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ontents

Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376


Brazing and Soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
General Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Adhesive Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Cleaning. Finishing. and Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Physical Metallurgy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Recycling Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Metallography. Microstructures. and Phase Diagrams
Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys Metallographic Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Microstructures of Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Wrought Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Solidification Structures of Aluminum Alloy Ingots . . . 523
Foundry Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Solidification Structures of Aluminum-Silicon
Aluminum-Lithium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Alloy Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Powder Metallurgy Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Phase Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
Aluminum-Matrix Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Aluminum Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Properties of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Fabrication and Finishing of Aluminum Alloys Corrosion Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Tribological Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
Molten Aluminum Processing and Casting . . . . . . . . . . 199
Properties of Pure Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Properties of Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Properties of Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Powder Metallurgy Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Heat Treating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Index ........................................... 732
Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
ecialty 0

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Edited by
J.R. Davis
Davis & Associates

Prepared under the direction of the


ASM International Handbook Committee

Scott D. Henry, Manager of Handbook Development


Suzanne E. Frueh, Production Manager
Randall Boring, Production Coordinator
. Dawn Levicki, Production Coordinator
Laurie Harrision, Editorial Assistant

William W. Scott, Jr., Director of Technical Publications

AS
V*
/WERM;T/OICCAL

The Materials
Information Society
Copyright 1993
by
ASM International@'
All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of
the copyright owner.

First printing, D e c e m b e r 1993


S e c o n d printing, February 1994
Third printing, March 1996
Fourth printing, March 1998

This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists.It brings together a wealth of
information from worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and
longrange problems.
Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that
NO WARRANTIES,FXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING,WITHOUTLLMITATION, WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITYOR FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNEC-
TION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM
cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This
publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the
conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM's control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation
in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information
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SHALLEITHER PARTY BE LlABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIALDAMAGES
WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY.
As with any material, evaluation of the material under enduse conditions prior to specificationis essential.
Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.
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reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus,product, composition,or system, whether
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defense against liability for such infringement.
Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData

Aluminum and aluminum alloys /edited by J.R. Davis;


prepared under the direction of the ASM InternationalHandbook Committee.
p. cm. -- (ASM specialty handbook)
Includes bibliographicalreferences and index.

1. Aluminum. 2. Aluminum allovs.


I. Davis, J.R. (Joseph R.)
II. ASM International. Handbook committee.
III. Series.
TA480.A6A6177 1993 620.1 '86dc20

ISBN 0-87170496-X

ASM International@
Materials Park, OH 440730002

Printed in the United States of America

ii
The "Information Age" has provided the engineer with "CorrosionBehavior" was based on a nucleus artic1e"Cor-
unprecedentedaccess to technical informationrelating to the rosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys-published in
processing, properties, and applicationsof engineered mate- Volume 13 of ASM Handbook. This nucleus article was
rials. We are truly an informationdriven society fueled by significantlyexpanded by the incorporationof material from
voluminous amounts of printed literature, telecommunica- six additional articles in Volume 13. This supplemental in-
tions, on-line databases, computer software programs, and formationdescribes in greater detail such important topics as
the soon-to-be-realizedinteractive communicationstechnol- intergranular corrosion, evaluation of stress-corrosion
ogy. Despite the many advantages affordedby these learning cracking, hydrogen damage, exfoliation corrosion, and fili-
tools, we are also faced at times with an information over- form corrosion. Still other articles are based on information
load which contrasts sharply with the engineer's demands blended from different handbooks. For example, the article
for quicker and easier access to information.As the technical "Wrought Products" contains information found in four
world becomes increasingly complex, engineers can ill af- separate Handbooks as well as Aluminum: Properties and
ford to spend days, or even hours, synthesizing information. Physical Metallurgy, which was also published by ASM.
Recognizing the need for more specialized sources of infor- Lastly, when gaps were identified in subject coverage, new
mation, ASM introduces the ASM Specialty Handbook. material was introduced. Examples include the articles "Ad-
To better understand this concept, think of the 18 volume hesive Bonding," "Brazing and Soldering," "Extrusion,"and
ASM Handbook series as the core of a very large database. "Aluminum-Matrix Composites."
This database was not designed to be material specific, but The ASM Specialty Handbook is yet another example of
rather addressesthe properties,processing, testing, and char- the wealth of information available in the largerASM Hand-
acterization of a wide variety of metals and alloys. Yet if a book series. During the many months of work on this project,
horizontal cross section of this database was searched for the editor gained an even greater appreciation of the thou-
information describing a specificmaterial or alloy, abundant sands of Handbook contributors from whom material was
and valuable data would be found. Such was the case with drawn. Their efforts have resulted in a unparalleled reposi-
the present volume, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. Once tory of technical information on metals and their alloys that
an outline was established and approved, material on alumi- further solidifies ASM International's reputation as "The
num was drawn from the entire ASM Handbook series as Materials Information Society."
well as other complementary publications and rewritten and
edited to form one cohesive document. The result is the
largest and most comprehensive single source on aluminum Joseph R. Davis
and aluminum alloys ever published. Davis & Associates
The majority of the articles in the ASM Specialty Hand- Chagrin Falls, Ohio
book are based on multiple sources. For example, the article

iii
Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
General Introduction ............................. 3 Brazing and Soldering ........................... 420
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adhesive Bonding .............................. 438
18
Physical Metallurgy ............................. 31 Cleaning. Finishing. and Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Recycling Technology ........................... 47
Metallography. Microstructures. and Phase Diagrams
Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys Metallographic Practices ......................... 485
WroughtProducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Microstructuresof Aluminrlm Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
FoundryProducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Solidification Structures of Aluminum Alloy Ingots . . . 523
Aluminum-LithiumAlloys ....................... 121 Solidification Structures of Aluminum-Silicon
Powder Metallurgy Alloys ....................... 143 AlloyCastings ................................ 532
Aluminum-Matrix Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Phase Diagrams,. ............................... 542
Aluminum Coatings ............................ 180
Properties of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Fabrication and Finishing of Aluminum Alloys Corrosion Behavior ............................. 579
Molten Aluminum Processing and Casting . . . . . . . . . . Tribological Behavior ........................... 623
199
Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Properties of Pure Aluminum ..................... 639
Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Properties of Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Properties of Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
Powder Metallurgy Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Heat Treating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Index........................................... 732
Machining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

V
uction to Aluminum an
Aluminum A
General Introduction .................................................................................... 3
AlloyandTemperDesignationSystems ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
PhysicalMetallurgy ................................................................................... 31
RecyclingTechnology ................................................................................. 47
General ntrod ucti on
ALUMINUM, the second most plentiful collecting as a metal pad at the cathode. The recovery representing 31.2%. Detailed data on
metallic element on earth, became an eco- separated metal is periodically removed by si- U.S. supply of aluminum from 1981to 1991 are
nomic competitor in engineering applications phon or vacuummethods into crucibles, which given in Table 2. The source of secondary pro-
as recently as the end of the 19th century. It was are then transferred to casting facilities where duction is m p in all forms, as well as the product
to become a metal for its time. The emergence remelt or fabricating ingots are produced. of skim and Qoss pmcessing.primary and sewn-
of three important industrial developments The major impurities of smelted aluminum dary production of a l e u m are integralty re-
would, by demanding material characteristics are iron and silicon, but zinc, gallium, titanium,
consistent with the unique qualities of alumi-
num and its alloys, greatly benefit growth in
and vanadium are typically present as minor
contaminants. Internationally, minimum alu-
=
lated and complemmw. M ~ wrought
c& composi~ons mnstrucw
Y and
to reflect tfie
impact of controll& elementContaminationthat
the production and use of the new metal. minum purity is the primary criterion for defin- may accompany ST consumption. A recent
When the electmlytic reduction of alumina ing composition and value. In the United trend has been inmased use of scrap in primary
(Al203) dissolved in molten cryolite was inde- States, a convention for considering the rela- and intepted secondaryfabricatingfacilities for
pendently developed by Charles Hall in Ohio tive concentrations of iron and silicon as the,
various wrought produd, incluhg can sheet.
and Paul Heroult in France in 1886, the first more i m p o m t criteria has evolved. Reference
intemalcombustion-engine-powered vehicles As showninTable 3, reclmation fromaluminum
to grades of unalloyed metal may therefore be
were appearing, and aluminum would play a by purity alone, for example, 99.70% alumi- cans increased in 1991to an estimated 893 thou-
role as an automotive material of increasing num, or by the method sanctioned by the Alu- sand metric tons, up 1.8% from 1990, accounting
engineering value. Electrification would re- minum Association in which standardized for 62.4% Of m shipments.
quire immense quantities of lightweight con- Pxxx grades have been established.In the latter
ductive metal for long-distance transmission case, the digits following the letter P refer to
and for construction of the towers needed to the maximum decimal percentages of silicon Aluminum Alloys
support the overhead network of cables which and iron, respectively. For example, P1020 is
deliver electrical energy from sites of power unalloyed smelter-produced metal containing
generation. Within a few decades the Wright no more than 0.10% Si and no more than It is convenient to divide aluminum alloys
brothers gave birth to an entirely new industry 0.20% Fe. PO506 is a grade which contains no into two major categories: casting composi-
which grew in partnership with the alumhm more than 0.05%Si and no more than 0.06% tions and wrought compositions. Afurther dif-
industry development of StmctunllY reliable, Fe. Common P grades range from PO202 to ferentiation for each category is based on the
strOnf5 and fracture-resistant Pa* for air- P1535, each of which inc~rpol&% additional primary mechanism of property development
frames, engines, and ultimately, for missile impurity limits for control purposes.
bodies, fuel cells, and satellite components.
(see the discussion below on “Heat-Treatable
Refining steps are available to attain much and NonHeat-Treatable ~ l l ~ ~ ~ ” ) .
The aluminum industry’s growth was not higher levels of purity. Purities of 99.99% are
limited to these developments. me first com- Cast and wIoughtalloy nomenclatures have
mercial applications of aluminum Were nov-
achieved through fractional crystallization or been developed. me Aluminum Association
Hoopes cell operation. The latter process is a systemismostwi~elyrecognizedinthe united
e b items such as mirror frames, house three-layer electrolytic pxucess which employs
numbers, and sewing trays. cooking utensils states. ’Iheir alloy identification system em-
molten salt of greater density than pure molten ploys different nomenclaturesfor wrought and
were also a major early market. In time, ahmi- aluminum. Combinations of these purification
num grew in diversity of applications to the techniques result in 99.999% purity for highly cast alloys, but divides alloys into families for
extent that virtually every aspect of modem life Specialized applications. simplification(see the amcle ,,lloy and Tem-
would be directly or indirectly affected by its per Designation Systems” in this Volume for
use. \
Prod“dio”
primary aluminumstatisticS’w * d thousand
totaled 18,056 ~ u d o n met-
Of details). For wrought alloys a fourdigit system
ric tons in 1991(‘&ble 1). Over the decade 1981- is us(d to produce a list of wrought c0mposi-
1991, world production increased 19.7%, an tion families as fo11ows:
Aluminum Production annual growth rate of 2.0%. The United States
m u n t e d for22.Wofthewofid’s 1991produc- lm controlled unalloyed @ure> ComPosi-
tion while the E~~~ a m u n i t y accounw tion used primarily in the electrical and
All aluminum production is based on the for 125%.other EWE)ean countries, including c~emictdindusllies
Hd-Heroult process. Alumina refined from former members of the Union of Soviet S&&t 2xm Alloys in which copper is the principal
bauxite is dissolved in a CIyolite bath with Republics, accounted for 21.0%. The remaining alloying element, though other elements,
various fluoride salt additions made to control 43.6% includes Asia (11.6%), Canada (lO.l%), notably magnesium, may be specified. 2wr
bath temperature, density, resistivity, and alu- South America (9.9%),Oceania (8.5%),and Af- series alloys are widely used in aircraft
mina solubility. An electrical current is then rica (3.4%). The total U.S. supply in 1991 was ~ X X XAlloys in which manganese is the prin-
passed through the bath to electrolyze the dis- 8,02Othousandrnetrictons, withprimaryproduc- cipal alloying element. Used as a gened-
solved alumina with oxygen forming at and tion representing about 51.3% of total supply, purpose alloy for architectural applications
reacting with the carbon anode, and aluminum impo* accoUnting for 17.4%, and secondary and various products
4 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 1 World primary aluminum production from 1981 through 1991

Country 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981

Africa 612 616 607 59 1 579 554 513 410 420 500 473
C~eroOn 89 93 92 87 79 84 90 73 77 79 65
Egypt 178 179 180 173 179 175 209 170 140 141 134
Ghana 175 174 169 161 150 125 49 ... 42 174 190
SWthAliiCa 170 170 166 170 171 170 165 167 161 106 84
North America 5.95 1 5,615 5,585 5,478 4,883 4.392 4.782 5.321 4,444 4,339 5,605
Canada 1,830 1,567 1.555 1,534 1.540 1,355 1,282 1.222 1,091 1,065 1,116
United States 4,121 4,048 4.030 3,944 3,343 3,037 3,500 4,099 3353 3,274 4,489
Latin America 1,794 1,783 1,692 1,543 1,486 1,389 1,153 1,048 938 795 788
Algentina 165 166 1 62 154 153 148 136 134 133 138 134
BI-dzil 950 93 1 890 874 843 757 549 455 401 299 256
Mexico 51 68 72 68 60 37 43 44 40 41 43
Suriname 28 28 28 10 2 29 29 29 29 43 41
Venezuela 600 590 540 437 428 41 8 3% 386 335 274 314
Asia 2,091 2,012 1,995 1,775 1,577 1.488 1,568 1,595 1,390 1,417 1,682
Bahrain 210 213 187 183 180 178 176 177 172 17 1 130
China, €?R.(a) 860 850 850 710 615 410 410 400 400 380 350
India 440 433 423 375 265 257 260 269 204 217 213
Indonesia 185 186 197 185 202 219 217 199 115 33 ...
Iran 67 59 45 40 45 40 43 42 39 45 13
Japan 32 34 35 35 41 140 227 287 256 35 1 77 1
Korea, Peop. Rep. ... ... 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
K o r q Republic of 2 2 18 18 22 19 18 18 13 15 18
Taiwan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 31
Turkey 56 61 62 57 42 60 54 38 30 36 40
United ArabImirates 239 174 168 162 155 155 153 155 151 149 106
European Community 2,265 2,347 2,361 2,359 2,387 2.35 1 2,283 2,403 2,282 2,340 2583
FranCe 286 326 3 35 328 323 322 293 342 361 390 436
Germany, Fed. Rep.@) 700 736 734 75 3 793 765 745 777 743 723 729
EasternStates 20 21
Western States 680 715
GEZX 152 150 145 151 127 124 125 136 136 135 146
IdY 218 232 2 19 226 233 243 224 230 1% 233 274
Netherlands 260 258 279 278 276 266 25 1 249 235 251 262
sw 355 355 352 323 341 355 370 38 1 358 367 397
United Kingdom 294 290 297 300 294 276 275 288 253 241 339
Other Europe 3,800 4,098 4,458 4,388 4,349 4,120 4,007 3,927 3.733 3,498 3,415
A& 80 89 93 95 93 93 94 96 94 94 94
Czechoslovakia(a)(c) 68 70 69 67 68 33 32 32 36 34 33
GermanD.R.(a)(b) ... ... 54 61 68 61 60 58 57 58 60
Hungary 64 75 75 75 76 74 74 74 74 74 74
Iceland 89 88 88 82 85 76 73 80 76 75 74
Norway 833 845 863 864 853 726 743 765 713 638 634
Poland(d) 45 46 48 48 48 48 47 46 44 43 66
Romania 158 168 269 265 260 269 247 244 223 208 242
Sweden 97 % 97 99 81 78 84 83 82 79 83
Swiherland 66 72 71 72 73 80 73 79 76 75 82
U.S.S.R.(a) 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,300 2,200 2.100 2,000 1,900 1.800
YugOSlavia 300 349 331 260 244 282 280 270 258 220 173
Oceania 1,543 1,542 1,502 1,414 1,256 1,118 1,092 1,001 697 544 533
Australia 1,235 1,234 1,244 1,150 1,004 882 85 1 75 8 478 38 1 379
New Zealand 308 308 258 264 252 236 24 1 243 219 163 154
lgOS6 18,013 18.200 17,548 16,517 15,412 15,398 15.705 13,W 13,433 15,079
Total world(a)

Note: Values are given in thousands of mehic tons.


(a) Estimated by the Bureau of Mmes, U.S. Department of Interior. (b) Geman Democratic Republic and FedRal RepuMic of Gemany combined in 1990. Source: Ref 1. (c) Includes secondary
unalloyedingot. (d) Includes primary alloyed ingot.

. 4.m Alloys in which silicon is the principal planks, and other products exposed to ma- 7xxrAlloysinwhichzincistheprincipalalloy-
alloying element Used in welding rods and rine environments ing element, but otherelements such as copper,
brazing sheet &wr Alloys in which magnesium and silicon magnesium, chromium, and zirconium may be
5.m Alloys in which magnesium is the princi- are principal alloying elements. Commonly specified. Used in aircraft structural compo-
pal alloying element Used in boat hulls, gang- used for architectural extrusions nents and other high-strength applications
General Introduction / 5

Table 2 Total U.S. supply of aluminum from 1981 through 1991

Total Domestk primary Imports Dmnestk


Year supply production Total Primary(a) Mill pmducts(b) seeondnry remwry(c)

1981 7,061 4,489 782 645 138 1,790


1982 5,762 3,274 823 616 207 1,666
I983 6,149 3,353 1,023 743 281 1,773
1984 7,235 4,099 1,376 882 494 1,760
1985 6,594 3,500 1,332 869 463 1,762
1986 6,655 3,039 1,843 1,349 494 1,773
1987 7,035 3,347 1,702 1,246 456 1,986
1988 7,534 3,945 1,467 1,027 440 2,122
1989 7,437 4,030 1,353 926 427 2,054
1990 7,863 4,048 1,421 962 459 2,393
1991 8,020 4,121 1,398 1,029 369 2,501

Note: Values are given in thousands of metric tons.


(a) Some imports of starter metal, classified by the Bureau of the Census in 1954-57 as scrap, have been classified as primary metal, as estimated by the De@. of Commerce. (b) Starting in 1970,
includes reimports of metal exportedforprocessingandretumedforfurtherp~essing.(c) Domestic secondaly data arerecoverablemetal contentfor estimatedtotalscrapconsumption,as estimated
bytheBureau of Mines. Before 1972, totalsupplyincludedsecondiuyrecoveryandanestimated90%~overyfromreportedscrapimports. Beginning in 1972 ~eBureauofMinesrequuedredrepoa-
ing of imported scrap recovery data and these data are included in the domestic recovery figures beginning that year. Source: Ref 1

Table 3 Aluminum can reclamation in the U.S. from 1981 through 1990 usually in combination with various annealing
procedures for property development. These
Thousands of metric tons Number(in billions) Percentageof
alloys are referred to as non-heat-treatable or
Year ofaluminumcdkted of aluminumcanscdlected(a) aluminumcmsmOected(b) work-hardening alloys. some casting alloys
are essentially not heat treatable and are used
1981 46 1 (c) 24.9 53.2 only in as-cast or in thermally modified condi-
1982 510(c) 28.3 55.5
tions unrelated to solution or precipitation ef-
1983 519(c) 29.4 52.9
1984 556(c) 31.9 52.8
fects.
1985 565(d) 33.1 5 1.0 Heat-treatable aluminum alloys a r e
1986 559(d) 33.3 48.7 those that can be hardened (strengthened)by a con-
1987(e) a @ ) 36.6 50.5 trolled cycle of heating and cooling. Some alloys,
1988 683(d) 42.5 54.6 usually m the 2wr, k,and 7 m series, are soh-
1989 7Wd) 49.4 60.8 tion heat mtabb-they can be strengthened by
1990 877(d) 55.0 63.6
heating and then quenching,or rapid cooling. They
1991 893(d) 56.8 62.4
maybehrtherstrengthenedb y c o l d w o r k h ~ n -
(a) Calculation based on an Aluminum Associationcan weight survey. (b) Based on Can Manufacturers Institute aluminum bev- trolled defonnation& roOm mpelatW2.
emge can shipment data. (c) Net receipts, U S . Departmentof Interior Bureau of Mines. (d) Estimated by The Aluminum Associa-
tion Statistical and Market Research Committee. (e) Beginning in 1987, used beverage can data include estimate of exponed can
neincrease of smgthi n d u d by h a ma-
scrap. Source: Ref 1 ment can be dramatic. For example, in the fully-
annealed 0-temper, aluminum alloy 2024 has an
ultimate yield strength of about 186MPa (27 ksi).
8 m Alloys including tin and some lithium 4xrx Alloys in which silicon is the principal Heat treatment and cold working followed by
compositions, characterizing miscellaneous alloying element natural aging (3'-3 temper) increases its smngth
compositions Sxlcx Alloys in which magnesium is the 2l/2 times, to 483 MPa (70 ksi).
9xrx Reserved for future use principal alloying element As strength is increased by heat-treating, for-
6zxUnused mability is affected in the other direction: for
Casting compositions are described by a 7 x . ~Alloys
~ in which zinc is the Principal example, an alloy in the T-3 temper is less for-
three-digit system followed by a decimal alloying element, but other alloying &- mable than a fully soft alloy in the o-temper.
value. The decimal .O in all cases pertains to mentS such as copper and magnesium may Non-heat-treahble aluminum alloys are
casting alloy limits. Decimals . l , and .2 con- be specified hardenable by cold working, but not by heat W-
cem ingot compositions, which after melting 8xrx Alloys in which tin is the Principal ment. nei,-,i~strengthof&w alloys, us* in
and processing should result in chemistries alloying e k ~ e n t the lm,3 m , 4m, and 5 m series, is providedby
conforming to casting specification require- * 9 ~ xUnused 1
the hardening effect of their alloyingelements.Ad-
ments. Alloy families for casting compositions ditional strengtheningcan be created by cold wcik-
are: ing-defonnation which induces strain-hadening,
Heat-Treatable and
. l n x Controlled unalloyed (pure) composi- Non-Heat-Treatable
tions, especially for rotor manufacture
Al'oys denotedbythe Htempers.
Cold working can increase strength signifi-
2xxx Alloys in which copper is the principal Many alloys respond to thermal treatment can*y in non-heat-treatable al1oys. For examp1e,
alloying element, but other alloying ele- based on phase solub es. These treatments *e ultimate tensfie strength of '10~ 3003 is in-
ments may be specified include solution heat treatment, quenching, creased from about 'lo *a (16 ksi) in *e
3 n x Alloys in which silicon is the principal and precipitation, or age, hardening. For either O-@mFrto200ma(29hi) intheH-18 strain-
alloying element, but the other alloying ele- casting or wrought alloys, such alloys are de- hardened temper. The Ultimate tensile Strength Of
ments such as copper and magnesium are scribed as heat treatable. A large number of alloy 3004 is increased fiomabout 179 MPa (26
specified. The 3 n x series comprises nearly other wrought compositions rely instead on ksi) in its 0-temper to about 283 MPa (41 ksi)
90% of all shaped castings produced work hardening through mechanical reduction, in the H-38 temper.
6 / Introduction to Aluminurn and Aluminum Alloys

Table 4 Strength ranges within wrought aluminum alloy families

Alloy-Temper
Ultimate tensile strength
MPa ksi
i Comments

1060-0 69 IO Alloy 1060-0 is the “softest”al1oy generally available. It is used mainly for sheathing tube in the wire and cable industry.
1060-HI8 131 19
1350-0 83 12 Alloy 1350was developed especially for electrical conductors in both solid and tubular forms.
1350-819 186 27
2219-0 172 25 Alloy 2219 is used at eitherelevated or cryogenic temperatures with good welding characteristics.
’ 2219-T87 476 69
2024-0 186 27 Alloy 2024 is used mainly for structural members in aircraft. It can be spot welded. Note the great increase in strength provided by an
2024T35 1 469 68 appropriate temper.
3003-0 110 16 Alloy 3003has good cornsion resistance, formability, and weldability. It is used inchemical equipment, furniture, condensers, heat
3003-HI8 200 29 exchangen. and pressure vessels.
3004-0 179 26
3004-H38 28 3 41
5005-0 124 18 The 5 x u series alloys were developed as “marine alloys,” highly resistant to corrosion even in salty environments.
5005-H38 200 29
5052-0 193 28
5052-H38 290 42
5056-0 290 42
5056-H 18 434 63
6063-0 90 13 Alloy 6063 is probably the most popular extrusion alloy. It can be heat-treated for strength, is cornsion-resistant, and takes a good
6063-T832 290 42 surface fmish.
6066-0 152 22
6066-T6 393 57
7050-T73510 490 71 These 7m-series alloys are used for structural parts of aircraft where high strength is required. In the fully-annealed 0-temper their
. 7060-T7651 552 80 relativelylowerstrengthmaymakeshaping themeasier. Once brought tothe highertempers, however, they are strongerthan carbon
7075-0 228 33 steel and nearly as strongas stainless steel.
7075-T6 572 83
7178-0 228 33
7178-T6 607 88

Source: Ref 2

sitions for both wrought and cast aluminum


Table 5 Comparative strength-to-weight ratios for various materials alloys are provided in the article “Alloy and
Temper Designation Systems” that immedi-
5picalultimate ately follows in this Volume.
Material tensile strength, ksi Density.lWin.3 Strength-to-weight ratio
The properties of aluminum that make this
7178-T6 88 0.102 863 metal and its alloys the most economical and
7075-T6 83 0.101 822 attractive for a wide variety of uses are appear-
2024T361 72 0.101 713 ance, light weight, fabricability,physical prop-
5056-H 18 63 0.096 65 6 erties, mechanical properties, and corrosion
6066-T6 57 0.098 594
resistance.
Stainless steel (type302) 140 0.290 48 3
606 1-T6 45 0.098 459
Density versus Strength. Aluminum has a
3004-H38 41 0.098 418 density of only 2.7 g/cm3, approximately one-
Fiberglass (average) I9 0.05I8 367 third as much as steel (7.83 g/cm3), copper (8.93
1350-H19 27 0.0975 277 g/cm3), or brass (8.53 glcm3). One cubic foot of
6063-T5 27 0.099 273 steel weighs about 4 9 lb; 0 a cubic foot of alumi-
-3003-HI4 22 0.099 22 2 num, only about 170 lb. Table 4 illustrates the
Carbon steel (1020) 60 0.284 21 1 general range of strengths available within each
Architect’sbronze 60 0.303 198 of the major wrought aluminum alloy families.
5005-0 18 0.098 184 This table demonstrates the important effect that
3003-0 16 0.099 162
different tempers have on strength in the same
PVC plastic 7.5 0.0504 149
alloy. Table 5 compares the strength-to-weight
1060-0 IO 0.0975 103
,-,ccopper 32 0.322 99
ratios (specific strength) of various aluminum
alloys and other materials.
I

Enameling imn 38 0.383 99


Corrosion Resistance. Aluminum resists
Note: 1ksi = 6.89 h4F’~0.1 Ibhn3 = 2.768 g/cm3. the kind of progressive oxidization that causes
Source:Ref 2 steel to rust away. The exposed surface of alumi-
num combines with oxygen to form an inert alu-
minum oxide fdm only a few ten-millionths of an
inch thick, which blocks further oxidation. And,
velope&from refined high-purity aluminum unlike iron rust, the aluminumoxide film does not
Properties to the most complex a l l o y e i s remarkable. flake off to expose a fresh surface to further
More than three hundred alloy compositions oxidation. Scratch t h u g h aluminum’s protec-
Among the most striking characteristics of are commonly recognized, and many additional tive layer and it instantly reseals itself.
aluminum is its versatility. The range of physi- variations have been developed internationally The thin oxide layer itself clings tightly to
cal and mechanical properties that can be de- andin supplier/consumerrelationships. Compo- the metal and is colorless and transparentin-
General Introduction / 7

visible to the naked eye. The discolorationand (MMCs). A percentage distribution of major rolled in line to approximately 9.4 to 12 mm
flaking of iron and steel rust do not occur on aluminum products is presented below (Ref 1): (0.375 to 0.50 in.) diameter.
aluminum.
Appropriately alloyed and treated, alumi- produfl rarm
num can resist corrosion by water, salt, and DlsMbutim946 Engineered Products
other environmental factors, and by a wide sheet,plate,andfoil 54.5
range of other chemical and physical agents. hot 23.7
Aluminum alloy castings are routinely
The corrosion characteristicsof aluminum are Exmsionsand hlbe 14.6
Other(a) 7.1 produced by pressure-die, permanent-mold,
examined in detail in the article "Corrosion green- and dry-sand, investment, and plaster cast-
Behavior" in this Volume. (a) Includesconductor(3.7%);rod,bm. a d wire (1.9%);fox- ing. Shipment statistics are provided in Table 7.
Physical Properties. Aluminum surfaces ings and impacts (0.9%);and powder(0.696)
Prmss variations include vacuum, low-pressure,
can be highly reflective. Radiant energy, visible centrifugal, and pattern-related processes such as
light, radiant heat, and electromagnetic waves are lost foam. Castings are produced by filing molds
efficiently reflected, while anodized and dark Standardized Products with molten aluminum and are used for products
anodized surfaces can be reflective or absorbent. with intricate contours and hollow or cored areas.
The reflectance Of POfished aluminum9Over a Flat-rolled pro&& include plate (thick- The choice Of Castings over other product f o m
broad mge Of wave lengths9leads to its se1ection ness equal to or greaterthan 6.25 mm, 0r0.25 in.), is often based on net shape considerations. Rein-
for a variety Of decorative and functional uses. sheet (thickness 0.15 rnm through 6-25 a or forcing ribs, internal passageways, and complex
A1uminum typical1y disp1ays exce11ent 0.006 through 0.25 in.), and foil (thickness less design features, which would be costly to ma-
e1ectrica1 and therma1 conductivity9 but 'p- than 0.15 mm, or 0.006 in.). These produrn are chine in a part made from a wrought product, Can
cific al10ys have been deve1oped with high semifabricated to rectangular cross section by often be cast by appropriate pattern and mold or
degrees Of e1ectrica1 resistivity. These a11oys sequential reductions in the thickness of cast in- die design. premium engineered castings display
are usefulv for examp1e, in high-torque e1ectric got by hot and cold rolling. Properties in work- extreme hteglit)', close dimensional tolerances,
motors*A1uminum is Often se1ectedfor its e1ec- hardened tempers are controlled by degree of and consistently controlled mechanical proper-
trical conductivity* which 's near1y twice that cold reduction, partial or full annealing, and the ties in the upper range of existing high-strength
Of copper On an equivalent weight basis. The capabilities for selected alloys and tempers.
use of stabilizing treatments. plate, sheet, and foil
requirements Of high conductiviQ and me- p d u d in heat-treatable compositions may be 9 Extrusions are produced by forcing solid
chanical strength can be met by use Of long- solution heat treated, quenched, precipitation metal through ape- dies. Designs that are
line* high-voltage* a1uminum stee1-c0red hardened, and themally or mechanically stress symmetrical around one axis are especially
reinforced transmission cable. The thermal relieved. adaptable to production in extruded fom. With
conductivityOf a1uminum alloys~about 50 to Sheet and foil may be rolled with textured current technology, it is also possible to extrude
60% that Of copper' is advantage0us in heat surfaces. Sheet and plate rolled with specially complex, mandrelcored, and asymmetrical con-
exchangers, evaporators, e1ectrica11y heated prepared work rolls may be embossed to pro- figurations. Precision extrusions display excep-
app1iancesand utensi1s7and automotivecy'in- duce products such as tread plate. By roll form- tional dimensional control and surfax finish.
der heads and radiators. ing, sheet in corrugated or other contoured Major dimensions usually q u i r e no machining;
Of imPOrtance '
A1uminum is nonferromagnetic*a propem
the e1ecaica1 and e1ectronics
industries. It is nOnpFOPho*c* Which is impor-
configurationscan be produced for such appli-
cations as roofing, siding, ducts, and gutters.
tolerance of the asextruded product often per-
mits completion of part manufacture with simple
While the vast majority of flat-rolled prod- cutoff, drilling, broaching, or other minor ma-
tant in app1icationsinv01vinginflammab1e Or ~ c t sare produced by conventional rolling chining operations. Extruded and ex-
explosive-mate*alshand1ingOr exposure-A1u- mills, continuous processes are now in use to trudeddrawn seamless tube competes with
minum is a1so non-toxic and is routine1y Used convert molten alloy directly to reroll gages. mechanically seamed and welded tube.
in containers for foods and beverages*It has an Strip casters employ countemtating water- Forgings are produced by inducing plastic
attractive appearance in its natura1 fiNsh* cooled cylinders or rolls to solidify and par- flow through the application of kinetic, mechani-
which c~ be 'Oft and lustrous Or bright and tially work coilable gage reroll stock in line. cal, or hydraulic forces in either closed or open
shiny. It can be virtual1yany "lor Or texturea Slab casters of either twin-belt or moving dies. Hand fotghgs are simple geometric shapes,
Tab1e 6 lists generalized proprties and ap- block design cast stock typically 19 mm (0.75 formable between flat or modestly contoured
plicationstypical Of se1ected aluminum al10ys. in.) in thickness which is reduced in thickness opendies suchas mtangles, cylinders(mu1tiface
More detai1ed informationOn propertiescan be by in-line hot reduction mill(s) to produce coil- rounds), disks (biscuits), or limited variations of
found in the artic1es"PropertiesOf Pure A1umi- able reroll. Future developments based on these shapes. These f-gs fill a frequent need
numt" "Proprties Of Wrought A1uminum A1- technologicaland operationaladvances in con- in industry when only a limited number of pieces
l0YS*" and "Properties Of Cast A1uminum tinuous processes may be expected to globally is required, or when prototype designs are to be
Alloys'' in this Volume. affect industry expansions in flat-rolled prod- proven.
uct manufacture. Most aluminum forgings are produced in
Wire, rod, and bar are produced h m cast closed dies to produce parts with good surface
Manufactured Forms stock by extrusion, rolling, or combinations of finish, dimensional control, and exceptional
these p s s e s . Wm may be of any cross section soundness and properties. Precision forgings
in which distance between parallel faces or op- emphasize near net shape objectives, which
Aluminum and its alloys may be cast or posing surfaces is less than 9.4 mm (0.375 in.). incorporate reduced draft and more precise di-
formed by virtually all known processes. Rod exceeds 9.4 mm (0.375 in.) in diameter and mensional accuracy. Forgings are also avail-
Manufactured forms of aluminum and alumi- bar in square, rectangular, or regular hexagonal or able as rolled or mandrel-forged rings.
num alloys can be broken down into two octagonal cross section is greater than 9.4 mm Impacts are formed in a confining die from a
groups. Standardized products include sheet, (0.375 in.) between any p a d e l or opposing lubricated slug, usually cold, by a single-stroke
plate, foil, rod, bar, wire, tube, pipe, and struc- faces. application of force through a metal punch caus-
tural forms. Engineered products are those de- An increasingly large proportion of rod and ing the metal to flow around the punch and/or
signed for specific applications and include wire production is derived from continuous through an opening in the punch or die. The
extruded shapes, forgings, impacts, castings, processes in which molten alloy is cast in process lends itself to high production rates with
stampings, powder metallurgy (P/M) parts, water-cooled wheeUmold-beltunits to produce a precision part being produced to exacting qual-
machined parts, and metal-matrix composites a continuous length of solidified bar which is ity and dimensional standards. Impacts are a
Table 6 Typical propertiesand applicationsof comnonly used wrought aluminum alloys

