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E

26 (2001), pp. -

**Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of
**

Solids Using the Jet Pump

by

**Chamlong PRABKEAO *1 and Katsumi AOKI*2
**

(Received on Mar.31 & Accepted on May 23,2001 )

Abstract

The characteristics of solid handling jet pump are affected by many factors, for instance, nozzle-throat area ratio, flow rate

ratio, head ratio, concentration of slurry by volume for suction side, loss factors for suction and delivery side, slip velocity

between water and solid, velocity etc. In design of jet pump with solids, it is very important to clear the problem by using

many factors. This paper describes the theoretical analysis for hydraulic transportation characteristics of solids using to the jet

pump by changing the main factor in the solid handling jet pump can be predict the characteristics.

Keywords: Hydraulic transportation, Solids, Jet pump, Characteristics, Efficiency

1.Introduction 2.Nomenclature

**As jet pump is simple construction, no moving parts and easy A : area α : Coefficient of velocity
**

β : area ratio (d D ) γ

２

working, it has been used widly for draw water from a well : specific weight

recirculating pump of a rector and a drain pump of civil C :concentration by volume ε : specific grabity

constructions etc. C' : concentration by weight µ : slip factor

Study on the characteristics of center drive type jet pump, many H : total head φ : flow rate ratio

studies has done theoretically and experimentally by Gasline , (1)

He : effective head ψ : head ratio

Ichikawa(2), Cunningkam(3) , Muller(4) , Reddy(5) and Ueda (6) etc. Since Hd : discharge head η : efficiency

the J.Thomson(7) reported in 1852. But these papers study of the Hp : drive head Subscript

characteristies for the water-jet pump, when both suction and motive Hs : suction head D : discharge side

fluid are the same. h : loss of head dif : diffuser

In recent years, a jet pump which has a 90゜bend connected K : loss factor j : nozzle

directly to a water-jet nozzle along the centerline is P : pressure mc : mixing chamber

discussed theoretically and experimentally for transporting solid Q : volumetic flow rate s : suction side

materials (8),(9)

and the performance of annular jet pump is published V : velocity s : solid

the expertimentally(10),(11). W : weight flow rate ss : solid in suctionside

The characteristics of jet pump with solid are affected by many su : slurry

factors, for instance, nozzle-throat area ratio, flow rate ratio, head sw : water in suctionside

ratio, concentration of slurry by volume for suction side, loss factors w : water

for suction and delivery side, slip velocity between water and solid

velocity etc. Therefore, in design of jet pump with solids, it is very

important to clear the effect for the many factors. 3.Calculation for Predicting the Performance of

In this study, it has been predicted the theoretical characteristics a Solids Handling Jet Pump.

of jet pump by changing of main factors in the center drive jet pump

with solids. Figuer1.shows the principle of jet pump for hydraulics

transportation of solids and the efficiency is given the following

＊１ Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty equation

of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology,

Ladkrabang (KMITL),Bangkok, Thailand. γ su Qsu H

η= ⋅ ⋅ (1)

＊ ２ Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of γ w Qj He

Engineering, Tokai University.

