You are on page 1of 23

15-Mar-18

BIOENERGETIKA
DAN PRODUKSI ATP
Dr. Asep Sudarman

Bioenergetics

1
15-Mar-18

Bioenergetics
 Bioenergetics is the study of the flow of
energy within a living system.
 Energy is the capacity to do work.
 Aerobic reactions require oxygen.
 Anaerobic reactions do not require oxygen.

Bioenergetics
• First law
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but
instead, transforms from one state to another
without being used up.

2
15-Mar-18

Bioenergetics
 There are six forms of interchangeable energy
states:
• Chemical
• Light
• Electric
• Mechanical
• Heat
• Nuclear

Bioenergetics
The process of photosynthesis is a chemical
reaction.
 Chlorophyll absorbs radiant energy:
 To synthesize glucose from carbon dioxide (CO2)
and water (H2O)
 To release oxygen (O2).
 Solar energy and photosynthesis provide
power to the animal world through food and
oxygen.

3
15-Mar-18

Bioenergetics

Bioenergetics

 Respiration is the
reverse of
photosynthesis.
 C6H12O6 + O2 → 6CO2
+ 6H2O

4
15-Mar-18

Bioenergetics
 Takes one of three forms:
• Mechanical work of muscle contraction
• Chemical work for synthesizing cellular molecules
• Transport work that concentrates diverse
substances in body fluids

Bioenergetics
 Potential energy
 Energy associated with a substance’s structure or
position.
 Kinetic energy
 Energy of motion.
 Potential energy and kinetic energy
 The total energy of any system.

5
15-Mar-18

Bioenergetics

Cellular Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

 Constitute the mechanism for energy metabolism


 Redox reactions power the transfer process of energy

6
15-Mar-18

 Oxidation–reduction reactions couple:


• Oxidation = a substance loses electrons
• Transfer oxygen, hydrogen, or electrons
• Reduction = a substance gains electrons
• Atoms gain an electron-reducing valence

Coupled Reactions

7
15-Mar-18

• ATP – energy currency


– Potential energy extracted from food
• ATP
– Chemical energy extracted for biologic work
• Cells
• Muscle contraction

Phosphate Bond
• Stored or potential energy
– High energy bonds
– ATP – hydrolysis
• ATP + H2O → ADP + P – 7.3 kCal/mole
ATPase

8
15-Mar-18

ATP

 Phosphorylation
 Refers to energy transfer through phosphate
bonds
 Oxidative phosphorylation
 Synthesizes ATP by transfer of electrons
 NADH and FADH2

NADH is the reduced version of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which is


essentially a co-enzyme form of niacin (vitamin B3), present in all living cells. NAD+, the
oxidized version of niacin, gains two electrons (2e-) and a hydrogen ion (H+) to form a
NADH molecule.
FADH2 is the reduced form of FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), a co-enzyme form of
riboflavin (vitamin B2)..

9
15-Mar-18

Cellular Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

• Mechanism for energy metabolism


• Involves transfer of hydrogen atoms
– Loss of hydrogen: oxidation
– Gain of hydrogen: reduction

Cellular Oxidation
• Mitochondria
– NAD and FAD → NADH and FADH2
• Cytochromes – Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
• Transfer of electrons (H+)
• Energy conserved – high energy phosphate bonds

10
15-Mar-18

 Sources for ATP formation include:


• Glucose derived from liver glycogen
• Glycogenolysis
• Triacylglycerol and glycogen stored in muscle
• Free fatty acids - circulating
• Triacylglycerol in liver, adipocytes
• Lipoprotein complexes - circulating
• Amino acids
• Intramuscular and liver-derived carbon skeletons

Bioenergetics

11
15-Mar-18

ATP Production

Overview: Life Is Work


 Living cells require energy from outside sources
 Some animals, such as the giant panda, obtain energy by
eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms
that eat plants
 Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as
heat
 Photosynthesis generates O2 and organic molecules, which
are used in cellular respiration
 Cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to
regenerate ATP, which powers work

12
15-Mar-18

Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP)


ATP is the energy unit of the cell.
ATP is composed of an adenosine group, a
sugar group and three phosphates.
ATP is easily recycled.
The cell converts Adenosine Di-Phosphate
(ADP) into ATP by the addition of a phosphate.

