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VAPOR

POWER

CYCLE

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

INTRODUCTION

Our focus will be on sub-system A.

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

Steam turbine

• Steam turbines are devices

convert the energy stored in

steam into rotational mechanical

energy

• The steam turbine may consists of

several stages.

• Each stage can be described by

analyzing the expansion of steam

from a higher pressure to a lower

pressure

• The steam may be wet, dry

saturated or superheated

3

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

Condenser

• To convert the exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine to

condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes.

• Normally, surface condenser is used in SPP i.e: shell and tube heat

exchanger - in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes.

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

Boiler

• The heat from combustion of fuel (coal,

natural gas or diesel) boils water in the

boiler to produce steam at a high

pressure and temperature.

• More than half of the electricity generated

in the world is by using coal as the

primary fuel.

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

• A boiler feed water pump is a specific

type of pump used to pump feedwater into

a steam boiler.

• The water may be freshly supplied or

returning condensate produced as a

result of the condensation of the steam

produced by the boiler.

• These pumps are normally high pressure

units

• Can be of the centrifugal pump type or

positive displacement type

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

• Carnot cycle is the most efficient power cycle operating between two specified

temperature limits

• We can adopt the Carnot cycle first as a prospective ideal cycle for vapor power

plants.

Sequence of Processes:

1-2 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine)

Qin 2-3 Reversible and isothermal

condensation (in a condenser)

4 1

3-4 Isentropic compression (in a

Win

Wout compressor)

3 2

4-1 Reversible and isothermal heating (in

a boiler)

Qout

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

The Carnot cycle is NOT a suitable model for actual power cycles because of

several impracticalities associated with it:

Saturated vapor enters the turbine

: limits the maximum temperature

that can be used in the cycle

It is not practical to design (374°C for water)

a compressor that handles

two phases

4 1

3 2

Low net work

output. i.e. The turbine cannot handle steam

W12 – W34 with a high moisture content :

liquid droplets on the turbine

blades causing erosion and wear

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

Carnot cycle can be eliminated by:

4 1

• superheating the steam in the boiler

• condensing the steam completely in the

3

condenser. 2

pump

1

Rankine cycle, which is the ideal and practical

cycle for vapor power plants

The ideal cycle does not involve any internal 4

irreversibilities.

3 2

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

the Rankine cycle.

• The ideal Rankine cycle consists of four

processes:

1-2 Isentropic expansion in a turbine, will

produce work output, W12

2-3 Constant pressure heat rejection (Q23) in a

condenser. Steam from the turbine is

cooled by cooling water and changes to a

saturated liquid.

3-4 Isentropic compression in a water pump,

W34 is supplied to the pump

4-1 Constant pressure heat addition (Q41) in a

boiler, to change compressed liquid to

saturated vapor

Animation

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013

THE RANKINE CYCLE

Energy Analysis of Ideal Rankine Cycle

• The pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser are steady-flow devices. Thus the ideal

Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady-flow processes.

• The kinetic and potential energy changes of the steam are usually small and can be

neglected

• Thus the Steady-flow Energy Equation per unit mass of steam reduces to:

T qin qout w in w out he hi

Qin PBoiler

1

Win

4

Wout The boiler and condenser do not involve any

work but both involve with heat interactions.

3 2 The pump and the turbine are assumed to be

Qout isentropic and both involve work interactions.

s

THE RANKINE CYCLE

Energy Interactions in Each Device

T

Turbine: The amount of work produced by the turbine,

Q41 PBoiler

wturb= w12 = h1 – h2 1

PCondenser

Condenser: The amount of heat rejected from condenser, 4

W34 W12

qout = q23 =h2 – h3

3 2

Pump: The work needed to operate the water Q23

pump, s

w pump w34 h4 h3 P4 P3

h3 hf at P3 and 3 f at P3

qin= q451 = h1 – h4

THE RANKINE CYCLE

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Thermal Efficiency

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined from,

Net work output w q

R net 1 out

Heat supplied in boiler qin qin

Where, qin = qboiler = q41 = (h1 – h4 )

Net work output, wnet qin qout wturb w pump (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 )

