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LITERACIES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE o Example: Filmmakers (whether in movies or advertisements) tell stories using

various techniques to enhance the emotion or appeal that is intended to be


Media literacy is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media. experienced by the audiences. Everything that we watch is carefully crafted
Importance of Media Literacy: (a) Media literacy is the ability to exercise critical thinking and placed in order to reinforce meaning — background music on highly-
when analyzing different forms of media; (b) Educators believe that media literacy is an romantic moments, powerful tagline at the end of ads, etc.
effective and engaging way for students to apply critical thinking skills to a wide range of o The media industry is mostly a business. Majority of media organizations
issues; (c) One will be able to understand the significant role of the media in our society and exist primarily as business entities with the purpose of turning a profit from
how largely it influences its users. If a person has skills in media literacy, he will be able to their outputs.
discern what information is factual, truthful, and objective through critical thinking; (d) Media o Example: Media (whether in print, broadcast, or digital) is a business at the
literacy enables a person to become competent in processing and assessing the form of media end of the day. Corporations and media outlets still have to hit certain quotas
one uses. A media literate person is able to think independently and makes his own opinion on revenue and sales and these factors and pressures control the kind of
instead of relying on what the media dictates; and (e) Media literacy skills can help students messages they put out. Shift from physical to digital (i.e., print magazines to
become well informed using the different forms of mass media simultaneously. These skills digital magazines) is a challenge and also trend on developing media outlets
will allow students to develop an intellectual and artistic sense on how they can create useful all over the world as they attempt to change their business models.
and effective forms of media by themselves. o Audiences negotiate the meaning of media texts. Audiences vary in their
socio-economic, educational and political backgrounds. As such, they interpret
Information literacy is the skill that allows a person to recognize when information is media texts differently based on their own contexts and life experiences.
needed and how he will be able to access, locate, evaluate, and use it effectively. o Example: Watching Gossip Girls makes you daydream about studying or
Importance of Information Literacy: (a) Information literacy lets you distinguish which living at the Upper East Side.
among the sources of information are relevant; (b) By means of information literacy, an o Media are social and political. They contain value messages which may serve
individual will be able to organize and classify the different forms of media which can be used as observation, reflection or critic of what is happening in the society where it
to secure relevant and substantial information; (c) Information literacy can also aid students in was created.
developing effective research skills essential in enriching their knowledge and enhancing their o Example: The content of media is highly varied. Just by scrolling on your
comprehension; and (d) Information literacy is important in all disciplines and all levels of social feed on Facebook, content will vary from cute, non-sense cat videos to
education. Through information literacy, a learner is able to gather essential information. Thus, highly political, informative articles on the latests developments of the US
the learner can utilize this essential information to expand his knowledge. government. The same can be said on our experience on the television where
content ranges from variety shows on ABS-CBN to socio-political discussions
Technology literacy is the ability to acquire relevant information and use modern-day on CNN.
tools to get, manage, apply, evaluate, create, and communicate information. o Various media use varied aesthetics. Different media forms have different
Importance of Technology Literacy: (a) Past and present technologies both provide content and aesthetical standards.
convenience and efficiency; (b) Technology is associated with machines, equipment, device, o Example: Experiences of reading a book may be different from the experiences
or any invention that show advancement in scientific knowledge, engineering, and computer of watching a movie. Different forms of media have different kinds of
concepts; and (c) With technological discoveries and breakthroughs, people nowadays are even application, ways of delivery, and these differences are often highlighted when
hoping to find cure for dreaded incurable illnesses, like brain cancer. we interact with various forms of media regularly. These can also be
highlighted when your favorite book gets translated to a movie and its a totally
Characteristics of media according to the MIL Framework different experience.
o Media are constructs. All content that you see in media are carefully crafted  Select theories and approaches in mass media
and created with an intended message in mind.
