 Rf = 21.1 kW.
The total loss will then be

Ptot = Pcore + Parm + Pfriction/windage + Pfield = 120 kW

Hence the output power will equal 4880 kW and the efficiency will equal 4880/5000
= 0.976 = 97.6%.
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Problem 5.15
part (a):

part (b): AFNL = 736 A. AFSC = 710 A.


part (c): (i) SCR = 10.4, (ii) Xs = 0.964 per unit and (iii) Xs,u = 1.17 per
unit.
Problem 5.16
For Va = 1.0 per unit, Eaf,max = 2.4 per unit and Xs = 1.6 per unit

Eaf,max − Va
Qmax = = 0.875 per unit
Xs

Problem 5.17
part (a):
2
Vbase
Zbase = = 5.29 Ω
Pbase

1
Xs = = 0.595 per-unit = 3.15 Ω
SCR
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part (b): Using generator convention for current

part (c):
150
Eaf = = 0.357 per-unit
420
For Va = 1.0 per-unit,
Eaf − Va
Iˆa = = 1.08 90◦ per-unit = 1.36 90◦ kA
jXs
using Ibase = 1255 A.
part (d): It looks like an inductor.
part (e):

700
Eaf = = 1.67 per-unit
420
For Va = 1.0 per-unit,
Eaf − Va
Iˆa = = 1.12 − 90◦ per-unit = 1.41 − 90◦ kA
jXs
In this case, it looks like a capacitor.
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Problem 5.18

Problem 5.19
part (a): It was underexcited, absorbing reactive power.
part (b): It increased.
part (c): The answers are the same.
Problem 5.20
part (a):
226
Xs = = 0.268 per-unit
842
part (b): P = 0.875 and S = P/0.9 = 0.972, both in per unit. The power-
factor angle is − cos−1 0.9 = −25.8◦ and thus Iˆa = 0.875 − 25.8◦ .

Êaf = Va + jXs Iˆa = 1.15 11.6◦ per-unit

The field current is If = AFNL|Êaf | = 958 A. The rotor angle is 11.6◦ and the
reactive power is

Q = S 2 − P 2 = 4.24 MVA

part (c): Now |Eaf | = 1.0 per unit.


 
−1 P Xs
δ = sin |Eaf | = 13.6◦
Va

and thus Êaf = 1.0 13.6◦ .

Êaf − Va
Iˆa = = 0.881 6.79◦
jXs

Q = Imag[Va Iˆa∗ ] = −0.104 per-unit = −1.04 MVAR


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Problem 5.21

Êaf − Va Va Eaf
Iˆa = =j + (sin δ − j cos δ)
jXs Xs Xs

The first term is a constant and is the center of the circle. The second term is
a circle of radius Eaf/Xs .

Problem 5.22
part (a):
(i)

(ii) Vt = V∞ = 1.0 per unit. P = 375/650 = 0.577 per unit. Thus


 
P X∞
δt = sin−1 = 12.6◦
Vt V∞
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and
Vt ejδt − V∞
Iˆa = = 0.578 3.93◦ per-unit
jX∞

Ibase = Pbase /( 3 Vbase ) = 15.64 kA and thus Ia = 9.04 kA.
(iii) The generator terminal current lags the terminal voltage by δt /2 and thus
the power factor is

pf = cos−1 δt /2 = 0.998 lagging

(iv)

|Êaf | = |V∞ + j(X∞ + Xs )Iˆa | = 1.50 per-unit = 36.0 kV,line-to-line

part (b):
(i) Same phasor diagram
(ii) Iˆa = 0.928 6.32◦ per-unit. Ia = 14.5 kA.
(iii) pf = 0.994 lagging
(iv) Eaf = 2.06 per unit = 49.4 kV, line-to-line.
Problem 5.23
part (a):
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part (b):

part (c):

Problem 5.24
part (a): From the solution to Problem 5.15, Xs = 0.964 per unit. Thus,
with V∞ = Eaf = 1.0 per unit
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V∞ Eaf
Pmax = = 1.04 per-unit
Xs
noindent Hence, full load can be achieved. This will occur at
 