R

h1 h2 h4 h3 h1 h2 h4 h3

h1 h4 h1 h3 h4 h3

If the water pump work is neglected, then

R

h1 h2 h4 h3 h1 h2

1 3 4 3 h1 h3

h h h h

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013

THE RANKINE CYCLE

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Isentropic Efficiency

Indicate the deviation of actual process from the ideal process

The actual expansion (dash line 1-2) and actual compression (dash line 3-4) processes

are irreversible, which will involve friction and heat transfer

Isentropic efficiency of turbine (expansion process) is define as

Actual work output w

T 12

Isentropic work output w12s

T

h1 h2 PBoiler

h1 h2s 1

PCondenser

Isentropic efficiency of pump (compression process) is 4

define as 4s

Isentropic work input w 34 s

T

Actual work input w 34 3 2s 2

h4 s h3 s

h4 h3

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013

THE RANKINE CYCLE

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Work Ratio

Work ratio is defined as

Work ratio

Gross work output wT h1 h2

Specific Steam Consumption, ssc

The steam flow required needed to produce certain amount of power output.

1 1 3600

ssc = kg/kJ or scc kg/kWh

w nett wT w P wT w P

1 1 3600

ssc = kg/kJ or ssc kg/kWh

wT h1 h2 h1 h2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013

EXAMPLE 8.1 pg 259

A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 5 MPa and a condenser

pressure of 5 kPa. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency, work ratio and

specific steam consumption

i. Carnot cycle

ii. for Rankine cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine

iii. for Rankine cycle of (ii) when the expansion process has an isentropic

efficiency of 85%.

5 MPa

4 1

5 kPa

3 2

EXAMPLE 2 pg 263

h1 = hg = 2794.2 kJ/kg

T s1 = s2 = sg = 5.9737 kJ/kgK

823.71 kJ / kg

1

h4 – h3 = 0.001(5x103 – 5) 5 MPa qin q41 2794.2 142.75 2651.5 kJ / kg

= 4.995 kJ/kg wnet 823.71

h4 = 142.75 kJ/kg th 0.311 (31.1%)

PCondenser qin 2651.5

4

3600

ssc 4.37 kg / kWh

823.71

5 kPa w 823.71

rw net 0.9940

3 2s 2 wgross 823.71 4.995

s

s2 s f 5.9737 0.4762

x2 0.694 h1 h2

s fg 7.9176 0.85 h2 h1 0.85 h1 h2 s

h1 h2 s

h2s = hf + x2hfg = 137.75+0.694(2423)

= 1819.3 kJ/kg = 1965.5 kJ / kg

RANKINE CYCLE WITH SUPERHEAT

the vapor temperature to become superheated vapor.

1

T

PBoiler

PCondenser

3 2

RANKINE CYCLE WITH SUPERHEAT

Benefits :

increases both the net work output

and heat input to the cycle. The

overall effect is an increase in thermal 1

efficiency of the cycle. T

PBoiler 1’

steam at the turbine exit, which is

desirable – avoid erosion of turbine

blades. The dryness of the steam 4

3 2’ 2

Presently the highest steam

temperature allowed at the turbine inlet

s

is about 620 oC.

EXAMPLE 2 pg 263

Compare the Rankine cycle performance of Example 8.1(ii)

with that obtained when the steam is superheated to 500o C.

1

T h1 = 3434.7 kJ/kg

500 s1 = s2 = 6.9781 kJ/kgK

5 MPa

1302.2 kJ / kg

qin q41 3434.7 142.75 3292.0 kJ / kg

wnet 1302.2

4

th 0.396 (39.6%)

qin 3292.0

5 kPa 3600

ssc 2.765 kg / kWh

3 2 1302.2

w 1302.2

rw net 0.9962

wgross 1302.2 4.995

s

x2 0.821

s fg 7.9176 = 2127.5 kJ/kg

REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE

This is done by expanding the steam in two-stage turbine, and reheat the steam in

between the stages.

1 6

5 5

P5 = P6 = Preheat

2

6 4

4 2

3

Note: Incorporation of the single reheat in a modern power plant improves the cycle

efficiency by 4 ~ 5 percent.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013

Sec 03 – 16/4

With a single reheating process, the total heat input and the total

turbine work output for the ideal cycle become,

h1 h5 h6 h2

qin qprimary qreheat

h1 h4 h6 h5

5

3 2

EXAMPLE 8-3 Pg 267

Calculate the cycle efficiency, specific steam consumption and work ratio for a reheat

cycle. The steam conditions at inlet to the high pressure turbine are 5 MPa and 500oC. The

steam is reheated to its initial temperature before entering the low pressure turbine at a

pressure of 0.5 MPa. The condenser pressure is 5 kPa. Assume the efficiency of the

turbines and pump are 100%.