Base-superstructure model: Based on Karl Marx’s theories on class analysis and class Propaganda model (Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky, 1988): Media as “ideological
struggle, this model posits that in any given society, the economic base determines the existing institutions that serve a system-supportive propaganda function through reliance on market
superstructure. The base is determined by the primary mode of real production in society, forces, internalized assumptions and self-censorship.” According to this model, news and
while the superstructure is comprised of its politics and culture. While the economy information from media are filtered in five ways:
determines politics and culture, politics and culture exist to maintain and legitimize the o According to the media organization’s size, ownership and profit
economy and the status quo. Media is said to be part of the cultural superstructure. orientation
o An example of how the cultural superstructure retains the economic base is o Example: Sun Star Cebu is a community-based newspaper. Most of the news
how media portrays the poor and rich and thus normalizes inequality in our it contains are focused on its locality, with some news coming from its network
society. of community newspapers in other provinces such as Sun Star Davao. It cannot
o Another example is how media depicts inequality as a norm where concepts of report news in areas where it has no correspondents or existing networks.
"kahirapan", "gulong ng palad", and "kapalaran" are used to show social o Example: TV Patrol only reports about actors and actresses that are part of
injustices as result of misfortune. the ABS-CBN Network. They do not report on issues and successes of other
artists not belonging to their organization.
Hegemony (Antonio Gramsci): Differentiates between coercion, or the use of direct force o Advertising
and institutions which exhibit and implement force, and consensus, or a form of control when o Example: Nestle is among the world’s most boycotted brands because of their
individuals “willingly” assimilate the world-view or hegemony of the dominant group. Thus, unethical business practices such as child labor in Africa. However, news
hegemony refers to the dominant or ruling ideology or world-view in any given society, or the about these business practices rarely reach audiences, because Nestle is also
ideology of the elite. among the biggest sponsors across different media industries.
o Example: A good example of this specific theory is how women would always o Mass media news and sources
strive to achieve a "perfectly shaped" body, a certain skin tone, thickness of o Example: Mainstream media is fixated with so-called “official sources,”
lips, all because of how media strongly and consistently portrays women with which are mostly government agencies. Even when there is concrete evidence
such unrealistic beauty standards. contrary to so-called official reports, mainstream media will abide by the
claims of these official sources.
Ideological state apparatuses by Louis Althusser (1971): The media generate ideologies and o Flak and enforcers
beliefs which serve the interests of the economic and political elite, reinforcing the existing o Example: A TV network receives reliable information along with evidence that
relationships in society and their dominance over the masses. In this theory, Marx’s a well-liked high-ranking official has accepted bribes from an international
superstructure is reconfigured as the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs) which are used by mining company. However, they decide not to air the news since they are
the state to control its people without realizing it. Along with these ISAs, the state also employs afraid of the ensuing confrontation which might occur afterward, along with
repressive state apparatuses which keep people in line, including the police, military and the hateful remarks and actions from the official’s army of followers.
rule of law. ISAs include media and educational institutions, along with other social structures o Ideology and fear-mongering
and institutions. o Example: Some reports on activism has shifted following the end of Martial
o A quite fitting example for this is how some news tend to downplay the impact Law. Where before activists were lauded for their brave acts for defying the
of inflation to the poor and make a report (including statements from Marcos dictatorship, activists nowadays are considered either as a nuisance
politicians) that the recent rise of goods are just "temporary problems" that or tagged as unruly, uncivilized terrorists.
people can get over. Given this, a news report about "tips on saving" was o Example: A significant amount of news that focus on killings, tragedies, fires,
crafted instead of news that holds government accountable for what is robbery versus news of scientific discoveries of Filipinos, triumphs, and
happening. success on mainstream news. Observe TV Patrol or 24 Oras and take note of
the amount of negative news versus positive news.
Diffusion of innovations: popularized by Everett Rogers (1962), explains how technology and
new developments spread in society. Three Modes of Reading - David Morley (1980)
o Dominant reading: audiences accept the encoded meaning and reproduces
Information Society: originated in Japan early as the 1960s, indicating an information the producer’s preferred reading
economy and the emergence of a thinking class and increasing global connectivity. o Example: Seeing an iPhone ad on YouTube with your friends and suddenly
o An example could be Facebook's rise and growth (billions of dollars in wanting to buy it because you were impressed by the specs displayed and
revenue) despite being a free and open-source platform to people. highlighted in the ad. You tell your friends that it's great and it's worth it.
o Oppositional reading: audiences take the oppositional stance to the preferred
Hypodermic needle (Harold Lasswell, 1920s): media as powerful conduits of messages and reading and resists it completely.
