You are on page 1of 50

TOPIC 1

VAPOR
POWER
CYCLE

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

INTRODUCTION
Our focus will be on sub-system A.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

MAIN COMPONENTS OF SPP

Steam turbine
• Steam turbines are devices
convert the energy stored in
steam into rotational mechanical
energy
• The steam turbine may consists of
several stages.
• Each stage can be described by
analyzing the expansion of steam
from a higher pressure to a lower
pressure
• The steam may be wet, dry
saturated or superheated
3

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013 (Updated 2014)


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

MAIN COMPONENTS OF SPP

Condenser
• To convert the exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine to
condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes.
• Normally, surface condenser is used in SPP i.e: shell and tube heat
exchanger - in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

MAIN COMPONENTS OF SPP

Boiler
• The heat from combustion of fuel (coal,
natural gas or diesel) boils water in the
boiler to produce steam at a high
pressure and temperature.
• More than half of the electricity generated
in the world is by using coal as the
primary fuel.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

MAIN COMPONENTS OF SPP

Feed Water Pump


• A boiler feed water pump is a specific
type of pump used to pump feedwater into
a steam boiler.
• The water may be freshly supplied or
returning condensate produced as a
result of the condensation of the steam
produced by the boiler.
• These pumps are normally high pressure
units
• Can be of the centrifugal pump type or
positive displacement type

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

CARNOT VAPOR CYCLE

• Carnot cycle is the most efficient power cycle operating between two specified
temperature limits
• We can adopt the Carnot cycle first as a prospective ideal cycle for vapor power
plants.
Sequence of Processes:
1-2 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine)
Qin 2-3 Reversible and isothermal
condensation (in a condenser)
4 1
3-4 Isentropic compression (in a
Win
Wout compressor)
3 2
4-1 Reversible and isothermal heating (in
a boiler)
Qout

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

IS CARNOT CYCLE PRACTICAL?

The Carnot cycle is NOT a suitable model for actual power cycles because of
several impracticalities associated with it:
Saturated vapor enters the turbine
: limits the maximum temperature
that can be used in the cycle
It is not practical to design (374°C for water)
a compressor that handles
two phases

4 1

3 2
Low net work
output. i.e. The turbine cannot handle steam
W12 – W34 with a high moisture content :
liquid droplets on the turbine
blades causing erosion and wear

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013 (Updated 2014)


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

THE IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE

 Many of the impracticalities associated with the


Carnot cycle can be eliminated by:
4 1
• superheating the steam in the boiler
• condensing the steam completely in the
3
condenser. 2

• Replacing the compressor with a water


pump

 The modified Carnot cycle is called the


1
Rankine cycle, which is the ideal and practical
cycle for vapor power plants
 The ideal cycle does not involve any internal 4
irreversibilities.
3 2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013 (Updated 2014)


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLLE

THE IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE

• The ideal cycle for vapor power plants is called


the Rankine cycle.
• The ideal Rankine cycle consists of four
processes:
1-2 Isentropic expansion in a turbine, will
produce work output, W12
2-3 Constant pressure heat rejection (Q23) in a
condenser. Steam from the turbine is
cooled by cooling water and changes to a
saturated liquid.
3-4 Isentropic compression in a water pump,
W34 is supplied to the pump
4-1 Constant pressure heat addition (Q41) in a
boiler, to change compressed liquid to
saturated vapor
Animation
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013
THE RANKINE CYCLE
Energy Analysis of Ideal Rankine Cycle
• The pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser are steady-flow devices. Thus the ideal
Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady-flow processes.
• The kinetic and potential energy changes of the steam are usually small and can be
neglected
• Thus the Steady-flow Energy Equation per unit mass of steam reduces to:
T qin  qout   w in  w out   he  hi
Qin PBoiler
1

PCondenser Energy Interactions


Win
4
Wout The boiler and condenser do not involve any
work but both involve with heat interactions.
3 2 The pump and the turbine are assumed to be
Qout isentropic and both involve work interactions.
s

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


THE RANKINE CYCLE
Energy Interactions in Each Device
T
Turbine: The amount of work produced by the turbine,
Q41 PBoiler
wturb= w12 = h1 – h2 1