EbngnthninSOmm(2in.), %
ultilnate 16mm(Y16in.) 13mm(lL?in) Stre5- Joiningcharxteristicstd)
Alloy and tendle strength Yield strength thick diameta General carrosim Cold whi
n - Glls Arc Spdand
temper MPa ksi MPa ksi specimen specimen camsim(a)cra&ig(b) vmk&Wy(c) nbiSty(c) Brazing welding welding amw welding Description and selected applicatiam

11Oo-o 90 13 34 5 35 45 A A A E A A A B Commercially pure aluminum highly resistantto


1100-HI4 124 18 117 17 9 20 A A A D A A A A chemical attack and weathering. Low cost, ductile for
deep drawing, and easy to weld. Used for high-purity
applicationssuchas chemicalpessingequipment.
Also fornameplates, fan blades, flue lining, sheet metal
work, spun holloware,and fin stock
1350-0 83 12 28 4 ... ... A A A E A A A B Electricalconductors
135GH19 186 27 165 24 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
2011-T3 379 55 2% 43 ... 15 D D C A D D D D Screw machine products. Appliance parts and trim,
2011-T8 407 59 310 45 ... 12 D B D A D D D D ordnance,automotive,electronic,fasteners,hardware,
machine parts
2014-0 186 27 97 14 ... 18 ... ... ... D D D D B Truck frames,aircraftstrucms, automotive,cylinders
2OWT4. T451 427 62 290 42 ... 20 D C C B D D B B and pistons, machineparts, s t r u c t d s
2014-T6, T651 483 70 414 60 ... 13 D C D B D D B B
2017-T4, T45l 427 62 276 40 ... 22 D C C B D D B B Screw machine products, fittings, fasteners,
machine parts
2024-0 186 27 76 I1 20 22 ... ... ... D D D D D for high-strength s t ~ c t applications.
d Excellent
2024-T3 4x3 70 345 50 18 ... D C C B D C B B machinabilityin the T-tempers.Fair workability and
2024T4, T351 469 68 324 47 20 19 D C C B D C B B fair corrosionresistance.Alclad 2024 combines the
Alclad: high strengthof2024withthecorrosionresistanceof
2024-0 179 26 76 11 20 ... ... ... A D B D ' D D the commercially pure cladding. Used for mck wheels,
2024-T3 448 65 310 45 18 ... B C C B B C B B many ~ t ~ c h u aircraft
;il applications,gears for
2024-T4, T35 1 44 1 64 290 42 19 ... B C C B B C B B machinery,screw machine products,automotive parts,
cylindersand pistons, fasteners,machine parts,
ordnance,recreation equipment, screws and rivets
22 19-0 I72 25 76 II 18 ... ... ... ... ... D D A B Structdusesathightemperature(to315"C,or
2219-T87 416 69 393 57 IO ... D B D B D A A A 600°F).High-strengthweldments
3003-0 1 IO 16 41 6 30 40 A A A E A A A B Most popular general-purposealloy. Strongerthan 1100
3003-H 12 131 19 124 18 IO 20 A A A E A A A A with same good formabilityand weldability. For
3003-H 14 I52 22 145 21 8 16 A A B D A A A A generaluse including sheet metal work, stampings,fuel
3003-H 16 I79 26 172 25 5 14 A A C D A A A A tanks, chemical equipment, containers,cabinets,
freezer liners, cooking utensils, pressure vessels,
builder's hardware, storagetanks, agricultural
applications,appliance parts and trim, architectural
applications,elecmnics, tin stock, fan equipment,
name plates, recreationvehicles, trucks and Wilers.
Used in drawing and spinning
3004-0 I79 26 69 IO 20 25 A A A D B A A B Sheet metal work, storagetanks, agricultd
3WH38 2x3 41 248 36 5 6 A A C C B A A A applications,buildingproducts, containers,electronics,
furniture,kitchen equipment, recreation vehicles,
trucks and trailers

(continued)

(a) General corrosion rating: A, B, can be used in industrial and ospheres without protection. C. D, E, generally should be protected, at least on faying surfaces. Note that these alphabetical listings are relative ratings in descending order: A = best
re in service or in laboratory tests. B, no known instance of failure in service; limited failures in labmtoly tests of short transverse specimens.C, service failure with sustained tension
imited failures in laboratory tests of long transverse specimens. D, limited service failures with sustained longitudinalor long transverse mas.(c) Cold workabilityand machinability ratings:
is best rating, etc. (d) Brazeability and weldabilityratings: A, generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B, weldable with special techniques or for specific applications
re and weld performance. C, limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. D, no commonly used welding methods have been
developed.
Table 6 (continued)

ElongationinSOmm(Zin.), ?6
Ultimate t6mm(1/16h) l 3 m (ID in.) stres- Joidnpcharacteristks(d)
Alloyand tensilestrength Yiild strength thick diameter General cormsion CoM Machin- Gm Arc Spatand
temper MPa ksi MPa ksi specimen specimen cormsim(a)crackiig(b) workabirty(c) ability(c) Brazing welding welding seamwelding Dexriptmnand sewedapplications

3105-0 117 17 55 8 24 ... A A A E A A A B Residential siding, mobile homes, rain-canying goods,


3105-H14 172 25 152 22 5 ... A A B D A A A A sheet metal work, appliance parts and aim, automotive
3 105-H18 2 14 31 193 28 3 ... A A C D A A A A parts. buildingproducts,electronics,fin stock,
3105-H25 179 26 159 23 ... ... A B ? A A A A A furniture, hospital and medical equipment, kitchen
equipment, recreation vehicles, tmcks and trailers
5005-H34 159 23 138 20 8 ... A A B D B A A A Specified for applications requiring anodizing; anodized
coating is cleaner and lighter in color than 3003. Uses
include appliances, utensils, architectural, applications
requiring good electrical conductivity, automotive
parts, containers, general sheet metal, hardware,
hospital and medical equipment, kitchen equipment,
name plates, and marine applications
5052-0 193 28 90 13 25 30 A A A D C A A B Sbonger than 3003 yet readily formable in the
5052-H112 ... ... ... ... ... ... A A B D C A A A intermediatetempers. Good weldability and resistance
5052-H32 * 228 33 193 28 12 18 A A A D B A A A to corrosion. Uses include pressure vessels, fan blades,
5052-H34 262 38 214 31 10 14 A A B D B A A A tanks, elecbonic panels, electronic chassis, medium-
smngth sheet metal parts, hydraulic tube, appliances,
agricultural applications, architectural uses, automotive
parts, buildingproducts, chemical equipment,
containers, cooking utensils. fasteners, hardware,
highway signs, hospital and medical equipment,
kitchen equipment, marine applications, railroad cars,
recreation vehicles, trucks and milers
5056-0 290 42 152 22 ... 35 A B A D D C A B Cable sheathing, rivets formagnesium, screen wire,
5056-H18 434 63 407 59 ... 10 A C C C D C A A zippers, automotive applications, fence wire. fasteners
5083-0 290 42 145 21 ... 22 A A B D D C A B Forall typesofwelded assemblies, marinecomponents,
5083-H321 317 46 228 33 ... 16 A A C D D C A A andtanks requiring high weldefficiency andmaximum
joint strength. Usedinpressurevessels~pto65~C(l50
O F ) and in many cryogenic applications, bridges, freight

cars,marinecomponents,TV towers,drillingrigs,
mnsportation equipment, missile component?, and
dump truck bodies. Goodcorrosion resistance
5086H32 290 42 207 30 12 ... A A B D D C A A Used in generally the same types of applications a?5083,
5086-H34 324 47 255 37 IO ... A B B C D C A A particularly where resistance to either stress cornsion
5086-H112 269 39 131 19 14 ... A A B D D C A A or atmospheric corrosion is important
5454-0 248 36 117 17 22 ... A A A D D C A B Forall typesofweldedassemblies, tanks,pressure
5454-H32 276 40 207 30 10 ... A A B D D C A A vessels. ASME code approved to 205 "C (400 "0.Also
5454" 303 44 241 35 10 ... A A B C D C A A used in trucking for hot asphalt road tankers and dump
5454-H 1 12 248 36 124 18 18 ... A A B D D C A A bodies; also, for hydrogen peroxide and chemical
storage vessels

(continued)

(a) General corrosion rating: A, B, can be used in industrial and seacoast atmospheres without protection. C, D, E, generally should be protected, at least on faying surfaces. Note that these alphabetical listings are relative ratings in descendingoder: A= best
rating,etc.(b)Stress-cornsioncrackingrating: A,noknowninstanceoffailureinserviceorinlaboratory tests. B,noknowninstanceoffailure inservice; limited failures in laboratory testsofshorttransversespecimens.C, service failure with sustained tension
stressactinginshorttmnsversedirectionrelativetograinstructure; limitedfailures inlaboratory testsoflongtransversespecimens.D, limitedservice failures with sustained longitudinal orlong transverse areas. (c)Cold workabilityandmdchinability ratings:
alphabetical designations are relative ratings in descending order. Ais best rating, etc. (d) Blazeability and weldabilityratings: A, generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B, weldable with special techniques or for specific applications
that justify preliminary trials or testing to develop welding procedure and weld performance. C, limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance tocorrosion and mechanical properties. D, no commonly used welding methods have been
developed.
Table 6 (continued)

-.~ ~ in 50 mm (2 in.), W
Elongation _ _ ~
Ultimate 1.6mm(U16in.) I3 mm (10in) Strrsf Joiningcharacte+ies(d)
Allay and tensile strength Y ~ l strength
d thick diameter General corrosion Cold Machin- Gm Arc Spatand
temper MPa b i MPa b i specimen spfrimn corrosion(a) cradtmg(b) workpbihy(c) ability@) Brazing welding welding seamwelding Description and selected applications

5456-H32Iand-H116 352 51 255 37 ... 16 A B C D D C A A For all types of welded assemblies, storage tanks,
pressure vessels, and marine components.Used where
best weld efficiency and joint strength are required.
Restricted to temperatures below 65 "C(150 O F )
5657-H25 159 23 13x 20 12 ... A A B D B A A A For anodized auto and appliance trim and nameplates
6061-0 I24 IX 55 X 25 30 B A A D A A A B Good formability, weldability,c o m i o n resistance,and
606 I -T4 24 I 35 145 21 22 25 B B B C A A A A strength in the T - t e m p . Good genetal-purpose alloy
606 I -T6 and -T65 I 310 45 276 40 12 17 B A C C A A A A used for a broad range of snuctural applications and
welded assemblies including huckcomponents,
railroadcars. pipelines.marine applications, furniture,
agricultural applications aircraft, architectural
applications, automotive parts, building products,
chemical equipment, dump bodies, electrical and
electronicapplications, fasteners, fence wire, fan
blades, general sheet metal, highway signs, hospital
and medical equipment, kitchen equipment, machine
parts, ordnance, recreation equipment, recreation
vehicles, and storage tanks ,
6063-T5 1x6 27 145 21 12 ... A A B C A A A A Used in pipe d i n g , furniture,architectural extrusions,
W3-T6 24 I 35 214 31 12 ... A A C C A A A A appliance parts and trim, automotive parts, building
products. electrical and electronicparts, highway signs,
hospital and medical equipment, kitchen equipment,
marine applications,machine parts, pipe, railroad cars,
recreationequipment, recreationvehicles, trucks and
aailers
7050-T765 I 552 X0 490 71 ... II C B D B D D D B High-smngth alloy in aircraft and other S t ~ c t mAlso
~.
used inordnance and recreationequipment
7075-T6 and -T65 I 572 x3 503 73 II II C C D B D D D B ForaifiraftandotherapplicationsrequiMg highest
Alclad: strengths.Alclad 7075 combines the strength
7075-0 22 I 32 97 14 17 ... ... ... B D D D C D advantagesof 7075 with the corrosion-resisting
7075-T6 and -T65 I 524 76 462 67 II ... C C D B D D C B properties of commercially pure aluminumclad
surface. Also used in machine parts and ordnance

(a) General corrosion rating: A. B. can be used in industrial and seacoast atmospheres without protection.C. D. E. generally should be protected at least on faying surfaces.Note that these alphabetical listings are relative ratings in descending o d e r A = best
rating. etc. (b)Stress-msion crackingrating:A. no known instance of failure in service or in laboratory tests. B, no known instance of failure in service: limited failuresin laboratory tests of short transverse specimens. C, service failure with sustained tension
stress acting inshort transversedirectionrelativetograin smucture: limited failuresin laboratory tests of long transverse specimens. D, limitedservicefailureswithsustained longitudinal orlong transverse areas. (c) Cold workability andmachinabilityratings:
alphabetical designations are relative ratings in descending order. A is best rating, etc. (d) Brazeability and weldability ratings: A. generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B, weldable with special techniquesor for specific applications
that justify preliminary trials or testing to develop welding procedure and weld performance. C . limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. D, no commonly used welding methods have been
developed.
General Introduction / 11

Table 7 U.S. casting shipments from 1980 through 1990 aluminum Mh4Cs are the most commonly pro-
duced metal-matrix material. The benefits of
Permanentand these aluminum MMCs are that they have in-
stmipermnnent creased stiffness, strength and wear resistance
%tal Sand c&ingS mddcMings Die enstings along with enhanced thermal conductivity and a
Year astlngs For sak O m us(a) F a s.le Own uMa) F a spk O m us(a) Other lower coefficient of thermal expansion Over the
1980 1,689.8 200.0 33.1 217.2 105.9 633.8 429.2 70.6
unreinforced aluminum alloy from which they
1981 1,819.8 207.3 30.8 209.2 82.3 704.1 452.7 133,4 are produced. Information on processing and
1982 1,605.3 159.0
19.2 161.9 77.2 624.2 434.0 129.8 properties of these materials can be found in the
1983 1,898.1 156.3 10.2 211.8 90.5 812.9 493.3 123.1 article “Aluminum-Matrix Composites” in this
1984 2,232.8 183.3 12.6 388.7 (b) 932.9 583.0 132.3 Volume.
1985 2,229.8 188.7 15.3 390.7 (b) 923.5 596.8 114.8
1986 2,204.8 197.6 25.8 390.7 (b) 886.3 601.9 102.5
1987 2.220.2 227.3 24.0 385.2 (b) 892.5 614.8 76.4 Fabrication Characteristics
1988 2,316.2 225.9 28.3 474.8 (b) 919.7 587.8 79.7
1989 2,193.9 217.6 29.4 452.3 (b) 890.3 546.2 58.1
1990 2,134.0 204.5 24.5 459.7 (b) 848.5 519.8 77.1 This section will briefly review important
considerations in the machining, forming,
Note: Values are given in millions of pounds. forging, and joining of aluminum alloys. Addi-
(a) Own use shipments are for captive consumption in the producer’s end products. (b) Permanent mold shipments for sale and tional informationcan be found jn the articles
ownuse were combined in 1984. Source:Ref 1
in this Volume that deal with specitic fabrica-
tion processes.
Machinability of most aluminum alloys is
combination of both cold extrusionand cold forg- For more demanding applications, such as excellent (see, for exmple, the machinability
ing and, as such, combine advantages of each aerospace parts or components requiring en-
ratings in Table 6). Among the various wrought
process. hanced resistance to stresscornsion cracking, and cast aluminurndays and mong the tempers
There are three basic types of impact form- rapidly solidified or mechanically attrited alu- in which they are produced,thmis considerable
ing-reverse impacting, forward impacting minum powders are consolidated by more ad- Kariation in machining characteristics, which
and a combination of the two, each of which vanced techniques that result in close to 100% may require specid toolins or techniques.Hard-
may be used in aluminum fabrication. Reverse of theoretical density. These consolidation ness ,& yield smngths are variously used as
impacting is used to make shells with a forged methods include hot isostatic pressing, rapid approximationsof machinabdity. seethe article
base and extruded sidewalls.The slug is placed omnidirectional compaction, ultra-high strain u ~ ~ ~ ~ ~for ,more detailed
M volume
in this
in a die cavity and struck by a punch, which rate (dynamic) compaction, and spray deposi- information.
forces the metal to flow back (upward) around tion techniques. using advanced P/kf process- Chemical milling, the moval of metal by
the punch, through the opening between the ing methods, alloys that cannot be produced che,.,,icalamck in an alkaline or =id solution,is
punch and die, to form a simple shell. Forward through conventional ingot metallurgy meth- routine for specid&d reductions in thichess.
impacting somewhat resembles conventional ods are routinely manufactured. For complex large surface areas in which uniform
extrusion. Metal is forced through an orifice in Powder metallurgy parts may be competi- metal removal is required, Chemical milling is
the die by the action of a punch, causing the tive with forgings, castings, stampings, ma- often the most econohcal method. me pmess
metal to flow in the direction of pressure appli- chined components,and fabricated assemblies. is used extensivelyto etch preformd aerospace
cation. hnch/die clearance limits flash forma- Certain metal products can be produced only parts to obtain dum strength-to-weightm-
tion. Forward impacting with a flat-face punch by powder metallurgy; among these are oxide- tios (See Table 5). I n t e r n y stiffened aluminum
is used to form round, contoured, straight, and dispersioned strengthenedalloys and materials wing a d fuselage sections are chemically d e d
ribbed rods. With a stoprace punch, thin- whose porosity (number distribution and size to p&uce an optimum cross section and mini-
walled parallel or tapered sidewall tubes with of Pores) is Controlled (filter elements and self- mum skin thickness. Spars, stringers, floor
one or both ends open may be formed. In the lubricating bearings). Informationon the Prop- beams, and frames are frequent applications as
combination method, the punch is smaller than erties and processing of aluminum P N parts well. See the article ‘‘Machining” in this volume
an oriiiced die resulting in both reverse and can be found in the articles “Powder Metal- formore information.
forward metal flow. lurgy Alloys” and “Powder Metallurgy ROC- Formability is among the more h p o m t
Powder metallurgy (P/M) parts a r e essing” in this Volume. characteristics of aluminum and many of its al-
formed by a variety of processes. For less de- Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) basi- loys. Specific tensile and yield strengths, ductil-
manding applications, metal powder is com- cally consist of a nonmetallic reinforcement in- ity, and respective rates of work hardening
pressed in a shaped die to produce green corporated into a metallic matrix. The control differences in the mount of permissible
compacts, and then the compacts are sinted combination of light weight, comsion resistance, deformation.
(diffusionbonded) at elevated temperam under and useful mechanical properties, which has Ratings of comparable formability of the
protective atmosphere. During sintering, the made aluminum alloys so popular, lends itself commercially available alloys in various tem-
compacts consolidate and strengthen. The den- well to aluminum ~ C SThe . melting point Of pers depend on the forming process, and are
sity of sintenxi compacts may be increased by aluminum is hi& enough to satisfy many aPPli- described in the articles “Forming” and “Forg-
re-pressing. When re-pressing is performed pri- cation requirements, yet is low enough to render ing” in this Volume. Such ratings provide gen-
marily to improve dimensional accuracy, it is composite processing reasonably convenient. erally reliable comparisons of the working
termed “sizing”; when pexformed to alter con- Aluminum can also accommodate a variety of characteristics of metals, but serve as an ap-
figuration, it, is termed ‘‘mining.” Re-pressing reinforcing agents. Reinforcements, charac- proximate guide rather than as quantitative
may be hilowed by resintehg, which relieves terized as either continuous or discontinuous fi- formability limits.
stresses induced by cold work and may further bers, typically constitute 20 vol% or more of the Choice of temper may depend on the sever-
consolidate the structm. By pressing and sinter- composite. The family of aluminum MMC rein- ity and nature of forming operations. The an-
ing only, parts having densities of greater than fomments includes continuous boron; a l e - nealed temper may be required for severe
800/0 theoretical density can be produced. By num oxide; silicon carbide and graphite fibers; forming operations such as deep drawing, or
re-pressing, with or without mintering, parts of and various particles, short fibers, and whiskers. for roll forming or bending on small radii.
90%thmmical density or more can be produced. Silicon carbide particle- or whisker-reinforced Usually, the strongest temper that can be
12 / introduction t o Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

formed consistently is selected. For less severe Thermal expansion coefficient brazing characteristics of selected aluminum
foxming operations, intermediate tempers or Melting characteristics alloys. More detailed information on joining of
even fully hardened conditions may be accept- Electrical conductivity aluminum alloys can be found in the articles
able. ‘Welding,” ‘Brazing and Soldering,” and “Ad-
Heat-treatable alloys can be formed in ap- Ahrninum oxide immediately forms on alu- hesive Bonding” in this Volume.
plications for which a high strength-to-weight h u m surfaces exposed to air. Before alumi-
ratio is required. The annealed temper of these num can be welded by fusion methods, the
alloys is the most workable condition, but the oxide layer must be removed mechanically by Finishes
effects of dimensional change and distortion machining, filing, wire brushing, scraping, or
caused by subsequent heat treatment for prop- chemical cleaning. If oxides are not removed,
erty development, and the straightening or oxide fragments may be entrapped in the weld The naturalmetallic surface of aluminum is
other dimensional control s t e p that may be and will cause a reduction in ductility, a lack of aesthetically pleasing in many product designs
required, are important considerations. Alloys fusion, and possibly weld cracking. During even Without further finishing. Its natural pro-
that are formed immediately following soh- welding, the oxide must be prevented from tective oxide film is transparent and can be
tion heat treatment and quench (T3, T4, or W re-forming by shielding the joint area with a thkkened bY anodizing, for extra Protection,
temper) are nearly as formable as when an- nonoxidizing gas such as argon, helium, or without affecting the metal’s appearance-
nealed, and can be subsequently hardened by hydrogen, or chemically by use of fluxes. But aluminum also accepts a great variety
natural or artificial aging. Parts can be stored at Thermal conductivify is a property that Of finishes which Can alter its appearance O r
low temperatures (approximately -30 to -35 most affects weldability. The thermal conduc- e~hanceits Surface characteristics as r e q u i d .
“C, or-20 to -30 OF, or lower) in the W temper tivity of aluminum alloys is about one-half that Surface textureS can be created fmmrough to
for prolonged periods as a means of inhibiting of copper and four times that of lowcarbon matte to *r-Smmth. ’Ihe metallic hue C a n
natural aging and preserving an acceptable steel. This means that heat must be supplied be co1ored by apPropriate chemical or anodiz-
level of formability. Material that has been so- four times as fast to aluminum alloys as to steel ing pmsses- surfam coatin@ suCh as Paint
lution heat treated and quenched but not artifi- to raise the temperature locally by the same lacquer, enmel e1ecwp1ating Or laminates
cially aged (T3, T4, or W temper) is generally amount However, the high thermalconductiv- may be applied-
suitable only for mild forming operations such ity of aluminum alloys helps to solidify the The types Of finishes availab1e On a1umi-
as bending, mild drawing, or moderate stretch molten weld pool of aluminum and, conse- numcan be grouped into four broad categories:
forming if these operations cannot be per- quently, facilitates out-of-position welding. mechanical chemical and elec@Wicfinishes-
formed immediately after quenching. Solution The coefficient oflinear expansion, which and nonelectrolytic coatings* More detailed
heat-treated and artificially aged (T6 temper) is a measure of the change in length of a mate- information On finishing methods can be found
alloys are in general unsuitable for forming rial with a change in its temperature, is another in the artic1e “cleaning~ Finishing, and Coat-
operations. physical proopexty of importance when consid- ‘g” in *’ vo1ume.
Forgeability Aluminum alloys can be ering weldability. The coefficient of linearther-
forged into a variety of shapes and types of forg- mal expansion for aluminum is twice that for
ings with a broad range of final part forging steel. This means that extra care must be taken
design criteria based on the intended application. in welding aluminum to ensure that the joint Mechanical Finishes
Aluminum alloy forgings, particularly closeddie space remains uniform. This may necessitate
forgings, are usually plpduced to more highly preliminaryjoining of theparts of the assembly Mechanicd hishes, in which the texture of
refined final forging configurations than hot- by tack welding prior to the main welding the metal surface is physically alterd, vary
forged carbon andor alloy steels. For a given operation.
widely in the degree and depth of the alteration.
alumhum alloy forging shape, the pressure re- The combination of high coefficient of ther-
quirements in forging vary widely, depending mal expansion and high thermal conductivity Buffing with
cornpounds fine very
produces abrasives
smoothandmirror-like
polishing
primarily on the chemical composition of the would cause considerable distortion of alumi-
alloy being forged, the forging process being em- num during welding were it not for the high surfaces: specular, produced by buffing only, and
smooth specular,produced by buffing and polish-
ployed, the forging strain rate, the type of forging welding speed possible.
being manufactured, the lubrication conditions, Melt Charucterktics. The melting ranges ing. Specular surfaces have strong visual impact,
and the forging and die temperahres. for aluminum alloys are considerably lower but on large surfaces their mirror-like quality will
As a class of alloys, aluminum alloys are than those for copper or steel. Melting tempera- emphasize any distortion.
generally considered to be more difficult to tures and the volumetric specific heats and Textured Surfaces. Various degrees of sur-
forge than carbon steels and many alloy steels. heats of fusion of aluminum alloys determine face texture can be applied to aluminum; it may
Compared to the nickekobalt-base alloys and that the amount of heat required to enter the be directional showing a visible grain, or non-
titanium alloys, however, aluminum alloys are welding temperature range is much lower for directional and essentially undifferentiated.
considerably more forgeable, particularly in aluminum alloys. Directional textured surfaces range from
conventional forging process technology, in EZectrical conductiviry has little influence the re1ative1y coarse brushed surfam through
which dies are heated to 540 OC (1000 OF) or on fusion welding but is a very important prop- hand rubbedand coarse satin to fine satin fin-
less. The factors influencing the forgeability of erty for materials that are to be resistance ishes. They are applied by polishing with a
aluminum alloys as well as applicable forging welded. In resistance weiding, resistance ofthe wire brush, stainless steel ~ 0 0 1or , aluminum
methods are described in the article “Forging” metal to the flow of welding current produces oxide grit. Forming and welding marks can be
in this Volume. heat, which causes the portion of the metal &scured by hand rubbing. Directional satin
Joining.Aluminum can be joined by a wide through which the current flows to approach or finishes are both attractive and easy to restore
variety of methods, including fusion and resis- reach its melting point. Aluminum has higher after welding, SO satin finishes are popular in
tance Welding, brazing, soldering, adhesivebond- conductivity than steel, which means that architecture.
ing, andmechanicalmethods such as riveting and much higher cumnts are required to produce Nondirectional texturing is produced by
bolting. Factors that affectthe welding of alumi- the same heating effect. Consequently, resis- shot or air blasting with materials of various
num include: tance welding machines for aluminum must sizes and hardnesses. Size and type of blasting
have much higher output capabilities than materials should be selected according to metal
Aluminum oxide coating those normally used for steel, for welding com- thickness to avoid distortion from the pressure
Thermal conductivity parable sections. Table 6 Iists welding and of the blasting.
General Introduction / 13

Embossing. Aluminum sheet may be shaped dyes. Architects should consult manufactur- Powder Coatings. Dry powders are applied
or patterned by being pressed between mated ers on resistance to fading before specifying electrostatically, then heat-fused, providing a
rollers or dies, producing a raised or indented for exterior uses. tough film and good thickness on sharp edges, for
pattern on one or both sides. Electrolytic color anodizing: Produces dura- example on wire screening, handrails, fencing,
ble earth-tone colors by two-step electro- and extrusions for doors and windows.
lytic processing. The first step typically in- Pigment Enamel. Enamel made of pigment
Chemical Finishes volves sulfuric acid anodizing; the second, in a varnish vehicle m y be air drying or formu-
electrolytictreatment is a suitable metal-salt lated for baking. The baking enamels are very
The principal chemical finishes for final, solution. versatile coatings, frequently used in shop appli-
visible alu-um surfaces are etching and Integral color anodizing: Produces thick cations. Flexible enamels are often rollercoated
brightening. A number of other chemical fin- oxide films colored by the COmpOSitiOn Of on aluminum sheet before the metal is roll-
ishes (and/or coatings) may be applied to pre- the aluminum alloys employed, as affected formed.
pare aluminum surfaces for adhesive bonding; by the FWess temperature, voltage, current Vitreous Enamel. Porcelain enamel is a
this specialized topic is discussed in the article density and time. The Process can Produce family of vitreous (glass) fishes, fused to al~mi-
“Adhesive Bonding” in this Volume. hard-coat colors in Architectural Class I, num at high t e n p r a m . It combines hardness,
Etching. Aluminum is usudy &chd by a with dense, hard surfaces highly resistant to resistance to chemical attack, and long-lived du-
caustic solution, producing a silver-white or abrasion. rability. It has been used for building panels.
“frosted” surface which can m g e from coarse to spandrel panels, and column covers.
f i e matte finish and which -mizes surface In electroplating, direct current detaches Plastic laminates are films or sheets of
blemishes. For large productions, chemically atoms of metal from a SOurCe COnneCted to a plastic bonded to aluminum. They are useful on
etched finishes are more economical than me- positive tamhal, freeing than into aplatingbath, surfaces subjecttosevereweathering or wear, and
chanical matte finishing; for S& orders, me- meanwhile the current transfers such metal atoms have life expectancies of more than ten years
chanical finishing may be more economical. from the bath onto an object connected to the under these conditions. Properly applied, lami-
Brightening by a specid dip solution pro- negative term&. Thus the metal of the plating nates canbe dram,bent, stamped,perfo&and
duces higher (shiny) or diffuse bright finishes. source i gradually transferred to the plated object. sheared along with the metal without separating.
Exposed to weather, brightad fishes may not Electroplating Can produce Very thin Coat- Lamination with pre-printed sheets permits
retain their original appearance. consultation ings and very smooth, uniform coatings, which the application of surface patterns of virtually
with an aluminum producer is recornended be- adhere strongly to the underlying metal and ’ unlimited variety and complexity.
fore specifymg these finishes. would be more difficultto apply by other meth-
ods.

Electrolytic Finishes
Product Classifications
Non-Electrolytic Coatings
The electrolytic finishes employ electricity In the United States the aluminum industry
to stimulate the formation of a special surface Coatings include the full range of lacquers, has identifieditsmajor markets as building and
on aluminum. Anodizing directly alters the paints, polymers, enamels and laminated films. construaion- @ a n s P o ~ t i o nCO~~WUI-MX dur-
chemical composition of the surface; electro- Paints may be formulated for baking-on, or able% electrical, machinery and equipment-
plating deposits on the surface a different met- they may be air-drying and suitable for appli- cOntainerS and Packa&&v exPo** and other
al, whose metallurgical bonding to the cation in the field. Aluminum is an excellent end Uses. As described below, each of these
aluminum differentiatesit from conventionally base for highquality paints. Accidental paint major markets COmPri*S a Wide range of end
applied coatings. scratches will not initiate streaking or deerio- uses. Table 8 provides data on annual U.S.
Anodizing is an electrolytic process that ration since aluminum does not rust. shipmentsof aluminum by major markets. The
thickens aluminum’s natural oxide film, substan- lacquer is sometimes applied as a coating percentage of selected mil1 Products shipped to
tidy increasing its resistance to weathering and when long-term coating durability is not a re- each market category is shown in Table 9.
corrosion. The oxide layer may be left clear or qukment.
may be colored by one of several alternative Polymer Coatings. Various polymers can
processes. be applied as coatings on aluminum. Among
Building and Construction
The Aluminum Association classifiesarchi- them are: Applications
tectural anodic coatings in two categories:
Polyester coatings, which are economical Aluminum is used extensively in buildings
Architectural Class I coatings are 18 pm (0.7 general-purpose coatings with good resis- of all kinds, bridges, towers, and storage tanks.
mil) or thicker and are recommended both tance to weathering Because structural steel shapes and plate are
for interiors and for exteriors subject to Plastisol, which is a suspensionof polyvinyl usually lower in initial cost, aluminum is used
weathering. chloride resin particles in plasticizerand sol- when engineering advantages, construction
Architectural Class II coatings are between vent; it provides thick coatings resistant to features, unique architectural designs, light
10 and 18 pm (0.4and 0.7 mil) thick and are
recommended for interior areas not subject
to excessive wear or abrasion, and for exte-
. scuffs and abrasion
Water-borne acrylics, which are high mo-
lecular weight emulsions with good exterior
weight, and/or corrosion resistance are consid-
erations.
Static Structures. Design and fabrication
nor areas such as store fronts and entrances durability plus flexibility for forming of aluminum static structures differ little from
which are regularly cleaned and maintained. Silicone-modifiedpolyester, which provides practices used with steel. The modulus of elas-
good durability at moderate cost ticity of aluminum is one-third that of steel and
Variations of anodizing include: Aliphatic polyurethane, which can be baked requires special attention to compression

. Clear anodizing: Sulfuric acid anodizing is


used for clear finishes retaining the natural
on or it can airdry, allowing for application
in-place
Fluorocarboncoatings, which are baked on,
members. However, it offers advantages under
shock loads and in cases of minor misalign-
ments. When properly designed, aluminum
are very durable, and are considered a long-
. metallic appearance of aluminum.
Color anodizing: An anodized surface can
also be colored by dipping in pigments or
life premium finish. They may be roll-ap-
plied or sprayed onto preformed products
typically saves over 50% of the weight re-
quired by low-carbon steel in small structures;
similar savings may be possible in long-span or
14 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 8 U.S. net shipments by major market Packaging has been one of the fastest grow-
ing markets for aluminum. Products include
1991 1990 1990-1991 1981-1991 household wrap, flexible packaging and food
Major market Distribution, % Amount Distribution, W Amount Change, W Annuaigmwth, 5% containers, bottle caps, collapsible tubes, and
Building andconstruction 13.9 2,320 15.6 2,664 - 12.9 5.2 beverage and food cans. Aluminum foil works
'Ranspottation 16.5 2,764 18.0 3,059 -9.6 3,5 well in packaging and for pouches and wraps
Consumerdurables 6.2 1,041 6.6 1,123 - 7.3 2.0 for foodstuffs and drugs, as well as for house-
Electrical 7.6 1,276 7.7 1,313 - 2.8 0.8 hold uses.
Machinery and equipment 5.6 940 5.8 996 - 5.6 2.4 Beverage cans have been the aluminum in-
Containers and packaging 29.1 4,873 27.9 4,755 2.5 3.2
' other 3.2 532 3.4 576 - 7.6 -o,6 dustry's greatest success story, and market
Domestic, total 82.1 13,746 85.0 14,486 -5.1 2.1 penetrations by the food can are accelerating.
Exports 17.9 2,992(a) 15.0 2,55 l(a) 17.3 9.9 Soft drinks, beer, coffee, snack foods, meat,
Total Shipments 100.0 16,738 100.0 17,037 - 1.8 2.9 and even wine are packaged in aluminum cans.
Note: Values are given in millions of pounds
Draft beer is shipped in Alclad aluminum bar-
(a) Export figurescontain estimated adjustments to account for either an overestimate or underestimate of U.S. expon statistics re'S. A1uminum is used extensive1y in cO1laPs-
published by the Bureau of Census. Source: Ref 1 ible tubes for toothpaste, ointments, food, and
paints.

