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Smart Factory Literature Review

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Currently, the development of digital know-how in the production firms has created means

for Industry 4.0 (Fourth Industrial Revolution), nurturing the development of outdated

manufacturing structures to smart factory model. Recently, various models giving characteristics

of the smart factory have been proposed. The business revolution needs to change the traditional

industrial systems to Industry 4.0. The drastic transformations which have been anticipated to

occur as a result of the evolution of inventive technologies intimately stimulated the notion of

Fourth Industrial Revolution, introduced by German Administration as a venture aiming to attain

smart factory concept where unified arrangements are incorporated and link through the IoT

(Internet of Things) know-hows for purposes of reactivity and adaptability to variations that

happen outside or within the industry setting (Kang et al., 2016).

Yoon et al., (2012), developed the idea of Ubiquitous Factory as an alternative expression

of the smart factory, with the emphasis being placed on the perspective of pervasive computing

tools employed in the production process. The outline proposed by Yoon et al. (2012) is established

on three key standards of a production system as follows; autonomy- this refers to self-compliance;

sustainability- this proposes a concurrent energy controlling, and transparency- meaning pervasive

data attainment and dependable information altercation. Centered on those ideologies, Yoon et al.

(2012) illustrated a reference design comprising four stages, extending from the factory base layer

up to the development stage, through the use of the information infrastructure layer and the system


The ubiquitous factory and smart factory ideas need to be deliberated only as originators

of the Industry 4. Truly, the initial organized definition and reference ideal for the Fourth Industrial

Revolution notion is stated in the last analysis of the German Platform Fourth Industrial Revolution

(Kagermann et al., 2013). In the analysis, Industry 4.0 description is confined in a broader vision

where the smart factory is merely a single part of a totally joined globe. In the kind of a

multifaceted system, the IoT (internet of things) and IoS (Internet of Services) facilitate the link

and the distribution of data outside the smart factory, whereas within, the main know-how that

changes the manufacturing practice into smart practices is Cyber-Physical Systems.

Kagermann et al. (2013), states that Fourth Industrial Revolution model is centered on three

main aspects as follows: networked manufacturing and vertical integration systems; horizontal

integration via value systems; and end on the digital incorporation of manufacturing through the

whole value chain. Horizontal integration is simply the connection of diverse manufacturing

structures in an intelligent supply chain, Fourth Industrial Revolution i.e. Big Data and Analytics,

Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Manufacturing and smart sensors, and Cyber-Physical Systems.

According to Zuehlke (2010), a “factory-of-things” describing the SmartFactoryKL

inventiveness, a demo and exploration testbed for an industrial and academic companion, where

every item is linked to the internet of things equipment and is entrenched to aptitude. For a

manufacturing line in Smart Factory KL, the creation of colored liquid soap is instigated alongside

an integrated arrangement of smart devices, where every aspect functions as actuator/ sensor,

through the application of radio equipment. It is a wireless link, with every device being furnished

alongside a micro-regulator, which informs it of the roles and location in the manufacturing

process facilitating self-decision for purposes of attaining a highly flexible re-alignment of the



Irrespective of this, in the review there is no much clarity of the outline stating what the

entire design of a smart factory system needs to be. A number of orientation models have been

suggested, however in most of the circumstances they are engrossed at a particular concern, for

example, the control and automation process, and the informative system.


Kagermann, H., Wahlster, W., Johannes, H. (2013). Recommendations for implementing the

strategic initiative Industrie 4.0. Retrieved October 7th, 2018, from

de/Ma erial_fuer_Sonde rseiten/Industrie_4.0/Final_report__Industrie_4.0_access


Kang, H., Lee, J., Choi, S., Kim, H., Park, J., & Son, J. et al. (2016). Smart manufacturing: Past

research, present findings, and future directions. International Journal Of Precision

Engineering And Manufacturing-Green Technology, 3(1), 111-128. doi: 10.1007/s40684-


Yoon, J., Shin, S., & Suh, S. (2012). A conceptual framework for the ubiquitous factory.

International Journal Of Production Research, 50(8), 2174-2189. doi:


Zuehlke, D. (2010). SmartFactory—Towards a factory-of-things. Annual Reviews In Control,

34(1), 129-138. doi: 10.1016/j.arcontrol.2010.02.008