PCondenser
Condenser: The amount of heat rejected from condenser, 4
W34 W12
qout = q23 =h2 – h3
3 2
Pump: The work needed to operate the water Q23
pump, s

w pump  w34  h4  h3    P4  P3 
h3  hf at P3 and   3  f at P3

Boiler: The amount of heat supplied in the steam boiler,


qin= q451 = h1 – h4

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


THE RANKINE CYCLE
Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Thermal Efficiency
The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined from,
Net work output w q
R   net  1  out
Heat supplied in boiler qin qin
Where, qin = qboiler = q41 = (h1 – h4 )

Net work output, wnet  qin  qout  wturb  w pump  (h1  h2 )  (h4  h3 )

R 
 h1  h2    h4  h3   h1  h2    h4  h3 

h1  h4  h1  h3    h4  h3 
If the water pump work is neglected, then

R 
 h1  h2    h4  h3   h1  h2 

 1 3   4 3   h1  h3 
h  h  h  h
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013
THE RANKINE CYCLE
Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Isentropic Efficiency
 Indicate the deviation of actual process from the ideal process
 The actual expansion (dash line 1-2) and actual compression (dash line 3-4) processes
are irreversible, which will involve friction and heat transfer
 Isentropic efficiency of turbine (expansion process) is define as
Actual work output w
T   12
Isentropic work output w12s
T


 h1  h2  PBoiler

 h1  h2s  1
PCondenser
 Isentropic efficiency of pump (compression process) is 4
define as 4s
Isentropic work input w 34 s
T  
Actual work input w 34 3 2s 2


 h4 s  h3  s
 h4  h3 
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013
THE RANKINE CYCLE
Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Work Ratio
 Work ratio is defined as

Net work output wT  w P  h1  h2    h4  h3 


Work ratio   
Gross work output wT  h1  h2 
Specific Steam Consumption, ssc
 The steam flow required needed to produce certain amount of power output.

1 1 3600
ssc  = kg/kJ or scc  kg/kWh
w nett wT  w P wT  w P

 If the pump work is neglected,


1 1 3600
ssc  = kg/kJ or ssc  kg/kWh
wT  h1  h2   h1  h2 
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013
EXAMPLE 8.1 pg 259

A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 5 MPa and a condenser
pressure of 5 kPa. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency, work ratio and
specific steam consumption
i. Carnot cycle
ii. for Rankine cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine
iii. for Rankine cycle of (ii) when the expansion process has an isentropic
efficiency of 85%.

5 MPa
4 1

5 kPa
3 2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


EXAMPLE 2 pg 263

h1 = hg = 2794.2 kJ/kg
T s1 = s2 = sg = 5.9737 kJ/kgK

PBoiler wnet  wT  wP   2794.2  1965.5   4.995


 823.71 kJ / kg
1
h4 – h3 = 0.001(5x103 – 5) 5 MPa qin  q41  2794.2  142.75  2651.5 kJ / kg
= 4.995 kJ/kg wnet 823.71
h4 = 142.75 kJ/kg th    0.311 (31.1%)
PCondenser qin 2651.5
4
3600
ssc   4.37 kg / kWh
823.71
5 kPa w 823.71
rw  net   0.9940
3 2s 2 wgross 823.71  4.995

s
s2  s f 5.9737  0.4762
x2    0.694 h1  h2
s fg 7.9176  0.85  h2  h1  0.85  h1  h2 s 
h1  h2 s
h2s = hf + x2hfg = 137.75+0.694(2423)
= 1819.3 kJ/kg = 1965.5 kJ / kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


RANKINE CYCLE WITH SUPERHEAT

 Saturated vapor from the boiler is passed through a superheater, increases


the vapor temperature to become superheated vapor.

1
T

PBoiler

PCondenser

3 2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


RANKINE CYCLE WITH SUPERHEAT

Benefits :
 increases both the net work output
and heat input to the cycle. The
overall effect is an increase in thermal 1
efficiency of the cycle. T

 decrease the moisture content of the


PBoiler 1’
steam at the turbine exit, which is
desirable – avoid erosion of turbine
blades. The dryness of the steam 4

should be kept not lower than 90% PCondenser

3 2’ 2
 Presently the highest steam
temperature allowed at the turbine inlet
s
is about 620 oC.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EXAMPLE 2 pg 263
Compare the Rankine cycle performance of Example 8.1(ii)
with that obtained when the steam is superheated to 500o C.