Table 9 Percentage of aluminum mill products shipped to the major U.S. domestic market
categories (1 0 year average, 1980 through 1989) Transportation

Buildingand Consumer Machmeryand Containersand Other Automotive. Both wrought and cast alumi-
RodUfts constructim Trmportation durables Electrical equipment packaging domestic num have found wide use in automobile con-
sheet 19.1 9.4 6.3 3.6 4.3 50.0 2.8 struction. Typical aluminum usage per unit of
Plate 0.3 72.7 0.3 I .9 7.5 ... 5.4 approximately 70 kg (150 lb) is expected to in-
Extmded shapes 60.4 19.9 6.5 4.7 4.6 ... 3.0 crease dramatically as average fuel economy
Extmdedpipeandtube 12.6 15.9 20.4 31.2 11.4 ... 2.7 mandates and emphasis on recycling continue.
Rod.barandWiE 5.3 4.8 2.0 69.7 6.8 0.5 2.9 '
All mill pdum 23.3 12.9 6.8 10.0 4.8 34.2 2.8
The most intensive use of aluminumin a passen-
ger car approximates295 kg (650 lb), defining the
Source: Ref 2 present target for further material substitutions.
Aluminum sand, die, and permanent mold cast-
ings are critically important in engine construc-
tion; engine blocks, pistons, cylinder heads,
intake manifolds, crankcases, carburetors, trans-
movable bridges. Savings also result bascule and vertical-lift construction. Con-
mission housings, and mker arms are proven
from low maintenance costs and in resis- struction of portable military bridges and su- mmponents.Brakevalvesandbrakecalipersjoin
tance to atmospheric or environmental perhighway overpass bridges has increasingly innumerable othercomponents in car design im-
corrosion. relied on aluminum elements. portance. Cast aluminum wheels continue to
Forming, shearing, sawing, punching, and Scaffolding, ladders, electrical substation pw in popularity. ~ l sheet
~ is used- for ~ ~
drilling are readily accomplished on the same structures, and other utility structures utilize hoods, truk decks, bright finish h,air haes,
equipment used for fabricating structural steel. aluminum, chiefly in the form of structural and and bumpers. ~ ~ t randuforgings ~ i are~ finding
~ ~
Since structural aluminum alloys owe their special extruded shapes. Cranes, conveyors, new and extensive uses. Forged aluminum alloy
strength to properly controlled heat treatment, and heavy-duty handling systems incorporate wheels are a premium option.
hot forming or other subsequentthermal opera- significant amounts of aluminum. Water stor- Trucks. Because of weight limitations and a
tions are to be avoided. Special attention must age tanks are often constructed of aluminum desire to increase effective payloads,manufactur-
be given to the stren@hrequirements of we1ded alloys to improve resistance to corrosion and to ers have intensively employed aluminum in cab,
areas because of the possibility of localized provide attractive appearance. trailer, and truck designs. Sheet alloys are used in
annealing effects. truck cab bodies, and dead weight is also reduced
Buildings. Cormgated or otherwise stiffened using extruded stringers, frame rails, and cross
sheet products are used in roofing and siding for Containers and Packaging members. Extruded or formed sheet bumpers and
industrial and agricultural building construction. forged wheels are usual. Fuel tanks of aluminum
Ventilators, W a g e slats, storage bins, window offer weight reduction, corrosion resistance, and
and door flames, and other components are addi- The food and drug industries use a1uminum
attractive appearance. Castings and forgings are
tied applications for sheet, plate, =tings, and extensively because it is nontoxic, nonadsorp-
used extensively in engines and suspension sys-
extrusions. tive, and splinter-proof. It also minimizes bac- tem.
Aluminum products such as roofing, flash- teria1growth, forms colorless sa1ts, and can be Truck trailers are designed for maximum
ing, gutters, and downspouts are used h Stearn Cleaned. Low v01umetric specifc heat payload and operating economy in consideration
homes, hospitals, schools, and commercial and results in economies when containers Or con- of legal weight requ&ments. Aluminum is used
office buildings. Exterior walls, curtain walls, VeYors must be m ~ ~ ine and d Out of heated or in frames, floors, roofs, cross sills, and shelving.
and interior applications such as wiring, con- refrigerated areas.The nonsParking Propem Of Forged aluminum wheels are commonly used.
duit, piping, ductwork, hardware, and railings aluminum is valuable in flour mills and Other Tanker and dump bodies are made from sheet
utilize aluminum in many forms and finishes. plants subject to fire and explosion haZards. and/or plate in riveted and welded assemblies.
\, Aluminum is used in bridges and highway Co~osiol1resistance is important in shipping Mobile homes and travel trailers usually
accessories such as bridge railings, highway fragile merchandise, valuable chemicals, and are constructed of aluminumalloy sheet used bare
guard rails, lighting standards, traffic control cosmetics. Sealed aluminum containers de- or with mill-applied baked-enamel finish on
towers, trafficsigns, and chain-link fences. signed for air, shipboard, rail, or truck ship- wood, steel, or extruded aluminum alloy frames.
Aluminum is also commonly used in bridge ments are used for chemicals not suited for Bus manufacturers also are concerned with
structures, especially in long-span or movable bulk shipment. &mizing dead weight. Aluminum sheet,plate,
General Introduction / 15

and extrusions are used in body components and Increased resistance to corrosion is secured high-strength galvanized or aluminized steel
bumpers. Forged wheels are common. Engine through the use of Alclad alloys or anodic wire core, which itself may be a single wire or
and structural components in cast, forged, and coatings. The exterior of aircraft exposed to a group of concentric-lay strands. Electrical
extrudedform are extensively used. salt water environment is usually fabricated resistance is determined by the aluminum cross
Bearings. Aluminum-tin and aluminum - from clad alloys. Anodized bare stock success- section, whereas tensile strength is determined
silicon alloys are used in medium and heavy-duty fully resists corrosion when only occasional on the composite with the steel core providing
gasoline and diesel engines for connecting-rod exposure to salt water is encountered. corro- 55 to 60% of the total strength.
and main bearings. Cast and wrought bearings sion resistance may be further enhanced by The ACSR construction is used for me-
may be composite with a steel backing and bab- organic finishes or other Protective Coatings. chanical strength. Strength-to-weight ratio is
bited or other plated overlay. Bearing alloys are Extensive reviews on the uses and Corrosion usually about two times that of copper of
further discussed in the article “Tribological Be- PWerties of aluminum for aircraft and aero- equivalent directcurrent resistance. Use of
havior” in this Volume. space vehic1es Can be foUnd in Vo1ume 139 ACSR cables permits longer spans and fewer
Railroad Cars. Aluminum is used in the Corrosion, ofthe 9th Edition ofkfetds Hand- or shorter poles or towers.
construction of railroad hopper cars, box Cars, book. (See also the article ‘‘Corrosion Behav- Bus Bar Conductors. Commercial bus de-
refrigeratorcars, and tank cars. Aluminum is also ior” in this volume). sign in the United States utilizes four types of bus
used extensively in passenger rail cars, particu- conductors: rectangular bar, solid round bar, tu-
larly those for mass transit systems. bular, and structural shapes.
Marine Applications.Aluminum is com- Electrical Applications Motors and Generators. Aluminum has
monly used for a large variety of marine applica- long been used for cast rotor windings and struc-
tions, including main strength members such as Conductor Alloys. The use of aluminum tural parts. Rotor rings and cooling fans are pres-
hulls and deckhouses, and other applications such predominates in most conductor applications. sure cast integrally with bars through slots of the
as stack enclosures, hatch covers, windows, air Aluminum of controlled composition is treated laminated core in caged motor rotors.
ports, accommodationladders, gangways, bulk- with trace additions of boron to remove titanium, Aluminum structural parts, such as stator
heads, deck plate, ventilation equipment, lifesav- vanadium, and zirconium, each of which in- frames and end shields, are often economically
ing equipment, fumitu~,hardware, fuel *, creases resistivity. The use of aluminum rather die cast. n e i r corrosion resistance may be
and bright trim. In addition, ships are making than competing materials is based on a combina- necessav in specific environment- motors
extensive use of welded aluminum alloy plate in tion of low cost, high electrical conductivity,ade- , for spinning natural and synfietic fiber, and in
the large tanks used for transportation of liquefied quate mechanical strength, low specific gravity, aircraft generatorswhen light weight is equally
gases. and excellent resistance to corrosion. important, for example.
The corrosion-resistant aluminum alloys in The most common conductor alloy (1350) Additional applications are field coils for
current use permit designs that save about 50% offers a minimum conductivity of 61.8% of the direct-cumnt machines, stator windj,.,gs in
of the weight of similar designs in steel. Sub- International Annealed Copper Standard nlotors, and transformer windings. ~ u ~ ~ e d
stantid savings of weight in deckhouses and (IACS) and from 55 to 124 MPa (8 to 18 ksi) wire is used in extremely large turbogenerator
topside equipment permit lighter supporting minimum tensile strength, depending on size. field coils, where operating temperatures and
structures. The cumulative savings in weight When compared with IACS on a basis of mass centrifugal forces might otherwise result in
improve the stability of the vessel and allow instead of volume, minimum conductivity of creep failure.
the beam to be decreased. For comparable hard drawn aluminum 1350 is 204.6%. Other
speed, the lighter, narrower craft will require a alloys are used in bus bar, for service at slightly
Transformers.Aluminum windings have
smaller power plant and will bum less fuel. elevated temperatures, and in cable television been excessively used in dry-type power trans-
Consequently, 1 kg (2.2 lb) of weight saved by formersand have been ahpa to secondary coil
installations.
the use of lighter structures or equipment fre- Cable sheathing is achieved by extruding windings in magnetic-suspension type constant-
quently leads to an overall decrease in dis- the sheath in f i a l position and dimensions current transformers.Their use decreases weight
placed weight of 3 kg (6.5 lb). Aluminum also around the cable as it is fed through an axial and permits the coil to float in electromagnetic
reduces maintenance resulting from corrosive orifice in the extrusion die. It can also be done suspension. In a closely associated application,
or biological attack. by threading the cable through an oversized aluminum is being used in conCretereactor de-
The relatively low modulus of elasticity for prefabricated tube and then squeezing the tube vices that protect transformers from overloads.
aluminum alloys offers advantages in struc- to fmal dimensions around the cable by tube Extruded shapes and punched sheet are
tures erected on a steel hull. Flexure of the steel reducers and draw dies. used in radar antennas, extruded and roll-
hull results in low stresses in an aluminum
superstructure, as compared with the stresses
induced in a similar steel superstructure. Con-

Conductor accessories may be rolled, ex- formed tubing in television antennas, rolled
truded, cast, or forged. Common forms of alu- strips coi1ed line traps; drawn Or impact-ex-
minum conductors are single wire and multiple truded cans in condensen and shie1ds, and va-
sequently, continuous aluminum deckhouses wire (stranded, bunched, or rope layed). Each porized high-purity coatin@ in cathode-ray
may be built without expansion joints. is used in overhead or other tensioned applica- tubes-
Casting alloys are used in outboard motor tions, as well as in nontensioned insulated ap- ExmP1es Of applications in which e1~ctri-
structural parts and housings subject to con- plications. cal properties other than magnetic are not
tinuous or intermittent immersion, motor Size for size, the direct current resistance of dominant are chassis forelectronicequipment,
hoods, shrouds, and miscellaneous parts, in- the most common aluminum conductor is from spun Pressure receptacles for airborne equip-
cluding fittings and hardware. Additional ma- about 1.6 to 2.0 times UCS. For equivalent merit, etched nameplates, and hardware such as
rine applications are in sonobuoys, navigation direct-current resistance, an aluminum wire bolts, screws, and nuts. In addition, finned
markers, rowboats, canoes, oars, and paddles. that is two American Wire Gage sizes larger shapes are used in electronic components to
Aerospace. Aluminum is used in virtually than copper wire must be used. Nevertheless, facilitate heat removal. Aluminum may be used
d segments of the aircraft, missile, and space- as a result of the lov+r-,specific gravity, the as the cell base for the deposition of selenium
craft i n d u s e airframes, engines, accesso- conductivity-based aluminum required weighs in the manufacture of selenium rectifiers.
ries, and tankage for liquid fuel and oxidizers. only about half as much as an equivalent cop- lighting. Aluminum in incandescent and
Aluminum is widely used because of its high per conductor. fluorescent lamp bases and other sheet alloys for
strength-to-density ratio, corrosion resistance, Aluminum conductors, steel reinforced sockets are established uses. Cast, stamped, and
and weight efficiency, especially in compressive (ACSR) consist of one or more layers of con- spun parts are used, often artistically, in table,
designs. centric-lay stranded aluminum wire around a floor, and other lighting fKhues. Aluminum IC-
16 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

flector is common in fluorescent and other in- Many die castings in appliances are internal of the 9th Edition of Metals Handbook (see also
stalled lighting systems. functional parts and are used without finish. the article "Corrosion Behavior" in this Volume).
Capacitors. Aluminum in the form of foil Organic finishes are usually applied to external Textile Equipment. Aluminum is used ex-
dominates all other metals in the construction of die-cast parts such as appliance housings. tensively in textile machinery and equipment in
capacitor electrodes. Dry electrolytic and Wrought forms fabricated principally from the form of extrusions, tube, sheet, castings, and
nonelectrolytic capacitorsathe basic condenser sheet, tube, and wire are used in approximately forghgs. It is resistant to many corrosive agents
types in extensive commercial use. Dry electro- the same quantities as die castings. Wrought encountered in textile mills and in the manufac-
lytic capacitors usually employ parallel coiled or alloys are selected on the basis of corrosion ture of yams. A high strength-to-weight mtio re-
wrapped aluminum foil ribbons as electrodes. resistance, anodizing characteristics,fomabil- duces the ineha of high-speed machine parts.
Paper saturated with an operative electrolyte, ity, or other engineering properties. Permanent dimensional accuracy with light
wrapped into the coil, mechanically separates the m e natural colors some alloys assume after weight improves the dynamic balance of machine
ribbons. In designs forintermittentuse in altemat- anodizing are exmmely important for food- members running at high speeds, and reduces
h g circuits, both electrodes are anodized in a hot handling equipment. Applications include re- vibration. Painting k Usually u M ~ S S ~spool I ~ .
boric acid electrolyte. The resulting thin anodic frigerator vegetable/meat pans, ice cube trays, beamheads and cores are usually permanent mold
films constitute the dielectric element. and wire shelves. In the production of wire castings and ~ ~ t r u d eOrd Welded tube, E S P -
Only the anode foil is anodized in dry dec- shelves, f u l l - h d wire is cold headed over ex- tively.
trolytic assemblies intended for direct-current truded strips, which form the bo&rs. Paper and Printing industries. An inter-
applications. Anodized electrodes are of high Furniture. Light weight, low maintenance, esting applicationof aluminum is foundin retum-
purity, whereas the nonanodized electrodes corrosion resistance, durability, and attractive ap- able Shipping Cores. cores may be reinforced
utilize foil ribbons of lower punty. Prior to pearance are the principal advanwes of alumi- with steel end-sleeves which also constitutewear-
anodizing, the foil is usually, but not always, num in furniture. resistant drive elements. Processing or rewinding
etched to increase effective surface area. Con- Chair base., seat frames, and arm rests are cores are fabricated of aluminum alloys. FOW-
tainers for dry electrolytic capacitors may be cast, drawn or extruded tub (round, square, or drinier or table rolls for papermaking machines
either drawn or impact extruded. rectangular), sheet, or bar. Frequently, these are als0 Of aluminum construction-
Ordinary clean foil ribbons serve as elec- parts are formed in the mnealed or partidly Curved aluminum sheet printing plates per-
trodes in commercial nonelectrolytic capaci- heat-treated tempem, and are subsequentlyheat mit higher rotary-press speeds and minimize
tors. Oil-impregnated paper separates the treatd and aged. Designs are generally based ,misregister by decreasing centrifugal force.
electrodes and adjacent coils of the wrap. on sewice requirements; however, styling Aluminum lithographic sheet offers excep-
Nonelectrolytic foil assemblies are packed in ofien dictates overdesign or inefficient set- tional reproduction in mechanical and electro-
either aluminum alloy or steel cans. fmishes.
tions. Fabrication is conventional; joining is gained
usually by welding or brazing. Various finish- Coal Mine MachineryThe use Of alumi-
Consumer Durables ing procedures are used mechanical, anodic, num quipment in Coal mines has increased in
color anodized, anodized and dyed, enamel m t years* App1icationsinc1udecars, tubs and
coated, or painted. skips, roof props, nonsparking tools, portable
Household Appliances. Light weight, ex- Tubular sections, usually round and fre- jacklegs, and shaking conveyors. Aluminum is
d e n t apPe-ce, adaptability to all forms of quently formed and welded from flat strip, are resistant to the corrosive conditions associated
fabrication, and low cost of fabrication are the the most popular form of aluminum for lawn with surface and deep mining. Aluminum is self
reasons for the broad usage of aluminum in furniture. Conventional tube bending and me- cleaning and offers good resistance to abrasion,
household electrical appliances. Light weight is vibration, splitting, and tearing.
chdcally fitted joints may be used. Finishing
an hP0-t characteristic in VaCuUm Cleaners, is usually by grinding and buffing and is fie-
Portable Irrigation Pipe and Tools. Alum-
elecbic irons, poxtabledishwashers9foodpms- hum is extensively used in poxtable sprinkler and
quently followed by clear lacquer coating.
son, and blenders. Low fabricating costs depend irrigation systems. Portable tools use large quan-
on several properties, including adaptability to tities of aluminum in electric and gas motors and
die casting and ease of finishing. Because of a Machinery and Equipment motor housings. Precision cast housings and en-
naturally pleasing appearanceand good Corrosion gine components, including pistons, are used for
resistance, expensive finishing is not necessary. power drills, power saws, gasolinedriven chain
In addition to its other desirable charac- processi%Equipment. In the petroleum saws, sanders, buffing machines, screwdrivers,
teristics, aluminum's brazeability makes it use- industry aluminumtops are used On stee1stomge grinders, power shears, hammers, various impact
ful for refrigerator and freezer evaporators. tanks*extenorsare 'Overed with aluminumpig- tools, and stationary bench tools. Aluminum alloy
Tubing is placed on embossed sheet Over strips merited paint,and aluminumPipelines are cani- forghgs are found in IIXUly Of the same applica-
of brazing alloy with a suitable flux. The as- ers Of petroleum products* Aluminum is used tions and in manual tools such a~ wrenches and
sembly is then furnace brazed and the residual extensively in the dJber hdUs@YbWause it re- PberS.
flux removed by successive washes in boiling sktsal1corrosion that occurs in rubber P a s i n g Jigs, Fixtures, and Patterns. Thick cast or
water, nitric acid, and cold water. The result is and is nonadhesive. Al~minum alloys are wide1Y rolled aluminum plates and bar, precisely ma-
an evaporator with high thermal conductivity used in the manufacture O f ex P l o s i v es ~ a~of s e chined to high f ~ s and h flatness, are used for
and efficiency, good corrosion resistance, and their nonPPPhoric Characteristics. strong Oxi- tools and dies. Plate is suitable for hydropress
low manufacturing cost. dants are Processed, Stored9and Shipped in ahmi- form blocks, hydrostretch form dies, jigs, fvc-
With the exception of a few permanent num System.AluminumiseFiallYcompatible turn, and other tooling. Aluminum is used in the
mold pans, virtually all aluminum castings in with sulfur, sdfuric acid, sulfides,and sulfates.In aircraft industry for drill jigs, as formers, stiffen-
electrical appliances are die cast. cooking the nuclear energy industry, aluminum-jacketeed ers and stringers for large assembly jigs, router
utensils may be cast, drawn, spun, or drawn fuel elements Protect m n h m from Water corro- bases, and layout tables. Used in master tooling,
and spun from aluminum. Handles are often sion, prevent the enby Of reaction products into cast aluminum eliminates warpage problems E-
joined to the utensil by riveting or spot weld- the coohg water, transfer heat efficientlyfrom sulting from uneven expansion of the tool due to
ing. In some utensils, an aluminum exterior is umium to water, and contribute to minimizing changes in ambient temperature. Largealuminum
bonded to a stainless steel interior, in others, parasitic capture of neutrons. Aluminum tanks are bars have been used to replace zinc alloys as a
the interior is coated with porcelain or Teflon. used tocontain heavy water. The use of aluminum fixture base on spar mills with weight savings of
Silicone resin, Teflon, or other coatings en- for each of the aforementioned industries is de- two-thirds. Cast aluminum serves as matchplate
hance the utility of heated aluminum utensils. scribed in more detail in Volume 13, Corrosion, in the foundry industry.
General Introduction / 17

Instruments. On the basis of combinations loses its initialbrilliance. When maximum reflec- of the 9th Edition of Metals Handbook for addi-
of strength and dimensional stability, aluminum tivity is desired, chemical or electrochemical tional information.
alloys are used in the manufacture of optical, brightening treatments are used, quick anodic
telescopic, space. guidance, and other precision treatment usually follows, sometimes finished by
insbuments and devices. TOe n ~ ~dimensional
re a coat of clear lacquer. Reflectors requiring less ACKNOWLEDGMENT
accuracy and stability in manufacturing and as- brighmess may simply be buffed and lacquered.
sembling parts for such equipment, additional Etching in a mild caustic solution produces a
thermal stress-reliefheafmentsare sometimes ap- diffuse f ~ s h which
, may also be protected by The information in this article is largely
plied at stages of machining, or after welding or clear lacquer, an anodic coating, or both. taken from the following source:
mechanical assembly. Powders and Pastes. The addition of alu-
minum flakes to paint pigments exploits the in- E.L. Rooy, Introduction to Aluminum and
trinsic advantages of high reflectance, durability, Aluminum Alloys, Vol 2, ASM Handbook
Other Applications low emissivity, and minimum moisture peneha- (formerly 10th Edition, Metals Handbook),
tion. Other applications for powders and pastes ASM International, 1990,p 3-14
Reflectors. Reflectivity of light is as high include phting inks, explosives and propellants,
as 95% on especially prepared surfaces of floating soap, aerated concrete, aluminothermic
high-purity aluminum. Aluminum is generally welding, and energyenhancing fuel additives. REFERENCES
superior to other metals in its ability to reflect Additional information can be found in the article
M or heat rays. It resists tarnish from SUI- “Powder Metallurgy Processing” in this Volume.
fides, oxides, and atmospheric contaminants, and Anode Materials. Highly electronegative 1. Aluminum Statistical Review for 1991,
has three to ten times the useful life of silver for aluminum alloys are routinely employed as sac- published by The Aluminum Association,
mirrors in searchlights, telescopes, and similar rificial anodes, generally on steel structures or Inc. and the U.S. Department of Econom-
reflectors. Heat reflectivity may be as much as vessels such as pipelines, offshore construction, ics and Statistics, 1992
98% for a highly polished surface. Performane ships, and tank storage units. See the article 2. TheAnswerisAluminum,TheAluminum
is r e d u d only slightly as the metal weathers and “Cathodic Protection” in Volume 13, Corrosion, Association, Inc., 1991
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems
SYSTEMS FOR DESIGNATING alumi- minimum aluminumpercentage. These digits are The second two digits identify the specific
num and aluminum alloys that incorporate the the same as the two digits to the right of the aluminum alloy or, for the aluminum (1xr.x)
product form (wrought, casting, or foundry in- decimal point in the minimum aluminum per- series, indicate purity. The last digit, which is
got) and its respective temper (with the excep- centage when expressed to the nearest 0.01%. separated from the others by a decimal point,
tion of foundry ingots, which have no temper Designationshaving seconddigits otherthan zero indicates a product form, whether casting or
classification) are covered by American Na- (integers 1 through 9, assigned consecutively as ingot. A modification of an original alloy, or of
tional Standards Institute (ANSI) standard needed) indicate special control of one or more the impurity limits for unalloyed aluminum, is
H35.1. The Aluminum Association, which is individual impurities. indicated by a serial letter preceding the nu-
located in Washington, D.C., is the registrar Aluminum Alloys. Inthe2xxxthrough8m merical designation. The serial letters are as-
under ANSI H35.1 with respect to the designa- alloy groups, the second digit in the designation signed in alphabetical sequence starting with A
tion and composition of aluminum alloys and indicates alloy modification. If the second digit is but omitting I, 0, Q , and X, the X being re-
tempers registered in the United States. zero, it indicates the original alloy; integers 1 sewed for experimental alloys. Explicit rules
through 9, assigned consecutively,indicate modi- have been established for determining whether
fications of the original alloy. Explicit rules have a proposed composition is a modification of an
Wrought Aluminum and been established for determining whether a pro- existing alloy or if it is a new alloy.
posed composition is merely a modification of a Aluminum Castings and Ingot. For the
Aluminum Alloy Designation previously registered alloy or if it is an entirely lxxx group, the second two of the four digits in
System new alloy. The last two of the four digits in the the designation indicate the minimum aluminum
k t h r o u g h &cuc groups have no special sign& percentage. These digits are the same as the two
A fourdigit numefical designation system cance, but serve only to identify the different digits to the right of the decimal point in the
is used to identify wrought aluminum and a h - aluminurn al1oys in the goup. minimum aluminum percentage when expressed
minum alloys. As shown below, the first digit to the nearest 0.01%.The last digit indicates the
of the four-digit designation indicates the product form: 1xx.O indicates castings, and Ixr.1
group: Cast Aluminum and Aluminum indicates ingot.
Alloy Designation System Aluminum Alloy Castings and Ingot.
For the 2wxx through 9xx-x alloy groups, the
Aluminum, 299.0% luX second two of the four digits in the designation
Aluminumalloysgrouped by majoralloying element(s): have no special significance but serve only to
A system of fourdigit numerical designa-
copper... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2ua
tions incorporating a decimal point is used to identify the different alloys in the group. The last
identify aluminum and aluminum alloys in the digit, which is to the right of the decimal point,
................. 4m
form of castings and foundry ingot. The first indicates the product form: m . 0 indicates cast-
Magnesium and silicon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &wr digit indicates the alloy group: ings, and m . 1 indicates ingot having limits for
zinc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7x.n alloying elements the same as those for the alloy
Otherelements......................... &rrr in the form of castings, except for those listed in
Unused series 9m Aluminum, S9.00% i.KV-V Table 1.
Aluminum alloys grouped by major alloyingelement(s):
For the a
though ;?uor series, the alloy copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silcon, with added copper anda
2tV-V

group is determined by the alloying element magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.KVJ Designations for Experimental
Present in the greatest n-lean Percentage- An silicon.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 4 s u A\\oys,
exception is the 6rxx series alloys, h which the Magnesium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.KV-I.
proportions of magnesium and silicon avail- zinc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~.KLV

able to form magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) are Wn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g w Experimental alloys also are designated in
predominant. Another exception is made in Othmhents. ........................ 9-Kr-r accordance with the systems for wrought and
those cases in which the alloy qualifies as a Unu~~series '"-'- cast alloys, but they are indicated by the prefix
modification of a previously registered alloy. If X. The prefix is dropped when the alloy is no
the greatest mean percentage is the same for For 2n-x through 8 n . x alloys, the alloy longer experimental. During development and
more than one element, the choice of group is group is determined by the alloying element before they are designated as experimental,
in order of group sequence: copper, manga- present in the greatest mean percentage, except new alloys may be identified by serial numbers
nese, silicon, magnesium, magnesium silicide, in cases in which the composition being regis- assigned by their originators. Use of the serial
zinc, or others. tered qualifies as a modification of a previously number is discontinued when the ANSI H35.1
Aluminum. In the lnnr group, the series registered alloy. If the greatest mean percent- designation is assigned. It should be noted that
laxX is used to designate unalloyed compositions age is common to more than one alloying ele- some proprietary powder metallurgy (P/M) al-
that have natural impurity limits. The last two of ment, the alloy group is determined by the loys have also been indicated by the prefix X.
the four digits in the designation indicate the element that comes first in the sequence. This is particularly true for high-strength, alu-
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems / 19