audiences as passive recipients who will believe anything from the media. o Example: Seeing an iPhone ad on YouTube with your friends and spoke about
how the new iPhone is totally overrated and overpriced for the specs and
Agenda-setting (Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw, 1972): Media producers help shape "new" capabilities that it offers on the ad.
political reality as they determine which issues are “important” and thus may set the “agenda” o Negotiated reading: audiences partially accept the encoded meaning and
of political campaigns. mostly accepts the preferred reading, but modifies some parts reflecting their
o An example of this is how a newspaper outlet chooses to prioritize and put own position, experiences, and opinions.
more focus on a smaller, more scandalous news over something that actually o Example: Seeing an iPhone ad on YouTube with your friends and having
concerns the entire nation (i.e., Trillanes' trial versus the high-inflation rate, second thoughts about its worth. There are some parts of the material that
the President's nasty remark about an issue versus the amount of killings appealed to you, but there are also some that contradicts your views and
happened in a 2-week bracket). values.

Uses and gratifications theory: Audiences choose to consume a media product based on Fourth Estate (Edmund Burke, 1787): refers largely to the press, or journalism, as the fourth
specific needs, including: pillar of democratic societies which ensure check and balance of the state and its branches.
o Personal identity: audiences look for media aligned with their personal values
and ideological beliefs. The Public Sphere (Jürgen Habermas): the area of public life where we can freely discuss,
o Information: audiences want to learn or seek advice from a medium deliberate and debate on issues affecting our lives.
o Entertainment: audiences are looking for diversion
o Social integration: they want to connect with family, friends and other parts Market Model: a model for mass media which sees profit as the primary motive and perceives
of their social circle audiences as consumers.

Cultural effects by George Gerbner (1976): media, particularly television, cultivates in its Public Sphere Model: A mass media model which promotes the protection of public interest
audiences a way of sensing and seeing the world, thereby shaping their opinions, views, and as its primary goal. Audiences are seen as citizens and stakeholders in forming and upholding
behavior. This theory has been used by other scholars in analyzing violence in television and democratic society.
formation of political opinion. Criticism: very mechanical, dismisses other factors in the social
environment -------------------------------------------------------------------------
o Example: One example is how my nephews, Harrison, likes to watch Paw
Patrol and often pretends to bark and walk like a dog even when not watching MEDIA AND INFORMATION LITERATE INDIVIDUAL
the show. Another example could be young boys who like watching FPJ's Ang
Probinsyano and end up pretending to shoot people and do violent car chases Four core skills: (1) Aesthetic and creative skills, (2) interactive skills, (3) critical analysis
when playing. skills, and (4) security skills.
for individuals in evaluating and understanding it. The uncertain quality and expanding quantity
The MIL individual can: understand media’s influences andrepresentations, make informed of information pose large challenges for society. The sheer abundance of information will not
and independent decisions, build a sense ofcommunity, engage in public discourse and lifelong in itself create a more informed citizenry without a complementary cluster of abilities necessary
learning, produceinformation, think critically, and use media in a safe and responsible way, to use information effectively.
andparticipate in a democracy.
Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all
Constructs of MIL (UNESCO) learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and
 Societal (Macro Level) — policy and decision matter extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their
 Institutional (Meso Level) — educational planner own learning. An information literate student is able to:
 Individual (Micro Level) — citizen  Determine the extent of information needed
 Access the needed information effectively and efficiently
Ecology of MIL (UNESCO)  Evaluate information and its sources critically
 Media literacy  Incorporate selected information into one's knowledge base
 Information literacy  Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
 Freedom of expression and information literacy  Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information,
 Library literacy and access and use information ethically and legally
 News literacy
 Computer literacy -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Internet literacy
 Digital literacy There are three types of media that is available to all of us — print, broadcast, and new (or
 Cinema literacy digital) media.
 Games literacy
 Television literacy, advertising literacy Traditional media are forms of media which have existed prior to the existence of the internet.
This includes print, broadcast (radio and television), and film. New media includes forms of
------------------------------------------------------------------------- media that are digital and may have the capacity to access and use the internet.

