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Problem 5.1

Basic equations are T ∝ ΦR Ff sin δRF . Since the ﬁeld current is constant, Ff

is constant, Note also that the resultant ﬂux is proptoortional to the terminal

voltage and inversely to the frequency ΦR ∝ Vt /f . Thus we can write

Vt sin δRF

T ∝

f

P = ωf T ∝ Vt sin δRF

part (a): Reduced to 31.1◦

part (b): Unchanged

part (c): Unchanged

part (d): Increased to 39.6◦

Problem 5.2

part (a): The windings are orthogonal and hence the mutual inductance is

zero.

part (b): Since the two windings are orthogonal, the phases are uncoupled

and hence the ﬂux linkage under balanced two-phase operation is unchanged by

currents in the other phase. Thus, the equivalent inductance is simply equal to

the phase self-inductance.

Problem 5.3

1

Lab = − (Laa − Lal ) = −2.25 mH

2

3

Ls = (Laa − Lal ) + Lal = 7.08 mH

2

Problem 5.4

part (a):

√

2 Vl−l,rms

Laf = √ = 79.4 mH

3ωIf

part (b): Voltage = (50/60) 15.4 kV = 12.8 kV.

Problem 5.5

part (a): The magnitude of the phase current is equal to

40 × 103

Ia = √ = 59.1 A

0.85 × 3 460

and its phase angle is − cos−1 0.85 = −31.8◦ . Thus

57

Iˆa = 59.1e−j31.8

◦

Then

460

Êaf = Va − jXs Iˆa = √ − j4.15 × 59.1e−j31.8 = 136 − 56.8◦ V

◦

3

The ﬁeld current can be calculated from the magnitude of the generator

voltage

√

2Eaf

If = = 11.3 A

ωLaf

part (b):

part (c):

Problem 5.6

The solution is similar to that of Problem 5.5 with the exception that the

sychronous impedance jXs is replaced by the impedance Zf + jXs .

part (a):

Êaf = 106 − 66.6◦ V; If = 12.2 A

part (b):

Êaf = 261 − 43.7◦ V; If = 16.3 A

part (c):

Êaf = 416 − 31.2◦ V; If = 22.0 A

Problem 5.7

part (a):

√

2 Vl−l,rms

Laf = √ = 49.8 mH

3ωIf

part (b):

600 × 103

Iˆa = √ = 151 A

3 2300

√

2Eaf

If = = 160 A

ωLaf

58

part (c): See plot below. Minimum current will when the motor is operating

at unity power factor. From the plot, this occurs at a ﬁeld current of 160 A.

Problem 5.8

part (a):

2

Vbase (26 × 103 )2

Zbase = = = 0.901 Ω

Pbase 750 × 106

Xs,pu Zbase

Ls = = 4.88 mH

ω

part (b):

Xal,pu Zbase

Lal = = 0.43 mH

ω

part (c):

2

Laa = (Ls − Lal ) + Lal = 3.40 mH

3

Problem 5.9

part (a):

AFNL

SCR = = 0.520

AFSC

part (b):

Zbase = (26 × 103 )2 /(800 × 106 ) = 0.845 Ω

1

Xs = = 2.19 pu = 1.85 Ω

SCR

part (c):

AFSC

Xs,u = = 1.92 pu = 1.62 Ω

AFNL, ag

59

Problem 5.10

part (a):

AFNL

SCR = = 1.14

AFSC

part (b):

Zbase = 41602 /(5000 × 103 ) = 3.46 Ω

1

Xs = = 1.11 pu = 3.86 Ω

SCR

part (c):

AFSC

Xs,u = = 0.88 pu = 3.05 Ω

AFNL, ag

Problem 5.11

No numerical solution required.

Problem 5.12

part (a): The total power is equal to S = P /pf = 4200 kW/0.87 = 4828 kVA.

