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(Homerton College Student Version)

Tianxin Lu Gonville and Caius College University of Cambridge November 7, 2009

1

T.5 V − 14 V VCE − VCE = = -75 VBE − VBE 0.5 V . Lu 1 (i) R1 = Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision VCC − VBE 20 V − 0. 25 mA) and (20 V . IB =50 µA and IB =150 µA correspond with VBE = 0.75 V .65 V (5) 2 (i) Draw a small signal equivalent circuit similar with that on page 14 of notes.7 V = = 93 kΩ IB 100 µA (ii) For output characteristic.65 V and VBE = 0. Note that dc supplies are earth for small signals. 0 mA). For input characteristic. and should intersect curves IB =50 µA and IB =150 µA when VCE = 14 V and VCE = 6. respectively. Output resistance RO = R2 400 Ω × 1 = hoe 400 Ω + 1 300 µS 1 300 µS = 357 Ω (6) 2 . the load line should pass the operating point (10 V .7 V = = 193 kΩ IB 100 µA (1) (2) (3) (4) 20 V − 10 V VCC − VCE = = 400 Ω IC 25 mA 20 V − 10 V VCC − VCE = = 398 Ω R3 = IB + IC 100 µA + 25 mA R2 = R4 = VCE − VBE 10 V − 0. The voltage gain of the ampliﬁer is G= 6.75 V − 0.

Lu Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision remind that the unit siemens (S) for conductance is deﬁned by S = Ω−1 . Input voltage v1 = ib hie (7) Output voltage v2 = −hf e ib RO Voltage gain G= hf e 250 v2 =− RO = − × 357 Ω = -89 v1 hie 1 kΩ (9) (8) (ii) Output resistance RO = R3 Input voltage v1 = ib hie Output voltage v2 = −hf e ib RO = − Input current e (1 + fhie O )v1 v1 v1 − v2 v1 i1 = ib + i1 = + = + hie R4 hie R4 400 Ω × 1 = hoe 400 Ω + 1 300 µS 1 300 µS = 357 Ω (10) (11) hf e RO v1 hie h R (12) (13) Input resistance v1 = i1 1 1 hie RI = + h eR (1+ fh O ie = ) 1 1 kΩ 1 + (1+ 250×357 1 kΩ 93 kΩ Ω ) = 508 Ω (14) R4 3 .T.

and the input voltage at low frequency v1 = ib (R1 + hie ) = (9 kΩ + 1 kΩ) × ib = 10 kΩ × ib Output voltage v2 = −50ib ( Voltage gain G= 1 hoe R3 R4 ) = −50ib 1 25 µS + 1 10 kΩ (19) + 1 10 kΩ = −222 kΩ × ib (20) v2 = -22 v1 4 (21) .T. Lu Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision 3 (i) Input voltage vbe = hie ib1 + hie ib2 = hie [ib1 + (ib1 + hf e ib1 )] = hie ib1 (2 + hf e ) Base circuit resistance Rb = vbe = hie (2 + hf e ) ib1 (16) (15) (ii) Output current ic = hf e ib1 + hf e ib2 = hf e [ib1 + (ib1 + hf e ib1 )] = hf e ib1 (2 + hf e ) Current gain G= ic = hf e (2 + hf e ) ib1 (18) (17) 4 The 270 kΩ resistance can be neglected in the input circuit.

8 V .4 kΩ Since IE = (1 + hf e )IB similar with 5(a).7 V = 30. and hence 30 V − VCE (1 + hf e )(VCE − 0.1 .4 kΩ = 3.3 V 7. (b) For the circuit of 5(b) with Thevenin equivalent of the base bias circuit.7 V 30 − VB = 39 kΩ 39 kΩ (24) (23) 30 V − VCE 100 Ω (22) But IE = (1 + hf e )IB .17 × 106 + (1 + hf e ) × 70 3.7 V ) = 100 Ω 39 kΩ VCE = 1. V = 30 V 30 − VCE (1 + hf e )[V − (30 V − VCE + 0.4 kΩ = 7.7 kΩ + 5.23.7 kΩ + 5.T. input resistance RI = 7.9 × 104 + (1 + hf e ) × 100 (25) (26) Because hf e is in the range of 100 .7 V − VCE Therefore.7 kΩ 5. Lu Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision 5 (a) Emitter current IE = Base potential VB = 30 V − VCE + 0.2 kΩ 7.4 kΩ = 12. VCE is in the range of 13.7 V )] = 100 Ω R 5 (29) .7 kΩ × 5.500.4 kΩ (27) (28) 5. base current IB = VCE − 0.