Some more terms that may be useful for your learnings:


Information Literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognize when  Mainstream media — media outlets operated as businesses by large corporations.
information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed  Independent media — (aka "indie" to most of you) refer to film, music, or any forms
information" — ALA.org of media entertainment produced by independent creators that are not backed up nor
are under corporations, record labels, etc. Independent producers and creators operate
Information literacy also is increasingly important in the contemporary environment of rapid more freely without the same pressure or complications that mainstream media usually
technological change and proliferating information resources. Because of the escalating has.
complexity of this environment, individuals are faced with diverse, abundant information  Alternative media — media that differ from established or dominant types
choices--in their academic studies, in the workplace, and in their personal lives. Information is of media in terms of their content, production, or distribution. Alternative media take
available through libraries, community resources, special interest organizations, media, and the many forms including print, audio, video, Internet and street art.
Internet--and increasingly, information comes to individuals in unfiltered formats, raising  State-owned media — media outlets operated and funded by the government.
questions about its authenticity, validity, and reliability. In addition, information is available
through multiple media, including graphical, aural, and textual, and these pose new challenges -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Technical Codes
Media codes and conventions are like the building blocks of all the media around us. Media Technical codes are codes that are specific to a media form and do not live outside of them.
codes generally have an agreed meaning, or connotation, to their audience. They are system of For instance, our understanding of different camera shots and their connotations make sense
signs that create meaning in a media output or product. There are three types of media when we look and films and photographs, but mean nothing to us outside of those forms.
codes, symbolic codes, technical codes, and written codes. Conventions are expected ways Technical codes include Camerawork, Editing, Audio and Lighting.
in which codes are organized in a product.
Camerawork refers to how the camera is operated, positioned and moved for specific effects.
Aspects of camerawork include: Positioning, Movement, Framing, Exposure, and Lens choice.

Editing is the process of choosing, manipulating and arranging images and sound. Editing is
generally done for four different reasons: Graphic edits, Rhythmic edits, Spacial edits and
Temporal edits. To know more about these edits, take a moment to check this link and read
through the information within the page:

Audio is the expressive or naturalistic use of sound. Audio can be diegetic or non diegetic. The
three aspects of audio are: dialogue, sound effects and music. Make sure to check the video of
our class lesson to know the difference between diegetic sounds and non diegetic sounds.
Symbolic Codes
Symbolic codes are social in nature. What this means is that these codes live outside the media Lighting is the manipulation of natural or artificial light to selectively highlight specific
product themselves, but would be understood in similar ways in the ‘real life’ of the audience. elements of the scene. Elements of lighting include: Quality, Direction, Source, and Color.
For instance, if you saw somebody receive a red rose in a film, you would assume there is a
romantic relationship between the two characters. If you gave somebody a red rose in real life, Written Codes
you might be hoping the same. Symbolic codes in media include setting, mise en Written codes are the formal written language used in a media product. Just like technical and
scene, acting and colour. symbolic codes, written codes can be used to advance a narrative, communicate information
about a character or issues and themes in the media product.
Setting: the time and place where a narrative or story takes place. Can apply to the entire story
or just specific scenes, can be a specific geographical location, space, an atmosphere or frame Written codes include printed language which is text you can see within the frame and how
of mind. it is presented (includes texts in books, magazines, advertisements, screenplays, etc), and
also spoken language, which includes dialogue (in film, TV shows, radio dramas, radio shows,
Mise-en-scene: French term meaning ‘everything within the frame.’ Originally used in theater, song lyrics, etc).
but in media this is used to describe all elements in a frame, including their arrangement.
Includes set design, costume, props, staging and rules of composition. Conventions
Conventions are accepted ways of using media codes. Conventions are closely connected to
Acting: portrayal of a character through gestures, facial expressions, body language, the audience expectations of a media product. Different types of conventions include form
movement, and vocal qualities, among others. conventions, story conventions and genre conventions.

Color: cultural in nature, with connotations and underlying messages. In studying media texts, Form conventions are the certain ways we expect types of media’s codes to be arranged. For
take note of dominant colors, themes, contrasts, and symbolisms of colors used. instance an audience expects to have a title of the film at the beginning, and then credits at the
end. Newspapers will have a masthead, the most important news on the front page and sports
news on the back page. Video games usually start with a tutorial to explain the mechanics of has a big impact on everyday issues such as health, welfare, transport or national
how the game works. security have a big impact and generate much public interest.