How ATP is Produced

13
15-Mar-18

Fig. 8-8

Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP)


Adenine

Phosphate groups
Ribose

Fig. 9-2
Light
energy

ECOSYSTEM

Photosynthesis
in chloroplasts
CO2 + H2O Organic
+O
molecules 2
Cellular respiration
in mitochondria

ATP

ATP powers most cellular work

Heat
energy

14
15-Mar-18

Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction

The transfer of electrons during chemical


reactions releases energy stored in organic
molecules
This released energy is ultimately used to
synthesize ATP

The Principle of Redox


Chemical reactions that transfer electrons
between reactants are called oxidation-reduction
reactions, or redox reactions
• In oxidation, a substance loses electrons, or is
oxidized
In reduction, a substance gains electrons, or is
reduced (the amount of positive charge is
reduced)

15
15-Mar-18

How ATP Performs Work:


coupling exergonic and endergonic reactions
The three types of cellular work are:
mechanical
transport
chemical
Each is powered by the hydrolysis of ATP
In the cell, the energy from the exergonic reaction of
ATP hydrolysis can be used to drive an endergonic
reaction

P P P

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

H2 O

P + P P Energy
i

Inorganic phosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

• The bonds between the phosphate groups of ATP’s tail


can be broken by hydrolysis
• Energy is released from ATP when the terminal
phosphate bond is broken
• This Third Phosphate bond contains LOTS of Energy

16
15-Mar-18

Phosphorylation
ATP drives endergonic reactions by
phosphorylation, transferring a phosphate
group to some other molecule, such as a
reactant
The recipient molecule is now phosphorylated

Phosphorylation
The process of Phosphorylation converts a
relatively low energy compound (ADP) into a
higher energy compound (ATP)
ADP (Adenosine Di-Phosphate)- Contains an
Adenine, a ribose group, and two Phosphate
groups.

17
15-Mar-18

Fig. 8-12

ATP + H2O

Energy from Energy for cellular


catabolism (exergonic, work (endergonic,
energy-releasing ADP + P i energy-consuming
processes) processes)

ATP--ADP Cycle
ATP

18
15-Mar-18

Autotrophs Heterotrophs

Make their own food Can NOT make own


• with light – phototrophs food… they get their
• with chemicals -- chemotrophs energy by the foods they
eat

Adenosine triphosphate
tri

+
P

ribose
-

adenine

19
15-Mar-18

Adenosine diphosphate
di

+
P

ribose
-

adenine

+ +
Releasing energy

Storing energy

- -

P
Releasing energy
P P

P Storing energy P

ribose ribose

adenine adenine

20
15-Mar-18

ATP-ADP Cycle
• ATP – ADP Cycle

phosphate removed

Transformation of Energy
– Energy is the ability to do work.

– Thermodynamics is the study of the flow and transformation


of energy in the universe.
Laws of Thermodynamics
– First law - Energy can be converted from one form to
another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.

– Second law - Energy cannot be converted without


the loss of usable energy.

HEAT

21
15-Mar-18

• Carbohydrates
– most commonly broken down to make
ATP.
– not stored in large amounts
– up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule

• Lipids
– store the most energy.
– 80% of energy in your body
– About 146 ATP from a triglyceride

• Proteins
– least likely to be broken down to make ATP.
– amino acids not usually needed for energy
– about the same amount of energy as a carb.

ATP-ADP Cycle

22
15-Mar-18

Using Biochemical Energy

1) Movement in cell

2) Protein synthesis
3) Active Transport

(Low to high concentration across membrane)

KERJA KERAS DI AWAL


(INVESTASI):

PEROLEH HASIL MAKSIMUM


&
HINDARI PENYESALAN DI AKHIR

23