― 1 ―

This pressure creates flow in the discharge line. At the first. the specific weight of slurry can be expressed as follows Here. ― 2 ― . Substitute equations (17) and (18) into the momentum equation The kinetic energy of the mixed fluid is converted pressure energy in between points “c” and “d” and if we divide by γ w.1 Schematic diagram for hydraulic transportation of Solid used jet pump Combining continuity equations (6). (9). as in Fig. φ・ Q・j γ w vs = Fig.2 Fundamentals of the structure for jet pump γ su・ As {µ ・s C s + (1 − C s )} (17) B(1 + φ ・) v・j γ w vd = The drive nozzle converts the pressure zone at the tip of the γ d {µ d・ C d + (1 − C d )} (18) nozzle. B(1 + φ ) γw γ {1 − C s (1 − µ s µ d γ s γ w )} − 2 B + 2 Bφ w 3) the energy equation between points “ｂ” and “ｃ” and the {1 − C d (1 − µ d )} γ d γ su {1 − C s (1 − µ s )} energy equation between points “ｄ” and “ｅ”. Ad together and the diffuser which follows the mixing. φ is flow rate ratio. suction fluid and accelerates it throughout the mixing chamber. H e = H p − H d ，Ｈ is total head. it becomes the following equation. rearrange them. 2g γ su { 1 − C s (1 − µ s )}2 2) the energy equation between points “ａ” and “ｃ”. γw K mc − B 2 (1 + φ ) 2 These four equations will now be developed before further step { γ d 1 − C d (1 − µ d )2 } in the solution are taken. (11) and (12). The high speed driving jet which exits Here. discharge line at section “d” may be defined as γ su・ γ w (φ + 1) γd = (14) γ w・ φ + γ su Qsu・ γ su Wsu φ= = (15) Q・j γ w Wj Qss µ・s C・s φ・ γ w Cd = = Q j + Qsu {(1 − C s ) + µ ・s C s }(γ su + φ・ γ w ) (16) Here. Chamlong Prabkeao and Katsumi Aoki Qd = Qj + Qsu (2) Ad = Aj + As (3) Qsu= Qss + Qsw (4) Qss = µ s・ vs・ As・ Cs (5) Qsw = vs・ As・ (1-Cs) (6) γ dQss = γ su ・ Qsu + γ w ・ Qj (7) Wd = Wsu + Wsj (8) Wsu = Wss + Wsw (9) Wss = γ s・ Qss =γ s・ µ s・ vs・ As・ Cs (10) Wsw = γ ・ Qsw =γ ・ vs・ As・ (1-Cs) (11) w w Wsu =γ ・ Qsu (12) su Fig. general continuity equations (19) are presented as follows. H e is effective head. The low pressure zone induces flow of the suction fluid in the direction of driving jet. coefficient of slip velocity in the suction and discharge side from the tip of nozzle entrains and exchanges momentum with the are µ s = Vss/Vsw and µ d = Vds/Vdw.1. (10). The apparatus functions as a pumping device in the following and the specific weight γ d and concentration by volume Cd of manner. There are four r r independent equations that can be developed due to momentum and ∫ 0 Pd 2πrdr − ∫ 0 Pc 2πrdr γ w Ad γ w Ad energy considerations.2 and its power supply is high pressure jet of water. Referring to Fig. H = H d − H s . there equations are: = v 2j γ 2 B + 2φ 2 w 2 { ( 1 − C s 1 − µ s2γ s γ w )} 1) the momentum equation between points “ｃ” and “ｄ”. Average velocity in pipe at point “b” and “e” are given as follows equations. The construction of jet pump is Wsu C s ( µ・s γ s − γ w ) + γ w (13) γ su = = radically different from the centrifugal pump in that it contains no Qsu (1 − C s ) + µ ・s C s moving parts as in Fig.2.