1

5 MPa, 500 oC

1 6

500 oC

Saturated

5 MPa

5 5

P5 = P6 = Preheat

= 0.5 MPa 2

4

6 500 oC

5 kPa

4 3 2

5 kPa

EXAMPLE 8-3 Pg 267

Calculate the cycle efficiency, specific steam consumption and work ratio for a reheat cycle. The steam

conditions at inlet to the high pressure turbine are 5 MPa and 500oC. The steam is reheated to its initial

temperature before entering the low pressure turbine at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The condenser pressure

is 5 kPa. Assume the efficiency of the turbines and pump are 100%.

s1 = s5 = 6.9781 kJ/kgK s6 = s2 = 8.0893 kJ/kgK

1 6

500 oC

sg @ 0.5 MPa = 6.8207 kJ/kgK

s5 > sg state 5 is shs

5

h5 = 2818.6 kJ/kg

4

sg @ 5 kPa = 8.3938 kJ/kgK

s2 < sg state 2 is mixture

5 kPa

s2 s f 8.0893 0.4762

3 2 x2 0.962

s fg 7.9176

= 2468.7 kJ/kg

ASSIGNMENT 1

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the

turbine at 15 MPa and 600oC and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. If

the moisture contents of the steam at the exit of the low pressure turbine is not exceed

10.4 percent, determine (a) the pressure at which the steam should be reheated and (b) the

thermal efficiency of the cycle. Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of

the high pressure turbine.

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Sec 01 26/2/17

Heat is transferred to the working fluid during process 2-2’ at a relatively low

temperature. This lowers the average heat-addition temperature and thus the cycle

efficiency.

Regeneration Process

Steam is extracted from the turbine at

various points, and is used to heat the

feedwater, before it enters the boiler. The

device where the feedwater is heated using

the steam is called a regenerator, or a

feedwater heater (FWH).

A feedwater heater is a heat exchanger

where heat is transferred from the extracted

steam to the feedwater either by: (a) mixing

the two fluid streams (open FWH) or (b)

without mixing them (closed FWH) – heat

transfer from steam to feedwater.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Open Feedwater Heaters

An open FWH is a mixing chamber, where the steam extracted from

the turbine (state 7) mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump (state 4).

Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a saturated liquid (state 5) at

the FWH’s pressure.

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Open Feedwater Heaters

Boiler

1

Turbine 1

1 kg

1 kg 1 kg

(1-y) kg 6

7 2 7

y kg y kg

Cooling 5 (1-y) kg

Water 4

6 5 4 3 1-y kg

P OWH P

3 2

Pump 2 Open Pump 1 Condenser

Feed

Water

Heater

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

CYCLE

Open Feedwater Heaters

Always

Superheated Sec 04 28/2/17

1

Always

Compressed liquid Normally

1 kg 1 kg Superheated

Always Saturated 6

liquid y kg 7

5 (1-y) kg

Always 4

Compressed liquid

(1-y) kg

Always Saturated 3 2

liquid

Normally

mixture, x>0.9

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Energy Analyses

The heat and work interactions in a regenerative Rankine cycle with one feedwater heater can be

expressed (per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler), as follows:

qin h1 h6

qout 1 y h2 h3 1

wturb h1 h7 1 y h7 h2 1 kg 1 kg

y kg 7

= 1 y h4 h3 h6 h5 5 (1-y) kg

4

w pump,l 3 P4 P3

1-y kg

3 2

w pump,ll 5 P6 P5

Note: The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater heaters

is increased.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

The mass of the steam extracted from the turbine, y, is determined by doing an

energy balance on the feed-water heater.

mh mh

in out y kg

y h7 1 y h4 1 h5

7

Solve to give, y 5

h h4 5 4

h7 h4 1 kg

OFWH

(1-y) kg

The bleed pressure of one or more feed water heaters can be determined by

assuming the bleed temperature to obtain maximum efficiency is approximately

the mean of the saturated temperature of boiler and condenser.

TS1 TS 2

Tbleed

2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010

EAMPLE 8.4

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam

consumption.

Boiler

1 5 MPa

Turbine 1

1 kg

1 kg 1 kg

0.5 MPa 5 MPa

(1-y) kg 6

7 2 y kg 7

y kg

5 kPa 5 0.5 MPa

Cooling (1-y) kg

4

Water

6 5 4 3 1-y kg

P OWH P

3 5 kPa 2

Pump 2 Open Pump 1 Condenser

Feed

Water

Heater

EAMPLE 8.4

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam

consumption.

