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BOOK REVIEWS

sets forth that personality growth and on aspects of mental health consultation,
development requires certain materials, are excellent material. They are obvi-
that there are needs to be supplied in ously the result of great experience and
the physical, psychological, and socio- of carefully thought through reflections
cultural realms. The character of these on that experence. For the informed
needs is not extensively outlined in the reader, the tendency to avoid the sources
book; unmet physical needs in relation of ideas woven into the discussion may
to psychiatric illnesses appear under- prove bothersome, though the avoidance
stressed to this reviewer. The second of references makes for easy reading
item in primary prevention deals with and enhances the impact of the lessons
the management of life crises. taught in this part of the book. These
Caplan discusses the crises precipi- are chapters that anyone in consulta-
tated in parent-child relationships during tion-indeed with personnel manage-
developmental behavior sequences some- ment-responsibilities of any sort-can
what less than earlier authors, concen- read with profit.
trating more on the two crises he has The book is sparsely documented and
been most interested in, abortion and in a number of places one felt the au-
prematurity and grief experiences. The thor tended to allow the reader to think
mechanics of restoration of adjustment ideas others have discussed extensively
after a crisis and the effect of different and earlier were his own. Since this is
agents on making the readjustment not a textbook perhaps these lapses in
successful are briefly discussed. The out- historical accuracy can be overlooked.
line of a program for primary preven- PAUL V. LEMKAU
tion deals with the difficult issue of how
the psychiatrist can best contribute to UNIT PROCESSES OF SANITARY ENGI-
such a program rather than with the NEERING-By Linvil G. Rich. New York,
outline of a complete program for pri- N. Y.: Wiley (605 Third Avenue), 1963.
190 pp. Price, $7.50.
mary prevention. Again this reviewer
felt a neglect of the somatic elements This is the companion book to "Unit
in primary prevention. The chapters on Operations for Sanitary Engineers" by
secondary and tertiary prevention are the same author. Unit Processes covers
well done but offer little new material. the chemical and biological processes of
The second part of the book is on interest to sanitary engineers. Emphasis
Methods of Preventive Psychiatry. The is placed on basic design of the various
first two chapters are on community unit processes.
planning and organizing a program: Although the purpose of the book is
these chapters are helpful though not sound and the approach to the material
highly original or specific. Perhaps their is logical, it lacks the depth required to
strongest feature is the very important cover these topics as they should be cov-
insistence that clinics and agencies ered. Much of the necessary supporting
should keep an eye on the total job to data have been stripped in an effort to
be done and not become so highly spe- keep the volume small. The net result
cialized and restrictive in intake that is a superficial coverage of important
they no longer serve the needful public topics and a failure to adequately ex-
well. It is interesting that the experience plain the unit processes in sufficient
in rendering community services in the depth to permit sound design by engi-
Netherlands and France is neglected al- neers who are not already completely
though the English experience is dis- familiar with the material presented.
cussed. Only 12 pages are devoted to Biolog-
The last chapters of the book, both ical Oxidation Principles. Such short

DECEMBER, 1964 2111


treatment of this key topic could not mately matched on social, economic, and
help but result in oversimplification and urban-rural characteristics, but with
failure to explain thoroughly. contrasting proportions of Catholics
Examples are given throughout the within each pair, designed to permit
book as to specific design problems. assessment of these characteristics on
These examples are very valuable since physicians' opinions and actions. (2)
many of the equations given in the text Answers are necessarily based on physi-
often lack units. The inconsistency of cians' impressions, rather than any ac-
defining the units in the various mathe- tual statistics.
matical equations causes a certain Physicians found to be most active in
amount of frustration for anyone trying counseling patients concerning family
to use the equations. planning were: obstetricians and gyne-
Much of the approach to design is cologists; younger physicians; physi-
based on the empirical mathematical ap- cians of high professional status; and
proach rather than on fundamental sci- physicians in communities in which the
entific principles. It is difficult to sep- climate of opinion favors dissemina-
arate the empirical relationships from tion of birth control information. How-
the fundamental scientific relationships ever, the physician's own religion
since the text is reduced to a minimum. (Catholic or non-Catholic) turns out to
In spite of these shortcomings the be the most important variable in de-
book has brought together the major termining both the physician's activity
unit processes and has described the cur- in counseling and in the choice of
rent design parameters. Advanced stu- methods, with the religion of the pa-
dents will find the book helpful but be- tient exerting a lesser but still potent
ginning students will find the book frus- effect.
trating. Ross E. McKINNEY The authors conclude that most physi-
cians recognize a widespread desire of
DOCTORS AND FAMILY PLANNING-By people for family planning. However,
Mary Jean Cornish; Florence A. Ruderman; relatively few physicians routinely dis-
and Sydney S. Spivack. New York, N. Y.: cuss family planning during premarital
National Commiifee on Maternal Health
(Two East 103rd St.), 1963. 100 pp. Price, $2. or postpartum examinations, most re-
garding this as a supplementary rather
This study of the role of physicians than an essential part of medical care.
in providing information, counseling, The authors find very little communica-
and professional services concerned with tion among physicians regarding fam-
family planning was carried out just be- ily planning and therefore no real con-
fore oral contraceptives came on the sensus either on indications or methods
market. This is not a deficiency of the of fertility control. The American Med-
study, but an advantage. With this base- ical Association's new Committee on
line there will be an opportunity to Human Reproduction will doubtless
study the impact of oral and intrauterine make a major contribution to this much
contraceptives on physicians' activities needed communication among physi-
in family planning. cians. JOHAN W. ELIOT
This is essentially a qualitative rather
than quantitative study of physicians" EPISODE-By Eric Hodgins. New York, N. Y.:
activities for two reasons: (1) The sam- Atheneum (162 East 38th St.), 1964. 272 pp.
ple of 551 practicing physicians is not Price, $5.
a probability sample of American phy- To see things as the ill, the regulated,
sicians, but is taken from three pairs the handicapped, and the people in their
of clusters of communities approxi- variabilities see them is not given to us

2112 VOL. 54, NO. 12, A.J.P.H.