{1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ × + 1 γ C s = C 's su {(µ γ s s w γ − 1)C ’ γ su γ s + 1} γs (23) φ γ × K dif − α d 1 − C’ s (1 + φ ) ( 1 − v d2 ) Cd = C 'd d γs (24) − 2 B + 2φ 2 { ( B 2 1 − 1 − µ s2γ s γ w C ' s γ su γ s ) + 1 } Where. φ φ 2B2 × K dif − α d 1 − C’ s (1 + φ ) ( 1 − v d2 + ) (1 − B ) 2 r ∫ Pd 2πrdr 2 B (1 + φ ) ε d 2 2 γ w α s {1 − C’ s (1 − µ s2 )}+ K s Hd = 0 − γ w Ad {1 − C d (1 − µ d )}2 γ d × {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ γ su γ s }{(µ sγ s γ w − 1)C’ γ su γ s + 1}2 + 1 2 { ( × K dif − α d 1 − C’ d + C’ d µ d2 )}2vg j (22) (27) v 2j B 2 (1 + φ ) He = (α j + K j ) + The relation between concentration by volume “c” and weight 2 g {1 − (φC’ s γ su γ s ) (φ + γ su γ w ・) (1 − µ d )}2 “ C’ ” is expressed as follows. and substitute equation 1− s s w su s (23) into equation (16) and if rearranged with “ µ s” ≒ 1. {C’ γ su γ s − (µ sγ s γ w − 1) + 1} {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ r − B 2 (1 + φ ) + 1 ∫ Pc 2πrdr 2 Hs = 0 + φ 2B2 γ w {( µ s s wγ γ − 1)C ’ γ su γ s + 1} γ w Ac (1 − B )2 γ su K mc B 2 (1 + φ ) × − ε su {α s (1 − C’s +C’s µ s2 ) + K s } v (φC’ s γ su γ s ) (φC’ s γ su γ s ) 2 2 2 × j (21) 1 − (1 − µ d ) 1 − (1 − µ d ) {1 − Cs (1 − µs )}2 2g (φ + γ su γ w ) (φ + γ su γ w ) {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ × + 1 {(µ s γ s γ w − 1)C’ γ su γ s + 1} 2 And also. the coefficient of slip velocity “µ s” B {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ − × + 1 (φC’ s γ su γ s ) {( µ γ γ − 1)C’ γ γ + 1} (1 − µ d ) in suction side can consider as “µ s” ≒ 1. 1 − B {(µ s γ s γ w − 1)C 'γ su γ s + 1}2 the relative velocity of water and particle of solids can consider as velocity very small. Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of Solids Acording to Jet pump By Substitute equations (23). total head “H” and presented as follows equation. (25) and (26) into equations Energy equation between “a” and “c”. as the average velocity of slurry in suction pipe is slow. the drive head (Hp ) is (13). the energy equation between points “d” and “e” suction head Hd is become as follow equation. effective head “He” can be expressed the equation as follows. it (φ + γ su γ w ) becomes the following equation × 2 B + 2 Bφ {1 − (1 − µ s µ d γ s γ w )C’ s γ su γ s } γ su {C’ s γ su γ s − (µ sγ s γ w − 1) + 1} C's φ γs Cd = γ su {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ +φ (25) − B 2 (1 + φ ) + 1 γw {( µ s s wγ γ − 1 )C’ γ s su γ s + 1} Substitute equation (24) for equations (25) and (26) K mc × γs φ {1 − (1 − µ d )(φC’ s γ su γ s ) (φ + γ su γ w )} 2 C 'd = C d = C 's (26) (28) γd φ +1 ― 3 ― . Therefore. (14) and (21) and if rearranged them. ∫ r Pa 2πrdr v2 H= v 2j 2 B + 2φ 2 B 2 { ( ) 1 − 1 − µ s2γ s γ w C ' s γ su γ s } Hp = 0 +αd a γ w Aa 2g 2 g 1 − B {(µ s γ s γ w − 1)C’ γ su γ s + 1}2 r B {1 − (1 − µ s )C’ s γ su γ s }φ ∫ Pc 2πrdr v 2j (20) − × + 1 = + (α j + K j ) (φC’ s γ su γ s ) {( ) } 0 µ γ s s w γ − 1 C ’ γ γ + 1 γ w Ac 2g 1− (1 − µ d ) su s (φ + γ su γ w ) By the energy equation between points “b” and “c”，the suction × 2 B + 2 Bφ {1 − (1 − µ s µ d γ s γ w )C’ s γ su γ s } head He is presented as follows.

the concentrations are zero. At the present time there is no sure way of quantifying these coefficients. And from its results. Ks. (21) and (22) to obtain the solution to the problem. C s’.3 Efficiency and flow ratio versus-nozzle throat area ratio included. 4. the equations (27). It is known that the maximum efficiency is moving the γ w. divided by the drive fluid. γ su Qsu Wsu φ= = (29) γ wQ j Wj The head ratio ψ will be defined as the head gained by the suction fluid. It is calculated by multiplaying the average velocity of water by the coefficient “µ s ” or “µ d ” which is between 0 and 1.(28) The two nondimentional parameters. This can be done since there are now six equations and seven unknowns when φ and ψ are Fig. These two other equations will define two new parameters φ and ψ . it is known to increase with flow rate ratio study. as flow ratio is equal to the weight rate of flow ratio used in the present ( d/D) become smaller. Cd ’ ⑥specific weight γ s.3 shows the relation between the efficiency η and other independent equations which will be used in order to flow rate ratio (Qsu／Qj) for the changing at nozzle-throat ratio. µ s. It is written as follows. γ d direction to become smaller of flow rate ratio (Q su／Qj ) with nozzle In this relationship φ is always taken to be the independent throat ratio (d/D) become larger and the results of calculation agree variable. Qsu H η= ⋅ Qj He ― 4 ― . Cd . Chamlong Prabkeao and Katsumi Aoki The four equation just written will be supplemented with two Fig. especially in this case since the particles experience instead flow in all sections of the pump. as we need not consider about the concentrations of solids etc. equation (1) may be written as. slip velocity in this case has been taken to be an average slip velocity.6. Fig. The parametric analysis was slip velocity in the suction and discharge sides of the pump. changing with flow rate ratio for the each of d/D and it shows the Kmc. Kj. (28) and (29) become the equation for performance of water-jet pump. equation (30) will now be used in conjunction with equations (19). From the studies of Zandi and Yen. It is known that the efficiency is following variables ①flow rate ratio φ ②loss factors. H Eq. µ d ⑤concentration Cs. α d ④slip velocity terms maximum values in the almost d/D = 0. That is the average velocity of the particles was taken to be 10% less than the average velocity of the water. well with the experimental values. in the equation (1) for efficiency Gosline and O’Brien’s rate ratio (Q su／Qj) for the same condition. which define the weight ratio of flow equation (29) and the head ratio. γ su.4 shows the relation between head ratio (H/He) and flow Therefore. φ will be written as the weight rate of flow ratio and its Exp. “H” is basically a function of the based on various reference. nondimensionalize the five variables. (20). Although it is seen to be a The various coefficients used in these equations quote in rather complicated expression.4 Head ratio and flow rate ratio for nozzle-throat area ratio In this case.Calculating Results and Consideration 4.(27) ϕ= = (30) H e Eq. Kd ③velocity defect terms α s.1 Pump Performance in Case of Same Fluid Fig.(13) form will be the following. Equation (30) will be examined as to its ability to predict the performance of solids handling jet pumps. (Qsu／Qj) and decrease with head ratio (H/He).