1
T h1 = 3434.7 kJ/kg
500 s1 = s2 = 6.9781 kJ/kgK

wnet  wT  wP   3434.7  2127.5   4.995

5 MPa
 1302.2 kJ / kg
qin  q41  3434.7  142.75  3292.0 kJ / kg
wnet 1302.2
4
th    0.396 (39.6%)
qin 3292.0
5 kPa 3600
ssc   2.765 kg / kWh
3 2 1302.2
w 1302.2
rw  net   0.9962
wgross 1302.2  4.995
s

s2  s f 6.9781  0.4762 h2s = hf + x2hfg = 137.75+0.821(2423)


x2    0.821
s fg 7.9176 = 2127.5 kJ/kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE

Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive moisture problem in turbines.


This is done by expanding the steam in two-stage turbine, and reheat the steam in
between the stages.

1 6

5 5
P5 = P6 = Preheat
2
6 4

4 2
3

Note: Incorporation of the single reheat in a modern power plant improves the cycle
efficiency by 4 ~ 5 percent.
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013
Sec 03 – 16/4

REHEAT REAKINE CYCLE

With a single reheating process, the total heat input and the total
turbine work output for the ideal cycle become,

wturb  wturb,I  wturb,II 1 6


 h1  h5   h6  h2 
qin  qprimary  qreheat
 h1  h4   h6  h5 
5

3 2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013


EXAMPLE 8-3 Pg 267

Calculate the cycle efficiency, specific steam consumption and work ratio for a reheat
cycle. The steam conditions at inlet to the high pressure turbine are 5 MPa and 500oC. The
steam is reheated to its initial temperature before entering the low pressure turbine at a
pressure of 0.5 MPa. The condenser pressure is 5 kPa. Assume the efficiency of the
turbines and pump are 100%.
1

5 MPa, 500 oC
1 6
500 oC

Saturated
5 MPa
5 5
P5 = P6 = Preheat
= 0.5 MPa 2
4
6 500 oC
5 kPa
4 3 2
5 kPa

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EXAMPLE 8-3 Pg 267
Calculate the cycle efficiency, specific steam consumption and work ratio for a reheat cycle. The steam
conditions at inlet to the high pressure turbine are 5 MPa and 500oC. The steam is reheated to its initial
temperature before entering the low pressure turbine at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The condenser pressure
is 5 kPa. Assume the efficiency of the turbines and pump are 100%.

h1 = 3434.7 kJ/kg h6 = 3484.5 kJ/kg


s1 = s5 = 6.9781 kJ/kgK s6 = s2 = 8.0893 kJ/kgK
1 6
500 oC
sg @ 0.5 MPa = 6.8207 kJ/kgK
s5 > sg  state 5 is shs

5 MPa By linear interpolation at 0.5 MPa,


5
h5 = 2818.6 kJ/kg

4
sg @ 5 kPa = 8.3938 kJ/kgK
s2 < sg  state 2 is mixture
5 kPa
s2  s f 8.0893  0.4762
3 2 x2    0.962
s fg 7.9176

h2 = hf + x2hfg = 137.75 + 0.962(2423)


= 2468.7 kJ/kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


ASSIGNMENT 1

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the
turbine at 15 MPa and 600oC and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. If
the moisture contents of the steam at the exit of the low pressure turbine is not exceed
10.4 percent, determine (a) the pressure at which the steam should be reheated and (b) the
thermal efficiency of the cycle. Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of
the high pressure turbine.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Sec 01 26/2/17
Heat is transferred to the working fluid during process 2-2’ at a relatively low
temperature. This lowers the average heat-addition temperature and thus the cycle
efficiency.
Regeneration Process
Steam is extracted from the turbine at
various points, and is used to heat the
feedwater, before it enters the boiler. The
device where the feedwater is heated using
the steam is called a regenerator, or a
feedwater heater (FWH).
A feedwater heater is a heat exchanger
where heat is transferred from the extracted
steam to the feedwater either by: (a) mixing
the two fluid streams (open FWH) or (b)
without mixing them (closed FWH) – heat
transfer from steam to feedwater.
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010
IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Open Feedwater Heaters
An open FWH is a mixing chamber, where the steam extracted from
the turbine (state 7) mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump (state 4).
Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a saturated liquid (state 5) at
the FWH’s pressure.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Open Feedwater Heaters