Table 1 Alloying element and impurity specifications for ingots that will be remelted Note that suffixes (A), (B), and so on
into sand, permanent mold, and die castings should not be confused with suffixes of the
I Composition, wt% I Aluminum Association.
Casting
Alloying element ’Sand and permanent mold Die All I Ingot
The ISO chemical composition standard for
... ... Casting -0.03
aluminum and its alloys references Aluminum
Iron. ....................... 50.15
>0.154.25 ... ... Casting -o,05 Association equivalents as well as its own
>0.25-0.6 ... ... Casting -0.10 identification system. Alisting of these is given
>0.6-I.O ... ... Casting -0.2 in Table 4.
>l.O ... ... Casting -0.3
... 51.3 ... Casting -0.3 European Committee for Standardization.
... >l.3 ... 51.1 This committee (Comiti EuropCen de Normal-
Magnesium.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... <OS0 Casting +O.O5(a) isation, CEN) of European Common Market
Zinc. .......................
...
...
...
...
>0.25 to 0.60
>0.60
20.50
...
...
~~~~~~~ ‘::it’
Casting -0. I
members has developed a composition stand-
ard based on the ISO standard, but which con-
(a) Applicable only when the specified range for castings is >O.IS% Mg. Source: Ref I tains new designations not included in that
standard. Some of these new designations are
already registered as German(Deutsche Indus-
trial-Nomen, DIN) standards. The CEN stand-
b u m - b a s e P/M alloys, as described in the Castings and Foundry Alloys. There is no ard also references Aluminum Association
article “Powder Metallurgy Alloys” in this Vol- similar international accord for these alumi-
num or aluminum alloy products. equivalents.
ume.
Foreign Alloy Designations. Historically,
all major industrialized countries developed
their own standard designations for aluminum Temper Designation System for
Cross-Referencing of Aluminum and aluminum alloys. These are now being Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
and Aluminum Alloy Products grouped under systems of the American Na-
tional Standards Institute,the International Or-
ganization for Standardization, and the The temper designation system used in the
Tables 2 and 3 cross-reference aluminum European Commit& for Standardization. , United States for aluminum and aluminum al-
wrought and ingotlcast products according to The Intemati0M.l Organimkn for stand- loys is used for all product forms (both
composition,per Aluminum Association, Uni- ardim‘on has developed its own alphanumeric wrought and cast), With the exception of ingot
fied Numbering System (UNS), and Interna- designation systemformughtaluminumandits The system is based on the sequences of me-
tional Organization for Standardization (ISO) alloys, based on the systems that have been used chanical or thermal treatments, or both, used to
standards. by &European countries. The main addition prodUCe the Various temperS. The temper des-
Unified NumberingSystem. UNS numhrs element is distinguished by specifying the re- ignation fOllowS the alloy designation and is
corelate many nationally used numbefing sys- q u a content (middle of range) rounded off to separated from it by a hyphen. Basic temper
tems currently administered by societies, trade the nearest OS: designations consist of individual capital let-
ters. Major subdivisions of basic tempers,
associations, and individual users and produc- where required, are indicated by one or more
ers of metals and alloys. The UNS system was 5052=Al Mg2.5
digits following the letter. These digits desig-
developed by the Society of Automotive Engi- nate specific sequences of treatments that pro-
neers and ASTM in conjunction with other 5251=A1 M g 2 duce specific combinations of characteristics
technical societies, trade associations, and US. in the product. Variations in treatment condi-
government agencies. tions within major subdivisions are identified
Aluminum Association International Alloy If required, the secondary addition ele- by additionaldigits. Theconditionsduring heat
Designations. For wrought aluminum and ah- merits a= distinguished by spec$Qng the re- treatment (such as time, temperature, and
minum alloys only, compositions may be reg- quired content rounded off to the nearest 0.1, quenching rate) used to prduce a given temper
istered with the Aluminum Association by a for two elements at most: in one alloy may differ from those employed to
number of foreign organizations. These organi- produce the same temper in another alloy.
zations are signatories of a Declaration of Ac- 6181=A1 SilMg0.8 More detailed infomation on quenching and
cord on the Recommendation for an tempering schedules for specific aluminum al-
International Designation System for Wrought loys can be found in the article “Heat Treating”
Aluminurn and WroughtAluminum Alloys. In The chemical symbols for addition ele- in this Volume.
addition to the United States, the countries ments shou1d be limited to four:
represented by signatories are Argentina, Aus- Basic Temper Designations
tralia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Fin- 7050=A1 Zn6CuMgik
land, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Designations for the common tempers, and
Nether1ands’ Norway’ ’Out‘ A’ica’ Spain’ If an alloy cannot otherwise be distin- descriptions of the sequences of operations
Sweden, Switzerland, and the United King- guished, a suffix in brackets is used:
used to produce these tempers, are given in the
dom. The European Aluminum Association is following paragraphs.
also a signatoIy. F, As Fabricated. 'Ibis is applied to prod-
Under ANSI standard H35.1, wrought alu- 6063=Al Mg0.7Si
ucts shaped by cold working, hot working, or
minum or aluminum alloys will be registered castingprocesses in which no specialcontrolover
in decreasing priority as national variations, as 6463=A1 MgO.7SiO) themal conditions or strain hardening is em-
modifications, or as a new four-digit number. A ployed. For wrought products, there are no me-
national variation that has composition limits chanical property limits.
very close but not identical to those registered and intemational doy regis’ation 0,Annealed. 0 applies to wrought prod-
by another country is identified by a serial ucts that are annealed to obtain lowest-strength
letter following the numerical designation. 6063A=AI MgO.7Si(A) temper and to cast products that are annealed to
-
20 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 2 Composition of wrought unalloyed aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys

Alumi-
num
Asso-
ciation
1035
Grade designation

UNS No.
ISO No.
RZO9
1 1

. . . . . . .......... 0.35
Si
0.6
Fe cu
0.10 0.05
Mn
0.05
Mg Cr

......
Composition, wi%

Ni 20
0.10
Go
.' . 0.05
V
spmd
other
ekments
I . .
Ti
0.03
Unspmilied
other
elements Al,
Each Total minimum
0.03 . . . 99.35
i

1040 A91040 . . . .......... 0.30 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.10 . . . 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 ... 99.40
1045 A91045 . . . .......... 0.30 0.45 0.10 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 . . . 99.45
1050 A91050 4 9 9 . 5 ...... 0.25 0.40 0.05 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 . . . 99.50
1060 A91060 Al99.6 ...... 0.25 0.35 0.05 0.03 0.03 ...... 0.05 . .. 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 . . . 99.60
1065 A91065 .... 0.25 0.30 0.05 0.03 0.03 ...... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 . . . 99.65
1070 A91070 AI99 0.20 0.25 0.04 0.03 0.03 ...... 0.04 . . . 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 . . . 99.70
1080 A91080 AI 99.8 ...... 0.15 0.15 0.03 0.02 0.02 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.03 0.02 . . . 99.80
1085 A91085 . . . .......... 0.10 0.12 0.03 0.02 0.02 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.02 0.01 . . . 99.85
1090 A91090 . . . .......... 0.07 0.07 0.02 0.01 0.01 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.01 0.01 . ' . 99.90
1098 . . . . . . .......... 0.010 0.006 0.003 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.015 . .
. . . . ... 0.003 0.003 . . . 99.98
1100 A91100 Al99.OCu... 0.95 (Si + Fe) 0.05-0.20 0.05 . . . . . . . . . 0.10 . .
. . . . (4 ... 0.05 0.15 99.00
1110 . . . . . . .......... 0.30 0.8 0.04 0.01 0.25 0.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.02 B, 0.03 ... 0.03 . . . 99.10
(V + Ti)
1200 A91200 Al99.0 ...... l.W(Si + Fe) 0.05 0.05 . . . . . . . . . 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 99.00
1120 . . . . . . .......... 0.10 0.40 0.05-0.35 0.01 0.20 0.01 . . . 0.05 0.03 ... 0.05 B, 0.02 ... 0.03 0.10 99.20
(V + Ti)
1230 A91230 A199.3 ...... 0.70(Si + Fe) 0.10 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.10 . . 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 . . ' 99.30
...
'

1135 A91135 ' . . .......... 0.60(Si + Fe) 0.05-0.20 0.04 0.05 . . . . . . 0.10 .. 0.05 0.03 0.03 . . ' 99.35
...
'

1235 A91235 . . . .......... 0.65 (Si + Fe) 0.05 0.05 0.05 . . . . . . 0.10 .. 0.05 0.06 0.03 .'. 99.35
...
'
1435 A91345 . . . .......... 0.15 0.30-0.50 0.02 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.10 ... 0.05 0.03 0.03 ... 99.35
1145 A91145 . . . .......... 0.55 (Si + Fe) 0.05 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 ... 99.45
1345 A91345 . . , .......... 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.05 0.05 ...... 0.05
0.05 ... ... 0.03 0.03 ... 99.45
1445 . . . . . . .......... OSO(Si + Fe)(b) 0.w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 0.05 99.45
1150 . . . . . . .......... 0.45 (Si + Fe) 0.05-0.20 0.05 0.05 . . . . . . 0.05 . . . . . . ... 0.03 0.03 ... 99.50
1350 A91350 E-AI 99.5 .... 0.10 0.40 0.05 0.01 . . . 0.01 . . . 0.05 0.03 ... 0.05 B, 0.02 ... 0.03 0.10 99.50
(V + Ti)
1260 A91260(c) ............. 0.40(Si + Fe) 0.04 0.01 0.03 ...... 0.05 ... 0.05 (a) 0.03 0.03 ... 99.60
1170 A91170 . . . .......... 0.30(Si + Fe) 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03... 0.04 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 ... 99.70
1370 I . . E-AI 99.7 .... 0.10 0.25 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 ... 0.04 0.03 ... 0.02 B, 0.02 ... 0.02 0.10 99.70
(V + Ti)
. . . .......... ...... ... ..
1175
1275 . . . . . . .......... 0.080.15 (Si t0.12
A91175 Fe) 0.10
0.05-0.10
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02 ......
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.03 ...
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
'

...
99.75
99.75
1180 A91180 . . . .......... 0.09 0.09 0.01 0.02 0.02 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.02 0.02 ... 99.80
1185 A91185 . . . .......... 0.15(Si + Fe) 0.01 0.02 0.02 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.02 0.01 ... 99.85
1285 A91285 . . . .......... 0.08(d) 0.08(d) 0.02 0.01 0.01 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.02 0.01 ... 99.85
1385 . . . . . . .......... 0.05 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 ... 0.03 0.03 ' .. 0.02 ... 0.01 ... 99.85
(V + Ti)(e)
. . .
1188 A91188 . . . .. .......... 0.06 0.06 0.005 0.01 0.01 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 (4 0.01 0.01 ... 99.88
1190 .......... 0.05 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 ' .. 0.02 0.02 ... 0.01 ... 0.01 ... 99.90
(V + T N f )
1193 A91193(c) ............. 0.04 0.04 0.006 0.01 0.01 ...... 0.03 0.03 0.05 ... 0.01 0.01 ... 99.93
1199 A91199 . . . .......... 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.002 0.006 ...... 0.006 0.005 0.005 ... 0.002 0.002 ... 99.99
2001 . . . . . . .......... 0.20 0.20 5.2-6.0 0.15-0.50 0.2M.45 0.10 0.05 0.10 . . . . . . 0.05 Zr(g) 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
2002 . . . . . . .......... 0.35-0.8 0.30 1.5-2.5 0.20 0.50-1.0 0.20 . . . 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
2003 . . . . . . .......... 0.30 0.30 4.0-5.0 0.3M.8 0.02 ...... 0.10 . . ' 0.05-0.20 0.10-0.25 Zr(h) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2004 . . . . . . .......... 0.20 0.20 5.5-6.5 0.10 0.50 ...... 0.10 . . . . . . 0.30-0.50Zr 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
2005 . . . . . . .......... 0.8 0.7 3.5-5.0 1.0 0.20-1.0 0.10 0.20 0.50 . . . . . . 0.20 Bi, 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
1.0-2.0 Pb
2006 . . . .......... 0.61.3 0.7 1.0-2.0 0.61.0 0.50-1.4 . ' . 0.20 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.30 0.05 0.15 rem
2007 . . . . . . .......... 0.8 0.8 3.M.6 OSC-1.0 0.40-1.8 0.10 0.20 0.8 . . . . . . (0 0.20 0.10 0.30 rem
2008 ... .. 0.50-0.8 0.40 0.7-1.1 0.30 0.25-0.50 0.10 . . . 0.25 ' . . 0.05 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
2011 A92011 AICu6Bi Pb.. 0.40 0.7 5.0-6.0 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.30 . . . . . . ti) . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
2014 AI92014 AICu4SiMg.. 0.50-1.2 0.7 3.9-5.0 0.40-1.2 0.20-0.8 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
(k)
2214 A92214
AICu4SiMg.. 0.50-1.2 0.30 3.9-5.0 0.40-1.2 0.20-0.8 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . (k) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2017 A92017
AICu4MgSi.. 0.20-0.8 0.7 3.54.5 0.40-1.0 0.404.8 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . (k) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2117 AICuZSMg .. 0.20-0.8
A92117 0.7 3.54.5 0.40-1.0 0.40-1.0 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . 0.25Zr + Ti I . . 0.05 0.15 rem
AICuZMg .... 0.8 0.7 2.2-3.0 0.20 0.20-0.50 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
2018 A92018 . . . .......... 0.9 1.0 3.54.5 0.20 0.45-0.9 0.10 1.7-2.3 0.25 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
2218 A92218 . . . .......... 0.9 1.0 3.54.5 0.20 1.2-1.8 0.10 1.7-2.3 0.25 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
2618 A92618 . . . .......... 0.1M.25 0.9-1.3 1.9-2.7 ... 1.S1.8 . . . 0.9-1.2 0.10 . ' . .' ' ... 0.04-0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
2219 A92219 AICu6Mn.. .. 0.20 0.30 5.M.8 0.20-0.40 0.02 . . . . . . 0.10 . . . 0.05-0.15 0.10-0.25 Zr 0.02-0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
2319 A92319 . . . .......... 0.20 0.30 5.8-6.8 0.20-0.40 0.02 . . . . . . 0.10 . . . 0.05-0.15 0.10-0.25 Zr(a) 0.10-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
2419 A92419 . . . .......... 0.15 0.18 5.8-6.8 0.20-0.40 0.02 . . . . . . 0.10 . . . 0.05-0.15 0.10-0.25 Zr 0.02-0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
2519 A92519 . . . .......... 0.25(1) 0.30(1) 5.M.4 0.1M.50 0.05-0.40 . . . . . . 0.10 . . . 0.05-0.15 0.10-0.25Zr 0.02-0.100.05 0.15 rem
2021 A92021(c) ............. 0.20 0.30 5.8-6.8 0.20-0.40 0.02 . . . . . . 0.10 ' ' . 0.05-0.15 0.10-0.25 0.02-0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
. . . . . . zm
2024 A92024 AICu4Mgl ... 0.50 0.50 3.84.9 0.30-0.9 1.2-1.8 0.10 ... 0.25 (k) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2124 A92124 . . . .......... 0.20 0.30 3.84.9 0.30-0.9 1.2-1.8 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . (k) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
(continued)
(a) O.oW8 Be max for welding electrode and filler wire only. (b) (Si + Fe + Cu) = 0.50 max. (c) Obsolete. (d) 0.14 (Si + Fe) max. (e) 0.02 B max. (0 0.01 B max. ( ) 0 003 Ph may. (h) 0.05 to 0.m Cd. (i)
so agreed. (I) 0.40 (Si + Fe) mar. (m)0.05 to 0.20 Cd 0.03 to 0.08 Sn. (n) 1.9 to 2.6 Li. (0) 1.7 to 2.3 Li. ?)
0.20 Bi, 0.8 to 1.5 Pb, 0.20 Sn. [i) 0.20 to 0.6 Bi, 0.20 to 0.6 Pb. (k) A (Zr + Ti) limit of 0.20%maximumma be used for extruded and forged roducts when the suppfieior producer and the purchaser have
0 6 to 1 5 Bi 0.05 Cd m a . (9) !.OW8 Be max 0.05 to 0.25 21.(I) 45 to 65%of M (s)0.40 to
0.7 Bi, 0.40 to 0.7 Pb. (t) 0.25 to 0.40 Ag. (u) 0.15 (Mn '+ Cr) min. (v)0.08 to 0.20 Zr, 0.08 to 0.25 (Zr + Ti). &)0.20 (Ti + 21) max. (x) 0.1010 0.40 Co, 0.05 tA0.30 0. (y) A (21+ Ti) limit of 0.25% maximum
may be used for extruded and forged products when the supplier or producer and the urchaser have so agreed (2) 0 20 to 0 50 0 (aa) 0 001 B max, 0.003 Cd max, 0.001 Co max, 0.008 Li max. (bb)0.10
(b)
to 0.50 Bi, 0.10 to 0.25 Sn. (cc) 1.0 (Si + Fe) max. (dd) 0.02 IO 0.08 Zr. (eel 2.2 to 2.7Li. (ff) 2.4 to 2.8 Li. 2.1 io 2.7 Li. (hh) 2.3 id 2.9 LI
Source: Ref 2, 3, 4
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems / 21

IGnde deslgn.tbo 1 1 compositbn. w%


1
Alumc UnspeciW
num Spcllid other
b ISO No. other elements AI,
d a h UNSNn. R209 si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ga V elements Ti h c h Total minimum
2224 A92224 . . . ............, 0.12 0.15 3.8-4.4 0.304.9 1.2-1.8 0.10 ... 0.25 ...... ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
~ 3 %AWZA ................ 0.10 0.12 3.84.4 0.30-0.9 1.21.8 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2025 A92025 ................ 0.50-1.2 1.0 3.9-5.0 O.Wl.2 0.05 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2030 . . . AlCu4PbMg ..... 0.8 0.7 3.34.5 0.20-1.0 0.50-1.3 0.10 ... 0.50 ...... 0.20Bi, 0.8-1.5 0.20 0.10 0.30 rem
Pb
2031 . . . . . . ............. 0.50-1.3 0.61.2 1.8-2.8 0.50 0.61.2 ... 0.20
0.61.4 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
2034 . . . . . . ............. 0.10 0.12 4.24.8 0.8-1.3 1.3-1.9 0.05 ...
0.20 . . . . . . 0.08-0.15 Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2036 A92036 ................ 0.50 0.50 2.23.0 0.10-0.40 0.304.6 0.10 . . . 0.25 ... ... ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2037 A92037 ................ 0.50 0.50 1.k2.2 0.10-0.40 0.30-0.8 0.10 . . . 0.25 .'. 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2038 ~ 9 2 0 3 8 ................ 0.50-1.3 0.6 0.8-1.8 0.10-0.40 0.wi.o 0.20 . . . 0.50 0.05 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2048 A92048 ................ 0.15 0.20 2.8-3.8 0.20-0.6 1.211.8 ... . . . 0.25 ... ... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
2090 A9U)90 ................ 0.10 0.12 2.4-3.0 0.05 0.25 0.05 . . . 0.10 ... ... O.OW.15 Zr(n) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
2091 . . . . . . ............. 0.20 0.30 1.8-2.5 0.10 1.1-1.9 0.10 . . . 0.25 ... ... 0.04-0.16Zr(o) 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3002 A93002 ................ 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.05-0.25 0.05-0.20 ... . . . 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 0.10 rem
3102 A93102 ................ 0.40 0.7 0.10 0.05-0.40 ... ... . . . 0.30 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3003 A93003 AlMnlCu ....... 0.6 0.7 0.05-0.20 1.0-1.5 ... ... . . . 0.10 ... ... ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
3103 . . . . . . ............. 0.50 0.7 0.10 0.9-1.5 0.30 0.10 . . . 0.20 ... ... 0.10 Zr + Ti ... 0.05 0.15 rem
3203 . . . . . . ............. 0.6 0.7 0.05 1.0-1.5 ... . . . . . . 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.05 0.15 rem
3303 A93303 AlMnl .......... 0.6 0.7 0.05-0.20 1.0-1.5 ... . . . . . . 0.30 . . . . . . .(a). . ... 0.05 0.15 rem
3004 A93004 AlMnlMgl ...... 0.30 0.7 0.25 1.0-1.5 0.S1.3 . . . 0.25 ... ... ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
3104 A93104 ................ 0.6 0.8 0.05-0.25 0.8-1.4 0.8-1.3 ... . . . 0.25 0.05 0.05 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3005 A93005 AIMnlMgO.5 .... 0.6 0.7 0.30 1.0-1.5 0.20-0.6 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3105 A93105 AIMn0.5Mg0.5 .. 0.6 0.7 0.30 0.30-0.8 0.20-0.8 0.20 . . . 0.40 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3006 A93006 ................ 0.50 0.7 0.10-0.30 0.50-0.8 0.30-0.6 0.20 . . . 0.15-0.40 . . . ... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3007 A93007 ................ 0.50 0.7 0.05-0.30 0.30-0.8 0.6 0.20 . . . 0.40 ... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3107 A93107 ................ 0.6 0.7 0.05-0.15 0.40-0.9 ... .. . . . 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3 m . . . . . . ............. 0.30 0.45 0.10 0.40-0.8 0.10 ... . . . 0.10 ... ... ... ... 0.05 0.10 rem
3307 . . . . . . ............. 0.6 0.8 0.30 0.50-0.9 0.30 ... . . . 0.25 ... ... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3008 . . . . . . ............. 0.40 0.7 0.10 1.2-1.8 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.05 . . . . . . O.l(M.50Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3009 A93009 ................ 1.0-1.8 0.7 0.10 1.21.8 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.05 . . . . . . 0.10Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3010 A93010 ................ 0.10 0.20 0.03 0.20-0.9 . . . 0.05-0.40 . . . 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 0.03 0.10 rem
3011 A93011 ................ 0.40 0.7 0.05-0.20 0.8-1.2 . . . 0.10-0.40 ' ' . 0.10 . .. ... 0.10-0.30Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3012 . . . . . . ............. 0.6 0.7 0.10 0.50-1.1 0.10 0.20 . . . 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3013 . . . . . . ............. 0.6 1.0 0.50 0.9-1.4 0.20-0.6 ... . . . 0.5M.O . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
3014 . . . . . . ............. 0.6 1.0 0.50 1.0-1.5 0.10 ... . . . 0.50-1.0 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
3015 . . . . . . ............. 0.6 0.8 0.30 0.50-0.9 0.20-0.7 ... . . . 0.25 . . . . . . 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
. . . . . . ............. 0.6 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ...
1 . .

3016 0.8 0.30 0.50-0.9 0.50-0.8 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
4Mll A94004 ................ 9.0-10.5 0.8 0.25 0.10 1.0-2.0 ... . . . 0.20 ... ... ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
4104 A94104 ................ 9.C-10.5 0.8 0.25 0.10 1.0-2.0 ... . . . 0.20 . . . . . . 0.02-0.20 Bi ... 0.05 0.15 rem
4oo6 . . . . . . ............. 0.8-1.2 0.50-0.8 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.20 . . . 0.05 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
4ofy . . . . . . ............. 1.0-1.7 O.Wl.0 0.20 0.8-1.5 0.20 0.054.25 0.15-0.7 0.10 . . . . . . 0.05 Co 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
4008 A94008 ................ 6.5-7.5 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.30-0.45 ... . . . 0.05 . . . . . . (a) 0.04-0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
4fjf)IJ . . . . . . ............. 4.5-5.5 0.20 1.0-1.5 0.10 0.45-0.6 ... . . . 0.10 . . . . . . (a) 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
4010 . . . . . . ............. 6.5-7.5 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.304.45 ... . . . 0.10 . . . . . . (a) 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
4011 . . . . . . ............. 6.5-7.5 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.45-0.7 ... . . . 0.10 . . . . . . 0.04-0.07 Be 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
4013 . . . . . . ............. 3.5-4.5 0.35 0.05-0.20 0.03 0.05-0.20 ... . . . 0.05 ... (p) 0.02 0.05 0.15 rem
4032 A94032 ................11.0-13.5 1.0 0.50-1.3 . . . 0.S1.3 0.10 0.50-1.3 0.25 ... ... ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
4043 A94043 AlSi ............ 4.54.0 0.8 0.30 0.05 0.05 ... . . . 0.10 ... ... (a) 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
4343 A94343 ................ 6 2 - 8 2 0.8 0.25 0.10 ... ... . . . 0.20 .'. ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
4543 A94543 ................ 5.0-7.0 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.10-0.40 0.05 . . . 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
4643 A94643 ................ 3.6-4.6 0.8 0.10 0.05 0.10-0.30 ... . . . 0.10 ... ... 0.1 0.05 0.15 rem
4044 A94044 ................ 7.8-9.2 0.8 0.25 0.10 . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
4045 A94045 ................ 9.0-11.0 0.8 0.30 0.05 0.05 ... . . . 0.10 . . . . . . 0.2 0.05 0.15 rem
4145 A94145 ................ 9.3-10.7 0.8 3.34.7 0.15 0.15 0.15 . . . 0.20 . . . . . . (a) ... 0.05 0.15 rem
4047 A94047 AlSil2........... 11.0-13.0 0.8 0.30 0.15 0.10 ... . . . 0.20 . . . . . . (a) ... 0.05 0.15 rem
5005 A95005 AlMgl .......... 0.30 0.7 0.20 0.20 0.50-1.1 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
5205 . . . AlMgl(B) ....... 0.15 0.7 0.03410 0.10 0.61.0 0.10 . . . 0.05 ... ... ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
5006 A95006 ................ 0.40 0.8 0.10 0.40-0.8 0.8-1.3 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5010 ~ 9 5 0 1 0 ................ 0.40 0.7 0.25 0.10-0.30 o . m . 6 0.15 . . . 0.30 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5013 . . . . . . ............. 0.20 0.25 0.03 0.30-0.50 3.2-3.8 0.03 0.03 0.10 . . . . . . 0.05 Zr(g) 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5014 . . . . . . ............. 0.40 0.40 0.20 0.204.9 4.0-5.5 0.20 . . . 0.7-1.5 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
5016 A95016 ................ 0.25 0.6 . 0.20 0.40-0.7 1.4-1.9 0.10 . . . 0.15 . . . . . . ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
5017 . . . . . . ............. 0.40 0.7 0.1W.28 0.6-0.8 1.9-2.2 ... ... . . . . . . . . . ... 0.09 0.05 0.15 rem
5040 A95040 ................ 0.30 0.7 0.25 0.9-1.4 1.0-1.5 0.10-0.30 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
5042 A95042 ................ 0.20 0.35 0.15 0.20-0.50 3.0-4.0 0.10 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5043 A95043 ................ 0.40 0.7 0.05-0.35 0.7-1.2 0.7-1.3 0.05 . . . 0.25 0.05 0.05 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5049 . . . . . . ............. 0.40 0.50 0.10 0.50-1.1 1.6-2.5 0.30 . . . 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5050 A95050 AlMgl.S(C)
AIMgl.5 ...... 0.40 0.7 0.20 0.10 1.1-1.8 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
(continued)

(A
a) O.ooo8 Be max for welding electrode and filler wire only. (b) SI + Fe + Cu) = 0.50 max. (c) Obsolete. (d) 0.14 (Si + Fe) max. (e) 0.02 B max. (f) 0.01 B max. ( ) 0 003 pb max. (h) 0.05 to 0.20 Cd. (i)
6.20 Bi, 0.8 to 1.5 Pb, 0.20 Sn. (i) 0.20 to 0.6 Bi, 0.20 to 0.6 Pb. A (21 + Ti) limit of 0.20% maximum may be used for extruded and forged roducts when the suppkierbr producer and the purchaser have
so a eed. (I) 0.40 (Si + Fe max (m) 0.05 to 0 20 Cd 0.03 to 0.08 Sn. (n) 1.9 to 2.6 Li. ( 0 ) 1.7 to 2.3 Li. ( ) 0 6 to 1 5 Bi 0.05 Cd max. (9) ~ . W Be 8 max 0.05 to 0.25 21.(I) 45 to 65% of Mg. (s)0.40 to
0.7 g, 0.40 to 0.7 PD. (1) 0 . k to0.40 Ag. (u) 0,;s (Mn $ Cr) mi?. (v) 0.08 to 0.20 21, 0.08 to 0.25 (21+ Ti). &) 0.20 (Ti + 21)max. (x) 0.10 to 0.40 Co, 0.05 1; 0.30 0. (y) A (21+ Ti) limit of 0.25%maximum
may be used for extruded and forged products when the supplier or producer and the purchaser have so agreed. (2) 0.20 to 0.50 0. (aa) 0.001 B max, 0.003 Cd max, 0.001 Co max, 0.008 Li max. (bb) 0.10
to 0.50 Bi, 0.10 to 0.25 Sn. (cc)1.0 (Si + Fe) max. (dd) 0.02 to 0.08 21.(ee) 2.2 to 2.7 Li. (ff) 2.4 to 2.8 Li. (gg) 2.1 to 2.7 Li. (hh) 2.3 to 2.9 Li
Source: Ref 2, 3, 4
22 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 2 (continued)
7Grade designation 1 1 Composition, wc%
I
Alumi- Unapediled
num Spdnd other
Asso. ISO No. other element8 Al,
ciatiou UNS No. R209 Si Fe cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ga V dementa Ti Each Tots1 minimum
5150 . . . . . . ............. 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.03 1.3-1.7 . . . . . . 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.06 0.03 0.10 rem
. 5250 A95250 ................ 0.08 0.10
0.7
0.10
0.25
0.05-0.15
0.20
1.3-1.8
1.7-2.2 0.10
. . . . . . 0.05
0.25
0.03
. . . . . .
0.05 ...
...
... 0.03 0.10 rem
SO51 A95051 AIMg2 .......... 0.40 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5151 A95151 ................ 0.20 0.35 0.15 0.10 1.5-2.1 0.10 0.15 ...... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5251 . . . AIMg2 .......... 0.40 0.50 0.15 0.10-0.50 1.7-2.4 0.15 ... 0.15 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
5351 A95351 ................ 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.10 1.62.2 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
5451 A95154 AlMg3.5 ........ 0.25 0.40 0.10 0.10 1.8-2.4 0.1 .35 0.05 0.10 ... ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
5052 A95052 AIMg2.5 ........ 0.25 0.40 0.10 0.10 2.2-2.8 0.154.35 ... 0.10 .. '
... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
5252 A95252 ' . . 0.10 0.10 0.10 2.2-2.8 . . . . . . 0.05 ... ... . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
5352 A95352 . . . . 0.45 (Si + Fe) 0.10 0.10 2.2-2.8 0.10 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5552 A95652 . . . 0.05 0.10 0.10 2.2-2.8 . . . . . . 0.05 . . . 0.05 ... . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
5652 A95652 . 0.40(Si + Fe) 0.04 0.01 2.2-2.8 0.154.35 . . . 0.10 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
5154 ... 0.40 0.10 0.10 3.1-3.9 0.154.35 ... 0.20 . . . . . . (a) 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
0.45 (Si + Fe) 0.05 0.01 3.1-3.9 0.15-0.35 ... 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
5454 A95454 AIMg3Mn ....... 0.25 0.40 0.10 0.50-1.0 2.63.0 0.054.20 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
5554 A95554 AIMg3Mn(A). ... 0.25 0.40 0.10 0.50-1.0 2.4-3.0 0.05-0.20 ... 0.25 . . . . . . (a) 0.05-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
5654 A95654 ................ 0.45 (Si + Fe) 0.05 0.01 3.1-3.9 0.15-0.35 ... 0.20 . . . . . . (a) 0.05-0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
5754 A95754 AIMg3 .......... 0.40 0.40 0.10 0.50 2.6-3.6 0.30 ... 0.20 . . . . . . 0.10-0.6 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
(Mn +
Cr)
5854 . . . . . . ............. 0.45 (Si + Fe) 0.10 0.10-0.50 3.1-3.9 0.154.35 ... 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
5056 A95056 AlMg5
AIMg5Cr ..... 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.054.20 4.5-5.6 0.05-0.20 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
5356 A95356 AIMg5Cr(A). .... 0.25 0.40 0.10 0.05-0.204.5-5.5 0.054.20 ... 0.10 ...... O . O t 4 . 2 0 0.05 0.15
(a) rem
0.40 0.10 0.50-1.0 4.7-5.5 0.05-0.20 ... 0.25 ...... ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
0.40 0.10 0.50-1.0 4.7-5.5 0.05-0.20 ... 0.25 ...... (a) 0.054.20 0.05 0.15 rem
5357 A95357 ................ 0.12 0.17 0.20 0.154.45 0.8-1.2 ... 0.05 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
5457 A95457 ................ 0.08 0.10 0.20 0.154.45 0.8-1.2 ... 0.05 . . . 0.05 ... . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
0.12 0.15 0.10-0.400.404.8 . . . . . . 0.05 ... . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
0.10 0.10 0.03 0.6-1.0 0.05 0.03 0.05 ... . . . 0.02 0.05 rem
5280 . . . . . . 0.35 (Si + Fe) 0.10 0.20-0.7 3.54.5 0.05-0.25 1.5-2.8 . . . . . . . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
0.35 0.15 0.15 4.0-5.0 0.15 ... 0.25 . . . . . . .(') . . 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
0.35 0.15 0.204.50 4.0-5.0 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
5083 A95083 AIMg4.5Mn ..... 0.40-0.7 0.40 0.10 0.404.10 4.04.9 0.05425 ... 0.25 ... ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
5183 A95183 AIMg4.5Mn .... 0 . W . 7 ( A ) 0.40 0.10 0.50-1.0 4.3-5.2 0.05-0.25 ... 0.25 . . . . . . (a) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
5283 . . . . . . ............. 0.30 0.30 0.03 0.50-1.0 4.5-5.1 0.05 0.03 0.10 ... 0.05 Zr 0.03 0.05 0.15 rem
5086 A95086 AIMg4 .......... 0.40 0.50 0.10 0.20-0.7 3.54.5 0.05-0.25 ... 0.25 ... ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6101 A96101 E-AIMgSi ....... 0.30-0.7 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.354.8 0.03 ... 0.10 ... 0.06B . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
6201 A96201 ................ 0.50-0.9 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.6-0.9 0.03 ... 0.10 ... 0.06 B . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
6301 A96301 ................ 0.50-0.9 0.7 0.10 0.15 0.6-0.9 0.10 ... 0.25 ... ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6002 ...... ...... 0.6-0.9 0.25 0.10-0.25 0.10-0.200.454.7 0.05 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.09-0.14Zr 0.08 0.05 0.15 rem
6003 A96803 AIMglSi ........ 0.35-1.0 0.6 0.10 0.8 0.8-1.5 0.35 ... 0.20 . . . . . . . . . 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
.. 0.35-1.0 0.6 0.204.30 0.8 0.8-1.5 0.35 ... 0.20 ... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
........ 0.30-0.6 0.10-0.30 0.10 0.20-0.6 0.404.7 . . . . . . 0.05 . . . . . . . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
.. 0.6-0.9 0.35 0.10 0.10 O.W.6 0.10 ... 0.10 ...... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6105 A96105 ................ 0.61.0 0.35 0.10 0.10 0.454.8 0.10 ... 0.10 . . . . . . 0110 0.05 0.15 rem
6205 A96205 ................ 0.6-0.9 0.7 0.20 0.054.15 O.W.6 0.05-0.15 . . . 0.25 . . . . . . 0.054.15 Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6006 A96006 ................ 0.20-0.6 0.35 0.15-0.30 0.154.20 0.45-0.9 0.10 ... 0.10 ...... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6106 . . . . . . ............. 0.30-0.6 0.35 0.25 0.054.20 0.444.8 0.20 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.10 rem
... 0.354.7 0.35 0.20-0.50 0.13-0.300.454.8 0.10 ... 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
... 0.s1.4 0.7 0.20 0.05-0.250.6-0.9 0.054.25 ... 0.25 . . . . . . 0.05-0.20Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
0.50-0.9 0.35 0.30 0.30 O.W.7 0.30 ... 0.20 . . . 0.054.20 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
0.6-1.0 0.50 0.15-0.6 0.20-0.8 0.40-0.8 0.10 ... 0.25 ...... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
0.8-1.2 0.50 0.154.6 0.204.8 0.61.0 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . . . . 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
. 0.7-1.5 0.8 0.20-0.7 O.m.7 0.5S1.1 0.060.25 ... 0.30 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6011 A96011 ................ 0.61.2 1.0 0.40.9 0.8 0.61.2 0.30 0.20 1.5 ...... ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
6111 A96111 ................ 0.7-1.1 0.40 0.50-0.9 0.154.45 0.50-1.0 0.10 ... 0.15 . . . . . . . . . 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6012 . . . . . . ............. 0.61.4 0.50 0.10 O.Wl.0 0.6-1.2 0.30 ... 0.30 ...... 0.7 Bi, 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
0.62.0
Pb
~ 6 0 1 3 . . . . . . ............. 0.6-1.0 0.50 0.61.1 0.20-0.8 0.8-1.2 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
,5014 . . . . . . ............. 0.30-0.6 0.35 0.25 0.05-0.20 O.W.8 0.20 ... 0.10 . . . 0.054.20 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
,5015 . . . . . . ............. 0.20-0.40 0.10-0.30 0.10-0.25 0.10 0.8-1.1 0.10 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6016 . . . . . . ............. 1.S1.5 0.50 0.20 0.20 0.254.6 0.10 ... 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6017 A96017 ................ 0.554.7 0.154.30 0.054.20 0.10 0.454.6 0.10 ... 0.05 . . . . . . . . . 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
. 6151 A%151 ................ 0.61.2 1.0 0.35 0.20 0.454.8 0.15-0.35 ... 0.25 . . . . . . . . . 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6351 A96351 AISilMgOSMn.. 0.7-1.3 0.50 0.10 O.W.8 0.40-0.8 . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
6951 A96951 ................ 0.20-0.50 0.8 0.154.40 0.10 0.404.8 . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
. 6053 A96053 ................ (I) 0.35 0.10 ... 1.1-1.4 0.15-0.35 ... 0.10 ...... ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
6253 A96253 ................ (I) 0.50 0.10 ... 1.0-1.5 0.060.35 ... 1.6-2.4 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
(continued)
(a) O.ooO8 Be max for welding electrode and filler wire only. (b) (Si + Fe + Cu) = 0.50 max. (c)Obsolete. (d) 0.14 (Si + Fe) max. ( e ) 0.02 B max. (0 0.01 B max. ( ) 0 003 Pb max. (h) 0.05 to 0.20 Cd. (i)