Another example would be continuity editing. Most video forms follow a set of editing rules Timeliness or Immediacy
and techniques called continuity editing which allows for the audience to easily understand  News gets out of date quickly. If it happened recently, it is timely. What is regarded as
what is going on in a scene and who is talking to who. “recent” depends upon the publication cycle of the news medium itself. On a television
news channel events that happened during the past half hour are timely. In the monthly
Story conventions are common narrative structures and understandings that are common in parish magazine events that took place over the past 30 days are timely. An
story telling media products. Examples of story conventions include: unfolding story has a strong news value on social media or 24 hour news channels. The
 Narrative structures audience become involved because they witness the event as it happens.
 Cause and effect
 Character construction Proximity (or closeness to home)
 Point of View  Events occurring in the newspaper circulation or broadcast area are more likely to be
newsworthy. The UK press will almost certainly ignore 2,000 job losses in
Genre conventions point to the common use of tropes, characters, settings or themes in a Taiwan. However, a mere 20 redundancies in Cambridge may well feature on the front
particular type of medium. Genre conventions are closely linked with audience expectations. page of the local newspaper.
Genre conventions can be formal or thematic.  A newsworthy story can be close to home either geographically or psychologically. An
air-crash with five victims is hardly world news. However, in December 2017, a British
------------------------------------------------------------------------- businessman and his family of four perished in a seaplane crash in Australia. It was
front page news in the UK.
Framing
 to construct, compose or imagine something Prominence
 creating something with a solid plan to follow using a specific structure in mind  Well-known people (politicians, celebrities, actors, musicians, athletes) can make the
Form and content news even when their actions are trivial. Because of their media prominence, people
 Must both be considered in constructing and deconstructing products. feel a personal connection with them.
 Example: When British Prime Minister Theresa May visited South Africa in 2018, she
News is communication of information on current events via print, broadcast, internet or word was filmed dancing with schoolchildren. Her bold but awkward attempt went viral on
of mouth to a third party or mass audience. social media. If you or I tried a similar feat, no one would take much interest. That’s
because we are not well-known.
Newspapers are regularly scheduled publications containing news, information and  Famous places and companies also attract interest.
advertising, usually printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint.
Human Interest
News values — Relevance or Impact, Timeliness or Immediacy, Proximity, Prominence,  People are interested in people. Certain events stir our emotions. A baby rescued from
Human interest, Oddity, Currency, Conflict. the rubble after an earthquake, a dying child receiving a donated organ and families
reuniting after fifty years, all make good stories.
Relevance or Impact  Example: In 2015, some of the heaviest rainfall this century fell in the southern Indian
 These events affect many people – the more people, the better the story. For instance, state of Tamil Nadu. Pictures of strangers forming a human chain to save a drowning
a rise in income tax may, at first sight, seem the basis of a dull and depressing man in the flood water went worldwide.
article. But it has impact because it will affect many people’s pockets. Information that
 People’s everyday concerns also strike a chord, for instance stories about food, health Here are more examples and see how these news values tend to overlap on various
and housing. Information about schools, work and money also grab public attention. topics.
 News about recent bombings in Mindanao and its relation to Martial Law in the region
Oddity displays relevance and timeliness. Relevance because the subject is of national
 Something out of the ordinary has more news value than an everyday event. importance and timeliness because the events are recent and of high interest to people.
 Example: For example, on a sunny August day in 2018, shoppers were astonished to  News about a massive typhoon that hit the country displays values of relevance,
find that Tesco in Cambridge had erected a Christmas tree, complete with twinkling timeliness and proximity. These news values apply because the news concerns the
lights. citizens (Filipinos) and the recent events within the bounds of the country.
 Example: In the summer of 2012, the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, was left  News about a politician's rank in a survey or a politician's remark on certain issues may
dangling in mid-air. He was riding a zip wire to publicise the London 2012 Olympics show news values of prominence.
when it became stuck.  Weird news about people who eat snakes, people who do extraordinary things display
 The unexpected, strange or wacky story deviates sharply from what you would expect. oddity.
The unusual entertains.  Try reading headlines of news as you study and try to pinpoint the news values that are
being displayed.