−1 Xs
δ = sin = 74.6◦
Eaf Vinfty

part (b): The generator base impedance is 1.31 Ω. Thus, X∞ = 0.14/1.31


= 0.107 per unit. Now
V∞ Eaf
Pmax = = 1.04 per-unit = 0.934 per-unit = 135 MW
(X∞ + Xs
Problem 5.25
Follwing the calculation steps of Example 5.9, Eaf = 1.35 per unit.
Problem 5.26
Now Xd = .964 per unit and Xq = 0.723 per unit. Thus
part (a):
2
 
V∞ Eaf V∞ 1 1
P = sin δ + − sin 2δ = 1.037 sin δ + 0.173 sin 2δ
Xd 2 Xq Xd
An iterative solution with MATLAB shows that maximum power can be achieved
at δ = 53.6◦ .
part (b): Letting XD = Xd + X∞ and XQ = Xq + X∞
 
V∞ Eaf V2 1 1
P = sin δ + ∞ − sin 2δ = 0.934 sin δ + 0.136 sin 2δ
X 2 XQ XD
An iterative solution with MATLAB shows that maximum power that can be
achieved is 141 Mw, which occurs at a power angle of 75◦ .
Problem 5.27
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Problem 5.28

Problem 5.29

Problem 5.30
For Eaf = 0,
 
Vt2 1 1
Pmax = − = 0.21 = 21%
2 Xq Xq
This maximum power occurs for δ = 45◦ .
Vt cos δ
Id = = 0.786 per-unit
Xd

Vt sin δ
Iq = = 1.09 per-unit
Xq
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and thus Ia = Id2 + Iq2 = 1.34 per unit.

S = Vt Ia = 1.34 per-unit

Hence

Q= S 2 − P 2 = 1.32 per-unit

Problem 5.30
 
V∞ Eaf V2 1 1
P = sin δ + ∞ − sin 2δ
Xd 2 Xq Xd
The generator will remain synchronized as long as Pmax > P . An iterative
search with MATLAB can easily be used to find the minimum excitation that
satisfies this condition for any particular loading.
part (a): For P = 0.5, must have Eaf ≥ 0.327 per unit.
part (b): For P = 1.0, must have Eaf ≥ 0.827 per unit.
Problem 5.32
part (a):

part (b): We know that P = 0.95 per unit and that


V∞ Vt
P = sin δt
Xbus
and that
V̂t − V∞
Iˆa =
jXt

It is necessary to solve these two equations simultaneously for V̂t = Vt  δt so


that both the required power is achieved as well as the specified power factor
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angle with respect to the generator terminal voltage. This is most easily done
iteratively with MATLAB. Once this is done, it is straightforward to calculate

Vt = 1.02 per-unit; Eaf = 2.05 per-unit; δ = 46.6◦

Problem 5.33
part (a): Define XD = Xd + Xbus and XQ = Xq + Xbus .
(i)
Eaf,min = Vbus − XD = 0.04 per-unit

Eaf,max = Vbus + XD = 1.96 per-unit

(ii)

part (b):
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part (c):

Problem 5.34
n × poles 3000 × 6
f= = = 150 Hz
120 120
Problem 5.35
part (a): Because the load is resistive, we know that
P 4500
Ia ==√ = 13.5 A
3Va 3192

part (b): We know that Eaf = 208/ 3 = 120 V. Solving

Eaf = Va2 + (Xs Ia )2
for Xs gives

2 −V2
Eaf a
Xs = = 3.41 Ω
Ia
part (c): The easiest way to solve this is to use MATLAB to iterate to
find the required load resistance. If this is done, the solution is Va = 108 V
(line-to-neutral) = 187 V (line-to-line).
Problem 5.36
Ea ωKa
Iˆa = =
Ra + Rb + jωLa Ra + Rb + jωLa
Thus
ωKa Ka
|Iˆa | =  =   
(Ra + Rb )2 + (ωLa)2
La 1 + RωL
a +Rb
a

Clearly, Ia will remain constant with speed as long as the speed is sufficient
to insure that ω >> (Ra + Rb )/La