0.20 Bi, 0.8 to 1.5 Pb, 0.20 Sn. 0) 0.20 to 0.6 Bi, 0.20 to 0.6 Pb. (k) A (Zr + Ti) limit of 0.20%maximum may be used for extruded and forged roducts when the suppkror producer and the purchaser have
so agreed. (I) 0.40 (Si + Fe) max. (m) 0.05 to 0.20 Cd 0.03 to 0.08 Sn. (n) 1.9 to 2.6 Li. ( 0 ) 1.7 to 2.3 Li. ( ) 0 6 to 1 5 Bi 0.05 Cd max. (9)#.ooO8 Be max 0.05 lo 0.25 Zr. (I) 45 to 65% of M (s)0.40 to
0.7 Bi, 0.40 to 0.7 Pb. (t)0.25 to 0.40 Ag. (u) 0.15 (Mn i Cr) min. (v) 0.08 to 0.20 Zr, 0.08 to 0.25 (Zr + Ti). &) 0.20 (Ti + i r ) max. ( x )0.10 to 0.40 Co, 0.05 tA0.30 0. (r) A (Zr + Ti) limit of 0.25% maximum
may be used for extruded and forged products when the supplier or producer and the purchaser have so agreed. ( z )0.20 to 0.50 0. (aa) 0.001 B max, 0.003 Cd max, 0.001 Comax, 0.008 Li max. (bb) 0.10
to 0.50 Bi, 0.10 to 0.25 Sn. (cc) 1.0 (Si + Fe) max. (dd) 0.02 to 0.08 Zr. (ee) 2.2 to 2.7 Li. ( f f ) 2.4 to 2.8 Li. (a)2.1 to 2.7 Li. (hh) 2.3 to 2.9 Li
Source: Ref 2, 3, 4
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems / 23

Table 2 (continued)
7Gnde designeation 1 1 Composition, wlY'
I
Alumi- Unspecified
num Spgified other
As* ISO No. other elements AI,
dation UNSNo. Eo9 Si Fe cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ga V elements Ti Each Total minimum

6060 A96060 AlMgSi .......... 0.30-0.6 0.10-0.30 0.10 0.10 0.35-0.6 0.05 ... 0.15 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6061 A96061 AlMglSiCu ...... O . U . 8 0.7 0.15-0.40 0.15 0.8-1.2 0.060.35 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6261 A96261 . . . .............. 0.40-0.7 0.40 0.154.40 0.20-0.35 0.7-1.0 0.10 ... 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6162 A96162 . . . .............. 0.40-0.8 0.50 0.20 0.10 0.7-1.1 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6262 A96262 AlMglSiPb ...... 0.40-0.8 0.7 0.15-0.40 0.15 0.8-1.2 0.060.14 ... 0.25 . . . . . . (s) 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6063 A96063 AlMgOSSi ....... 0.20-0.6 0.35 0.10 0.10 0.454.9 0.10 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6463 A96463 AlMgO.7Si ....... 0.20-0.6 0.15 0.20 0.05 0.45-0.9 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
6763 A96763 . . ' .............. 0.20-0.6 0.08 0.060.16 0.03 0.45-0.9 ... ... 0.03 ... 0.05 ... . . . 0.03 0.10 rem
6863 ... . . . .............. O . U . 6 0.15 0.05-0.20 0.05 0.50-0.8 0.05 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6066 A%066 . . . .............. 0.9-1.8 0.50 0.7-1.2 0.6-1.1 0.8-1.4 0.40 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
6070 A96070 . . . .............. 1.0-1.7 0.50 0.154.40 0.4CL1.0 0.50-1.2 0.10 ... 0.25 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6081 ... . . . .............. 0.7-1.1 0.50 0.10 0.10-0.45 0.61.0 0.10 ... 0.20 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
6181 ... AISiMg0.8 ....... 0.8-1.2 0.45 0.10 0.15 0.61.0 0.10 ... 0.20 . . ' 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
6082 ... AlSilMgMn ...... 0.7-1.3 0.50 0.10 0.40-1.0 0.6-1.2 0.25 ... 0.20 ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7001 A97001 . . . .............. 0.35 0.40 1.62.6 0.20 2.6-3.4 0.184.35 ... 6.M.0 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
7003 ... . . . .............. 0.30 0.35 0.20 0.30 0.50-1.0 0.20 ... 5.0-6.5 ". ". 0.054.25 Zr 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
7004 A97004 . . . .............. 0.25 0.35 0.05 0.20-0.7 1.0-2.0 0.05 ... 3.8-4.6 . . . . . . 0.10-0.20 Zr 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
7005 A97005 . . . .............. 0.35 0.40 0.10 0.20-0.7 1.0-1.8 0.064.20 ... 4.0-5.0 . . . . . . 0.084.20 Zr 0.014.06 0.05 0.15 rem
7008 A97008 . . . .............. 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.7-1.4 0.124.25 ... 4.5-5.5 ' .. ..
' ... 0.05 0.05 0.10 rem
7108 A97108 . . . .............. 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.7-1.4 ... ... 4.5-5.5 . . ' ' ' ' 0.124.25 Zr 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
7009 ... . . . .............. 0.20 0.20 0.6-1.3 0.10 2.1-2.9 0.10-0.25 ... 5.5-5.6 . . . . . . (t) 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
7109 . . . . . . .............. 0.10 0.15 0.8-1.3 0.10 2.2-2.7 0.060.08 ... 5.8-6.5 . . . . . . 0.1M.20 Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
(t)
7010 . . . AlZn6MgCu ..... 0.12 0.15 1.5-2.0 0.10 2.1-2.6 0.05 0.05 5.7-6.7 ... 0.1M.16 Zr 0.06 0.05 0.15 rem
7011 A97011(c) ................. 0.15 0.20 0.05 0.10-0.30 1.0-1.6 0.05-0.20 ... 4.0-5.5 ... ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
7012 . . . . . . .............. 0.15 0.25 0.8-1.2 0.084.15 1.8-2.2 0.04 ... 5.8-6.5 ... 0.10-0.18 Zr 0.024.08 0.05 0.15 rem
7013 A97013 . . . .............. 0.6 0.7 0.10 1.0-1.5 ... ... .,. 1.5-2.0 . . . . . . ... . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
7014 . . . . . . .............. 0.50 0.50 0.30-0.7 0.30-0.7 2.2-3.2 0.10 5.2-6.2 . . . . . . 0.20 . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
(Ti + Zr)
7015 . . . . . . . .............. 0.20 0.30 0.064.15 0.10 1.3-2.1 0.15 ... 4.65.2 . . . . . . 0.1M.20 Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7016 A97016 . . . .............. 0.10 0.12 0.45-1.0 0.03 0.61.4 ... ... 4.0-5.0 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.10 rem
7116 . . . . . . .............. 0.15 0.30 0.50-1.1 0.05 0.61.4 ... ... 4.2-5.2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
7017 . . . . . . .............. 0.35 0.45 0.20 0.05-0.50 2.0-3.0 0.35 0.10 4.0-5.2 . . . . . . Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
7018 ... . . . .............. 0.35 (4
0.45 0.20 0.154.50 0.7-1.5 0.20 0.10 4.5-5.5 ". ". 0.1M.25 Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
7019 ... . . . .............. 0.35 0.45 0.20 0.154.50 1.5-2.5 0.20 0.10 3.54.5 . . ' . ' ' 0.10-0.25 Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
7020 ... AIZn4.5Mgl ..... 0.35 0.40 0.20 0.05-0.50 1.0-1.4 0.1M.35 ... 4.0-5.0 . . . . . . (v) ... 0.05 0.15 rem
7021 A97021 . . . .............. 0.25 0.40 0.25 0.10 1.2-1.8 0.05 ... 5.0-6.0 . . . . . . 0.084.18 Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7022 ... . . . .............. 0.50 0.50 0.50-1.0 0.10-0.40 2.63.7 O.lM.30 ... 4.3-5.2 . . . . . . 0.20 ... 0.05 0.15 rem
(Ti + Zr)
7023 . . . . . . .............. 0.50 0.50 0.50-1.0 0.10-0.6 2.0-3.0 0,054.35 ... 4.0-6.0 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7024 . . . . . . .............. 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.10-0.6 0.50-1.0 0.05-0.35 ... 3.0-5.0 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7 w . . . . . . .............. 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.10-0.6 0.8-1.5 0.05-0.35 ... 3.0-5.0 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7026 . . . . . . .............. 0.08 0.12 0.64.9 0.05-0.20 1.5-1.9 ... ... 46-52 . . . . . . 0.094.14 Zr 0.05 0.03 0.10 rem
7027 . . . . . . .............. 0.25 0.40 0.10-0.30 0.10-0.40 0.7-1.1 ... ... 3.54.5 . . . . . . 0.05-0.30 Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7028 . . . . . . .............. 0.35 0.50 0.10-0.30 0.154.6 1.5-2.3 0.20 ... 4.5-5.2 . . . . . . O.OW.25 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
(Zr + Ti)
7M9 A97029 . . . .............. 0.10 0.12 0.50-0.9 0.03 l.M.O ... ... 4.2-5.2 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 0.03 0.10 rem
7129 A97129 . . . .............. 0.15 0.30 0.50-0.9 0.10 1.3-2.0 0.10 ... 4.2-5.2 0.03 0.05 ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
7229 . . . . . . .............. 0.06 0.08 0.50-0.9 0.03 1.3-2.0 ... ... 4.2-5.2 .. ' 0.05 ... 0.05 0.03 0.10 rem
7030 . . . . . . .............. 0.20 0.30 0.2M.40 0.05 1.0-1.5 0.04 ... 4.8-5.9 0.03 ... 0.03 Zr 0.03 0.05 0.15 rem
7039 A97039 . . . .............. 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.10-0.40 2.3-3.3 0.15-0.25 ... 3.54.5 ' ' . .
' ' ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7046 A97046 . . . .............. 0.20 0.40 0.25 0.30 1.0-1.6 0.20 ... 6.67.6 . . . . . . 0.10-0.18Zr 0.06 0.05 0.15 rem
7146 A97146 . . . .............. 0.20 0.40 ... . . . 1.0-1.6 ... ... 6.67.6 . . . . . . 0.1M.18 Zr 0.06 0.05 0.15 rem
7049 A97049 . . . .............. 0.25 0.35 1.2-1.9 0.20 2.0-2.9 0.10-0.22 ... 7.2-8.2 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7149 A97149 . . . .............. 0.15 0.20 1.2-1.9 0.20 2.0-2.9 0.10-0.22 ... 7.2-8.2 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7050 A97050 AIZn6CuMgZr ... 0.12 0.15 2.0-2.6 0.10 1.9-2.6 0.04 ... 5.7-6.7 . . . . . . 0.084.15 Zr 0.06 0.05 0.15 rem
7150 A97150 . . . .............. 0.12 0.15- 1.9-2.5 0.10 2.0-2.7 0.04 ... 5.9-6.9 . . . . . . 0.0W.15Zr 0.06 0.05 0.15 rem
7051 . . . . . . .............. 0.35 0.45 0.15 0.10-0.45 1.7-2.5 0.054.25 ... 3.04.0 . . . . . . ... 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
7060 . . . . . . .............. 0.15 0.20 1.8-2.6 0.20 l.M.l 0.154.25 ... 6.1-7.5 . . . . . . 0.003 Pb 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
(w)
x7064 . . . . . . .............. 0.12 0.15 i.az.4 ... 1.9-2.9 0.064.25 ... 6.8-8.0 . . . . . . 0.10-0.50Zr ... 0.05 0.15 rem
(x)
7072 A97072 Alznl ............ 0.7(Si + Fe) 0.10 0.10 0.10 ... ... 0.8-1.3 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
7472 A97472 . . . .............. 0.25 0.6 0.05 0.05 0.9-1.5 ... ... 1.3-1.9 . . . . . . ... 0.05 0.15 rem
7075 A97W5 AIZn5.5M g C I I . . . 0.40 0.50 1.2-2.0 0.30 2.1-2.9 0.18-0.28 ... 5.1-6.1 . . . . . . 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
7175 A97175 . . . .............. 0.15 0.20 1.2-2.0 0.10 2.1-2.9 0.184.28 ... 5.1-6.1 . . . . . . 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7475 A97475 AIZn5.5MgCu(A) 0.10 0.12 1.2-1.9 0.06 1.9-2.6 0.18-0.25 ... 5.2-6.2 . . . . . . ... 0.06 0.05 0.15 rem
. 7076 A97076 . . . .............. 0.40 0.6 0.30-1.0 0.30-0.8 1.2-2.0 ... ... 7.N.O . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
(continued)

6.20 Bi, 0.8 to 1.5 Pb, 0.20 Sn. 0) 0.20 to 0.6 Bi, 0.20 to 0.6 Pb. (6
a) O.bOO8 Be max for welding electrode and filler wire only. (b) SI + Fe + Cu) = 0.50 max. (c) Obsolete. (d) 0.14 (Si + Fe) max. (e) 0.02 B max. (00.01 B max. (9) 0.003 Pb max. (h) 0.05 to 0.20 Cd. (1)
A (21+ Ti) limit of 0.20% maximum may be used for extruded and forged products when the supplier or producer and the purchaser have
so a eed (I) 0.40 (Si + Fe) max. (m) 0.05 to 0 20 Cd, 0.03 to 0.08 Sn. (n) 1.9 to 2.6 Li. ( 0 )1.7 10 2.3 Li. ( ) 0 6 to 1 5 Bi, 0.05 Cd max. (4) 0.0008 Be max, 0.05 to 0.25 Zr. (I) 45 IO 6 5 4 of Mg. (s) 0.40 to
0 . 7 g . 0.40 to0.7 Pb. (t) 0.25 to0.40Ag. (u) 0.s(Mn + Cr) min. (v) 0.08 to 0.20 Zr, 0.08 to 0.25 (Zr + Ti). &) 0.20 (T:l + Zr) m a . (x) 0.10 to 0.40 Co, 0.05 IO 0.30 0. (y) A (Zr + Ti) limit of 0.25% maxlmum
ma be used for extruded and forged products when the supplier or prodocer and the urchaser have so agreed (2) 0 20 to 0 50 0 (aa) 0 M)l B max, 0.003 Cd max, 0.001 Co max, 0.008.Li max. (bb) 0.10
to $.SO Bi, 0.10 to 0.25 Sn. (cc)1.0 (Si + Fe) max. (dd) 0.02 to 0.08 Zr. (ee) 2.2 to 2 . f L i . (M 2.4 to 2.8 Li. (&) 2.1 io 2.7 Li. (hh) 2.3 t o 2.9 Li
Source: Ref 2 , 3 , 4
24 / Introduction t o Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 2 (continued)
r Grade d d p a U w 1 1 Composition, W e
1
Alud UnspeciRed
num Spffised other
b ISO No. other elements Al,
datbn UNSNo. R209 si Fe cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ga V elements Ti Each Total minimum
7277 A97277 ............ 0.50 0.7 0.8-1.7 ... 1.7-2.3 0.184.35 ... 3.7-4.3 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7178 A97178 ............ 0.40 0.50 1.6-2.4 0.30 2.k3.1 0.1~.28 ... 6.3-7.3 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
7278 . . . . . .......... 0.15 0.20 1.62.2 0.02 2.5-3.2 0.17-0.25 ... 6.67.4 0.03 0.05 ... 0.03 0.03 0.10 rem
7079 A97W9 ............ 0.30 0.40 0.40-0.8 0.10-0.30 2.9-3.7 0.10-0.25 ... 3.84.8 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7179 A97179 ............ 0.15 0.20 0.404.8 0.10-0.30 2.9-3.7 0.10-0.25 ... 3.8-4.8 ...... ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
7090 A97090 ............ 0.12 0.15 0.6-1.3 . . . 2.CL3.0 ... ... 7.3-8.7 . . . . . . 1.0-1.9 CO ... 0.05 0.15 rem

7091 A97091 ............ 0.12 0.15 1.1-1.8 ... 2.0-3.0 ... ... 5.8-7.1 ...
(2)
0.20-0.6 Co ... 0.05 0.15 rem
... ... (4
8001 A98001 ............ 0.17 0.45-0.7 0.15 ... 0.9-1.3 0.05 ... (4 ... 0.05 0.15 rem
8004 . . . . . .......... 0.15 0.15 0.03 0.02 0.02 ... ... 0.03 . . . . . . 0.30-0.7 0.02 0.15 rem
8005 . . . . . .......... 0.20-0.50 0.404.8 0.05 ... 0.05 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . . ... 0.05 0.15 rem
8006 A98006 ............ 0.40 1.2-2.0 0.30 0.30-1.0 0.10 ... ... 0.10 . . . . . . 0.05 0.15 rem
... ... ...
8007
8008 . . . . ............
A98007
. .......... 0.40 1.2-2.0 0.10 0.30-1.0 0.10
... ... ... 02-1.8 . . . . . .
. . . . . . ... 0.
0.05
0.05
0.15
0.15
rem
rem
8010 . . . . . .......... 0.6
0.40
0.9-1.6
0.354.7
0.20
0.10-0.30
0.50-1.0
0.10-0.8 0.10-0.50 0.20 ...
0.10
0.40 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
8011 A98011 ............ 0.50-0.9 0.6-1.0 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.05 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.08 0.05 0.15 rem
8111 A98111 ............ 0.30-1.1 0.40-1.0 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.08 0.05 0.15 rem
8112 A98112 ............ 1.0 1.0 0.40 0.6 0.7 0.20 ... 1.0 . . . . . . ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
8014 A98014 ............ 0.30 1.2-1.6 0.20 O.uM.6 0.10 ... ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
8017 A98017 ............ 0.10 0.55-0.8 0.10-0.20 ... 0.01-0.05 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . . 0.04B, ... 0.03 0.10 rem
0.003 Li
8020 A98020 ............ 0.10 0.10 0.005 0.005 ... ... ... 0.005 . . . 0.05 (bb) ... 0.03 0.10 rem
8030 A98030 ............ 0.10 0.30-0.8 0.15-0.30 ... 0.05 ... ... 0.05 ... 0.001-0.04 .’. 0.03 0.10 rem
B
8130 A98130 ............ 0.15 (a)0.40-1.0(~) 0.05-0.15 ... ... ... ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... 0.03 0.10 rem
8040 A98040 ............ l.O(Si + Fe) 0.20 0.05 ... ... ... 0.20 . . . . . . 0.10-0.30 Zr 0.05 0.15 rem
8076 A98076 ............ 0.10 0.6-0.9 0.04 ... 0.08-0.22 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . . 0.04 B 0.03 0.10 rem
8176 A98176 ............ 0.03-0.15 0.40-1.0 ... ... ... ... ... 0.10 0.03 ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
8276 . . . . . . ......... 0.25 0.50-0.8 0.035 0.01 0.02 0.01 ... 0.05 0.03 ... 0.03 ... 0.03 0.10 rem
(V + Ti)(e)
8071 A98077 ............ 0.10 0.10-0.40 0.05 ... 0.10-0.30 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . . 0.05 B (dd) ... 0.03 0.10 rem
8177 A98177 ............ 0.10 0.25-0.45 0.04 ... 0.044.12 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . . 0.04B ... 0.03 0.10 rem
8079 A98079 ............ 0.05-0.30 0.7-1.3 0.05 ... ... ... 0.10 . . . . . . ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
8280 A98280 ............ 1.0-2-2.0 0.7 0.7-1.3 0.10 ... O.uM.7 0.05 .. . . . . . 5.5-7.0 Sn 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
8081 A98081 ............ 0.7 0.7 0.7-1.3 0.10 ... ... 0.05 . . . . . 18.0-22.0 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
Sn
&jg . . . . . .......... 0.20 0.30 1.CL1.6 0.10 0.6-1.3 0.10 0.25 . . . . . . 0.044l.16 Zr 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
(e4
8091 . . . . . .......... 0.30 0.50 1.6-2.2 0.10 0.50-1.2 0.10 0.25 . . . . . . 0 . W . 1 6 Z r 0.10 0.05 0.15 rem
(ffl
X8092 ............... 0.10 0.15 0.50-0.8 0.05 0.9-1.4 0.05 ... 0.10 0.084.15 Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
(E)
X8192 . . . . . .......... 0.10 0.15 0.40-0.7 0.05 0.9-1.4 0.05 ... 0.10 ... O.W.15 Zr 0.15 0.05 0.15 rem
(hh)
a) 0.0008 Be max for welding electrode and filler wire only. (b) SI + Fe + Cu) = 0.50 max. (c) Obsolete. (d) 0.14 (Si + Fe) max. (e) 0.02 B max. (f) 0.01 B max. (9)0.003 Pb m a . (h) 0.05 to 0.20 Cd. (i)
6.20 Bi, 0.8 to 1.5 Pb, 0.20 Sn. 0) 0.20 to 0.6 Bi, 0.20 to 0.6 Pb. (k\ A (21+ Ti) limit of 0.20%maximum may be used for extruded and forged roducts when the supplier or producer and the purchaser have
0.7E, Ob
so a eed (I) 0.43 (Si + Fe max (m) 0.05 to 0 20 Cd 0.03 to 0.08 Sn. (n) 1.9 to 2.6 Li. ( 0 )1.7 to 2.3 Li. ( ) 0 6 to 1 5 Bi 0.05 Cd max. (4) hXKJ8 Be max 0.05 to 0.25 21. (I) 45 to 65%of Mg. ( s )0.40 to
0.40 to0.7 Pb. (t) to040 Ag. (u) 0.k(Mn Cr) min. (v) 0.08 to 0.20 Zr, 0.08 to 0.25 (Zr + Ti). &) 0.20 (Ti + i r ) max. (x)0.10 to 0.40 Co, 0.05 to0.30 0 .(y) A (21+ Ti) limit of 0.25%maximum
;
ma be used for extruded and forged roductswhen the su plier or producer and the urchaser have so agreed (2) 0 20 to 0 50 0 (aa) 0 001 B max, 0.003 Cd max, 0.001 Co max, 0.008 Li max. (bb) 0.10
(g
to i 5 0 Bi, 0.10 to 0.25 Sn. (cc) 1.0
Source: Ref 2, 3, 4
+ Fe) max. (dd) 0.82 to 0.08 21.(ee) 2.2 to 2.7Li. (ff) 2.4 to 2.8 Li. (&) 2.1 io 2.7 Li. (hh) 2.3 t o 2.9 Li

improve ductility and dimensional stability. The of solution heat treatment. The T is always fol-
partial annealing. The digit following the H2 in-
0 may be followed by a digit other than zero. lowed by one or more digits, as discussed in the
dicates the degree of strain hardening remaining
H, Strain-Hardened (Wrought Products section “System for Heat-Treatable Alloys” in
after the product has been partially meal&.
Only). This indicates products that have been this article. H3, Strain-Hardened and Stabilized.
strengthenedby strain hardening, with or without This applies to products that are strain-hardened
supplementary thermal treatment to produce and whose mechanical properties are stabilized
some reduction in strength. The H is always fol- System for Strain-Hardened Produck by a low-temperature thermal B t m e n t or as a
lowed by two or more digits, as discussed in the result of heat introduced during fabrication. Sta-
section “System for Strain-Hardeneed products” Temper designations for wrought products bilization us~allyimproves ductility. This desig-
in this article. that are strengthened by strain hardening con- nation applies only to those alloys that, unless
W, Solution Heat-Treated.This is an un- sist of an H followed by two or more digits. The stabilized, gradually a g e - s o h at room tempera-
stable temper applicable only to alloys whose first digit following the H indicated the specific ture. The digit following the H3 indicates the
’ strength naturally (spontaneously) changes at sequence of basic operations. degree of strain hardening remaining after stabi-
- room temperature over a duration of months or H1, Strain-Hardened Only. This applies lization.
even years after solution heat treahnent. The des- to products that are shin-hardened to obtain the Additional Temper Designations. For al-
ignation is specificonly when the period of natu- desired strength without supplementary thermal loys that age-soften at room temperature, each
ral aging is indicated (for example, W 1B h). See treatment The digit following the H1 indicates H2x temper has the same minimum ultimate ten-
also the discussion of the Tx51, Tx52, and Tx54 the degree of strain hardening. sile strength as the H3x temper with the same
tempers in the section “System forHeat-Treatable H2, Strain-Hardened and Partially An- second digit. For other alloys, each H2r temper
Alloys” in this article. nealed. This pertains to products that are strain- has the same minimum ultimate tensile strength
1, Solution Heat-Treated. This applies to hardened more than the desired final amount and as the Hlx with the same second digit, and
alloys whose strength is stable within a few weeks then reduced in strength to the desired level by slightly higher elongation. The digit following the
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems / 25
Table 3 Composition of unalloyed and alloyed aluminum castings (xxx.0) and ingots (xxx.1 or xxx.2)
17 Grade designation
I Composition, w t l
I
Alumi- I Unspelfled
other
__I

num
ASSO- elemeua A],
ciationfa) UNS No. ISO(h) Product(c) Si Fe cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Sn TI h c h Total mln(d)
100.1 AOlOOl A199.0 ... Ingot 0.15 0.6-0.8 0.10 (e) ... (e) ... 0.05 (e) 0.03(e) 0.10 99.00
130.1 A01301 . . . . . . Ingot (0 (f) 0.10 (e) ... (e) t.. 0.05 (e) 0.03(e) 0.10 99.30
150.1 A01501 A199.5 ................ Ingot (g) (g) 0.05 (e) ... (e) ... 0.05 (e) 0.03(e) 0.10 99.50
160.1 A01601 A199.8 ................ Ingot O.IO(g) 0.25(g) ... (e) ... (e) ... 0.05 ... (e) 0.03(e) 0.10 99.60
170.1 A01701 A199.7 ................ Ingot (h) (h) ... (e) ... (e) ... 0.05 ... (e) 0.03(e) 0.10 99.70
201.0 A02010 ...................... S 0.10 0.15 4.0-5.2 0.20-0.500.15-0.55 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.15-0.35 O.O5(i) 0.10 rem
201.2 A02012 ...................... Ingot 0.10 0.10 4.0-5.2 0.20-0.50 0.20-0.55 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.15-0.35 O.O5(i) 0.10 rem
A201.0 A12010 ...................... S 0.05 0.10 4.0-5.0 0.20-0.40 0.15-0.35 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.15-0.35 O.O3(i) 0.10 rem
A201.1 A12011 ...................... Ingot 0.05 0.07 4.5-5.0 0.20-0.40 0.20-0.35 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.15-0.35 O.O3(i) 0.10 rem
B201.0 A22010 ...................... S 0.05 0.05 4.5-5.0 0.20-0.50 0.25-0.35 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.15-0.35 0.050) 0.15 rem
203.0 A02030 ...................... S 0.30 0.50 4.5-5.5 0.20-0.30 0.10 ... 1.3-1.7 0.10 ... O.I5-0.25(k) 0.05(1) 0.20 rem
203.2 A02032 ...................... Ingot 0.20 0.35 4.8-5.2 0.20-0.30 0.10 ... 1.3-1.7 0.10 ... 0.15-0.25(k) 0.05(1) 0.20 rem
204.0 A02040 3522 AICu4MgTi
R164 AICu4MgTi
.... S, P 0.20 0.35 4.2-5.0 0.10 0.15-0.35 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.15-0.30 0.05 0.15rem
204.2 A02042 . . . . .... Ingot 0.15 0.10-0.20 4.2-4.9 0.05 0.20-0.35 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.15-0.25 0.05 0.15rem
206.0 A02060 . . . . .... S , P 0.10 0.15 4.2-5.0 0.20-0.500.15-0.35 ... 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.15-0.30 0.05 0.15rern
.... Ingot 0.10 0.10 4.2-5.0 0.20-0.50 0.20-0.35 ... 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.15-0.25 0.05 0.15rem
.... S , P 0.05 0.10 4.2-5.0 0.20-0.500.15-0.35 ... 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.15-0.30 0.05 0.15rem
. . . . Ingot 0.05 0.07 4.2-5.0 0.20-0.50 0.20-0.35 ... 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.15-0.25 0.
208.0 A02080 ...................... S, P 22-32 1.2 ~3.5-4.5 @.50_, <O.lO. ... 0.35 1.0 ... 10.25-
208.1 A02081 ...................... Ingot 42.5,3..5 691 3.54.5 cOT50,) t 0.10 ... 0.35 1.0 ... 0.25.
208.2 A02082 ...................... Ingot 2.5-3.5 (ET> .3.5-4.5 0.30 0.03 ... ... c0.20j ' ' ' 0.20 '
213.0 A02130 ...................... S, P 1.0-3.0 1.2 6.0-8.0 0.6 0.10 ... 0.35 2.5 ... 0.25 . . . 0.50 rem
213.1 A02131 ...................... Ingot 1.0-3.0 0.9 6.04.0 0.6 0.10 ... 0.35 2.5 ... 0.25 . . . 0.50 rem
222.0 A02220 ...................... S, P 2.0 1.5 9.2-10.7 0.50 0.15-0.35 0.50 0.8 ... 0.25 ... 0.35 rem
222.1 A02221 ' .. Ingot 2.0 1.2 9.2-10.7 0.50 0.2 0.50 0.8 ... 0.25 . . . 0.35 rem
224.0 A02240 S, P 0.06 0.10 4.5-5.5 0.20-0.50 . . . . . . . . . 0.35 0.03(m) 0.10 rem
224.2 A02242 Ingot 0.02 0.04 4.5-5.5 0.20-0.50' ... 0.25 0.03(m) 0.10 rem
240.0 A02400 S 0.50 0.50 7.0-9.0 0.30-0.7 5.5-6.5 ... 0.30-0.7 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
240.1 A02401 ... Ingot 0.50 0.40 7.0-9.0 0.30-0.7 5.6-6.5 0.30-0.7 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
242.0 A02420
R164 AICu4Ni2Mg2 . . S, P 0.7 1.0 3.5-4.5 0.35 1.2-1.8 0.25 1.7-2.3 0.35 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
242.1 A02421 ...................... Ingot 0.7 0.8 3.5-4.5 0.35 1.3-1.8 0.25 1.7-2.3 0.35 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
242.2 A02422 ...................... Ingot 0.6 0.6 3.5-4.5 0.10 1.3-1.8 ... 1.7-2.3 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A242.0 A12420 ...................... S 0.6 0.8 3.7-4.5 0.13 1.2-1.7 0.15-0.25 1.8-2.3 0.10 ... 0.07-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A242.1 A12421 ...................... Ingot 0.6 0.6 3.7-4.5 0.10 1.3-1.7 0.15-0.25 1.8-2.3 0.10 ... 0.07-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A242.2 A12422 ...................... Ingot 0.35 0.6 3.7-4.5 0.10 1.3-1.7 0.15-0.25 1.8-2.3 0.10 0.07-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
243.0(a) A02430 ...................... S 0.35 0.40 3.5-4.5 0.15-0.45 1.8-2.3 0.20-0.40 1.9-2.3 0.05 ... 0.06-0.20 O.OS(n) 0.15 rem
243.1 A02431 ...................... Ingot 0.35 0.30 3.5-4.5 0.15-0.45 1.9-2.3 0.20-0.40 1.9-2.3 0.05 0.06420 O.O5(n) 0.15 rem
295.0 A02950 ...................... S 0.7-1.5 1.0 4.0-5.0 0.35 0.03 ... ... 0.35 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
295.1 A02951 ...................... Ingot 0.7-1.5 0.8 4.0-5.0 0.35 0.03 ... ... 0.35 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
295.2 A02952 ...................... Ingot 0.7-1.2 0.8 4.0-5.0 0.30 0.03 ... ... 0.30
296.0 A02960 ...................... P 2.0-3.0 1.2 4.0-5.0 0.35 0.05 ... 0.35 0.50
296.1 A02961 ...................... Ingot 2.0-3.0 0.9 4.0-5.0 0.35 0.05 ... 0.35 0.50
296.2 A02962 ...................... Ingot 2.0-3.0 0.8 4.0-5.0 0.30 0.35 ... ... 0.30 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
305.0 A03050 ...................... S, P 4.5-5.5 0.6 1.0-1.5 0.50 0.10 0.25 ... 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
305.2 A03052 ...................... Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.14-0.25 1.0-1.5 0.05 ... ... ... 0.05 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A305.0 A13050 ...................... S, P 4.5-5.5 0.20 1.0-1.5 0.10 0.10 ... ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A305.1 A13051 ingot 4.5-5.5 0.15 1.0-1.5 0.10 0.10 ... ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A305.2 A13052 ...................... Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.13 1.0-1.5 0.05 ... ... ... 0.05 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
308.0 A03080 ...................... S, P 5.0-6.0 1.0 4.0-5.0 0.50 0.10 ... ... 1 .o ... 0.25 0.50 rem
308.1 A03081 ...................... Ingot 5.0-6.0 0.8 4.0-5.0 0.50 0.10 ... ... 1 .o ... 0.25 0.50 rem
308.2 A03082 ...................... Ingot 5.0-6.0 0.8 4.0-5.0 0.30 0.10 ... ... 0.50 ... 0.20 0.50 rem
319.0 A03190 3522 AISiSCu3
3522 AISiSCu3Mn
3522 AISi6Cu4
3522 AISi6Cu4Mn
R164 AISi5Cu3
R164 AISiSCu3Fe
S, P 5.5-6.5 1.0 3.04.0 0.50 0.10 . . 0.35 1.0 ... 0.25 . . . 0.50 rem
... ...
t

319.1 A03191 Ingot 5.5-6.5 0.8 3.04.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.35 1.0 0.25 0.50 rem
319.2 A03192 , Ingot 5.5-6.5 0.6 3.04.0 0.10 0.10 ... 0.10 0.10 ' .. 0.20 . . . 0.20 rem
A319.0 A13190 3522
3522 AISi5Cu3Mn
3522 AISi6Cu4
3522 AISi6Cu4Mn
Rl64 AISi5Cu3
R164 AISiSCu3Fe
K164 AISi6Cu4 . . . . . . . S. P 5.5-6.5 1.0 3.0-4.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.35 3.0 0.25 0.50 rem
(continued)
(a)Serial letter prefix indicates modification: A B C D and F. (b) Per ISO standard No. RI I5 unless other standard(RIM E147 or 3522) specitied. (c) D die casting P Remanent mold s sand. Other products
may penain to the composltlon shown even th&b iot iisted. (d) The AI content for unalloyed aluminum by remelt is the dierenie between 100.00%and ihe sum of dl dt er metallic elemek present in amounts
of 0.0IOcir or more each. expressed to the second decimal before determining the sum. (e) (Mn + Cr + Ti + V ) = 0.025% max. (0 Fe/Si ratio 2.5 min. (g) Fe/Si ratio 2.0 min. (h) FeiSi ratio I .5 min. (i) 0.40 to 1.0%
Ag.(i)0.5O-l.l7%Ag.(k)Ti + Zr =0.50max.~Il0.20lo0.30%Sb;0.20to0.30%Co;0.lO,to0.30%Zr.~m~0.05-0.15%V;0.1O.25%Zr.~n~O.(M0.20%V.~o)ForFe~0.45%.Mncontentshallnotbelessthan
one-half Fe content. (p10.044.07% Be. ( q )0.1@4.30%Be. (r) 0.15-0.3W~Be. ( s ) h x . I ingot is used to produce x u . 0 and h x . 0 castings. (1) (Mn + Cr) = 0.8% m a . (u) 0.25% Pb max. (v) 0.02-0.04%Be, (w)
0 . 0 8 4 15% V. (XI Used to coat steel. (y) Used with Zn to coat steel. ( 2 ) 0.10% Pb m a . (aa) 0.003-0.007% Be; 0.005% B max. (bb) 0.003-0.007% Be; 0.002% B max
Source: Ref 3. 4, 5
26 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 3 (continued)
Crude designation Composition, wt%
'Alumi- I I Unspecified I
num other
Asso- elements AI,
ciation(a) LINS No. NKb) RodUCt(C) si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Sn Ti Fach Total mln(d)
A319.1 A13191 . . . .................. Ingot 53-63 0.8 3.04.0 0.50 0.10 0.35 3.0 0.25 0.50 rem
, B319.0 A23190 t . .................. S, P
. 5.5-6.5 1.2 3.04.0 0.8 0.10-0.50 0.50 1.0 0.25 0.50 rem
8319.1 A23191 ... Ingot 5.5-6.5 0.9 3.04.0 0.8 0.15-0.50 0.50 1.0 0.25 0.50 rem
320.0 A03200 ... S, P 5.0-8.0 1.2 2.04.0 0.8 0.05-0.6 0.35 3.0 ... 0.25 0.50 rem
320.1 A03201 .... Ingot 5.0-8.0 0.9 2.04.0 0.8 0.10-0.6 0.35 3.0 ... 0.25 . . ' 0.50 rem
324.0 A03240 ... P 7.0-8.0 1.2 0.40-0.6 0.50 0.40-0.7 0.30 1.0 0.20 0.15 0.20 rem
324.1 A03241 ... Ingot 7.0-8.0 0.9 0.40-0.6 0.50 0.45-0.7 0.30 1.0 0.20 0.15 0.20 rem
324.2 A03242 ... Ingot 7.0-8.0 0.6 0.40-0.6 0.10 0.4.5-0.7 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
328.0 A03280 S 7.5-8.5 1.0 1.0-2.0 0.20-0.6 0.20-0.6 0.25 1.5 0.25 .. ' 0.50 rem
328.1 A03281 Ingot 7.5-8.5 0.8 1.0-2.0 0.20-0.6 0.20-0.6 0.35 0.25 1.5 ... 0.25 ... 0.50 rem
332.0 A03320 P 8.5-10.5 1.2 2.04.0 0.50 0.50-1.5 ... 0.50 1.0 ... 0.25 * .. 0.50 rem
332.1 A03321 Ingot 8.5-10.5 0.9 2.04.0 0.50 0.6-1.5 ... 0.50 1.0 ... 0.25 ' . . 0.50 rem
332.2
333.0
333.1
A03322
A03330
A03331
... Ingot
..... P
Ingot
8.5-10.0
8.0-10.0
8.0-10.0
0.6
1.0
0.8
2.04.0 0.10
3.04.0 0.50
3.04.0 0.50
0.9-1.3
0.05-0.50
0.10-0.50
...
...
...
0.10
0.50
0.50
0.10
1.0
1.0
' ' '

...
.. '
0.20
0.25
0.25
- .. ..
' ' ' 0.30
0.50
0.50
rem
rem
rem
.
I

A333.0 A13330 P 8.0-10.0 1.0 3.04.0 0.50 0.05-0.50 ... 0.50 3.0 ' ' 0.25 ... 0.50 rem
A333.1 A13331 Ingot 8.0-10.0 0.8 3.04.0 0.50 0.10-0.50 ... 0.50 3.0 . . ' 0.25 ' . . 0.50 rem
336.0 A03360 P 11.0-13.0 1.2 0.50-1.5 0.35 0.7-1.3 ... 2.0-3.0 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 ... rem
336.1 A03361 ... ..... Ingot 11.0-13.0 0.9 0.50-1.5 0.35 0.8-1.3 ... 2.0-3.0 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 ... rem
336.2 A03362 . . . .................. Ingot 11.0-13.0 0.9 0.50-1.5 0.10 0.9-1.3 ... 2.0-3.0 0.10 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
339.0 A03390 . . . .................. P 11.0-13.0 1.2 1.5-3.0 0.50 0.50-1.5 ... 0.50-1.5 1.0 ... 0.25 . . . 0.50 rem
339.1 . . . . . . .................. Ingot 11.0-13.0 0.9 1.5-3.0 0.50 0.6-1.5 ... 0.50-1.5 1.0 ... 0.25 . . . 0.50 rem
343.0 A03430 . . . .................. D 6.7-7.7 1.2 0.50-0.9 0.50 0.10 0.10 ... 1.2-2.0 0.50 ... 0.10 0.35 rem
343.1 A03431 . . . .................. Ingot 6.7-7.7 0.9 0.50-0.9 0.50 0.10 0.10 ... 1.2-1.9 0.50 ... 0.10 0.35 rem
354.0 A03540 ' . . .................. P 8.6-9.4 0.20 1.6-2.0 0.10 0.40-0.6 ... ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
354.1 A03541 . . . .................. Ingot 8.6-9.4 0.15 1.6-2.0 0.10 0.45-0.6 ... ... 0.10 . ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
355.0 A03550 3522 AISiSCulMg
R164 AISiSCul ....... S, P 4.5-5.5 0.6(0) 1.0-1.5 0.50(0) 0.40-0.6 0.25 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
355.1 A03551 . . . .................. Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.50(0) 1.0-1.5 0.50(0) 0.45-0.6 0.35 .' . 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
355.2 A03522 ... Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.14-0.25 1.0-1.5 0.05 0.50-0.6 0.05 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A355.0 A13550 ..... S, P 4.5-5.5 0.09 1.0-1.5 0.05 0.45-0.6 0.05 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A355.2 A13552 ..... Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.06 1.0-1.5 0.03 0.50-0.6 0.03 0.04-0.20 0.03 0.10 rem
C355.0 A33350 ..... S, P 4.5-5.5 0.20 1.0-1.5 0.10 0.40-0.6 .. '
... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
C355.1 A33351 Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.15 1.0-1.5 0.10 0.45-0.6 . .
'
... 0.10 ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
...
"

C355.2 A33352 ..... Ingot 4.5-5.5 0.13 1.0-1.5 0.05 0.50-0.6 ... 0.05 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
356.0 A03560
R2147 AISi7Mg ...... S, P 6.5-7.5 0.6(0) 0.25 0.35(0) 0.20-0.45 ... ... 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
356.1 A03561 ' . . .................. Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.50(0) 0.25 0.35(0) 0.25-0.45 ... ... 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
356.2 A03562 . . . .................. Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.13-0.25 0.10 0.05 0.30-0.45 ... ... 0.05 .. ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A356.0 A13560 . . . .................. S, P 6.5-7.5 0.20 0.29 0.10 0.25-0.45 ... ... 0.10 . 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
...
"

A356.1 A13561 . . ' ..................Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.15 0.20 0.10 0.30-0.45 ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A356.2 A3562 . ' . .................. Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.12 0.10 0.05 0.30-0.45 ... ... 0.05 .. ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
B356.0 A23560 . . . .................. S, P 6.5-7.5 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.25-0.45 0.05 ... 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
B356.2 A23562 . . . .................. Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.30-0.45 0.03 . ' ' 0.04-0.20 0.03 0.10 rem
C356.0 A33560 . . . .................. S, P 6.5-7.5 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.25-0.45 0.05 ... 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
C356.2 A33562 ' . . Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.30-0.45 0.03 ... 0.04-0.20 0.03 0.10 rem
S,P 6.5-7.5 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.17-0.25 0.10 ' ' ' 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.12 0.10 0.05 0.17-0.25 0.05 . ' ' 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
S, P 6.5-7.5 0.15 0.05 0.03 0.45-0.6 0.05 . . ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
357.1 A0 Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.12 0.05 0.03 0.45-0.6 ... ... 0.05 ' .. 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
S, P 6.5-7.5 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.40-0.7 ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.04-0.20 O.OS(p) 0.15 rem
Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.12 0.10 0.05 0.45-0.7 ... 0.05 ... 0.04-0.20 O.O3(p) 0.10 rem
S, P 6.5-7.5 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.40-0.6 ... 0.05 . ' ' 0.04-0.20 0.05 0.15 rein
Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.45-0.6 ... ... 0.03 ... 0.04-0.20 0.03 0.10 rem
S, P 6.5-7.5 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.45-0.7 ... ... 0.05 ... 0.04-0.20 O.O5(p) 0.15 rem
Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.50-0.7 .. '
... 0.03 ... 0.04-0.20 O.O3(p) 0.10 rem
S 6.5-7.5 0.20 ... 0.10 0.55-0.6 ... . . . . . . . . . 0.10-0.20 O.OS(p) 0.15 rem
S, P 7.6-8.6 0.30 0.20 0.20 0.40-0.6 0.20 ... 0.20 0.10-0.20 0.0Yq) 0.15 rem
Ingot 7.6-8.6 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.45-0.6 0.05 '.. 0. IO 0.12-0.20 0.05(r) 0.15 rem
S, P 8.5-9.5 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.50-0.7 ... ... 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
359.2 A03592 . . . .................. Ingot 8.5-9.5 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.55-0.7 ... ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