7 Show the relationship between the flow rate ratio maximum efficiency and the efficiency for the changing α s. it is seem to be the different of construction in jet pump. But for the difference of absolute value. From variables which affect the performance of the pump are investigated this figure. in this paper. Ks) used in Fig. it is know to decrease the efficiency as the loss of mixing chamber become larger and the maximum efficiency is moving the direction to become smaller of flow rate ratio. Although the center drive jet pump has been widely studied in the literature. 4.6 Shows the effect of factors in driving side (α j.8 Show the relationship between the flow ratio and the efficiency for the changing Kmc 4. And it is investigated the the performance for the changing of the main factors in the effect of factors in suction side (α s. there appears no date or equations for predicting performance when pumping a sand slurry.7. Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of Solids Acording to Jet pump (13) Fig.1.6～8 is shown the relation between the flow rate ratio and the efficiency for the changing an example of each factor in d/D = 0. ― 5 ― .1 Effects of Various Factors in Jet Pump Fig.6. (5). As the effect of factors in the delivery side. Kj) Here. Kj ). Fig. it is investigated by calculating in the maximum efficiency is not change. It knows to following the pump conditions. but the flow rate ratio variables. Ks Fig. it shows the performance in case of the water transportation of a solids used center drive type jet pump and main Fig. decrease the flow rate ratio in the maximum efficiency as the factors (α s.5 Nozzle-throat area ratio and flow rate ratio for Fig.5 Shows the relation between (d/D)2 and (Qsu/Qj) in maximum efficiency and it shows the tendency to agree with another papers (4). Therefore. Fig.6 shows the effect of factors in driving side (α j . Ks) become larger.2 Prediction of the Performance and the Effect of Main Factors for the Solids Handling Jet Pump. Kj ) become larger. it is known that the efficiency shows the tendency to in order to obtain information concerning optimum combinations of decrease as the factors (α j .