Boiler
1
Turbine 1
1 kg

1 kg 1 kg

(1-y) kg 6
7 2 7
y kg y kg
Cooling 5 (1-y) kg
Water 4
6 5 4 3 1-y kg
P OWH P
3 2
Pump 2 Open Pump 1 Condenser
Feed
Water
Heater

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE


CYCLE
Open Feedwater Heaters
Always
Superheated Sec 04 28/2/17
1

Always
Compressed liquid Normally
1 kg 1 kg Superheated
Always Saturated 6
liquid y kg 7
5 (1-y) kg
Always 4
Compressed liquid
(1-y) kg
Always Saturated 3 2
liquid
Normally
mixture, x>0.9

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013 (Updated 2014)


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Energy Analyses
The heat and work interactions in a regenerative Rankine cycle with one feedwater heater can be
expressed (per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler), as follows:
qin  h1  h6
qout  1  y  h2  h3  1

wturb   h1  h7   1  y  h7  h2  1 kg 1 kg

w pump  1  y  w pump,l  w pump,ll 6


y kg 7

= 1  y  h4  h3   h6  h5 5 (1-y) kg
4

w pump,l  3  P4  P3 
1-y kg
3 2

w pump,ll  5  P6  P5 

Note: The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater heaters
is increased.
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010
IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE

The mass of the steam extracted from the turbine, y, is determined by doing an
energy balance on the feed-water heater.

 mh   mh
in out y kg
 y  h7  1 y  h4  1 h5
7

Solve to give, y  5
 h  h4  5 4

h7  h4  1 kg
OFWH
(1-y) kg

The bleed pressure of one or more feed water heaters can be determined by
assuming the bleed temperature to obtain maximum efficiency is approximately
the mean of the saturated temperature of boiler and condenser.
TS1  TS 2
Tbleed 
2
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010
EAMPLE 8.4

If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam
consumption.

Boiler
1 5 MPa
Turbine 1
1 kg

1 kg 1 kg
0.5 MPa 5 MPa
(1-y) kg 6
7 2 y kg 7
y kg
5 kPa 5 0.5 MPa
Cooling (1-y) kg
4
Water
6 5 4 3 1-y kg
P OWH P
3 5 kPa 2
Pump 2 Open Pump 1 Condenser
Feed
Water
Heater

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EAMPLE 8.4
If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam
consumption.
Solution
The steam enters the turbine at 5 MPa and 500 oC and the condenser pressure is
5 kPa.
h1 = 3446.0 kJ/kg 1
s1 = 7.0922 kJ/kgK = s7 = s2

sg at 500 kPa = 6.8207 kJ/kgK < 7.0922 kJ/kgK 1 kg 1 kg


State 7 is superheated. By interpolationg, 5 MPa
6
h7 = 2871.3 kJ/kg y kg 7
5 0.5 MPa (1-y) kg
sg at 5 kPa = 8.3938 kJ/kgK >7.0922 kJ/kgK 4
1-y kg
State 2 is mixture.
3 5 kPa 2
x2 = (7.0922-0.4762)/8.3938= 0.789
h2 = 137.75 + 0.789(2423.0) = 2049.5 kJ/kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EAMPLE 8.3
If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam
consumption.
W34 = h4 - h3
= 0.001(500 –5)
= 0.495 kJ/kg
h4 = 137.75 + 0.495
= 138.25 kJ/kg 1

W56 = h6 – h5
= 0.001(5000 – 500) y kg 1 kg
7 1 kg
= 4.50 kJ/kg 6 5 MPa

h6 = 640.09 + 4.50 5 4 y kg 7

= 644.59 kJ/kg 5 0.5 MPa


OFW (1-y) kg
4
1 kg H (1-y) kg
1-y kg
3 5 kPa
y = (h5 – h4)/(h7 – h4) 2

= (640.09 – 138.25)/(2871.3 – 138.25)


= 0.184 kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EAMPLE 8.4
If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam
consumption.