360.0(s) A03600(s) 3522 AISilOMg(s)
R164 AISilOMg(s)
R2147AISiIOMg(s) ... D 9.0-10.0 2.0 0.6 0.35 0.40-0.6 ... 0.50 0.50 0.15 ... ... 0.25 rem
360.2 A03602 . . . .................. Ingot 9.0-10.0 0.7-1.1 0.10 0.10 0.45-0.6 ... 0.10 0.10 0.10 ... ... 0.20 rem
. A360.0(s) A136M) . . . .................. D 9.0-10.0 1.3 0.6 0.35 0.40-0.6 ... 0.50 0.50 0.15 ... ... 0.25 rem
A360.l(s) A13601(s) ..................... Ingot 9.0-10.0 1.0 0.6 0.35 0.45-0.6 ... 0.50 0.40 0.15 ... ... 0.25 rem
A360.2 A13602(s) . . . Ingot 9.0-10.0 0.6 0.10 0.05 0.45-0.6 ... ... 0.05 ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
- 361.0 A03610 ... D 9.5-10.5 1.1 0.50 0.25 0.40-0.6 0.20-0.30 0.20-0.30 0.50 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
(continued)
(a) Serial letter prefix indicates modification: A, R. C, D, and f . (b) Per ISO standardNo. RI 15 unless other standard(RIM, R2147, or 3522) specified. (c) D die casting. P rmanent mold. s sand. Other products
may pertiun to the composltlon shown even though not listed. (d) The AI content for unalloyed aluminum by remelt is the difference between 100.00% and ;he sum of ail dtEr metallic elemeks present in amounts
of 0.010%or more each. expressed to the second decimal before determining the sum. (e) (Mn + Cr t Ti t V) = 0.025%max. (0 Fe/Si ratio 2.5 mln. (g) FeiSi ratio 2.0 min. (h) feiSi ratio I .5 min. (i)0.40to 1.0%
Ag.(i)0.5C-l.O%Ag.(k)Ti + Zr =0.50max.~1~0.20to0.30%Sb;0.20to0.30%Co;0.10lo0.30%Zr.~m~0.OS-O.I5%V~0.10-0.25%Zr.(n~0.~.20%V.~o)Forfe>0.45% Mncontentshallnotbelessthan
one-half Fe content. (p) O . W . O 7 % Be. (q) 0.10-0.30% Re. (r)0.15-0.30%Re. (s) h x . 1 ingot is used to producexu.Oal;d k x . 0 castings. (1) (Mn t Cr) = 0.8%max. (u) 0.25k Pb max. (v) 0.024.04LTO Re. (w)
0 . W . 15% V. (x) Used to coat steel. (y) Used with Zn to coat steel. (z) 0.10% Pb max. (aa) 0.00?-0.007% Re; 0.005%B max. (bb) 0.00NI.007% Re; 0.002% B max
Source: Ref 3. 4, 5
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems / 27

Table 3 (continued)
Gnde designation Composition, wt%
'Aluml- I I umpecifled I
num other
A* elements d,
clatlon(a) UNS No. IWb) RodUCt(C) si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr NI Zn Sn TI Each TOW min(d)
361.1 A03611 . . . .................. Ingot 9.5-10.5 0.8 0.50 0.25 0.45-0.6 0.20-0.30 0.20-0.30 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
363.0 A03630 . . . .................. S, P 4.5-6.0 1.1 2.5-3.5 (t) 0.15-0.40 (t) 0.25 3.0-4.5 0.25 0.20 (u) 0.30 rem
363.1 A03631 . . . .................. Ingot 4.5-6.0 0.8 2.5-3.5 (t) 0.20-0.40 (t) 0.25 3.0-4.5 0.25 0.20 (u) 0.30 rem
364.0 A03640 . . . .................. D 7.5-9.5 1.5 0.20 0.10 0.20-0.40 0.25-0.50 0.15 0.15 0.15 ... O.O5(v) 0.15 rem
364.2 A03642 . . . .................. Ingot 7.5-9.5 0.7-1.1 0.20 0.10 0.25-0.400.25-0.50 0.15 0.15 0.15 ... O.OS(v) 0.15 rem
369.0 A03690 . . . .................. D 11.0-12.0 1.3 0.50 0.35 0.25-0.45 0.30-0.40 0.05 1.0 0.10 ... 0.05 0.15 rem
369.1 A03691 . . . .................. Ingot 11.0-12.0 1.0 0.50 0.35 0.30-0.45 0.30-0.40 0.05 0.9 0.10 ... 0.05 0.15 rem
D 7.5-9.5 2.0 3.04.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 3.0 0.35 ... . . . 0.50 rem
Ingot 7.5-9.5 0.7-1.1 3.0-4.0 0.10 0.10 ... 0.10 0.10 0.10 ... . . . 0.20 rem

D 7.5-9.5 1.3 3.0-4.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 3.0 0.35 ... . . . 0.50 rem
A380. I(s) A13801(s) .. Ingot 7.5-9.5 1.0 3.0-4.0 0.50 0.10 0.50 2.9 0.35 ... . . . 0.50 rem
A380.2 A13802 Ingot 7.5-9.5 0.6 3 . 0 4 . 0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 ... 0.05 0.15 rem
...
' ' '

8380.0 A23800 ... D 7.5-9.5 1.3 3 . 0 4 . 0 0.50 0.10 0.50 1.0 0.35 ... 0.50 rem
8380.1 A28801 ... Ingot 7.5-9.5 1.0 3.0-4.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 0.9 0.35 0.50 rem
383.0 A03830 ... D 9.5-11.5 1.3 2.0-3.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.30 3.0 0.15 0.50 rem
383.1 A03831 ... Ingot 9.5-11.5 1.0 2.0-3.0 0.50 0.10 ... 0.30 2.9 0.15 ... 0.50 rem
383.2 A03832 ... Ingot 9.5-11.5 0.6-1.0 2.0-3.0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 ... 0.20 rem
384.0 A03840 ... D 10.5-12.0 1.3 3 . 0 4 3 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 3.0 0.35 0.50 rem
384.1 A03841 ... Ingot 10.5-12.0 1.0 3.0-4.5 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 2.9 0.35 0.50 rem
384.2 A03842 ... Ingot 10.5-12.0 0.61.0 3.0-4.5 0.10 0.10 ' ' ' 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.20 rem
A384.0 A13840 ... D 10.5-12.0 1.3 3.0-4.5 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 1.0 0.35 0.50 rem
A384.1 A13841 . . . .................. Ingot 10.5-12.0 1.0 3 . 0 4 . 5 0.50 0.10 ... 0.50 0.9 0.35 0.50 rem
385.0 A03850 . . . .................. D 11.0-13.0 2.0 2.0-4.0 0.50 0.30 ... 0.50 3.0 0.30 0.50 rem
385.1 A03851 . . . .................. Ingot 11.0-13.0 1.1 2.0-4.0 0.50 0.30 ... 0.50 2.9 0.30 ... 0.50 rem
390.0 A03900 . . . .................. D 16.0-18.0 1.3 4.0-5.0 0.10 0.45-0.65 ... ... 0.10 0.20 0.20 rem
390.2 A03902 . . . .................. Ingot 16.0-18.0 0.6-1.0 4.0-5.0 0.10 0.50-0.65 ... ... 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 rem
A390.0 A13900 . . . .................. S, P 16.0-18.0 0.50 4.0-5.0 0.10 0.45-0.65 ... ... 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 rem
A390.1 A13901 . . . .................. Ingot 16.0-18.0 0.40 4.0-5.0 0.10 0.50-0.65 ... .t . 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 rem
B390.0 A23900 . . . .................. D 16.0-18.0 1.3 4.0-5.0 0.50 0.45-0.65 ... 0.10 1.5 0.20 0.10 0.20 rem
B390.1 A23901 . . . .................. Ingot 16.0-18.0 1.0 4.0-5.0 0.50 0.504.65 ... 0.10 1.4 0.20 0.10 0.20 rem
392.0 A03920 . . . .................. 0 18.0-20.0 1.5 0.40-0.8 0.20-0.6 0.8-1.2 ... 0.50 0.50 0.30 0.20 0.15 0.50 rem
392.1 A03921 . . . .................. Ingot 18.0-20.0 1.1 0.40-0.8 0.20-0.6 0.9-1.2 ... 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.15 0.50 rem
393.0 A03930 . . . .................. S , P, D 21.0-23.0 1.3 0.7-1.1 0.10 0.7-1.3 ... 2.0-2.5 0.10 ... O.I(M.20 O.OS(w) 0.15 rem
393.1 A03931 . . . .................. Ingot 21.0-23.0 1.0 0.7-1.1 0.10 0.8-1.3 ... 2.0-2.5 0.10 ... 0.10-0.20 0.05Cw) 0.15 rem
393.2 A03932 . . . .................. Ingot 21.0-23.0 0.8 0.7-1.1 0.10 0.8-1.3 ... 2.0-2.5 0.10 . ' ' 0.10-0.20 O.O5(w) 0.15 rem
4 0 8 . 2 ( ~ ) A04082(x) ..................... Ingot 8.5-9.5 0.6-1.3 0.10 0.10 ... ... ... 0.10 ' ... 0.10 0.20 rem
...
"

4 0 9 . 2 ( ~ ) A04092(x) ..................... Ingot 9.0-10.0 0.6-1.3 0.10 0.10 ... ... 0.10 '.. ... 0.10 0.20 rem
4 1 1 . 2 ( ~ ) A04112(x) ..................... Ingot 10.0-12.0 0.6-1.3 0.20 0.10 ... ... ... 0.10 . . '
... 0.10 0.20 rem
413.0(s) A04130(s) 3522 AISilZCuFe(s)
3522 AlSil2 Fe(s)
R164 AISil2(s)
R164 AISil2Cu(s)
R164 AISilZCuFe(s)
R164 AISilZFe(s)
R2147 AISilZ(s) D 11.0-13.0 2.0 1.0 0.35 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.15 ... 0.25 rem
413.2(s) A04132(s) . . . Ingot 11.0-13.0 0.7-1.1 0.10 0.10 0.07 ... 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.20 rem
A413.0(~)A14130(s) . . . D 11.0-13.0 1.3 1.0 0.35 0.10 ... 0.50 0.50 0.15 0.25 rem
A 4 1 3 . l ( ~ )A14131(s) . . . Ingot 11.0-13.0 1.0 1.0 0.35 0.10 ... 0.50 0.40 0.15 0.25 rem
A413.2 A14132(s) . . . Ingot 11.0-13.0 0.6 0.10 0.05 0.05 ... 0.05 0.05 0.10 rem
B413.0 A24130 ... S, P 11.0--13.0 0.50 0.10 0.35 0.05 ... 0:05 0.10 0.25 0.05 0.20 rem
B413.1 B24131 . . . .................. Ingot 11.0--13.0 0.40 0.10 0.35 0.05 ... 0.05 0.10 0.25 0.05 0.20 rem
435.2(y) A04352(y) ..................... Ingot 3.3-3.9 0.40 0.05 0.05 0.05 ... ... 0.10 ... 0.05 0.20 rem
443.0 A04430 . . . .................. S. P 4.5-6.0 0.8 0.6 0.50 0.05 0.25 ... 0.50 ... 0.25 ... 0.35 rem
443.1 A04431 . . . .................. Ingot 4.5-6.0 0.6 0.6 0.50 0.05 0.25 ... 0.50 ... 0.25 ... 0.35 rem
443.2 A04432 . . . .................. Ingot 4.5-6.0 0.6 0.10 0.10 0.05 ... ... 0.10 .. ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A443.0 A14430 . . . .................. S 4.5-6.0 0.8 0.30 0.50 0.05 0.25 ... 0.50 ... 0.25 ... 0.35 rem
A443.1 A14431 . . . .................. Ingot 4.5-6.0 0.6 0.30 0.50 0.05 0.25 ... 0.50 . ' ' 0.25 ... 0.35 rem
8443.0 A24430 3522 AlSiS
S, P 4.5-6.0 0.8 0.15 0.35 0.05 . . ... 0.35 ' ' ' 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
... ...
t

B443.1 A24431 ... Ingot 4.5-6.0 0.6 0.15 0.35 0.05 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
D 4.5-6.0 2.0 0.6 0.35 0.10 ... 0.50 0.50 0.15 ... . . . 0.25 rem
C443.1 A34431 ... ...... Ingot 4.5-6.0 1.1 0.6 0.35 0.10 ... 0.40 0.15 ... . . . 0.25 rem
C443.2 A34432 ..... ...... Ingot 4.5-6.0 0.7-1.1 0.10 0.10 0.05 ... 0.10 .. ' ... 0.05 0.15 rem
444.0 A04440 ..... ...... S. P 6.5-7.5 0.6 0.25 0.35 0.10 ... 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
444.2 A04442 ..... ...... Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.13-0.25 0.10 0.05 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A444.0 A14440 ... P 6.5-7.5 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.05 ... 0.10 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A444.1 A14441 ... Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.05 ... 0.10 . ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
A444.2 A14442 ... Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.12 0.05 0.05 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem

(continued)
(a) Serial letter prefix indicates modification:A B C D and F. (b) Per ISO standard No. Rll5 unless other standard (RIM R2147 or 3522) specilied. (c) D die casting P germanent mold. s sand. Other products
may pertain to the composition shown even thou& n'ot iisted. (d) The AI content for unalloyedaluminum by remelt is the difference bctween 100.00% and {he sum of ah dt er metallic elemeAts present in amounts
of 0.010%or more each, expressedto the second decimal befoe determining the sum. (e) (Mn + Cr t Ti + V) = 0.025%max. (0 FdSi ratio 2.5 min. (9) Fe/Si ratio 2.0 min. (h) FdSi ratio 1.5 min. (i) 0.40 to 1.0%
Ag.(i)O.SCLI.O%Ag.(k)Ti+ Zr=O.H)max.(1~0.20to0.30%Sb;0.20to0.30%Co;0.10to0.30%Zr.(m~0.O5-0.I5%V;0.1~.25%Zr.(n)0.~.20%V.(o)ForFe>0.45%,Mncontentshallnotbelessthan
onchalf Fe content. (p) 0.04407% Be. (9)O.lO-C!.30% Be. (r) 0.15-0.30% Be. ( s ) AUx.1 ingot is used lo roduce 1.u0 and A.ux.0 castings. (t) (Mn t Cr) = 0.8% max. (u) 0.25% pb max. (v) 0.02-0.04% Be. (w)
0.0&0.15%V. (x) Used to coat steel. (y) Used with Zn to coat steel. (2) 0.10%Pb max. (aa) O.oOrO.oCn& Be; O.oOS% B rnax. (bb)O.oOM.007% Be; 0.002%B rnax
Source: Ref 3 . 4, 5
28 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 3 (continued)
Grade designation Composition,wt%
IAluml- 1I Unspecified 1
num other
Asso- elements AI,
ciaIion(a) UNS No. ISO(b) F'roduct(c) Si Fe cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Sn Ti Each Total min(d)

445.2(x) A04452(x) ................... Ingot 6.5-7.5 0.6-1.3 0.10 0.10 ' ' '
... ... 0.10 0.20 rem
511.0 A05110 . . ................ S 0.30-0.7 0.50 0.15 0.35 3.54.5 ... ... 0.05 0.15 rem
...
t

511.1 A05111 . . . ................ Ingot 0.30-0.7 0.40 0.15 0.35 3.6-4.5 ... 0.15 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
511.2 A05112 . . . ................ Ingot 0.30-0.7 0.30 0.10 0.10 3.6-4.5 " '
... 0.10 " ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
512.0 A05120 . . . ................ S 1.4-2.2 0.6 0.35 0.8 3.54.5 0.25 . . 0.35 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
.
'

512.2 A05122 . . . ................ Ingot 1.4-2.2 0.30 0.10 0.10 3.6-4.5 " ' ... 0.10 " ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
513.0 A05130 . . . ................ P 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.30 3.5-4.5 ... ... 1.4-2.2 ' ' ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
513.2 A05132 . . . ................ Ingot 0.30 0.30 0.10 0.10 3.6-4.5 " '
... 1.4-2.2 " ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
514.0 A05140 3522 AIMg3

S 0.35 0.50 0.15 0.35 3.54.5 ... ... 0.15 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
514.1 A05141 Ingot 0.35 0.40 0.15 0.35 3.64.5 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
514.2 A05142 Ingot 0.30 0.30 0.10 0.10 3.6-4.5 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
515.0 A05150 D 0.50-1.0 1.3 0.20 0.40-0.6 2.54.0 0.05 0.15 rem
515.2 A05152 ... .......... Ingot 0.50-1.0 0.6-1.0 0.10 0.40-0.6 2.74.0 ... ... 0.05 0.05 0.15 rem
516.0 A05160 . . . ................ D 0.30-1.5 0.35-1.0 0.30 0.15-0.40 2.54.5 ... 0.25-0.40 0.20
516.1 A05161 . . . ................ Ingot 0.30-1.5 0.35-0.7 0.30 0.15-0.40 2.6-4.5 ... 0.25-0.40 0.20 0.10
518.0 A05180 . . . ................ D 0.35 1.8 0.25 0.35 7.5-8.5 ... 0.15 0.15 0.15 ... ... 0.25 rem
518.1 A05181 . . . ................ Ingot 0.35 1.1 0.25 0.35 7.6-8.5 ... 0.15 0.15 0.15 ... ... 0.25 rem
518.2 A05182 . . . ................ Ingot 0.25 0.7 0.10 0.10 7.64.5 " ' 0.05 ... 0.05 ... ... 0.10 rem
520.0 A05200 3522 AlMglO
R164 AIMgIO;
R2147 AlMglO .... S 0.25 0.30 0.25 0.15 9.5-10.6 ... ... 0.15 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
520.2 A05202 . . . ................ Ingot 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.10 9.6-10.6 ... 0.10 " ' 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
535.0 A05350 . . . ................ s 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.10-0.25 6.2-7.5 . . . . . . . . . 0.10-0.25 O.OS(aa) 0.15 rem
535.2 A05352 ... Ingot 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.10-0.25 6.6-7.5 . . . . . . . . . 0.10-0.25 O.OS(bb) 0.15 rem
A535.0 A15350 ... S 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.10-0.25 6.5-7.5 ... ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
A.535.1 A15351 ... Ingot 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.10-0.25 6.6-7.5 ... 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
8535.0 A25350 S 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.05 6.5-7.5 0.10-0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
8535.2 A25352 Ingot 0.10 0.12 0.05 0.05 6.6-7.5 0.10-0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
705.0 A07050 S, P 0.20 0.8 0.20 0.40-0.6 1.4-1.8 0.2 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
705.1 A07051 Ingot 0.20 0.6 0.20 0.40-0.6 1.5-1.8 0.20-0.40 2.7-3.3 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
707.0 A07070 S, P 0.20 0.8 0.20 0.40-0.6 1.8-2.4 0.20-0.40 4.0-4.5 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
707.1 A07071 Ingot 0.20 0.6 0.20 0.40-0.6 1.9-2.4 0.20-0.40 4.0-4.5 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
710.0 A07100 S 0.15 0.50 0.35-0.65 0.05 0.6-0.8 6.0-7.0 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
710.1 A07101 ..... Ingot 0.15 0.40 0.35-0.65 0.05 0.65-0.8 ... ... 6.0-7.0 0.25 0.05 0.15 rem
711.0 A07110 P 0.30 0.7-1.4 0.35-0.65 0.05 0.25-0.45 ... ... 6.0-7.0 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
711.1 A07111 . . . . . Ingot 0.30 0.7-1.1 0.35-0.65 0.05 0.30-0.45 ... 6.0-7.0 0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
712.0 A07120 S 0.30 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.50-0.65 0.40-0.6 5.04.5 0.15-0.25 0.05 0.20 rem
712.2 A07122 Ingot 0.15 0.40 0.25 0.10 0.50-0.65 0.40-0.6 5.M.5 0.15-0.25 0.05 0.20 rem
713.0 A07130 S, P 0.25 1.1 0.40-1.0 0.6 0.20-0.50 0.35 0.15 7.M.O 0.25 0.10 0.25 rem
713.1 A07131 Ingot 0.25 0.8 0.40-1.0 0.6 0.25-0.50 0.35 0.15 7.M.O 0.25 0.10 0.25 rem
771.0 A07710 ................ s 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.8-1.0 0.064.20 6.5-7.5 0.10-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
771.2 A07712 . . . ................ Ingot 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.85-1.0 0.064.20 ... 6.5-7.5 ... 0.I0-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
772.0 A07720 . . . ................ s 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.6-0.8 0.064.20 ' ' ' 6.0-7.0 ... 0.I0-0.20 0.05 0.15 rem
772.2 A07722 ' . . ................ Ingot 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.65-0.8 0.064.20 ... 6.0-7.0 ... 0.10-0.20 0.15 rem
850.0 A08500 ' . . ................ S . P 0.7 0.7 0.7-1.3 0.10 0.10 ... 0.7-1.3 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 0.30 rem
850.1 A08501 . . . ................ Ingot 0.7 0.50 0.7-1.3 0.10 0.10 ... 0.7-1.3 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 ... 0.30 rem
851.0 A08510 . . . ................ S,P 2.0-3.0 0.7 0.7-1.3 0.10 0.10 ... 0.30-0.7 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 '.. 0.30 rem
851.1 A08511 ' . . ................ Ingot 2.0-3.0 0.50 0.7-1.3 0.10 0.10 ... 0.30-0.7 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 ... 0.30 rem
852.0 A08520 . . . ................ S, P 0.40 0.7 1.7-2.3 0.10 0.64.9 ... 0.9-1.5 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 '.. 0.30 rem
852.1 A08521 . . . ................ Ingot 0.40 0.50 1.7-2.3 0.10 0.7-0.9 ... 0.9-1.5 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 '.. 0.30 rem
853.0 A08530 . . ................ S, P 5.54.5 0.7 3.0-4.0 0.50 ... ... . . . . . . 5.5-7.0 0.20 '.. 0.30 rem
... . . . . . .
t

853.2 A08532 . ' . ................ Ingot 5.5-6.5 0.50 3.0-4.0 0.10 ... 5.5-7.0 0.20 '.. 0.30 rem
(a) Serial letter prefix indicates modification: A. B. C. D. and F. (b) Per ISO standard No. RI 15 unless other standard (RIM. R2147, or 3522) specified. (c) D, die casting; P, permanent mold; s, sand. Other products
may pertain lo the composition shown even though not listed. (d) The AI content for unalloyed aluminum by remelt is the difference between 100.03% and the sum of all other metallic elements present In amounts
of 0.010% or more each, expressed lo the second decimal before determining the sum. (e) (Mn + Cr + Ti + V) = 0.025% max. (0 FeiSi ratio 2.5 min. (g) Fe/Si ratio 2.0 min. (h) Fe/Si ratio 1.5 min. (i) 0.40 to I .l%
Ag.(i)O.SW.C%Ag.(k)Ti + Z r = 0 . 5 0 m a x . ~ I ~ 0 . 2 0 t o 0 . 3 0 % S b ; 0 . 2 0 t o 0 . 3 0 % C o : 0 . l O t o 0 . 3 C % Z r . ~ m ~ 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 1 5 % V : 0 . I M ) . 2 5 % Z r . ( n ~ 0 . ~ . 2 l % V . ( o ~ F o r F e > 0 . 4 5 % , M n c o n t e n t s h a l l n o t b e l e s s t h a n
one-half Fe content. (p) 0.040.07W Be. (q) 0. I(M.308 Be. (r) 0.15-0.30% Be. (s) k U x . I ingot IS used lo pmduce x u . 0 and k U x . 0 castings. (1) (Mn + Cr) = 0.8% max. (u) 0.25% Pb max. (v) 0.M4.04% Be. (w)
O . W . I 5 % V. (x) Used to coat steel. (y) Used with Zn lo coal steel. (2) 0.10% Pb max. (aa) 0.0034.0071a Be; 0.005% B max. (bb) 0.003-Oo.007WBe; 0.002% B max
Source: Ref 3. 4. 5

designations H1, H2, and H3, which indicates the strength exceeds that of the 8 temper by the 10 When it is desirable to identify a variation
degree of strain hardening, is a numeral from 1 MPa (2 ksi) or more. For two-digit H tempers of a two-digit H temper, a third digit (from 1 to
h u g h 9. Numeral 8 indicatestempers with ulti- whose second digits are odd, the standard limits 9) may be assigned. The third digit is used
mate tensile strength equivalent to that achieved for strength are the arithmetic mean of the stand- when the degree of control of temper or the
by about 75% cold reduction ( t e m p e m during ard limits for the adjacent twodigit H tempers mechanical properties are different from but
reduction not to exceed 50 T ,or 120 O F ) follow- whose second digits are even. close to those for the two-digit H temper desig-
ing full annealing. Tempersbetween0 (annealed) For alloys that cannot be sufficiently cold- nation to which it is added, or when some other
and 8 are designated by numerals 1 through 7. reduced toestablishanultimate tensile strength characteristic is significantly affected. The
Material having an ultimate tensile strength a p applicable to the 8 temper (75% cold reduction minimum ultimate tensile strength of a three-
proximatelymidwaybetweenthatoftheOtemper after full annealing), the 6-temper tensile digit H temper is at least as close to that of the
and the 8 temper is designated by the numeml4, strength may be established by cold reduction corresponding two-digit H temper as it is to
midway between the 0 and 4 tempers by the of approximately 55% following full anneal- either of the adjacent two-digit H tempers.
numeral 2, and midway between the 4 and 8 ing, or the 4-temper tensile strength may be Products in H tempers whose mechanical prop-
tempers by the numeral 6. Numeral 9 designates established by cold reduction of approximately erties are below those of Hwl tempers are as-
tempers whose minimum ultimate tensile 35% after full annealing. signed variations of Hwl. Some three-digit H
Alloy and Temper Designation Systems / 29

temper designations have already been as- found in the article “General Introduction” in which mechanical properties have been stabilized
signed for wrought products in all alloys: this volume. by mom-temperature aging. It also applies to
TI, Cooled from an Elevated-Tempera- products in which the effects of cold work, im-
Hxll applies to products that incur sufficient ture Shaping Process and Naturally Aged to parted by flattening or straightening, are ac-
strain hardening after final annealing to fail a Substantially Stable Condition. This des- counted for in specified property limits.
to qualify as 0 temper, but not so much or so ignation applies to products that are not cold- T4, Solution Heat-Treated and Naturally
consistent an amount of strain hardening to worked after an elevated-tempemture shaping Aged to a SubstantiallyStable Condition.T h i s
qualify as Hxl temper. process such as casting or extrusionand for which signifiesproducts that are not cold-worked after
H112 pertains to products that may acquire mechanical properties have been stabilized by solution heat treatment and for which mechanical
some strain hardening during working at room-temperature aging. It also applies to prod- properties have been stabilized by room-tem-
elevated temperature and for which there are ucts that are flattened or straightened aftercooling perature aging. If the products are flattened or
mechanical property limits. from the shaping process, for which the effectsof straightened, the effects of the cold work im-
Patterned or Embossed Sheet. Table 5 lists the cold work imparted by flattening or straight- parted by flattening or straightening are not ac-
the thmdigit H temper designations that ening are not accounted for in specific property counted for in specified property limits.
have been assigned to patterned or em- ifits. T5, Cooled from an Elevated-Tempera-
bossed sheet. T2, Cooled from an Elevated-Tempera- ture Shaping Process and Artificially Aged.
ture Shaping Process, Cold-Worked, and T5 includes products that are not cold-worked
Naturally Aged to a Substantially Stable after an elevated-temperature shaping process
System for Heat-Treatable Alloys Condition. This variation refers to products that such as casting or extrusion and for which me-
are cold-worked specifically to improved chanical properties have been substantially im-
The temper designation system for wrought strength after cooling from a hot-working process proved by precipitation heat treatment. If the
and cast products that are strengthened by heat such as rolling or extrusion and for which me- products are flattened or straightened after cool-
treatment employs the W and T designations chanical propertieshave been stabilized by room- ing from the shaping process, the effects of the
described in the section “Basic Temper Desig- temperature aging. It also applies to products in cold work imparted by flattening or shaightening
nations” in this article. The W designation de- which the effects of cold work, imparted by flat- are not accounted for in specified property limits.
notes an unstable temper, whereas the T tening or straightening, are accounted for in T6, Solution Heat-Treated and Artifi-
designation denotes a stable temper other than specified property limits. ’ cially Aged. This group encompasses products
F, 0 ,or H. The T is followed by a numeral from T3, Solution Heat-Treated, Cold- that are not cold-worked after solution heat treat-
1 to 10, each ntmeral indicating a specific Worked, and Naturally Aged to a Substan- ment and for which mechanical properties or
sequence of basic treatments. A description of tially Stable Condition. T3 applies to prod- dimensional stability,or both, have been substan-
how aluminum alloys are classified as heat- ucts that are cold-worked specificdy to improve tially improvedby precipitation heat treatment. If
treatable versus non-heat-treatable can be strength after solution heat treatment and for the products are flattened or straightened, the

Table 5 H tern er designations for


Table 4 ISO equivalents of wrought Aluminum Association international alloy designations aluminum and ayuminum alloy patterned or
Aluminum Amciation Aluminum Amxiation
embossed sheet
hternatlond designation ISO designation internnlmnd designation ISO designation Temper of sheet from
Palterned or which textured sheet
5086 ................................... AI Mg4 cmbosscd sheet was fabricated
......... AI Mg3.5
H114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
H124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H11
1100.. ........................ AI 99.0 Cu ...... . . . . . . . . . . H21
5251 ................................... AI Mg2 ...... . . . . . . . . . . H31
1200.. ........................ AI 99.0 5356 ................................... AI MgSCr(A)
1350.. ........................ E-AI 99.5 5454 ................................... AI Mg3Mn HI34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H12
. . . .......................... A199.3 H234.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H22
1370.. ........................ E-AI 99.7 5456 ................................... AI Mg5Mn H334.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H32
201 I . ......................... AI Cu6BiPb 5554 ................................... AI Mg3Mn(A)
5754 ................................... AI Mg3 HI44 . . . . . . . . . . . .
H244. . . . . . . . . . . .
H344 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H33

HI54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H14
...................... H24

HI64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HI5
H264.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H25
3003.. ........................ AI MnlCu 6101 ................................... E-AI MgSi H364 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H35
3004.. ........................ AI MnlMgl 6101A ................................. E-AI MgSi(A)
6181 ................................... AI SilMg0.8
3005:. ........................ AI MnlMgO.5 6262 ................................... AI MglSiPb
3103.. ........................ AI Mnl 6351 ................................... AI SilMg0.5Mn
. 5. . .~. . .~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A I ~ ~ 4 . 5 ~ ~ 1HI84 HI7
H284.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H27
7020 ................................... AI Zn4.5Mgl H384 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H37
7049A ................................. AI Zn8MgCu
.... AI SiIZ(A) 7050 ................................... AI Zn6CuMgZr . . HI8
. . H28
5050.. ........................ AI MglS(C) 7075 ................................... AI Zn5.5MgCu H394.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H38
5052. ......................... AI Mg2.5 7178 ................................... AI Zn7MgCu
7475 ..................................... AI Zn5.5MgCu(A) H 1 9 5 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H19
5056.. ........................ AI Mg5Cr . . . .................................... AI Zn4MgI.SMn
H295
5 0 5 6 A . . ...................... AI Mg5 . . . .................................... AI Zn6MgCuMn H395
5083. ......................... AI Mg4.5Mn0.7 Source: Ref I
30 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

effectsof the cold work imparted by flatteningor Tx5 10 applies to extruded rod, bar, shapes ter P follows the temper designation that most
straightening are not accounted for in specified and tubing, and to drawn tubing. Products in nearly pertains. The use of this type of designa-
property limits. this temper receive no further straightening tion includes situations where:
T7, Solution Heat-Treated and Over- after stretching.
aged or Stabilized. T7 applies to wrought Tx5 11 refers to products that may receive The use of the temper is sufficiently limited
products that have been precipitation heat-treated minor straightening after stretching to com- to preclude its registration.
beyond the point of maximumstrength to provide ply with standard tolerances. The test conditions are different from those
some special characteristic, such as enhanced re- required for registration with the Aluminum
sistance to stress-corrosion cracking or exfolia- One variation involves stress relief by com- Association.
tion corrosion (both of these modes of corrosion pressing: The mechanical property limits are not es-
are described in the article“Corrosion Behavior” tablished on the same basis as required for
in this Volume). It appliesto cast products that are Tx52 applies to products that are stress-re- registration with the Aluminum Association.
artificially aged after solution heat treatment to lieved by compressing after solution heat
provide dimensional and strength stability. treatment or after cooling from a hot-work-
T8, Solution Heat-Treated, Cold- ing process to produce a permanent set of 1 Foreign Temper Designations
Worked, and Artificially Aged. This desig- to 5%.
nation applies to products that m cold-worked Unlike the agreement relating to wrought
qxxifically to improve strength after solution The next designation is used for products alloy designations, there is no Declaration of
heat treatment and for which mechanical proper- that are stress-relieved by combining stretch- Accord for an international system of tempers
ties or dimensional stability, or both, have been ing and compressing: to be registered with the Aluminum Associa-
substantially improved by precipitation heat tion by foreign organizations. For the most
treatment. The effects ofcold wok, includingany Tx54 applies to die forgings that are stress- part, the ANSI system is used, but because
cold work imparted by flatteningor Straightening, relieved by restriking cold in the finish die. fiere is no international accord, reference to
are accounted for in specified property limits. (These Same digits-and 51, 527 and 54- ANSI H35.1 properties and characteristics of
T9, Solution Heat-Treated, Artificially may be added to the designation W to indi- aluminum alloy tempers registered with the
Aged, and Cold-Worked. This grouping is cate unstable solution heat-treated and Aluminum Association under ANSI 35.1 may
comprised of products that are cold-worked spe- stress-relieved tempers.) ,not always reflect actual properties and charac-
cifically to improve strength after they have been teristics associated with the particular alloy
precipitation heat-treated. Temper ksikTations have been assigned 10 temper. In addition, temper designations may
T10, Cooled from an Elevated-Tempera- wrought products heat-treated from the 0 or be created that are not registered with the Alu-
ture Shaping Process, Cold-Worked, and the F temper to demonstrate response to heat minum Association.
Artificially Aged. TI0 identifies products that treatment:
are cold-worked specifically to impmve strength
after cooling from a hot-working process such as T42 means solution heat-treated from the 0
or the F temper to demonstrate response to ACKNOWLEDGMENT
rolling or extrusion and for which mechanical
p r o F e s have been substantially impmved by heat treatment and naturally aged to a sub-
precipitation heat treatment. The effects of cold stantially stable condition. The information in this article is largely
work, including any cold work imparted by flat- T62 means SOhtiOn heat-treated from the 0 taken from R.B.C. Cayless, Alloy and Temper
tening or straightening, are accounted for in or the F temper to demonstrate response to Designation Systems for Aluminum and Alu-
specified property limits. heat treatment and artificially aged. minum Alloys, Volume 2 of the ASM Hand-
Additional T Temper Variations. When it book (formerly Metals Handbook, loth
is desirable to identify a variation of one of the ten Temper designations T42 and T62 also may mition), ASM International, 1990, p 15-28.
major T tempers described above, additional dig- be applied to wrought products heat-treated
its, the fmt of which cannot be zero, may be from any temper by the user when such heat
added to the designation. treatment results in the mechanical properties
applicable to these tempers. REFERENCES
Specific sets of additional digits have been
assigned to stress-relieved wrought products:
Stress-Relieved by Stretching, Compress- 1. “American National Standard Alloy and
ing, or Combination of Stretching and Com- System forAnnea’ed Products Temper Designation Systems for Alumi-
pressing. This designation applies to the num,” Aluminum Association, Washing-
following products when stretched to the indi- A digit following the 0 indicated a product ton, D.C., 1990
cated amounts after solution heat treatment or in annealed condition having special charac- 2. “Registration Record of InternationalAl-
after cooling from an elevated-temperature teristics. For example, for heat-treatable alloys, loy Designations and Chemical Compo-
shaping process: 0 1 indicates a product that has been heat- sition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and
treated at approximately the same time and Wrought Aluminum Alloys,” Aluminunl
temperature required for solution heat treat- Association,Washington, D.C., 1991
Product farm Permmntset, sb ment and then air-cooled to room temperature; 3. MetalsandAlloys in the Un#iedNwnber-
this designation applies to products that are to ing System, 6th ed., Society of Automo-
, Plate 1Y2-3 be machined prior to solution heat treatment by tive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1993.
Rod, bar. shapes, andextruded tube 1-3
the user. Mechanical property limits are not 4. J.G. Gensureand DL. Pons, Ed., Interns-
Drawn tube Y*-3
applicable. twnal Metallic Materials Cross-Rejb-
e w e , 4th ed., Genium Publishing, 1989
5. “RegistrationRecordof Aluminum Asso-
. Tx51 applies specifically to plate, to rolled Designation of Unregistered Tempem ciation Alloys Designations and Chemi-
or cold-finished rod and bar, to die or ring cal Composition Limits for Aluminum
forgings, and to rolled rings. These products The letter P has been assigned to denote H, Alloys in the Form of Casting ind Ingot,”
receive no further straightening after stretch- T, and 0 temper variations that are negotiated Aluminum Association, Washington,
ing. between manufacturer and purchaser. The let- D.C., 1989
Physica Metallurgy
THE PRINCIPAL CONCERNS in the aluminum, and in all cases the solubility in- For those elements in concentrationsbelow
physical metallurgy of aluminum alloys in- creases with increasing temperature (Fig. 1). their solubility limits, the alloying elements are
clude the effects of composition, mechanical Figure 2 shows the principal aluminum alloys essentially in solid solution and constitute a
working, and/or heat heatment on mechanical based on these elements. Note that they are single phase. However, no element is known to
and physical properties. In terms of properties, used in various combinations. have complete miscibility with aluminum in
strength hprovement is a major objective in Of all the elements, zinc has the greatest the solid state. Among the commercial alloys,
