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Chapter 9

Leading Change

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Learning Objectives

• Identify forces for change and the role of culture in


change.
• Describe types of change; apply Lewin’s change
model and explain the change process.
• Summarize the reasons for resistance to change
and apply possible solutions.
• Present the practices necessary to lead change
including the following:
– Creativity and innovation
– Changing the organizational culture
– The role of vision and exemplary leadership
– Creating learning organizations.
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The Leadership
Question

Change is hard and most people will resist it.


Given this, should leaders simply push
change through (get it over with) or should
they take time, introduce things slowly and
give followers time to adjust?

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Forces for Change

External Forces
Internal Forces
• Economic &
• Low
political
performance
• Cultural and
• New leadership
social
• Low satisfaction
• Demographic
• New mission
• Industry
• Conflict
• Technology

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Culture and Change

• Tolerance for ambiguity


– Higher tolerance likely to make change
seem as opportunity
• Relationship to and perception of time
– Present-orientation likely to lead to
quick reaction to change

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Types of Change

• Planned
• Unplanned
• Evolutionary
• Revolutionary or frame breaking

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Force Field Model for
Change

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Lewin’s Model for Change

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Factors to Consider When
Implementing Change
• The importance of recognizing the need for
change
• Preparing and motivating followers to
implement it
• The inevitable presence of the resistance to
change
• The focus on people as the source for
learning and change
• The need to support new behaviors and
allowing them to take hold

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Process of Planned Change

1. Recognize 2. Develop
CURRENT
the need for ideas for
STATE
change change

5. Allocate 4. Implement 3. Adopt one


resources ideas or more idea

DESIRED
6. Evaluate
STATE

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Dealing with Unplanned
Change
• Avoid becoming too formal, hierarchical
and inflexible
• Infuse controlled unpredictability and
spontaneity
• Be proactive in introducing change
• Replace and rotate leaders
• Experiment with new ideas, methods and
processes

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Organizational Causes of
Resistance to Change

• Inertia
• Organizational culture
• Structure
• Lack of rewards for change
• Poor timing

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Group Causes of Resistance to
Change

• Group norms
• Group cohesion
• Leadership

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Individual Causes of
Resistance to Change

• Fear of the unknown


• Fear of failure
• Job security
• Individual characteristics and traits
• Previous negative experiences with
change

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Methods of Dealing with
Resistance to Change

• Education and communication


• Participation and involvement
• Facilitation and support
• Negotiation
• Manipulation and cooptation
• Coercion

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Encouraging Creativity

• Leadership style.
• Flexible structure
• Open organizational culture
• Questioning attitude
• Tolerating mistakes

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Team Composition:
Heterogeneity and Homogeneity

Homogeneity:
Less conflict
More cohesion
Faster agreement

Heterogeneity:
More creativity
Better decisions in
complex environments

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Improvisation

Creation of something spontaneous


• Requires:
– Expertise
– Knowledge
– Perspective on the situation
– Willingness to take risks

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Vision and Change

• Vision is essential to successful


change
• Empowerment and confidence in
followers
• Flexible organization
• Teamwork and cooperation

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Exemplary and Visionary
Leadership

Challenge
the
process

Encourage
the heart

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Practices of Visionary
Leadership

• Set clear standards and goals


• Expect the best
• Pay attention
• Personalize rewards and recognition
• Tell a story
• Celebrate with follower
• Be a role model

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Building Credibility

• Clarify values
• Identify what followers want
• Build agreement and consensus
• Communicate values with
enthusiasm
• Stand up for your beliefs
• Role-model desired behaviors

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Core of Learning
Organizations

• Shared vision
• System thinking
• Mental models
• Personal mastery
• Team learning

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Blocks to Learning
Organizations

Isolated jobs

Blaming Ignoring
LEADERS others gradual
change

Skilled
LEARNING
incompetence
MEMBERS Emphasis on
events
Illusion of
taking
charge

THE
LEARNING ORGANIZATION
DISABILITIES

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Positive Approach to
Change

• Knowledge does not change behavior


• Role modeling positive change is key
• Look for bright spots
• Encourage change through positive
approach

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Changing Organization
Culture

• Communicate priorities
• Role model desired behaviors
• Allocate resources and rewards to
encourage change

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The Leadership
Question Revisited

• People will resist change, no matter what it is.


• Shocking the system and imposing change fast is
tempting, but likely to create resistance.
• Leaders should invest time and effort to prepare people
for change.
• Preparation can involve presenting data, showing why
change is important, etc.
• Involving followers as much as possible will help reduce
resistance to change.
• It is important for leaders to implement change slowly
and look for long-term pay off.
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What Do You Do?

You have the task of implementing a change in


your team’s work process. You have a very short
deadline from your boss and you personally agree
with the change. Half of your team is on board and
ready to go. The other half is very skeptical about
the change. What do you do?

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Leadership Challenge

• Recognize feelings and anger


• Role model desired attitudes and
behaviors
• Encourage participation in how to
implement change
• Seek information
• Provide training
• Provide support

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Leading Change:
Mulally

• Mulally critical in re-building Ford


• Focused on shareholders and public
interest, employees, and social
responsibility
• Focused on changing the Ford culture
through careful and consistent
communication about the mission
• Accessible, down-to-earth, and effective

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Leadership In Action:
Best Buy

• On-going challenges to increase profits and


employee engagement
• Drastic change to work processes
implemented from the middle out with
considerable success
• Change revoked unilaterally from top
• New procedures implemented without input

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