w turb   h1  h7   1  y  h7  h2 
=  3446.0  2871.3   1  0.189  2871.3  2049.5 
=1241.2 kJ/kg

w pump  1  y  w pump,l  w pump,ll


= 1  y  h4  h3   h6  h5 w net 1241.2
th    0.443  44.3% 
= 1  0.189  0.495    4.5  qin 2801.9
3600 3600
=4.90 kJ/kg ssc    2.900 kg/kWh
w net 1241.2
qin   h1  h6  =  3446.0  644.09  1241.2
rw   0.9961
=2801.9 kJ/kg 1241.2  4.9

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


REGENERATIVE CYCLE WITH TWO
OPEN FEED WATER HEATER

T 1
Boiler
1

1 kg Turbine
1 kg

1 kg 9
8
y1 kg (1- y1)kg
(1- y1 –y2)kg 6
9 7
10 2 10
y1 kg y2 kg y2 kg
Cooling 4 (1- y1- y2)kg
5
Water
8 7 6 5 4 3 (1- y1- y2)kg
P3 OFWH P2 OFWH P1
1 2 3 2
1kg (1-y1) kg (1- y1 –y2)kg Condenser
s
y1h9  1  y1  h6  h7  y1
y 2h10  1  y1  y 2  h4  1  y1  h5  y 2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE


CYCLE
Closed Feedwater Heaters

In open feed water heater, one Boiler 1


feed water pump is required for 1 kg Turbine
each additional of open feed water
heater.

To avoid using multiple feed water (1-y) kg


pumps, closed feed water heater is 6 2
y kg
used. Cooling
Pump Water
5 4 3
P

Closed Feed 7 8 Condenser


Water Heater
Throttle

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013 (Updated 2014)


TOPIC 1 : VAPOR POWER CYCLE

IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE


CYCLE
Closed Feedwater Heaters

Boiler T 1
1

1 kg Turbine

1 kg 1 kg

(1-y) kg 6
6 2 5 y kg
y kg 7
4
Cooling (1- y)kg
Pump Water
1 kg 5 4 3 (1- y)kg
P
3 8 2
Closed 7 8 Condenser
Feed Water
Heater y kg Throttle y kg s
h5  h7  h8  hf at P7

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2013 (Updated 2014)


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Closed Feed water Heaters : Analysis
The mass of the steam extracted from the turbine, y, is
determined by doing an energy balance on the feed-water
heater. y kg
6
 mh in
  mhout
yh6  h4  yh7  h5 5 4
h5  h4
y 1 kg 1 kg
h6  h7
7 y kg
The bleed pressure of one or more feed water heaters can
be determined by assuming the bleed temperature to obtain
maximum efficiency is approximately the mean of the
saturated temperature of boiler and condenser.

TS1  TS 2
Tbleed 
2
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010
EAMPLE 8.3
If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.3 is modified to include one closed feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency, the specific steam
consumption and the work ratio.
Solution
The steam enters the turbine at 5 MPa and 500 oC and the condenser pressure is
5 kPa.
Boiler T 1
1
1 kg Turbine

1 kg 1 kg

(1-y) kg 6
6 2 5 y kg
y kg 7
4
Cooling (1- y)kg
Pump Water
1 kg 5 4 3 (1- y)kg
P
3 8 2
Closed 7 8 Condenser
Feed
Water y kg Throttle y kg s
Heater

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EXAMPLE 8.5
If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.3 is modified to include one open feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific
steam consumption.

Solution
The steam enters the turbine at 40 bar and 500 oC and the condenser pressure is
0.025 bar.
WP = W34 = h4 - h3
h1 = 3446.0 kJ/kg = 0.001(5000 – 5)
s1 = 7.0922 kJ/kgK = s7 = s2 = 4.995 kJ/kg
sg at 500 kPa = 6.8207 kJ/kgK < 7.0922 kJ/kgK h4 = 137.75 + 4.995
State 6 is superheated. By interpolationg, = 142.75 kJ/kg
h6 = 2871.3 kJ/kg
h5 = h7 = h8 = hf = 640.09 kJ/kg
sg at 5 kPa = 8.3938 kJ/kgK >7.0922 kJ/kgK
State 2 is mixture. h5  h4 640.09  142.75
y 
x2 = (7.0922-0.4762)/8.3938= 0.789 h6  h7 2871.3  640.09
h2 = 137.75 + 0.789(2423.0) = 2049.5 kJ/kg  0.223 kg