the design of aluminum alloys because the low solid solubility in aluminum (a maximum of only the bright-finishing alloys such as 5657
strength of pure aluminum (about a 10 m a , or 66.4 at.%). In addition to zinc, the solid soh- and 5252, which contain 0.8 and 2.5% Mg
1.5 ksi, tensile Yield strength in the annea1ed bilities of silver, magnesium, and lithium are (nominal), respectively, with very low limits
condition) limits its c0mmercia1 usefuhess. greater than 10 at.% (in order of decreasing on all impurities, may be regarded as nearly
The two most cornon methods for increasing maximum solubility). Gallium, germanium, pure solid solutions.
the strength of aluminum alloys are to: copper, and silicon (in decreasing order) have Second-Phase Constituents. When the
maximum solubilities of less than 10 but ' content of an alloying element exceeds the solid-
* asperse second-phase constituents Or e1e- greater than 1 at.%. AI1 other elements are less solubility limit, the alloying element produces
merits in so1id solutionand "Id w0* the soluble. With the one known exception of tin "second-phase" microstructural constituents that
alloy (non-heat-treatablealloys) (which shows a retrograde solid solubility be- may consist of either the pure alloying ingredient
Disso1ve the alloflng e1ements into "lid tween the melting point of aluminum and the or an intermetalliccompound phase. In the fmt
so*ution and precipitate them as coherent eutectic temperature, 228.3 "C, with a maxi- group are silicon, tin, and beryllium. If the alloy
submicmscOpic partic1es (heat-matab1e Or mum of 0.10% at approximately 660 "C), the is a ternary or higher-order alloy, however, silicon
precipitation-hardeningalloys)
maximum solid solubility in aluminum alloys or tin may form intermetalliccompound phases.
occurs at the eutectic, peritectic, or monotectic Most of the other alloying elements form such
The facton affecting these strengtheN.ng temperature. With decreasing temperature, the compounds with aluminum in binary alloys and
mechanisms and the processing and proprnes solubility limits decrease. This decrease from more complex phases in ternary or higher-order
Of aluminurnal*Oysarediscussed in the fo110w- appreciable concentrations at elevated tem- alloys.
ing portions of this article. peratures to relatively low concentrations at Manganese and chromium are included in
low temperatures is one fundamental charac- the group of elements that form predominantly
teristic that provides the basis for substantially second-phase constituents, because in com-
Phases in Aluminum Alloys increasing the hardness and strength of alumi- mercial alloys they have very lowequilibrium
num alloys by solution heat treatment and solid solubilities. In the case of many compo-
subsequent precipitation aging operations. sitions containing manganese, this is because
The elements that are most c o m o n l y pre- Solubility limits for a number of elements in iron and silicon are also present and form the
sent in commercial aluminum alloys to provide
increased s m n g t h - p ;Lu;&r w;lGll LuuplGu
.. aluminum are listed in Table 1. quaternary-phase Al12(Fe,Mn)$i. In alloys

with strain hardening by cold working or with


heat treatment, or both-are copper, magne-
sium, manganese, silicon, and zinc. These ele-
ments all have significant solid solubility in

~ i 1 ~function
. of temperature for alloying ele-
Equilibrium binary solid solubility as a

ments most frequently added to aluminum Fig. 2 The principal aluminum alloys. Source: Ref 1
32 / Introduction t o Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

containing copper and manganese, the ternary- primary metal, whether in ingot or wrought- nary and ternary phases depend on relative iron
phase A120C~2Mn3 is formed. Most of the al- product form, contains a small volume fraction and silicon contents.
loys in which chromium is present also contain of second-phase particles, chiefly iron-bearing In quaternary systems, intermetallic phases
magnesium, so that during solid-state heating phases-the metastable AbFe, the stable of the respectivebinary and ternary systems are
they form AlI2Mg2Cr, which also has very A13Fe, which forms from A18e on solid-state OEaSiOnally isomorphous, fo&g continu-
lowequilibrium solid solubility.Smelter-grade heating, and AlI2Fe3Si.Proportions of the bi- ous series of solid solutions in equilibrium with
aluminum solid solution. An important exam-
ple is the aluminum-copper-magnesium-zinc
Table 1 Solubility limits for various binary aluminum alloys quaternary system where there are three such
Temperature(a) Uquld rolublllty Solld rolublllty
pairs: CuMg4Ab + Mg3Zn3A12, Mg2Zn11+
Element "C OF wt% at.% */o at.% CbMg2A15, and MgZn, + CuMgAl. The first
A g . . . . . . . 570 1060 72.0 60.9 55.6 23.8 pair have similar lattice parameters and form
A u . . . . . . . 640 1180 5 0.7 0.36 0.049 extensive mutual solid solution, the others less
B . . . . . . . . 660 1220 0.022 0.054 <0.001 <0.002 so. Neither CbMg~A15nor CuMgAl is an equi-
B e . . . . . . . 645 1190 0.87 2.56 0.063 0.188 l i ~ u mphase in aluminumcopper-magnesium,
660(b) 1220(b) 3.4 0.45 <o. 1 <0.01
1150 7.6 5.25 <o. 1 <0.05 although both Mg2Znll and MgZn2 are equi-
Cd.. . . . . . 650(b) 1200(b) 6.7 1.69 0.47 0.11 librium phases in aluminum-magnesium-zinc.
Co.. . . . . . 660 1220 1 .o 0.46 C0.02 <O.Ol Another instance is in the aluminum-iron-
C r . . . . . . . 660(c) 1220(c) 0.41 0.21 0.77 0.40 manganese-silicon quaternary system; here
cu 550 1020 33.15 17.39 5.67 2.48
the stable phase (FeMn)3Si2Al15(bodyen-
Fe 655 1210 1.87 0.91 0.052 0.025
G a . . . . . . . . 30 80 98.9 97.2 20.0 8.82 tered cubic) can vary from Mn3Si2Al1? a =
Gd.. . . . . . 640 1180 11.5 2.18 <o. 1 10.01 1.2652 rn (12.652 A) to ~ , l F ~ . c ~ ) 3 s 1 2 A l 1 5 ,
G e . , . . . . . 425 800 53.0 29.5 6.0 2.30 a = 1.2548 nm (12.548 A). The stable phase of
H f . , . . . . . 660(c) 1220(c) 0.49 0.074 1.22 0.186 the closest composition in aluminum-iron-
In . . . . . . . 640 1180 17.5 4.65 0.17 0.04
Li , . , , . , . 600 1110 9.9 30.0 4.0 13.9
silicon is Fe2SiAlg (hexagonal); the hexago-
Mg . . . . . , 4 5 0 840 35.0 37.34 14.9 16.26 nal-to-cubic transition is also accomplished
1.95 0.97 1.82 0.90 ,by small additions of vanadium, chromium,
0.1 0.03 0.25 0.056 molybdenum, and tungsten, and larger addi-
Na . . . . . . 660(b) 1220(b) 0.18 0.21 <0.003 <0.003 tions of copper (Ref 2). Such chemical stabili-
N b . . . . . . . 660(c) 1220(c) 0.01 0.003 0.22 0.064 zation effects, coupled with the metastability
N i . . . . . . . 640 1180 6.12 2.91 0.05 0.023
Pb . . . . . . . 660 1220 1.52 0.20 0.15 0.02 introduced by casting, frequently cause com-
P d . . . . . . . 615 1140 24.2 7.5 <o. 1 <0.02 plex alloy structure.
R h . . . . . . . 660 1220 1.09 0.29 <o. 1 <0.02 Prediction of Intermetallic Phases in
R u . . . . . . . 660 1220 0.69 0.185 <0.1 <0.02 Aluminum Alloys. The wide variety of inter-
S b , . . . . . . 660 1220 1.1 0.25 <o. 1 <0.02 metallic phases in aluminum alloys, which occur
S c . . . . . . . 660 1220 0.52 0.31 0.38 0.23
Si . . . . . . . 580 1080 12.6 12.16 1.65 1.59 because aluminum is highly electronegative and
S n . . . . . . . 230 450 99.5 97.83 <0.01 10.002 trivalent, has been the subject of considerable
Sr . . . . . . . 655 1210 ... ... ... ... study (Ref 3-5). Detailsdepend on ratios and total
T h . . . . . . . 635 1180 25.0 3.73 <o. 1 10.01 amounts of alloying elements present and q u i r e
T i . . . . . . . 665(c) 1230(c) 0.15 0.084 1.00 0.57 reference to the phase diagrams for prediction. It
Tm . . . . . . 645 1 I90 10.0 1.74 <o. 1 <0.01
must be kept in mind, however, that metastable
u . . . . . . . ,640 1180 13.0 1.67 <o. 1 10.01
V . . . . . . . .665(c) 1230(c) 0.25 0.133 0.6 0.32 conditions fiquently prevail that m charac-
Y . . . . . . . ,645 1190 7.7 2.47 <o. 1 10.03 teW by the presence of phases that are not
Z n . . . . . ., 3 8 0 720 95.0 88.7 82.8 66.4 shown on the equilibrium diagrams. Transition
Z r . . . . . . . 660(c) 1220(c) 0.11 0.033 0.28 0.085 metals, for example, exhibit fiquent metastabil-
(a) Eutectic reactions unless designated otherwise. (b) Monotectic reaction. (c) Peritectic reaction. ity, in which one phase introduced during fast

Table 2 Possible phases in various aluminum alloy systems


Allot system Examples of alloy Alloy form Phaw
AI-Fe-Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100. EC Ingot FeAI3. Fe.416. Fe~SiAllz.FezSizAlp. Si
Wrought FeA13. Fe3SiAli2
................................................ 3003 Ingot (Fe.Mn) AI6. a(Al-Fe.Mn-Si). Si
Wrought (Fe.Mn)A16. a(Al-Fe,Mn-Si)
AI-Fe-Mg-Si (Mg:Si 2 l.7:l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6063 Ingot FeAI3, FeAb. Fe3SiAIIz.MgSi
Wrought FeAI3. Fe3SiAllz, MQSi
AI-Fe-Mg-Si (high silicon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Cast FezSizA19.MgSi. Si
AI-Fe-Mg-Si (high magnesium) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Cast FeAI,. Fe3SiAllz. MgSi. MgAI,
.................................................. 295 Cast FeAI,. Fe,SiAIIZ.CuAIZ,Cu2FeAh
.................................... Ingot (Fe.Cr),SiAllz. FezSizA19,Fe,Mg3Si6Als. MgSi. Si
Wrought (Fe,Cr),SiAl12.MgSi
AI-Cu-Fe-Si-Mg-Mn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2014 Ingot (Fe.Mn)3SiAll~.CuAIZ.CuzMgSi6Alr.Si
Wrought (Fe.Mn),SiAll2.CUAIZ.CuzMgaSi6Alr
2024 Ingot (Fe.Mn)Alb. (Fe. Mn)AI,. (Fe.Mn),SiAl12.MgSi. CuAIz. CuMgAlz.
CuZFeAl,
Wrought (Fe.Mn)3SiAliz. MgSi. CuMgAlz. CuZFeAl7.C u ~ M n ~ A l ~ ~ ( a )
AI-Cu-MgNi-Fe-Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2218. 2618 Ingot and In addition to others. nickel may cause NIAI,. NizA13.CulNiA16 or
wrought FeNiAl9 to appear
AI-Fe-Mg-Si-Mn-Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5083. 5086. 5456 Ingot (Fe.Mn.Cr)Ab. (Fe.Mn.Cr)3SiAll~.M g A h (Cr.Mn.Fe)AI,(b)
Wrought (Fe.Mn.Cr),StAll~.MpSi. MgAI,. CrzMg,Alls(a)
AI-Cu-Mg-Zn-Fe-Si-Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7075 Ingot (Fe.Cr)Al,. (Fe.Cr)3SiA1iZ.Me?. Mg(Zn2AICu). CrAl,(b)
Wrought (Fe.Cr)3SiAllz.CuzFeAl,. MgSi. CuMgAIZ.Mg(Zn2AICu). Cr2MglAlll(a)
(a) May be identity of fine prcxipnate wvhch comes OUI ai elevated temperatures:no! positively identified (b) Only when chromium content IS near hlgh ride of range
Physical Metallurgy / 33

Table 3 Solid-solution effects on strength of principal solute elements in super-purity


aluminum

E k t
Dinerrnee in
n(omic d i ,
r,-ru,%(n)
‘7
MW.t% ksi/.t% MWwtk
S~mdditiOnnlms(b)
Yidd strmgtN%.dditbn(c) I 7Temk sbm~lh‘%ndditidd)
WwtS MFW.18 Wat% MFWwtk
4 kdlrtk
Si . . . _ _ . . . .-3.8 9.3 1.35 9.2 1.33 40.0 5.8 39.6 5.75
Zn . . . . . . . . . -6.0 6.6 0.95 2.9 0.42 20.7 3.0 15.2 2.2
16.2 2.35 13.8 2.0 88.3 12.8 43.1 6.25
(e) (e) 30.3 4.4 (e) (e) 53.8 7.8
Mg . . . . . . . . +11.8 17.2 2.5 18.6 2.7 51.0 7.4 50.3 7.3
(a) Listed in order of increasing percent difference in atomic radii. (b) Some properly-percent addition relationships are nonlinear.
Generally, the unit effects of smaller additions are greater. (c) Increase in yield strength (0.2% offset) for I% (atomic or weight basis)
alloy addition. (d) Increase in ultimate tensile strength for I% (atomic or weight basls) alloy addition. (e) I at% of manganese is not
soluble.

solidifcation transforms in the solid state to an- phase microstructural constituents, dispersoid
other, for example, Fe& + FeAl3, or a metas- precipitates, and/or strain hardening. Wrought
table variant precipitates from supersaturated alloys of this type are mainly those of the 3xxx
solid solution such as M n A l 1 2 . and 5xwx groups containing magnesium, man-
Table 2 lists the main classes of aluminum ganese, and/or chromium as well as the lxrx
alloys and gives the possible phases that might aluminums and some alloys of the 4xrx group
appear in a cast structure or a wrought strut- that contain only silicon. Non-heat-treatable
ture. Some phases that appear in the cast struc- casting alloys are of the 4n.x or 5mx groups,
ture are unstable and quickly or gradually containing silicon or magnesium, respectively,
disappear during subsequent thermal treat- and the l m aluminums.
~ ~ i 3 ~Correlation
. between tensile yield, elonga-
tion, and magnesium content for some
ments. They dissolve Completely Or are r e p l a d Solid-Solution Strengthening. For those commercial aluminum alloys. Source: Ref 6
by another phase in a diffusion*on@olled M C - elements that form solid solutions, the strength-
tion. The Phases that aPPex in a Cast structure ening effect when the element is in solution tends
depend On the rate of solidification.Therefore, allto increase with increasing difference in the ’ solidifcationor by precipitation in the solid state
Of the phases mentioned in Tab1e 2 may not
atomic radii of the solvent ( N )and solute (alloy- during pos~lidificationheating & in-

-
alJFar simultaneously in a given al1oy*Addi- ing element) atoms. This factor is evident in data strength and k&=~. The rates of in- per
tional information On the phases in aluminum obtained from super-purity binary solid-solution unit weight of alloying element &ed are fre-
and aluminum al10ys can be found in the mi- alloys in the annealed state, presented in Table 3, quently similar to, but usually lower than, t h m
‘le’ “Meta”ographic Practices” and “Micro-
structures Of A1uminum Auoys”
Volume.
this ’
but it is evident that other effects are involved, resulting from solid solution. This ‘‘second-
chief among which is an electronic bonding fac- phase’’ hardening even thou@ readily re-
tor. The effects of multiple solutes in solid soh- solved by optical mimscopy. m= irregularly
tion are somewhat less than additive and are shaped particles form during solidification and
nearly the same when one solute has a m e r and occurmostly along grain boundariesand between
Strengthening Mechanisms the other a smaller atomic mdius than that of dendritearms.
aluminum, as when both are either smaller or Grain Refinement with Dispersed Pre-
The predominant objective in the design of larger. Manganese in solid solution is highly ef- cipitates. Manganese and/or chromium ddi-
aluminum alloys is to increase strength, hard- fective in strengthening binary alloys. Its contri- tions in wm@t aluminurn alloys allow the for-
ness, and resistance to wear, creep, stress re- bution is less, because in these compositions, as a mation of complex precipitates that not only
d fabricating OpmtionS, d grain growth during ingot =heating but
laxation, or fatigue. Effects on these properties result Of C O ~ r C i mill
are specific to the different combinations of the mangan= is largely precipitated’ also assist in grain refmement during rolling. This
alloying elements, their alloy phase diagrams, The principal alloys that are strengthened method involves rapid solidifcation and cooling
and to the microsmctures of solidification, by alloying elements in solid solution (often during the casting of ingots, so that a solid-solu-
thermomech&cal history, heat treament, coupled with cold work) are those in the alumi- tion state is formed with amcentrationsof man-
and/or cold working. nese factors, to a large num-magnesium (5xrx) series, ranging from ganese and/or c h m i u m that greatly exceed their
extent, depend on whether the alloy is a non- 0.5 t0 6 Wt% Mg. These alloys Often COntahl eqUilibriWll solubility. k g reheating Of the
heat-treatablealloy or a heat-treatable(precipi- small additions of transition elements, such as as-cast ingot for wrought processing, the super-
tation-strengthening)alloy. chromium or manganese, and less frequently saturated metastable solid solution is designed to
Strength at elevated temperatures is im- zirconium, to control the grain or subgrain cause solidstate precipitation of complex phases.
proved mainly by solid-solution and second- structure, and iron and silicon impurities that This precipitation does not cause appreciable
phase hardening because at least for usually are present in the form of intermetallic hardening, nor is it intended that it should. Its
temperaturesexceeding those of the pmipita- Particles. Figure 3 illustrates the effect of mag- purpose is to produce finely divided and dis-
tion-hardening range (2230 “C,or 450 OF), the nesium in solid solution on the yield strength persedparticlesthatretardorinhibitrecrystalliza-
precipitation reactions continue into the sof- and tensile elongation for most of the common tion and grain growth in the alloy during
tening regime. For supersonic aircraft and aluminum-magnesium commercial alloys. subsequent heatings. The precipitate particles of
space vehicle applications subject to aerody- Ni2(Fe,Mn)sSi,A12oCu2Mn3, or AliNg2Cr are
namic heating, the heat-treatable alloys of the Strengtheningfrom Second-Phase Con- incoherent with the matrix, and concurrent with
2uur group can be used for temperatures up to stituents. Elements and combinations that form their precipitation the original solid solution be-
about 150 “C (300 OF). predominantly secondphase constituents with comes less concentrated. Theseconditions do not
relatively low solid solubility include iron, nickel, provide appreciable precipitation hardening.
titanium, manganese, and chromium, and combi- Changes in electrical conductivity constitute an
Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys nations thereof. The presence of increasing VOL effective m e a s a of the completeness of these
ume fractions of the intermetalliccompound precipitation reactions that occur in preheating.
Strengthening in non-heat-treatable alloys phases formed by these elements and the elemen- The newer“in-line” or integratedprocesses
occurs from solid-solution formation, second- tal silicon constituent formed by silicon during that shorten the path from molten metal to
34 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Table 4 Tensile-property data illustrating


typical relationships between strength and
elongation for non-heat-treatable alloys in
H1 x versus H2x or H3x tempers
Tensile Yield
Alloy and strength strength Elongs-
temper MPa ksi MPa ksi tion, %
3105-HI4 ..... 172 25 152 22 5
179 26 159 23 8
3105-H16 ... . . 193 28 172 25 4

solute clusters, the alloy is considerably


strengthened and hardened.
However, if the precipitates are semicoher-
ent (sharing a dislocation-containing interface
with the matrix), incoherent (sharing a disor-
dered interface, akin to a large-angle grain
boundary, with the matrix), or are incapable of
reducing strain behavior because they are too
strong, a dislocation can circumvent the parti-
cles only by bowing into a roughly semicircu-
~ i5 ~Strain-hardening
. lar shape between them under the action of an
F&,. 4 Tensile properties in AI-Mg-Mn alloys in C U N ~ S for aluminum
applied shear stress. consquent1Y, the Pres-
the form of annealed (0temper) plate 13 (1100), and for AI-Mn (3003) and AI-Mg
mm (0.5 in.) thick (5050 and 5052) alloys ence of the precipitate particles, and even more
importantly the strain fields in the matrix sur-
rounding the coherent particles, provide higher
wrought product, avoiding ingot preheating article“Alloy and Temper Designation Systems” strength by obstructing and retarding the
and reducing the overall time-temperature his- in this Volume. movement of dislocations. The characteristic
tory, are changing this conventional picture. It All mill products can be supplied in the that determines whether a precipitate phase is
seems very probable that in order to obtain the strainhardened condition, although there are coherent or noncoherent is the closeness of
best results from such processes, traditional limitations on the amounts of strain that can be match or degee of disregistry between the
alloy compositions should be adjusted, taking applied to products such as die forgings and atomic Spacings on the lattice ofthe matrix and
into account the fact that larger proportions of impacts. Even aluminum castings have been On that Of the Precipitate.
these elements would be expected to remain in strengthened by cold pressing for certain appli- Heat treatment for precipitation
solid solution through such abbreviated and cations. The heat-treatable alloys described be- stren@heninginc1udes a so1ution heat h’eat-
truncated thermomechanical operations. New low can also be subjected to strain hardening. merit at a hi@ emperamre to maximize s01ubi1-
capabilities may be obtained with currently ity, followed by rapid cooling or quenching to a
standard alloys in some instances, but it would low tempera- to obtain a solid solution super-
not be expected that a particular alloy should Heat-Treatable Alloys saturated with both solute elements ahd vacan-
exhibit the same properties when produced by cies. Solution heat treatments are designed to
maximize the solubility of elements that partici-
the two types of processes. Heat-twtable (precipitation-hardening) pate in subsquent agins treatments.They are
For alloys that are composed of both solid- aluminum alloys for wrought and cast products mOSt effectivenear the solidus or eutectic em-
solution and second-phase constituents and/or contain elements that decrease in solubility perature, where maximum solubility exists and
dispersoid precipitates, all of these components with decreasing temperature, and in concentra- diffusion rates are rapid. However, care must be
of microstructure contribute to strength, in a tions that exceed their equilibrium solid soh- taken to avoid incipient melting of low-tempera-
roughly additive manner. This is shown in Fig. bility at room temperature and moderately ture eutectics.& grain-boundary phases. such
4 for AI-Mg-m alloys in the annealed condi- higher temperatures. However, these features mlting results in quench cracks and loss in due-
tion. alone do not make an alloy capable of precipi- tility. memwum emperature my also be set
Strain hardening by cold rolling, drawing, tation hardening during heat treatment. The with regard to grain grod, surface effects, md
or stretching is a highly effective means of in- strengths of most binary alloys containing economy of operaion. nemum tempera-
creasing the strength of non-heat--table alloys. magnesium, silicon, zinc, chromium, or man- ture should be abve he solws, oh-se the
Work- or strain-hardening curves for severalm i - ganese alone exhibit little change from thermal desired properties derived frorna,+g will not be
cal non-heat-treatable commercial alloys (Fig. 5 ) treatments, regardless of whether the solute is redxd. neOptimumheat-mament range may
illustratethe increaSe~in strength that accompany completely in solid solution, partially precipi- be quite small, witl-, a mar,+ of safety sometimes
inmasing reduction by cold rolling of initially tated, or substantially precipitated. only k 5 K.
annealed temper sheet. This increase is obtained The mechanism of strengthening by age The high strength is produced by the fmely
at the expense Of ductility, as measured by v t hardening involves the formation of coherent dispersed precipitates that form during aging
elongation in a tensile test and by reducing for- clusters of solute atoms (that is, the solute at- heat treatments (which may include either
mability in operations such as bending and draw- oms have collected into a cluster but still have natural aging or artificial aging as described
hg. It is often adVantageOUSto U s e lmterial in a the same crystal structure as the solvent phase). below). This final step must be accomplished
partially annealed (I%) or stabilized(H3x) tem- This causes a great deal of strain because of not only below the equilibrium solvus tempera-
per when bending, forming, or drawing is re- mismatch in size between the solvent and sol- ture, but below a metastable miscibility gap
quired, because material in these tempen has Ute atoms. The cluster stabilizes dislocations, called the Guinier-Preston (G-P) zone solvus
p t e r forming capability for the same smgth because dislocations tend to reduce the strain, line. The supersaturation of vacancies allows
levels than does strain-hadened-ody (Hlx) ma- similar to the reduction in strain energy of a diffusion, and thus zone formation, to occur
terial (=Table 4, forexample). Temperdesigna- single solute atom by a dislocation. When dis- much faster than expected from equilibrium
tions for aluminum alloys are described in the locations are anchored or trapped by coherent diffusion coefficients. In the precipitation proc-
Physical Metallurgy / 35

ess, the saturated solid solution first develops dislocations through the lattice and hence are precipitation heat treating or artificial aging. In
solute clusters, which then become involved in stronger. Curves showing the changes in tensile the AI-Cu system, alloys with as little as 1 %
the formation of transitional (nonequilibrium) yield strength with time at room temperature Cu, again slowly quenched, start to harden
precipitates. The final structure consists of ( n d agingcurves)forthreewroughtcommer- after about 20 days at a temperature of 150 OC,
equilibrium precipitates, which do not contrib- cial heat-treauble alloys of different alloy sys- or 300 OF (see Fig. 8). The alloys of this sys-
ute to age hardening (precipitation strengthen- tems are shown in Fig. 6. The magnitudes of tem, having less than about 3% c u , show little
w.Natural aging refers to spontaneous forma- increase in this property are considerably differ- or no natural aging after lOW-COOhg-rate
ent for the three alloys, and the differen= in rate quenching, which introduces little stress.
tion of a G P zone structure during exposure at of change w i h time are of practid importance. Artificial aging includes exposure at tem-
room temperatue. Solute atoms either cluster or B~~~~~ 7075 and s i d a r alloys never become peratures above room temperature so as to pro-
segregate to selected atomic lattice planes, de- completely suble under these conditions, they m duce the transitional (metastable) forms of the
pending on the alloy system, to form the G P mly used in the n ~ l agd y temF. a the equilibrium precipitate of a particular alloy sys-
zones, which are more resistant to movement of other hand, 2024 is widely used in this condition. tem. These transitional precipitates remain coher-
Of the binary alloys, aluminum-copper al- ent with the solid-solution matrix and thus
lays exhibit natural aging after being solution conmbute to Precipitation strengthening. w1th
heat-treated and quenched. The amounts by further heating at temperatures that cause
which strength and hardness increase become strengthening or at higher temperatures, the pre-
cipitateparticlesgrow, but even more importantly
larger with time Of natural aging and with the
they convefl to the qufiibfium phases, which
copper content of the alloy, from about 3% to
genedy are not whemt. These changes soften
the limit of solid solubility (5.67%,as shown
the material and, canied further,produce he sofi-
in Tab1e '1. Natura1 aging curveS for slOwlY est or annealed condition. Even at this stage, the
quenched, highpurity A1-C' alloys with 1 '0 precipitate particles are still too small to be clearly
4.5% cuare shown in Fig* 7. The rates and resolved by optical microscopy, although etching
amounts of the changes in strength and hard- effects are redily observed-p~cularly in al-
ness Can be increased by holding the alloys at lays containing copper. precipitation heat ea-
moderately elevated temperatures (for alloys , merit or artificial aging Curves for the Al-Mg-Si
~ i6 ~Natural
. aging curves for three solution
heat-treated wrought aluminum alloys of d l types, the useful range is about 120to230 wrought alloy 6061 (which is widely used for
"C, or 250 to 450 O F ) . This treatment is called s t r u c m shapes) are shown in ~ i9. ms ~ . is a
typical family of curves showing the changes in
tensile yield strength that accrue with increasing
time at each of a series of temperatures. In all
cases, the material had been given a solution heat
treatment followed by a quench just prior to the
start of the precipitation heat treatment. For de-
tailed presentation of heat-treating operations,pa-
rameters, and practices, see the article "Heat
Treating" in this Volume.
The commercial heat-treatable alumi-
num alloys are, with few exceptions, based on
ternary or quaternary systems with respect to the
solutes involved in developing strength by pre-
cipitation. The most prominent systems are: Al-
Cu-Mg, Al-Cu-Si, and Al-Cu-Mg-Si, alloys of
which are in the 2rrx and 2ucx groups (wrought
and casting alloys respectively); Al-Mg-Si (6uor
wrought alloys);Al-Si-Mg, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si-
Mg-Cu ( ~ X UCasting
X alloys);and Al-Zn-Mg and
Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7mwrought and 7 ~ r Casting x
alloys). In each case the solubility of the multiple-
solute elements decreases with decreasing tem-
perature.
These multiple alloying additions of both
major solute elements and supplementary ele-
ments employed in commercial alloys are
strictly functional and serve with different heat
treatments to provide the many different com-
binations of properties-physical, mechanical,
and electrochemical-that are required for dif-
ferent applications. Some alloys, particularly
those for foundry production of castings, con-
tain amounts of silicon far in excess of the
amount that is soluble or needed for strength-
ening alone. The function here is chiefly to
improve casting soundness and freedom from
cracking, but the excess silicon also serves to
increase wear resistance, as do other micros-
Fig. 7 Natural aging curves for binary AI-CU alloys quenched in water at 100 "C (212 "F) tructural constituents formed by manganese,
36 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

binary alloys, none of which is used commer-


cidy) affect not only mechanical pperties but
also physical properties (density and electrical
and thermal conductivities) and electrochemical
pperties (solution potential). Onthemicrostruc-
turd and submicroscopic scales, the electm-
chemical properties develop point-to-point
nonuniformities that account for changes in cor-
rosion resistance.
Measurements of changes in physical and
electmhemical pmperties have played an im-
poxtant role in completely describing precipita-
tion reactions and are very useful in analyzing
or diagnosing whether heat-treatable products
have been properly or improperly heat-treated.
Although they may be indicative of the
strength levels of products, they cannot be re-
lied upon to determine whether or not the prod-
uct meets specified mechanical-property
limits. Because elements in solid solution are
always more harmful to electrical conductivity
than the same elements combined with others
as intermetallic compounds, thermal treat-
ments are applied to ingots used for fabrication
of electrical conductor parts. These thermal
treatments are intended to precipitate as much
as possible of the dissolved impurities. Iron is
the principal element involved, and although
the amount precipitated is only a few hun-
dredths of a peIcenf the effect on electrical
conductivity of the wire, cable, or other prod-
uct made from the ingot is of considerable
practical importance. These alloys may or may
not be heat-treatable with respect to mechani-
cal pmperties. Electrical conductor alloys 6101
and 6201 are heat-treatable. These alloys are
used in tempers in which their skngthening
~i~ 8 Precipitation hardeningcurves for binaty AI-CUa l l o y quenched in water at 1 0 0 ‘C (21 2 “R and aged at precipitate, the transition form of MgzSi is
1 50 “C (300 O F ) largely out of solid solution to optimize both
strength and conductivity.
(see the article ~6~uminum-Lithium ~ o y s in

this Volume). commercial use of alloys con-
taining these elements has been restricted Effect of Metallurgical Factors on
either by cost or by difficulties encountered in Processing
p d u c i n g them. Such alloys are used to some
extent, however, and reseaxh is being directed
toward overcoming their disadvantages. Forming. The formability of amaterialis the
In the case of alloys having copper as the extent to Which it can be deformed in a p d c u l i . ~
principal alloying ingredient and no magne- Process b e f a the onset of failure. Aluminum
sium, strengthening by precipitation can be sheet Or aluminum shapes Usually fad bY local-
greatly increased by adding small fractional ized nechg Or by ductile fracture. Necking is
percentages of tin, cadmium, or indium, or governedlargely bY bulkmaterialp r o m e s suCh
as work h ar d en i nand
g s’ain-mte hardeningand
Fig. 9 Precipitationheattreatmentorartificialag- combinations of these elements. Alloys based
depends critically on the strain path followed by
ing curves for solution heat-treated alurni- on these effectshave been produced commer-
nurn alloy6061 the forming process. ~ndilute alloys,the extent of
cially but not in large volumes because of
necking or limit strainis redud by cold work
costly special practices and limitations re-
8ge hardening,gross defects, a large grain size,
nickel, and iron (see the article “Tribological quired in p ~ s s i n g and 9 in the case of cad- and the presence of dofig elementsin =lid
Behaviof’ in this Volume). Parts made of such mium, the need for specid facilities to avoid =lUtion. hCae frsmoccurs Bs a mult of the
alloys are commonly used in gasoline and die- health hamxis from fOrmatiOn and release Of nucleation and linking of microwpic voids at
sel engines (pistons, cylinder blocks, and so cadmium vapor during alloying. Such alloys, particles and theconcentration ofstraininn-w
forth). as well as those containing silver, lithium, or shear bands. F~~ usually occuIs at larger
Alloys containing the elements silver, lith- other PartiCle-f~XnirIgelements, may be Used &S than does localized necking and therefore
ium, and germanium are also capable of pro- on a selective basis in the future. is usually important only when necking is sup-
viding high strength with heat treatment, and Effectson fhysical and Electrochemical pressed. Common examples where h m is
lithium provides both increased elastic modulus PrOpertieS. The above description of the pre encountered are at small radius bends and at
and lower density, which are highly advanta- cipitation p w s s e s in commercial heat-treatable severe drawing, ironing, and stretching near
geous-particularly for aerospace applications aluminum alloys (as well as the heat-treatable notchesorshearededges.
Physical Metallurgy / 37

~ i12~ Effectofprecipitationon
. yieldstrengthand
elongation in alloy 2036. Source: Ref6

pressure requirements, while the discrete phases


~ i 10~ Effect
. of volume percent fraction of mi- ~ i 11 ~ the. formability
Effect of magnesium and manganese on
make flow less uniforrm and increaSe the like’-
of aluminum alloys in the
cronsize intermetallic Particles and com-
annealed and H 3 4 tempers; 1.6 mm (0,064 in.) thick hood Ofcracking. AuOjkg additions that Sififi-
position of the matrix on the fracture strain of 5 mm (0.2
s h e d , %urce: Ref 6 cantly increase solid solution strength are copper,
in.) diam tensilespecimens.A0 is initial cross-sectional
area. Af is area of fracture. Source: Ref 6 magnesium, and silicon. Chromium, manganese,
titanium, vanadium, and zirconium form insol-
as is shown in Fig. 10 and 11. In these exam- uble phases. The presence of these elements
ples an increase in the iron, nickel, or manga- , Strengthens the aluminum at e l w a ~ temperil-
Considerable advances have been made in neSe Content Produces an increase in the ture, but they have less effect than the higher solid
developing alloys with good formability,but in number of miCrO~OPiCParticles that Promote solubility elements. If the low-solubility elements