The armature current is thus

4828 × 103

Iˆa = √ (cos−1 0.87) = 670 29.5◦ A

3 4160

Deﬁning Zs = Ra + jXs = 0.038 + j4.81 Ω

4160

|Eaf | = |Va − Zs Ia | = | √ − Zs Ia | = 4349 V, line − to − neutral

3

Thus

4349

If = AFNL √ = 306 A

4160/ 3

part (b): If the machine speed remains constant and the ﬁeld current is not

reduced, the terminal voltage will increase to the value corresponding to 306 A

of ﬁeld current on the open-circuit saturation characteristic. Interpolating the

given data shows that this corresponds to a value of around 4850 V line-to-line.

60

Problem 5.13

Problem 5.14

√ power, unity power factor, the armature current will be Ia =

At rated

5000 kW/( 3 4160 V) = 694 A. The power dissipated in the armature winding

will then equal Parm = 3 × 6942 × 0.011 = 15.9 kW.

The ﬁeld current can be found from

4160

|Eaf | = |Va − Zs Ia | = | √ − Zs Ia | = 3194 V, line-to-neutral

3

and thus

3194

If = AFNL √ = 319 A

4160/ 3

234.5 + 125

Rf = 0.279 = 0.324 Ω

234.5 + 75

and hence the ﬁeld-winding power dissipation will be Pfield = If2 Rf = 21.1 kW.

The total loss will then be

Hence the output power will equal 4880 kW and the eﬃciency will equal 4880/5000

= 0.976 = 97.6%.

61

Problem 5.15

part (a):

part (c): (i) SCR = 10.4, (ii) Xs = 0.964 per unit and (iii) Xs,u = 1.17 per

unit.

Problem 5.16

For Va = 1.0 per unit, Eaf,max = 2.4 per unit and Xs = 1.6 per unit

Eaf,max − Va

Qmax = = 0.875 per unit

Xs

Problem 5.17

part (a):

2

Vbase

Zbase = = 5.29 Ω

Pbase

1

Xs = = 0.595 per-unit = 3.15 Ω

SCR

62

part (c):

150

Eaf = = 0.357 per-unit

420

For Va = 1.0 per-unit,

Eaf − Va

Iˆa = = 1.08 90◦ per-unit = 1.36 90◦ kA

jXs

using Ibase = 1255 A.

part (d): It looks like an inductor.

part (e):

700

Eaf = = 1.67 per-unit

420

For Va = 1.0 per-unit,

Eaf − Va

Iˆa = = 1.12 − 90◦ per-unit = 1.41 − 90◦ kA

jXs

In this case, it looks like a capacitor.

63

Problem 5.18

Problem 5.19

part (a): It was underexcited, absorbing reactive power.

part (b): It increased.

part (c): The answers are the same.

Problem 5.20

part (a):

226

Xs = = 0.268 per-unit

842

part (b): P = 0.875 and S = P/0.9 = 0.972, both in per unit. The power-

factor angle is − cos−1 0.9 = −25.8◦ and thus Iˆa = 0.875 − 25.8◦ .

The ﬁeld current is If = AFNL|Êaf | = 958 A. The rotor angle is 11.6◦ and the

reactive power is

Q = S 2 − P 2 = 4.24 MVA

−1 P Xs

δ = sin |Eaf | = 13.6◦

Va

Êaf − Va

Iˆa = = 0.881 6.79◦

jXs

64

Problem 5.21

Êaf − Va Va Eaf

Iˆa = =j + (sin δ − j cos δ)

jXs Xs Xs

The ﬁrst term is a constant and is the center of the circle. The second term is

a circle of radius Eaf/Xs .

Problem 5.22

part (a):

(i)

P X∞

δt = sin−1 = 12.6◦

Vt V∞

65

and

Vt ejδt − V∞

Iˆa = = 0.578 3.93◦ per-unit

jX∞

√

Ibase = Pbase /( 3 Vbase ) = 15.64 kA and thus Ia = 9.04 kA.

(iii) The generator terminal current lags the terminal voltage by δt /2 and thus

the power factor is

(iv)

part (b):

(i) Same phasor diagram

(ii) Iˆa = 0.928 6.32◦ per-unit. Ia = 14.5 kA.

(iii) pf = 0.994 lagging

(iv) Eaf = 2.06 per unit = 49.4 kV, line-to-line.