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


EAMPLE 8.4
If the Rankine cycle of Example 8.2 is modified to include one open feed water heater
operating at a pressure of 0.5 MPa, calculate the cycle efficiency and the specific steam
consumption.

w turb   h1  h6   1  y  h6  h2 
=  3446.0  2871.3   1  0.223  2871.3  2049.5 
=1213.2 kJ/kg
WP = W34 = h4 - h3
= 0.001(5000 – 5)
= 4.995 kJ/kg
w net 1213.2  4.995
qin   h1  h5  =  3446.0  640.09  th    0.431 43.1% 
qin 2805.9
=2805.9 kJ/kg 3600 3600
ssc    2.9796 kg/kWh
w net 1213.2  4.995
1213.2  4.995
rw   0.9959
1213.2

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Two Closed Feedwater Heaters
T 1
Boiler
1

1 kg Turbine 1 kg

1 kg
7

9 y1 kg (1-y1)kg
6
y1 kg (1-y1–y2) kg
7 8 2 y2 kg 8
y2 kg 5 11
Cooling 4 10 (1-y1–y2)kg
Water (1-y1–y2)kg
6 5 4 3
P 3 12 2
1 kg
10 11 12 Condenser
9
y1 kg
s
(y1+y2)kg
h5  h11  h12  hf at P8
h6  h9  h10  hf at P7

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
One Open & One Closed Feedwater
Heaters T 1
Boiler
1

1 kg Turbine 1 kg

1 kg
8
7
y1 kg (1-y1)kg

y1 kg (1-y1– y2) kg 6
2 y2 kg 9
8 9 5 10
y2 kg 4 (1-y1–y2)kg
Cooling
(1-y1–y2)kg
Water
7 6 5 4 3
P2 P1 3 11 2

1 kg 10 11 Condenser
(y1+y2)kg
h5  h10  h11  hf at P9 s

h4  h3  0.001 P4  P3  x102
h7  h6  0.001 P7  P6  x102
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010
IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
One Closed & One Open Feedwater
Heaters T 1
Boiler
1

1 kg Turbine 1 kg

1 kg
8

y1 kg (1-y1)kg
7
(1-y1– y2) kg 6 10
y1 kg 9
2 y2 kg
9
8 y2 kg 4 (1-y1–y2)kg
5
Cooling
(1-y1–y2)kg
Water
7 6 5 4 3
P2 P1 3 11 2
1 kg (1-y2) kg
Condenser
h7  h10  h11  hf at P7 s

h4  h3  0.001 P4  P3  x102
10 (y1)kg 11

h6  h5  0.001 P6  P5  x102
Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010
IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Reheat Open Feed water Heater
Boiler
T 1 8
8

7
LP Turbine
1 kg
1 kg
1
6 9
1 kg 7
HP Turbine
(1-y) kg
9 2 5 y kg (1-y)kg
y kg 4
Cooling
(1-y)kg
Water
6 5 4 3
P2 P1 3 2

1 kg (1-y) kg
Condenser
s

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Reheat Open Feedwater Heaters

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


ASSIGNMENT 2

A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle.


Steam enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450 oC and is condensed in the
condenser at 20 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 2 MPa and
0.8 MPa to heat water in open feed water heaters. Water leaves the feed
water heaters as a saturated liquid. Sketch the plant and show the cycle
on a T-s diagram, and determine:
(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the boiler,
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle
(c) the mass flow rate of the steam if the net power output is 15 MW
.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


IDEAL REGENERATIVE RANKINE
CYCLE
Open vs. Closed Feedwater Heater
Open FWHs
• Simple and inexpensive
• Good heat transfer characteristics.
• For each feedwater heater used, additional feedwater pump is required.

Closed FWHs
• More complex because of the internal tubing network, thus more expensive.
• Heat transfer is less effective since the two streams are not allowed to be in
direct contact.
• Do not require a separate pump for each FWH since the extracted steam and
the feedwater can be at different pressures.

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010


THE END

Mohd Kamal Ariffin, FKM, UTM, 2010