Solution

The steam enters the turbine at 5 MPa and 500 oC and the condenser pressure is

5 kPa.

h1 = 3446.0 kJ/kg 1

s1 = 7.0922 kJ/kgK = s7 = s2

State 7 is superheated. By interpolationg, 5 MPa

6

h7 = 2871.3 kJ/kg y kg 7

5 0.5 MPa (1-y) kg

sg at 5 kPa = 8.3938 kJ/kgK >7.0922 kJ/kgK 4

1-y kg

State 2 is mixture.

3 5 kPa 2

x2 = (7.0922-0.4762)/8.3938= 0.789

h2 = 137.75 + 0.789(2423.0) = 2049.5 kJ/kg

EAMPLE 8.3

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam

consumption.

W34 = h4 - h3

= 0.001(500 –5)

= 0.495 kJ/kg

h4 = 137.75 + 0.495

= 138.25 kJ/kg 1

W56 = h6 – h5

= 0.001(5000 – 500) y kg 1 kg

7 1 kg

= 4.50 kJ/kg 6 5 MPa

h6 = 640.09 + 4.50 5 4 y kg 7

OFW (1-y) kg

4

1 kg H (1-y) kg

1-y kg

3 5 kPa

y = (h5 – h4)/(h7 – h4) 2

= 0.184 kg

EAMPLE 8.4

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam

consumption.

w turb h1 h7 1 y h7 h2

= 3446.0 2871.3 1 0.189 2871.3 2049.5

=1241.2 kJ/kg

= 1 y h4 h3 h6 h5 w net 1241.2

th 0.443 44.3%

= 1 0.189 0.495 4.5 qin 2801.9

3600 3600

=4.90 kJ/kg ssc 2.900 kg/kWh

w net 1241.2

qin h1 h6 = 3446.0 644.09 1241.2

rw 0.9961

=2801.9 kJ/kg 1241.2 4.9

REGENERATIVE CYCLE WITH TWO

OPEN FEED WATER HEATER

T 1

Boiler

1

1 kg Turbine

1 kg

1 kg 9

8

y1 kg (1- y1)kg

(1- y1 –y2)kg 6

9 7

10 2 10

y1 kg y2 kg y2 kg

Cooling 4 (1- y1- y2)kg

5

Water

8 7 6 5 4 3 (1- y1- y2)kg

P3 OFWH P2 OFWH P1

1 2 3 2

1kg (1-y1) kg (1- y1 –y2)kg Condenser

s

y1h9 1 y1 h6 h7 y1

y 2h10 1 y1 y 2 h4 1 y1 h5 y 2

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

CYCLE

Closed Feedwater Heaters

feed water pump is required for 1 kg Turbine

each additional of open feed water

heater.

pumps, closed feed water heater is 6 2

y kg

used. Cooling

Pump Water

5 4 3

P

Water Heater

Throttle

TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

CYCLE

Closed Feedwater Heaters

Boiler T 1

1

1 kg Turbine

1 kg 1 kg

(1-y) kg 6

6 2 5 y kg

y kg 7

4

Cooling (1- y)kg

Pump Water

1 kg 5 4 3 (1- y)kg

P

3 8 2

Closed 7 8 Condenser

Feed Water

Heater y kg Throttle y kg s

h5 h7 h8 hf at P7

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Closed Feed water Heaters : Analysis

The mass of the steam extracted from the turbine, y, is

determined by doing an energy balance on the feed-water

heater. y kg

6

mh in

mhout

yh6 h4 yh7 h5 5 4

h5 h4

y 1 kg 1 kg

h6 h7

7 y kg

The bleed pressure of one or more feed water heaters can

be determined by assuming the bleed temperature to obtain

maximum efficiency is approximately the mean of the

saturated temperature of boiler and condenser.

TS1 TS 2

Tbleed

2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010

EAMPLE 8.3

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.3 is modified to include one closed feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency, the specific steam

consumption and the work ratio.

Solution

The steam enters the turbine at 5 MPa and 500 oC and the condenser pressure is

5 kPa.

Boiler T 1

1

1 kg Turbine

1 kg 1 kg

(1-y) kg 6

6 2 5 y kg

y kg 7

4

Cooling (1- y)kg

Pump Water

1 kg 5 4 3 (1- y)kg

P

3 8 2

Closed 7 8 Condenser

Feed

Water y kg Throttle y kg s

Heater

EXAMPLE 8.5

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.3 is modified to include one open feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific

steam consumption.

Solution

The steam enters the turbine at 40 bar and 500 oC and the condenser pressure is

0.025 bar.