Problem 5.23

part (a):

66

part (b):

part (c):

Problem 5.24

part (a): From the solution to Problem 5.15, Xs = 0.964 per unit. Thus,

with V∞ = Eaf = 1.0 per unit

67

V∞ Eaf

Pmax = = 1.04 per-unit

Xs

noindent Hence, full load can be achieved. This will occur at

−1 Xs

δ = sin = 74.6◦

Eaf Vinfty

= 0.107 per unit. Now

V∞ Eaf

Pmax = = 1.04 per-unit = 0.934 per-unit = 135 MW

(X∞ + Xs

Problem 5.25

Follwing the calculation steps of Example 5.9, Eaf = 1.35 per unit.

Problem 5.26

Now Xd = .964 per unit and Xq = 0.723 per unit. Thus

part (a):

2

V∞ Eaf V∞ 1 1

P = sin δ + − sin 2δ = 1.037 sin δ + 0.173 sin 2δ

Xd 2 Xq Xd

An iterative solution with MATLAB shows that maximum power can be achieved

at δ = 53.6◦ .

part (b): Letting XD = Xd + X∞ and XQ = Xq + X∞

V∞ Eaf V2 1 1

P = sin δ + ∞ − sin 2δ = 0.934 sin δ + 0.136 sin 2δ

X 2 XQ XD

An iterative solution with MATLAB shows that maximum power that can be

achieved is 141 Mw, which occurs at a power angle of 75◦ .

Problem 5.27

68

Problem 5.28

Problem 5.29

Problem 5.30

For Eaf = 0,

Vt2 1 1

Pmax = − = 0.21 = 21%

2 Xq Xq

This maximum power occurs for δ = 45◦ .

Vt cos δ

Id = = 0.786 per-unit

Xd

Vt sin δ

Iq = = 1.09 per-unit

Xq

69

and thus Ia = Id2 + Iq2 = 1.34 per unit.

S = Vt Ia = 1.34 per-unit

Hence

Q= S 2 − P 2 = 1.32 per-unit

Problem 5.30

V∞ Eaf V2 1 1

P = sin δ + ∞ − sin 2δ

Xd 2 Xq Xd

The generator will remain synchronized as long as Pmax > P . An iterative

search with MATLAB can easily be used to ﬁnd the minimum excitation that

satisﬁes this condition for any particular loading.

part (a): For P = 0.5, must have Eaf ≥ 0.327 per unit.

part (b): For P = 1.0, must have Eaf ≥ 0.827 per unit.

Problem 5.32

part (a):

V∞ Vt

P = sin δt

Xbus

and that

V̂t − V∞

Iˆa =

jXt

that both the required power is achieved as well as the speciﬁed power factor

70

angle with respect to the generator terminal voltage. This is most easily done

iteratively with MATLAB. Once this is done, it is straightforward to calculate

Problem 5.33

part (a): Deﬁne XD = Xd + Xbus and XQ = Xq + Xbus .

(i)

Eaf,min = Vbus − XD = 0.04 per-unit

(ii)

part (b):

71

part (c):

Problem 5.34

n × poles 3000 × 6

f= = = 150 Hz

120 120

Problem 5.35

part (a): Because the load is resistive, we know that

P 4500

Ia ==√ = 13.5 A

3Va 3192

√

part (b): We know that Eaf = 208/ 3 = 120 V. Solving

Eaf = Va2 + (Xs Ia )2

for Xs gives

2 −V2

Eaf a

Xs = = 3.41 Ω

Ia

part (c): The easiest way to solve this is to use MATLAB to iterate to

ﬁnd the required load resistance. If this is done, the solution is Va = 108 V

(line-to-neutral) = 187 V (line-to-line).

Problem 5.36

Ea ωKa

Iˆa = =

Ra + Rb + jωLa Ra + Rb + jωLa

Thus

ωKa Ka

|Iˆa | = =

(Ra + Rb )2 + (ωLa)2

La 1 + RωL

a +Rb

a

Clearly, Ia will remain constant with speed as long as the speed is suﬃcient

to insure that ω >> (Ra + Rb )/La

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