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ATPL - INS - Formulas


Most common formulas used in Instruments.
I recommand the use of the font: Helvetica-light makes it easier to read.

What is the formula to find M=TAS/LSS (Mach equals True Air Speed divided by Local Speed of
the Mach Number? Sound)

What is the formula for the LSS=38.94√(Temperature in K)


local speed of sound?

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How to convert °C in °K and -273 for °K
°F °F=(9/5)*°(C+32)

How to find the True Air TAT=SAT(10.2Kr*M^2) - True Air Temperature equals Static Air
Temperature Temperature times(1 times 0.2 times The probe number times mach
speed squared)

How to calculate the total Tp=Ts+Td - Total pressure equals Static pressure plus dynamic pressure
pressure?

What is a good TAT=SAT+(TAS/100)^2


approximation for the TAT?

1. How to calculate the Earth 1. Earth Rate°= 15*Sin(Latitude)


Rate? 2. Earth Rate is applyed to the right in the northern hemisphere and to
2. How to apply it? the left in the southern hemisphere

1. How to calculate the 1. Latitude nut°= 15*Sin(Latitude)


Latitude nut? 2. Latitude nut is applied to the left in the northern hemisphere and to
2. How to apply it? the right in the southern hemisphere.
3. What is it? 3. The Latitude nut is the correction applied to counter the Earth rate.

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It induces a real wander to counter the apparent wander of earth
rotation.

How to calculate the Change in longitude * Sin(mean latitude)


transport wander?

What error occurs on a PITCH / BANK


classic Artificial horizon? 90°:Nose Up / Under reads
180°: Max nose up / Correct
270°: Nose Up / Over reads
360°: Correct / Correct

How do you correct the T-V-M-D-C: TRUE-variation-MAGNETIC-deviation-COMPASS


headings on a compas?

What do you read on a direct Northern H: ANDS: Accelarate North Decelerate South
compass, on an east/west Southern H: DNAS: Decelarate North Accelarate south
heading, when the speed of Therefore the compass will show an apparent turn in the given
the aircraft changes? direction when changing th speed of the Aircraft.

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What must be taken into Northern H: UNOS: Undershoot north, Overshoot south
account when turning Southern H: ONUS: Overshoot north, Undershoot south
towards north or south while
reading a Direct reading
Compass?

What does the Shuller period A damping period of 84 min


implies for the INS?

How often an FMS Data base Every 28 Days, 28 days ahead of the implementation date of the
is updated update.

How do you calculate the Cost index=Aircraft operating cost / Fuel Cost
cost index?

What are a high, low and a 0 High: Higher fuel burn and fastest speed
cost index? Low: Lower fuel burn and greater range
0: Max range airspeed and min trip fuel.

How do you calculate the EPR= Turbine Discharge Pressure / Compressor inlet pressure
EPR?

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What is the standard 1.98°C per 1000ft
temperature lapse rate in the
Atmosphere?

What is the standard pressure 27ft per 1hPa


lapse rate in the Atmosphere?

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