WP = W34 = h4 - h3

h1 = 3446.0 kJ/kg = 0.001(5000 – 5)

s1 = 7.0922 kJ/kgK = s7 = s2 = 4.995 kJ/kg

sg at 500 kPa = 6.8207 kJ/kgK < 7.0922 kJ/kgK h4 = 137.75 + 4.995

State 6 is superheated. By interpolationg, = 142.75 kJ/kg

h6 = 2871.3 kJ/kg

h5 = h7 = h8 = hf = 640.09 kJ/kg

sg at 5 kPa = 8.3938 kJ/kgK >7.0922 kJ/kgK

State 2 is mixture. h5 h4 640.09 142.75

y

x2 = (7.0922-0.4762)/8.3938= 0.789 h6 h7 2871.3 640.09

h2 = 137.75 + 0.789(2423.0) = 2049.5 kJ/kg 0.223 kg

EAMPLE 8.4

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater

operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam

consumption.

w turb h1 h6 1 y h6 h2

= 3446.0 2871.3 1 0.223 2871.3 2049.5

=1213.2 kJ/kg

WP = W34 = h4 - h3

= 0.001(5000 – 5)

= 4.995 kJ/kg

w net 1213.2 4.995

qin h1 h5 = 3446.0 640.09 th 0.431 43.1%

qin 2805.9

=2805.9 kJ/kg 3600 3600

ssc 2.9796 kg/kWh

w net 1213.2 4.995

1213.2 4.995

rw 0.9959

1213.2

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Two Closed Feedwater Heaters

T 1

Boiler

1

1 kg Turbine 1 kg

1 kg

7

9 y1 kg (1-y1)kg

6

y1 kg (1-y1–y2) kg

7 8 2 y2 kg 8

y2 kg 5 11

Cooling 4 10 (1-y1–y2)kg

Water (1-y1–y2)kg

6 5 4 3

P 3 12 2

1 kg

10 11 12 Condenser

9

y1 kg

s

(y1+y2)kg

h5 h11 h12 hf at P8

h6 h9 h10 hf at P7

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

One Open & One Closed Feedwater

Heaters T 1

Boiler

1

1 kg Turbine 1 kg

1 kg

8

7

y1 kg (1-y1)kg

y1 kg (1-y1– y2) kg 6

2 y2 kg 9

8 9 5 10

y2 kg 4 (1-y1–y2)kg

Cooling

(1-y1–y2)kg

Water

7 6 5 4 3

P2 P1 3 11 2

1 kg 10 11 Condenser

(y1+y2)kg

h5 h10 h11 hf at P9 s

h4 h3 0.001 P4 P3 x102

h7 h6 0.001 P7 P6 x102

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

One Closed & One Open Feedwater

Heaters T 1

Boiler

1

1 kg Turbine 1 kg

1 kg

8

y1 kg (1-y1)kg

7

(1-y1– y2) kg 6 10

y1 kg 9

2 y2 kg

9

8 y2 kg 4 (1-y1–y2)kg

5

Cooling

(1-y1–y2)kg

Water

7 6 5 4 3

P2 P1 3 11 2

1 kg (1-y2) kg

Condenser

h7 h10 h11 hf at P7 s

h4 h3 0.001 P4 P3 x102

10 (y1)kg 11

h6 h5 0.001 P6 P5 x102

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Reheat Open Feed water Heater

Boiler

T 1 8

8

7

LP Turbine

1 kg

1 kg

1

6 9

1 kg 7

HP Turbine

(1-y) kg

9 2 5 y kg (1-y)kg

y kg 4

Cooling

(1-y)kg

Water

6 5 4 3

P2 P1 3 2

1 kg (1-y) kg

Condenser

s

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Reheat Open Feedwater Heaters

ASSIGNMENT 2

Steam enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450 oC and is condensed in the

condenser at 20 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 2 MPa and

0.8 MPa to heat water in open feed water heaters. Water leaves the feed

water heaters as a saturated liquid. Sketch the plant and show the cycle

on a T-s diagram, and determine:

(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the boiler,

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle

(c) the mass flow rate of the steam if the net power output is 15 MW

.

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE

CYCLE

Open vs. Closed Feedwater Heater

Open FWHs

• Simple and inexpensive

• Good heat transfer characteristics.

• For each feedwater heater used, additional feedwater pump is required.

Closed FWHs

• More complex because of the internal tubing network, thus more expensive.

• Heat transfer is less effective since the two streams are not allowed to be in

direct contact.

• Do not require a separate pump for each FWH since the extracted steam and

the feedwater can be at different pressures.

THE END

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