so the input resistance is 39 kΩ 21.2 V .2 kΩ = 2.1 kΩ = 13. VCE is in the range of 19.7 kΩ . In a small signal model. the voltage at the top of R5 stays constant. as the circuit is balanced. In the circuit of 5(b).21.1 kΩ ib (33) In the circuit of 5(a). In current model. Lu Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision 9.500. so the input resistance is 39 kΩ 3. so the ‘half circuit’ approach can be used.2 kΩ. it is only necessary to consider v3 or v2 .76 kΩ .6 × 104 + 100(1 + hf e ) × 18. At the output v3 = −hf e ib R3 At the input v1 = hie ib + R1 (ib + hf e ib ) 6 (36) (35) . we have the input resistance looking into the base ib = RI = v1 = hie + (1 + hf e )RE = 21. this is in parallel with a bias resistor of 39 kΩ.1 . this is in parallel with a bias network of resistance of 3.4 3. the sum currents at the emitter hf e ib + ib + where base current 0 − v2 =0 RE (31) v1 − v2 (32) hie Combining the above two equations and eliminating v2 .T. we ﬁrst omit the bias resistors.2 × 103 + (1 + hf e ) × 100 VCE = (30) Because hf e is in the range of 100 . and will combine them later. v1 For a pure diﬀerential input. 6 This diﬀerential ampliﬁer has diﬀerential inputs and outputs. so the differential gain is v3 − v4 (34) AD = v1 − v2 v4 However.

The input impedance for diﬀerential signals is that seen between the input terminals 1 and 2.At the output v3 = −hf e ib R3 (38) At the input v1 = hie ib + (R1 + 2R5 )(ib + hf e ib ) Combining the above two equations gives ACM = v3 R3 h = − hie +(R1 +2Rf5e)(1+hf e ) v1 (40) (39) If R5 = 0. this reduces to AD as expected.1 kΩ (43) 7 .T. the current changes equally in both transistors so analysis is possible by splitting R5 into two parallel resistors each of 2R5 . Lu Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision Combining the above two equations gives AD = v3 R hf e = − hie +R3 (1+hf e ) 1 v1 (37) For common-mode signals. RI (D) = 2RI = 2[hie + (hf e + 1)R1 ] = 22. The common mode rejection ratio. this is simply twice the value obtained using the ‘half-circuit’ approach.e. v1 = v2 . CMRR. i. However. Therefore. RI = v1 = hie + (hf e + 1)R1 ib (42) (for ‘half circuit’ from equation (36)). is CM RR = hie + (R1 + 2R5 )(1 + hf e ) AD = 365 = ACM hie + R1 (1 + hf e ) (41) Note the role of R5 in setting the CMRR.

the CMRR would be greatly increased. 5 V − 0. 8 . and hf e R4 hie +R4 >> 1 hf e R4 = 0. Provided that the base emitter voltage VBE is sensibly constant. The Zener diode is a short circuit for small signals. Combining the above equations gives RB vx 1 hf e R4 hie R4 = (1 + )+ ix hoe hie + R4 hie + R4 As 1 hoe (47) >> 1.T. At the collector I= vE − vx 1 hoe − hf e ib + ix = 0 (45) At the emitter hf e ib + ib + vx − vE 1 hoe − VE =0 R4 (46) Also. the voltage across R4 will be constant. 6.7 V = 4. Stability against changes in VBE is helped by making the voltage across R4 several times VBE . Lu Homerton College Engineering Tripos 1B Supervision 7 The voltage across a Zener diode remains very nearly constant over a wide range of current. a constant emitter current translates into a constant collector current. ib = − −VE .3 mA (44) 1 kΩ The current can be analysed by applying a test voltage vx at the collector. If the base current of the transistor is small. In this circuit the Zener diode sets the base voltage constant.33M Ω hoe (hie + R4 ) (48) RO ≈ If this circuit were used to replace R5 in Fig. giving a constant emitter current.

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