Currency (being current, trending or flavor of the day or month)
 Currency implies that the time for a topic has arrived. This includes events which are Common sections of the newspaper
already popular or trends which are currently in the news and being talked about. For  Headlines
instance, the growing public awareness of plastic pollution has opened the door to new  Opinion
ideas for recycling plastic.  Entertainment
 The arrival of social media has created whole new platforms on which topics can be  Lifestyle
talked about and widely shared. So, trending is a useful indicator of the currency value  Technology
of a story. When a word or phrase has been used multiple times on, for example,  Business
Twitter, it becomes a ‘trending topic’. Such topics often emerge after a major event.  Sports
 Example: The UK referendum decision to leave the European Union sparked hotly
debated arguments for and against the move. On a more mundane level, the UK Journalism is defined as collecting, writing, editing and presenting of news in newspapers,
heatwave in 2018 generated much debate and many subsequent weather stories. magazines, radio and television broadcasts or the internet.
 Example: Latest fads and anniversaries, especially items that were news in the past,
also fall into this category. As the old year ends, the talk is all about presents and New Straight news: 5W’s and 1H (Who, What, When, Where, Why, How)
Year’s resolutions. Six weeks later in February the flavour of the month switches to
flowers and romance. The lead
 The most important part of the news article
Conflict  The first sentence or paragraph which must contain the most important facts
 Conflict and disagreement add excitement to a story. News about people or  Serves as hook of the news story
organisations at odds with each other arouse curiosity. People want to know what lies
behind the conflict. Newspaper formats:
 The story could be about banal events such as the falling-out of two celebrities. Or it  Broadsheets: long paper format
could be about more serious issues, such as a labour dispute. Conflict adds drama.  Tabloids: smaller, easy to read and thinner format
Drama generates interest.
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 The Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8792) which protects
Article III – Bill of Rights mostly financial and commercial transactions online. This also covers hacking and
 Section 4: “No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or illegal downloading of copyrighted materials.
of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the
government for redress of grievances.”  The Optical Media Act of 2003 (Republic Act No. 9239) wanted to ensure the
 Section 7: “The right of the people to information on matters of public concerns shall protection of specific media products subjected to illegal duplication or piracy.
be recognized.”
 The Anti-Camcording Law (Republic Act No. 10088) aims to prevent the illegal
 Limits of free speech: Clear and present danger video camera recording of movies currently shown in theaters.

 Article 353 of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines defines libelas “a public and  The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10175) covers all other
malicious imputation of a crime, or a vice or defect, real or imaginary, or any act, online anomalies such as identity theft, child pornography, data misuse,
omission, condition, status, or circumstance tending to cause the dishonor, discredit, or cybersquatting, and other computer-related and internet-facilitated practices.
contempt of a natural or juridical person, or to blacken the memory of one who is
dead.”Issue: Decriminalization, chilling effect  Anti-obscenity law – Article 201 RPC, covers immoral doctrines, obscene
publications or exhibitions and indecent shows; glorifies criminals, promotes violence,
 Art. 354. Requirement for publicity. — Every defamatory imputation is presumed to lust or pornography, offends race or religion, promotes use of prohibited drugs,
be malicious, even if it be true, if no good intention and justifiable motive for making encourages unlawful acts.
it is shown, except in the following cases: 
 A private communication made by any person to another in the performance of any
legal, moral or social duty;  Sedition – subversive acts such as rebellion and insurrection – endangers security,
 A fair and true report, made in good faith. safety and stability of the state (Bill of Rights – right to freedom of speech, right to
organize)
 Art. 358. Slander. — Oral defamation shall be punished by arresto mayor in its
maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period if it is of a serious and  Contempt of court – disobedience to direct orders of the court, opposing its authority,
insulting nature; otherwise the penalty shall be arresto menor or a fine not exceeding justice, and dignity
200 pesos.
 Intellectual property: The output of intellectual pursuit: literary works, art,
 Misquotation – quoting someone without using exact words spoken, taking quotes out inventions, logos, symbols, signs, names and images, often used commercially. It is
of context, sometimes resulting from lack of recording of the verbatim quote. the blanket term which covers different forms of intellectual property rights or IPR
 © is the symbol for copyright, ® for Trademark
 Mislabeling – mislabeling a person or an organization in a way that is damaging,  Patent: exclusive rights for an invention
misleading or hurtful  Trademark: signs associated with a brand of goods or services

 The Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (Republic Act 8293) is the overall Ethical Use of Information
law protecting copyrights and all kinds of intellectual property creations including  Citation. This is used to inform readers that certain texts or ideas came from another
patents and trademarks. source.