but the flow rate ratio decrease as compared Fig. flow rate ratio become a constant. (13) 4.11 shows the effect of loss factor (Kｊ ) and velocity defect with the water jet pump. It shown the tendency to become gradually larger as head ratio (H/He) is known that the efficiency η decrease as well as water jet pump become smaller but. 13 show the effect of loss factor (K ｓ ) and velocity defect term (α ｓ ) in suction side become larger and η ｍａｘ is moved in the direction of flow rate ratio become smaller. when the head ratio arrive with the loss factors or velocity defect term in driving side become at same value.3. Fig. but it knows that the flow rate ratio in the maximum predict the limitation of flow rate ratio.12. Chamlong Prabkeao and Katsumi Aoki Pumping Conditions Driving fluid : water Suction fluid : Slurry(solids+water) Concentration by weight in suction side Ｃ ｓ ´: 0. ― 6 ― .2 Pump Performance Figure. And the flow rate ratio (γ su Q su /γ j Q j ) is term (α ｊ ) in driving side for the changing of the flow rate ratio. Kｊ ) in Driving Side compared with Fig.2 Effect of Main Factors for Pump Performance Figure.6.9 shows the relation between the efficiency and flow rate ratio with solids-handling jet pump for the changing of nozzle Fig.10 Show the relationship between head ratio and flow rate throat ratio (d/D).4.11～15 shows the relation of efficiency for flow rate ratio when the each factors are changed in d/D = 0. But it knows that the efficiency and Fig. 2) The Effective of Factors (α ｓ .9 Show the relationship between the efficiency and flow ratio with solids-handling jet pump for the changing of nozzle-throat ratio (d/D) It is known that the performance shows the tendency to the water jet pump as same as Fig.11 Effects of loss and velocity defect terms in drive flow rate ratio in maximum efficiency is fallen from the about 65% for the efficiency of water jet pump. It knows that the head ratio (H/He) and flow rate ratio of Fig. ratio with solids-handling jet pump for the changing of nozzle-throat ratio (d/D) Exp. as shown in Fig.2.10 show the tendency to same as 1) The Effect of Factors (α ｊ . efficiency is kept the constant values in spite of the changing of the efficiency. Kｓ ) in Suction Side Fig.65 Specific weight of water γ ｗ : 1000 kgf/m3 Specific weight of slurry in suction side γ ｓｕ : 1650 kgf/m3 Specific weight of solid γ ｓ: 2650 kgf/m3 4. then it can be larger.10.

. maximum efficiency is moved in the direction of flow rate ratio 5 Reddy.Y.M.1968.Vol.No.Vol. Fig.502.J.80. of Hydr..No.2 1967.No.(1954). 57.G.12 The effect of loss factor (Ks) in suction side 5.No.Eng.13 Show the effect of loss factor (S) in suction side 1934.89.48 No.Vol. At the present time there is no sure way of quantifying these coefficients. and O ´ Brien.Vol.No.Reference 1 Gasoline.Mech.Japan Soc.Conclusion The fundamental equations for prediction of performance in hydraulic transportation of solids by jet pump was derived.Japan Soc. 10 Kuzuhara. Sep.. (1982).Eng. The parametric analysis is carried out by assuming from 0.ASME. Water works Assn. The performance of solids handling jet pump as same as water-jet pump are affected the larger by nozzle-throat ratio and it knew that the maximum efficiency is the almost d/D = 0. Theoretical Analysis on Hydraulic Transportation of Solids Acording to Jet pump 4) The Effective of Slip Velocity Factor (µ d).56-B.E. (1983).Pub.Trans.Mech. (Kmc) in mixing chamber.Mech.48-B.No.Pump Engineering.0.Eng.1957.Trans.(1932).P. of Hydr.2746. especially in this case since the particles experience unsteady flow in all sections of the pump.0 and 1. and the May.436. Kdif ) in Discharge Side.J.J.69.6.Mech.Trans.20. 7 Thomson.Vol.8. Fig.Nov.Eng.Vol.49-B.No.1964.No.14 is shown the relation of the efficiency for loss factor 3 Cunningham. (1990).Lond.Engg. 13 Aoki・ Okitsu.Eng. become smaller.G. 11 Simizu. Amer. (1988).et al.et al.etal.HY5.1852. 9 Kumagaya. “Decreased Head Losses in Raw water Conduit” J.2510. Association.HY3 with the loss factor (K mc) in mixing chamber become larger..Univ. I. It is calculated by multiplying the average velocity of water by the coefficient µ s or µ d which is between 0. 12 Zandi..Trans.Japan Soc.H.Brit.Rep.167.Mech.25. 8 Kumagaya.Mech.11(1972 ). Slip velocity in this case has been taken to be an average slip velocity.Vol.Div.Div.90.Vol.130.Japan 3) The Effective of Factors (Kmc.527. it is known that prediction of slip velocity or even the affirmation of its existence is very difficult problem.J.Japan Soc.N. Fig.R.2014.Eng.et al. 6. The efficiency show the all over decrease 4 Mueller. Soc.Trans.No. 2 Ichikawa...54-B.Trans..Trans..5～0.Japan Soc.Vol.No3.14 The relation of the efficiency for loss factor (K mc) in mixing chamber ― 7 ― .1261 6 Ueda.448.18.. And from this equation. Fig. Vol.et al.749.R.5 slip velocity in discharge side of the pump.1385.ASCE. (12) From the studies of Zandi and Yen .ASCE..1 to 0.3. it clarified the effect of each factors for the efficiency of jet pump.Vol.

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