 Plagiarism. A person is charged with plagiarism if he/she uses someone’s work and
ideas without observing proper citation.
 Copyright. This protects the owner, who can either be the author or the publisher of  Ask permission before reposting or sharing someone’s personal post, photo and video
printed materials, of his exclusive rights for the use and distribution of an original on social media.
work. The duration of the copyright covers the author’s lifetime plus 50 years after his  Don’t tamper private images or videos to make fun of them.
death. Copyright: protected material cannot be reproduced without permission (except  Do not ask and share personally identifying information in public forums.
in FAIR USE cases). In the Philippines, permission to use copyrighted works may be  Introduce yourself first if you are messaging a stranger.
obtained from the National Library  Obscene messages, derogatory remarks, lewd photos should not be posted.
 Intellectual Property (IP). Inventions, literary and artistic works, designs and symbols,
and names and images used in commerce are governed by IP. Through IP, a person is  Digital Divide: refers to the socioeconomic and educational disparity or
credited as the rightful and original owner of his work. inequalities which bar some people from accessing the internet; gap on accessibility
 Public domain and fair use. Once the duration of the copyright ceases, the work of information in different countries. In the Philippines, main issues include slow
becomes available for public domain. However, proper citation should still be credited connection speeds and limited public access.
to the rightful owner. Fair use, on the other hand, refers to the limitation and exception
to the exclusive right granted by copyright law of a creative work. This means that  Virtual self: Our online representation in the virtual world; commonly through the
when a copyrighted material is used for certain circumstances, such as quoted verbatim use of avatars, e.g. in MMOs (massively multiplayer online games); Emoticons or
for purposes namely criticism, news reporting, teaching, and research, there is no need emojis are also used to express emotions and ideas virtually
for the researcher to ask permission or pay the copyright owner for its use.
Ethical issues in media in a nutshell
Opposing view on copyright  Invasion of privacy
 Media advocates and communication rights activists believe that creative work should  Reality TV
be free. They created the Free and Open Source Software movement (FOSS) and  Commercialization of everyday life
Creative Commons Licensing.  Image based culture
 Copyleft: the right to freely use, modify, copy and share software, works of art, etc. on  Institutional Pressures
the condition that the same rights be granted to subsequent users or owners.  Truthtelling
 Reporters and Sources
 Fair Use Doctrine: No need to secure permission from copyright owner if: you are  Social Justice
copying material for review, commentary, critic or parody (humorous ridicule of  Conflicting Loyalties
another work); using some lines from a song in a book; using the material for nonprofit  Social responsibility
and/or educational purpose; the material is completely transformed from original, or  Violence
used for a different purpose and audience  Profits, Wealth and Public trust
 Media scope and depth
 Netiquette: InterNET + ETIQUETTE; Etiquette: proper decorum or conventions of  Censorship
behavior; Proper conduct and behavior while using the internet
 Ethics - rules or standards governing one’s conduct, implemented regardless of
Some Netiquette Guidelines difference in belief systems and ideologies
 Be polite.
 Acknowledge messages or emails you receive.  Ideology - a doctrine or philosophy, a belief system, a way of looking at things
 Review your message before sending.
 Don’t spam or circulate chain mail.  Censorship - suppressing material that is considered morally, politically or otherwise
objectionable
Online dangers
 Cyber addiction - losing control over your behavior and becoming self-destructive, to
the point it affects other aspects of your life
 Cyberbullying - ridiculing or hurting someone online through offensive or derogatory
remarks and gossiping, among others
 Hacking - white hat and black hat; to break into a server/website/etc. to steal or damage
data
 Scamming, Identity Theft/Fakers (Posers),
 Cybercrimes - leaks, invasions of privacy, ransomware, scamming
 Piracy - unauthorized distribution and reproduction of copyrighted material
 Flaming - to send angry, critical or disparaging messages in the internet
 Phishing - a form of hacking wherein a legitimate website is spoofed in the attempt to
collect private data such as credit card information
 Trolling - to post deliberately inflammatory articles on an internet discussion board.