general, an alloy cannot be optimized on this fra%ure.The addition of magnesium Promotes are present in suficient quantity, massive Primary
basis alone. The function of the formed part an additional ~&ction in fracture Strain be- particles may form. These particles can promote
must also be considered, and improvements in Cause the higher flow stresses aid in the forma- local crackhg during forghg or other hot work-
functional characteristics,such as strength and tion and growth of voids at the intermetallic ing operations. Figure 13 shows the effect of
ease of machining, often tend to reduce the Particles. Magnesium in solid solution also several common additions on forgeability in the
formability of the alloy. promotes the localization of strain into shear range of 370 to 455 oc(700 to 850 OF). ~ h i ~
The principal alloys that are strengthened bands, which concentrates the voids in a thin fiw indicates that forgeability, as measured by
by alloying elements in solid solution (often Plane of highly bcalized Strain. deformation resistance, is nearly linear for the
coupled with cold work) are those in the alumi- PreciPitation-strengthened alloys are mu- temperature and alloy range shown. Forgeability
num-magnesium (5xtx) series, ranging from ally fmmed in the naturally aged (T4) condi- as measured by M o m from sacking falls off
0.5 to 6 wt% Mg. Figure 3 illustrates the effect tion, or in the annealed (0)condition, but only abruptly near or at temperature where initial melt-
of magnesium in solid solution dn the yield very rarely in the Peak strength (T6) condition ing occurs in an alloy.
strength and tensile elongation for most of the where both the necking and fracture limits are Sound aluminum directchilled ingot with a
common aluminum-magnesium commercial low. In Fig. 12 the effect of a wide range of low alloy content can be forged as-cast. where
alloys. Note the large initial reduction in the precipitate Structures on Some Of the forming the alloying content is higher, it is usually ad-
tensile elongation with the addition of small properties is illustrated for alloy 2036 (2.5% vantageous to homogenize the ingots before
amounts of magnesium. Cu-0.5% Mg). Curves similar in shape can be forging and, in the case of some highcontent
The reductions in the forming limit pro- drawn for most Of the precipitation- alloys, heavy sections and intricate finished
duced by additions of magnesium and copper strengthenedalloys in the 2x.m and 6.m~series. shapes, it may be desirable to hot roll, extrude,
appear to be related to the tendency of the The prOpemeS in Fig. 12 were obtained from or preforge the stock to obtain a uniform struc-
solute atoms to migrate to dislocations (strain sheet tensile specimens, first solution heat- ture more suitable for forging. Thermal treat-
age). This tends to increase work hardening at treated, then aged at temperaturesranging from ments should be used to maximize solid
low strains, where dislocations are pinned by room temperature to 350 “c(660 OF). This solution and to spheroidize the remaining con-
solute atoms, but it decreases work hardening produced a full range Of Structures from solid stituents. More detailed information on the for-
at large strains. Small amounts of magnesium solution (aquenched) through T4 and T6 tem- geability of aluminum and aluminum alloys
or copper also reduce the strain-hardeningrate, pers to various degrees of overaging and pE- can be found in the article “Forging” in this
which will reduce the amount of useful diffise cipitate agglomeration. More detailed Volume.
necking that occurs after the uniform elonga- information on the deformation behavior of Machining. Pure, unalloyed aluminum is
tion. Zinc in dilute alloys has little effect on aluminum and aluminum alloys can be found relatively soft and ductile and tends to adhere to a
work hardening or necking, and it does not in the article “Forming” in this Volume. cutting tool, forming a builtup edge and long
cause strain aging. Forging. Commercial purity (or higher pu- chips. It requires special machining techniques to
Elements that have low solid solubilities at rity) aluminum k readily forgeable into intricate avoid producing rough surfaces and heavy burrs.
typical processing temperatures, such as iron, shapes over a wide range of temperatures. While Alloying aluminum improves its machinability.
silicon, and manganese, are. present in the form many aluminum alloys are also readily forgeable, Elements in solid solution that make an alloy
of second-phase particles and have little influ- difticulty tends to h m a s e because the addition heat-treatable or work-hardenable increase the
ence on either strain hardening or strain-rate of alloying elements increases flow smngth. The hardness of the alumhum matrk and thereby
hardening and thus a relatively minor influence formation of discrete phases that intempt conh- reduce the builtup edge on the cutthg tool; for-
on necking behavior. Second-phase particles nuity of the structure also adversely affects forge- mation of bum, roughness and tearing on the
do, however, have a large influence on fracture, ability.The higher deformation strength inmases machined surface; and the length of chips.
38 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

treatment all harden an alloy and tend to reduce loy sheet (Fig. 16) show the marked decrease
the built-up edge on the tool. Elements and in unit propagation energy as chromium is in-
constituents out of solution promote chip creased. Substitutionof other elements, such as
breaking. Hard constituents, especially if large zirconium or manganese, for chromium can
and unrefined, can significantly reduce tool also influence fracture toughness. However,
life. More detailed information on the machin- the observed effects ofthe differentdispersoids
ing characteristicsof aluminum and aluminum on fracture toughness can quite possibly be
alloys can be found in the article “Machining” related to the particular toughness parameter
in this Volume. chosen and the influence of the dispersoid on
the grain structure of the wrought product.
The primary effect of hardening precipi-
Effect of Metallurgical Factors on tates on fracture toughness of high-strength
Properties aluminum alloys is through the increase in
yield strength and depends upon the particular
working and heattreatmentpractices applied to
The application ofhigh-strength a1Uminum the wrought products. However, composition
alloys in the aerospace indusby has resulted in changes, particularly magnesium level, can
increased performance requirements in the ar- produce significant effects on toughness of
eas of fatigue and fracture. In *e development 7xrr alloys. These variationsin compositiondo
of aluminum alloys for these applications, it is not alter the basic character of the hardening
necessary to control the alloy composition to precipitates, but they exert a subtle influence
produce specific microstructures tailored for on the overnu precipitatestructure.
resistance to specific failure mechanisms. Effect of Second-Phase Constituents on
The desi@ of damage-to1erantahhum Fatigue Behavior. Although the three types of
alloys such as 74759 70509 or 2124 has been constituent particles may influence fatigue be-
Primarib’ based upon the contro1,thmughcom- havior, the effect of constituent particles on fa-

~ i13~ Effect
. of temperature on relative forge-
position and fabrication practice, of the alloy ,tiguebehavior is highly dependent on the
microstructure (Ref 7 and 8). Three types Of fatiguetest or the stressregimechosen for evalu-
* of
ability of various aluminum alloys. Verti- second-phase Particlesare known to influence
cal scale is based on deformation per unit of energy ation. Consequently, the design of aluminum al-
absorbed. (a)Estimated from production experience fracture and fatigue behavior in high-strength loys to resist failure by fatigue mechanisms has
aluminum alloys: not proceeded to the same extent as for fracture
toughness. In the case of large constituent parti-
Elements out of solution can act as chip sira i
cles, for example, reduced iron and silicon con-
breakers, thereby reducing the length of chips. m pm mil vpiealemmpls tents do not always result in improved fatigue
resistance commensurate with the previously de-
Elements such as lead or bismuth form small constituent2-50 0.08-2 CuzFeAI7. scribed improvements in fracture toughness. In-
insoluble globules and are effective chip break- particles CuAIz, FeAi6
creased punty level does not, for instance,
ers. E present in sufficient quantity (generally Dispersoid 0.01-0.5 0 . m - fiA13,
produce any appreciable improvement in notched
particles 0.02 CrMg2AIiz
about Oe5% each)9 lead and bismuth permit Strengthening 0.001-0.5 O.oooO4- Guinier-Preston or smooth S-N fatigue strength (Ref 10 and 11).
increased machining speeds and reduce the pre+,irates 0.02 zones In terms of fatigue crack growth (FCC)
need for cutting fluids. Intermetallic constitu-
rates, no consistent differences have been ob-
ents such as CuA12 or FeA13 similarly act as *
served for low- and high-purity 7 m alloy vari-
chip breakers without significantly reducing The effect of these particles on fracture and fa- ants at low to intermediateM levels. However,
the life of cutting tools. However, the very hard tigue behavior is discussed below. at high stress-intensity ranges, FCC rates are
constituents, such as silicon or the complex Effect of Second-Phase Constituents on notably reduced for low-iron and low-silicon
intermetallics that contain chromium or man- Fracture Toughness. It is genedly accepted alloys (Ref 11 and 12). ne reaSOn for the
ganese, while effectively acting as chip break- that the fracture of brittle constituent particles obsewed improvement is undoubtedly related
ers, noticeably decrease tool life. The presence leads to preferential paths for crack advance and
of primary silicon in hypereutectic aluminum- reduced fracture toughness (Ref 9). Conse-
silicon cast alloys is especially harmful in quently, an often-used approach to improve the
terms of tool life, but at the same time, it pro- toughness of high-strength aluminum alloys has
duces very short chips, minimum tool edge been the reduction of iron and silicon levels. The
buildup, and excellent machined surfacefinish. m n t development of improved alloys such as
The elements sodium, strontium, antimony, 7475,7050, and 2124 has hinged, in large part,
and phosphorus also effect machinability be- upon the use of higher-purity base metal than
cause they affect the cast microstructure. SO- 7075 or 2024. Figure 14 illustrates the influence
dium, strontium, or antimony modify the of base metal purity on the fracture resistance of
eutectic silicon morphology, changing it from alloy 7475 sheet. The partially soluble constitu-
acicular or needlelike to a very fine, lacy, or ents exert a similar effect on the fracture behavior
Spheroidized structure.Phosphorus refines pri- of other high-strength alloys. Figure 15 shows the
mary silicon in hypereutectic alloys, reducing reduction in toughness experienced as the volume
its size by a factor of approximately 10 to 1 . fraction of Al2CuMg is increased in alloy 7050
Modification and refinement both tend to in- plate.
crease tool life significantly. For superior toughness, the amount of dis-
In summary, the alloys having the poorest persoid-forming element should be held to the
machining characteristicsare of low alloy con- minimum required for control of grain struc-
tent and are in the softest condition. Cold work- ture, mechanical properties, or resistance to ~ i 14~ Tear . strength and yield strength ratio of
ing, increasing alloy concentration,and/or heat stress-corrosion cracking. Results for 7 m al- alloy 7475 sheet
Physical Metallurgy / 39

~ i 15~ Effects
. of amount of AI2CuMg constitu-
ent on the toughness of 7050 plate
~ i 16~ Effect
. of chromium content on unit crack propagation energy and yield strength o n a Zn-MgCu alumi-
num alloy (5.5 Zn, 2.4 Mg, 1.4 Cu, 0 . 3 0 Fe, 0.08 Si, 0.03 Ti, 0.01 Mn)

to the higher fracture+ ______-_


L
L”..~’..’~”“ “‘e.. y.. ...,
- ~ L : - L -..A&.
“I

metals. At high stress-intensity ranges, where


crack growth per cycle (&/dN) values are
large, localized fracture and void nucleation at
constituent particles become the dominant
FCG mechanism. For samples subjected to pe-
riodic spike overloads, low-purity alloys were
shown to exhibit slower overall FCG rates than
higher-purity materials. This effect was attrib-
uted to localized crack deviation included by
the insoluble constituents. Secondary cracks at
these particles acted to lower crack tip stress-
intensity values and to reduce measured FCG
rates.
No clear-cut influence of dispersoid parti-
cles on the fatigue behavior of aluminum al-
loys has emerged. Two separate studies have
concluded that dispersoid type has little effect
on either FCG resistance (Ref 10) or notched
fatigue resistance of 7 m alloys (Ref 12). The
only expected effect of dispersoid type on fa-
tigue performance should occur for high AK
fatigue crack growth, where mechanisms simi-
lar to those for fracture toughness predominate.
Within a given alloy system, slight changes
in composition that influence hardening pre-
cipitates have not been shown to influence the
S-N fatigue resistance of aluminum alloys.
However, significantdifferenceshave been ob-
served in comparison of alloys of different
systems. For instance, 2024-T3 is known to
outperform 7075-T6 at stresses where fatigue
lives are short (-lo5 cycles). The superior fa- Fig. 1 7 Fatigue crack growth of 2024-T3 versus 7075-T6 plate over entire dddN-AKrange
tigue performance of alloy 2024-13 in the lo5
cycle range has led most aircraft designers to
specify it in preference to 7075-T6 in applica- high humidity. This result was attributed to General Effectsof Alloying
tions where tension-tensionloads are predomi- increased resistanceof the highcopper alloy to
nant. corrosion in the moist environment (Ref 12).
Alloy 2024-T3 shows a similar advantage Fatigue designers are currently beginning Although the predominant reason for alloy-
over 7075-T6 and other 7 m alloys in fatigue to use increasingly complex “spectrum” FCG h g is to increase strength, alloying also has
crack growth. The superior performance for tests to predict the performance of materials in important effects on other characteristics of
2024-T3 plate versus 7075-T6 extends over the service. Early. work in the area of spectrum aluminum alloys. Some of these effects are
entire &/dN-AK range, as shown in Fig. 17. fatigue showed that high-toughness alloy discussed below. Effects of specific elements
Within the 7 m alloy system, increasing cop- 7475-T76 performed better than either 2024- are discussed in the section “Specific Alloying
per content improves FCG performance in T3 or 7075-T6 (Ref 13). Elements and Impurities” in this article.
40 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Alloy Effects on Physical Properties. modynamically). This is explained by the fact limits in many cases to ensure good product
Most of the physical properhes-density, melt- that copper ions taken into solution in aqueous, recovery.
ing-temperature range, heat content, coefficient corroding media replate on the aluminum alloy Grain-RefiningAdditions. Most alloys
of thermal expansion, and electrical and thermal surface as minute particles of metallic copper, produced as “fabricating ingots” for fabricating
conductivities-are changed by addition of one forming even more active corrosion couples wrought products, as well as those in the form of
or more alloying elements. The rates of change in because metallic copper is highly cathodic to foundry ingot, have small additionsof titanium or
tlhese properhes with each incremental addition the alloy. Manganese, which in solid solution boron, or combinationsof these two elements, in
are specificfor each element and depend, in many changes solution potential in the cathodic di- controlled proportions (see the article “Molten
cases drastically, on whether a solid solution or a rection as strongly as does copper, does not Aluminum Processing and Casting” in this Vol-
second phase is formed. In those cases in which impair corrosion resistance of commercial al- ume). The purpose of these additionsis to control
the element or elements may be either dissolved loys that contain it, because the amounts left in grain size and shape in the as-cast fabricating
or precipitated by heat treatment, certain of these solid solution in commercial products, which ingot or in castings produced from the foundry
properhes, particularly density and conductivity, undergo extensive solid-state heating in proc- ingot. These grain-refining additions have little
can be altered substantially by heat treatment. ess, are very Small, and the manganese does not effect on changes in grain size that mcUTduring
Density and conductivity of such alloys show replate from solution as does copper. or as a result of working or recrystallization.
relatively large differences from one temper to The differencesin SolutionPotential among Welding filler alloys and casting alloys generally
another. alloys of different compositions are used to have higher contens of the g - h g ele-
Electrochemical properties and corro- great advantage in the composite Alclad prod- men6 to ensure highest resime to cracking
sion resistance are strongly affected by alloy- ucts. h these products, the structural compo- d-g solidifcation of welds and castings.
ing elements that form either solid solutions,ad- nent of the composite, Usually a Strong or neelements that have relatively great and
ditional phases, or both. For those systems heat-treatable alloy, is made the core of the controlling effects on grain sizes and shapes
exhibiting substantial changes in solid solubility product and is covered by a cladding alloy of a produced by the mechanical worfingrqu&d
with temperature, these properhes may change composition that not only is highly corrosion to produce wrought products (their ther-
markedly with heat-treated tempers,and although resistant but also has a solution potentid that is momechanical history) m manganese, cb-
mfkquently, they may even change with room- anodic to that of the core. Analogous to the mium, and zirconium. small amounts
temperature aging (for example, the stress-corro- protection of the underlying steel afforded by (fractional percentages) of these elements, sin-
sion resistance of high-magnesium5 m alloys in zinc on the surfaces of galvanized steel prod- # gly or in cornbination, are included in the com-
strain-hardened tempers). The strongest electro- ucts, the aluminum alloy core is protected elec- positions of many alloys to control grain size
chemical effects are from copper or zinc in solid trolytically by the more-anodic cladding. The and recrystallizationbehavior though fabrics-
solution. Additions of copper in solid solution composition of the cladding material is de- tion and heat treament. Such grain control has
change the electrochemical solution potential in signed specifically to protect the core alloy, so many purposes, which include ensuring good
the cathodic direction at the rate of 0.047 V/wt% that, for those containing copper as the priilci- resistance to stress-corrosion cracfing, high
(0.1 12 V/at%), and additions of zinc change it in pal alloying ingredient (k type), the more- framre toughness, and good forming charac-
the anodic direction at the rate of 0.063 V/wt% anodic unalloyed aluminum ( l m type) serves teristics. In specific alloys, theseelements have
(0.155 V/at%). These potentials are those meas- to protect the core electrolytically. In the case highly significant supplemenm beneficial ef-
ured in aqueous solution of 53 g NaCl + 3 g H202 of the strong alloys containing zinc along with fects on strength, resistance to fatigue, or
per liter. Magnesium and silicon, which are the magnesium and copper (such as 7049, 7050, strength at elevated temperatures. In order to
basis for the 4 m , 5 m , and &vvl series wrought 7075, and 7178), an aluminum-zinc alloy
fulfill their graincontrol functions, these ele-
alloys and the 3mx, 4mx, and 5m-x series cast- (7072) or an aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy
merits must be precipitatedas fmely distributed
ing alloys, and which are prominent in the com- (7008 or 7011) provides protection. The latter
particles termed dispersoids. Their precipita-
positions of many other alloys, have relatively provides higher strength. More detailed infor- tion is accomplished primarily by the hi.-
mild effects on solution potential and are not mation on the corrosion resistance of alumi-
temperature, solid-state heating involved in
detrimental to corrosion resistance. num and aluminum alloys can be found in the
ingot peheating.
Although aluminum is a thermodynami- article ‘‘Corrosion Behavior” in this Volume.
cally reactive metal, it has excellent resistance Impurity Effects. Although major differ- Secondary Aluminum. Aluminum recov-
ered h m scrap (secondary aluminum) has been
to corrosion in most environments, which may ences in properties and characteristics are usually
be attributed to the passivity afforded by a associated with alloying additions of one to sev- an important contributor to the total metal supply
protective film of aluminum oxide. This film is e d percent, many alloying elements produce for many years (see the article “General Introduc-
tion” in this Volume). For some uses, secondary
strongly bonded to the surface of the metal, and highly significant effects when added in small
if damaged reforms almost immediately. The fractions of 1% or when increased by such small aluminum al1oys may be trcated to move cer-
continuity of the film is affected by the micro- amounts. With respect to mechanical properties, tain h p ~ t i e sOr allo*gelemnts. Chief among
structure of the metal-in particular, by the this isparticularlytrueforcombinationsofcertain the alloying e1ements removed is ma@esium
presence and volume fraction of second-phase elements.The interactions are quite complex, and which is fresuently present in vm amounts in
particles. Corrosion resistance is affected by a given elementmay be eitherhighly beneficial or secondary metal than in the alloys to be pod”ced
this factor and by the solution-potential rela- highly detrimental, depending on the other ele- ‘Om ” As described in the artic1e“Mo1ten *lu-
tionships between the second-phase particles ments involved and on the property or combina- mirum processing and Casting” in this vo1ume,
or constituents and the solid-solution matrix in tion of properties needed. magnesium is usually removed (demagged) by
which they occur. In most environments, resis- The presence or absence of amounts on the fluxing with “ O M e gas Or halide salts.
tance to corrosion of unalloyed aluminum in- order of one thousandth of one percent of cer-
creases with increasing purity. The resistance tain impurities-sodium and calcium, for ex-
of an alloy depends not only on the microstruc- ample-may make the difference between Specific Alloying Elements and
tural relationships involving the specific types, success or complete failure in fabricating high- Impurities
amounts, and distributions of the second-phase magnesium S x r x alloy ingots into useful
constituents, but even more strongly on the wrought products. There are many other exam-
nature of the solid solutions in which they are ples of equally practical importance. Impurity The important alloying elements and impu-
present. Copper reduces corrosion resistance limits specified for commercial alloys reflect rities are listed here alphabetically as a concise
despite the fact that when in solid solution it some of these effects, but producers of mill review of major effects. Some of the effects,
makes the alloy more cathodic (less active ther- products must adhere to even more restrictive particularly with respect to impurities, are not
Physical Metallurgy / 41

well documented and are specific to particular Commercial grain refiners commonly contain ti- tends to form very coarse constituents with other
alloys or conditions. tanium and boron in a 5-to-1 ratio. Boron has a impurities or additions such as manganese, iron,
Antimony is present in trace amounts (0.01 high-neutroncapture cross section and is used in and titanium. This limit is decreased as the con-
to 0.1 ppm) in primary commercial-gradealumi- aluminum alloys for certain atomic energy appli- tent of transition metals increases. In casting al-
num. Antimony has a very small solid solubility cations, but its content has to be limited to very loys, excess chromium will produce a sludge by
in aluminum (<0.01%,as shown in Table 1). It low levels in alloys used in reactor areas where peritectic precipitation on holding.
has been added to aluminum-magnesiumalloys this property is undesirable. Chromium has a slow diffusion rate and
because it was claimed that by forming a protec- Cadmium is a relatively low-melting ele- forms finely dispersed phases in wrought prod-
tive film of antimony oxychloride, it enhances ment that fmds limited use in aluminum. Up to ucts. These dispersed phases inhibit nucleation
cornsion resistance in salt water. Some bearing 0.3% Cd may be added to aluminumcopper al- and grain growth. Chromium is used to control
alloys contain up to 4 to 6% Sb. Antimony can be loys to accelerate the rate of age hardening, in- grain structure, to prevent grain growth in alu-
used instead of bismuth to counteract hot crack- crease strength,and increase corrosionresistance. minum-magnesium alloys, and to prevent re-
ing in aluminum-magnesiumalloys. At levels of 0.005 to O S % , it has been used to crystallization in aluminum-magnesium-silicon
Arsenic. The compound AsAl is a semicon- reduce the time of aging of aluminum-zinc-mag- or aluminum-zinc alloys during hot working or
ductor. Arsenic is very toxic (as AsO3) and must nesium alloys. It has been reported that traces of heat treatment. The fibrous structures that de-
be controlled to very low limits where aluminum cadmium lower the corrosion resistance of unal- velop reduce stress corrosion susceptibility
is used as foil for food packaging. loyed aluminum. In excess of 0.1%, cadmium and/or improve toughness. Chromium in solid
Beryllium is used in aluminum alloys con- causes hot shortness in some alloys. Because of solution and as a finely dispersed phase in-
W g magnesium to d u c e oxidation at ele- its high neutron absorption, cadmium has to be creases the strength of alloys slightly. The main
vated temperatures. Up to 0.1% Be is used in kept very low for atomic energy use. It has been drawback of chromium in heat-treatable alloys
a l m g baths for steel to improve adhesion used to confer free-cutting characteristics, par- is the increase in quench sensitivity when the
of the aluminumfilm and restrict the formation of ticularly to aluminum-zinc-magnesiumalloys; it hardening phase tends to precipitate on the
the deleterious iron-aluminum complex. The was prefemd to bismuth and lead because of its preexisting chromium-phase particles. Chro-
mechanism of protection is amibuted to beryl- highermeltingpoint.AslittleasO.l%providesan mium imparts a yellow color to the anodic
hum diffusion to the d a c e and the formation of improvementin machinability. Cadmium is used film.
apmtective layer. Oxidation and discolorationof in bearing alloys along with silicon. The oral Cobalt is not a common addition to alumi-
wrought aluminum-magnesium products are toxicity of cadmium compounds is high. In melt- num alloys. It has been added to wine aluminum-
greatly MU& by small amounts of beryllium ing, casting,and fluxing operation,cadmium ox- ’ silicon alloys containing iron, where it transforms
because of the diffusion of beryllium to the sur- ide fume can present hazards. the acicular p (aluminum-iron-silicon) into a
face and the formation of an oxide of high-vol- Calcium has very low solubility in alumi- more rounded aluminumcobalt-iron phase, thus
ume ratio. Berylliumdoes not affect the corrosion num and forms the intermetallic W.An inter- improving strength and elongation. Aluminum-
m i w e of aluminum. Beryllium is generally esting group of alloys containing about 5% Ca zinc-magnesiumcopper alloys containing 0.2 to
held to 8 ppm in welding filler metal, and its and 5%Zn have superplasticproperties. Calcium 1.9% Co are produced by powder metallurgy.
content should be limited in wrought alloys that combines with silicon to form CaSi2, which is Copper. Aluminumcopper alloys contain-
may be welded. almost insoluble in aluminum and therefore will ing 2 to 10% Cu, generally with other additions,
Beryllium poisoning is an allergic disease, inmase the conductivity of commercial-grade form important families of alloys. Both cast and
a problem of individual hypersensitivity that is metal slightly. In aluminum-magnesium-silicon wrought aluminum-copperalloys respond to so-
related to intensity and duration of exposure. alloys, calcium will decrease age hardening. Its lution heat treatment and subsequent aging with
Inhalation of dust containing beryllium com- effect on aluminum-silicon alloys is to increase an increase in strength and hardness and a de-
pounds may lead to acute poisoning. Beryllium strength and decrease elongation, but it does not crease in elongation. The strengthening is maxi-
is not used in aluminum alloys that may contact make these alloys heat-treatable. At the 0.2% mum between 4 and 6% Cu, depending upon the
food or beverages. Additional information on level, calcium alters the recrystallization charac- influence of other constituentspresent. The prop-
the toxic effects of beryllium, as well as those teristics of 3003. Very small amounts of calcium erties of aluminum-copperalloy sheet in a num-
of other metals, can be found in Ref 14. (10ppm) increase the tendency of molten alumi- ber of thermal conditions are assembled in Fig.
Bismuth. The low-melting-point metals num alloys to pick up hydrogen. 18. The aging characteristics of binary alumi-
such as bismuth, lead, tin, and cadmium are Carbon may occur infrequently as an impu- num-copper alloys have been studied in greater
added to aluminum to make b m a c h i n i n g al- rity in aluminum in the form of oxycarbides and detail than any other system,but there are actually
loys. These elements have a restricted solubility carbides, of which the most common is Al4C3, very few commercial binary aluminumcopper
in solid aluminum and form a soft, low-melting but carbide formation with other impurities such alloys. Most commercial alloys contain other al-
phase that promotes chip breaking and helps to as titanium is possible. Al4C3 decomposes in the loying elements.
lubricate the cutting tool. An advantage of bis- presence of water and water vapor, and this may Copper-Magnesium. The main benefit of
muth is that its expansion on solidification com- lead to surface pitting. Normal metal transfer and adding magnesium to aluminumcopper alloys is
pensates for the shrinkage of lead. A 1 -to-1 fluxing operations usually reduce carbon to the the increased strength possible following solution
lead-bismuth mtio is used in the alumhumcop- ppm level. heat treatment and quenching. In wrought mate-
per alloy, 2011, and in the aluminuum-Mg2Sial- Cerium, mostly in the form of misch metal rial of certain alloys of this type, an increase in
loy, 6262. Small additions of bismuth (20 to 200 (rare earths with 50 to 60% a), has been added swngth accompaniedby high ductility occurs on
ppm) can be added to aluminum-magnesiumal- experimentallyto casting alloys to increase fluid- aging at mom temperature. On mificial aging, a
loys to counteract the detrimental effect of so- ity and reduce die sticking. In alloys containing further increase in strength, especially in yield
dim on hot cracking. high iron (0.7%),it is reported to transform acicu- strength, can be obtained, but at a substantial
Boron is used in aluminum and its alloys as lar FeAl3 into a nonacicular compound. sacrificein tensile elongation.
a grain refiner and to impmve conductivity by Chromium occurs as a minor impurity in On both cast and wrought aluminum-cop-
precipitating vanadium, titanium, chromium, and commercial-purity aluminum (5 to 50 ppm). It per alloys, as little as about 0.5% Mg is effec-
molybdenum (all of which are harmful to electri- has a large effect on electrical resistivity. Chro- tive in changing aging characteristics. In
cal conductivity at their usual impurity level in mium is a common addition to many alloys of the wrought products, the effect of magnesium ad-
commercial-grade aluminum). Boron can be aluminum-magnesium, aluminum-magnesium- ditions on strength can be maximized in artifi-
used alone (at levels of 0.005 to 0.1%)as a grain silicon, and aluminum-magnesium-zincgroups, cially aged materials by cold working prior to
refiner during solidification,but it becomes more in which it is added in amounts generally not aging (Fig. 19). In naturally aged materials,
effective when used with an excess of titanium. exceeding 0.35%. In excess of these limits, it however, the benefit to strength from magne-
42 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

~ i 21~ and
. manganese
Relationship between tensile properties
content of AI4%Cu-
0.5%Mg alloy, heat treated at 525 "C (980O F )

~ i 18~ Tensile
, properties of high-purity, wrought F ; ~ 20
. The effect of cold work on yield strength
aluminumcopper alloys. Sheet specimen of aluminurn-copper alloy 2419 in natu- not exceed about 1% in commercial alloys.
was 13 mm (0.5 in.) wide and 1.59 mm (0.0625 in.) rally aged materials. Source: Ref 15 Additions of cobalt, chromium, or molybde-
thick. 0,annealed; W, tested immediately after water num to the wrought Al-4%-Cu-OS%Mg type
quenching from a solution heat treatment; T4, as in W,
butagedatroomtemperature;T6,asinT4,followdby of alloy increase the tensile properties of heat
precipitation treatment at elevated temperature depends on the type of product and the thermal treatment, but none offers a distinct advantage
treatment. over manganex.
Copper-Magnesium Plus Other E l e Alloys with lower copper content than the
merits. The cast duminm-copper-mwesium conventional 2024 and 2014 type alloys were
alloys Containing iron are Characterized bY di- necessary to provide the formability required
mensional stability and h p m v d bearing cham- by the automobile industry. Copper-magne-
teristics, as well as by high strength and hardness sium alloys developed for this purpose are
at elevated temperatures. However, in a wrought ' 2002 and 2036 variations. These have accept-
AM%-Cu-O.S%Mg alloy, iron in concenhations able formability, good spot weldability, reason-
as low as 0.5%lowers the tensile properties in the able fusion weldability, good corrosion
heat-treated condition, ifthe silicon content is less resistance, and freedom from Luders lines. The
than that required to tie up the iron as the ClFeSi paint-baking cycle serves as a precipitation
constituent. In this event, the excess iron utlites treatment to give final mechanical properties.
with copper to form the CuzFeAl7 constituent, Copper a n d Minor Additions.In
thereby reducing the amount of copper available the wrought form, an alloy family of interest is the
for heat-treating effects. When sufficientsilicon is one containing small amounts of several metals
present to combine with the iron, the properties known to raise the reclystallization temperature
are unaffected. Silicon also combines with mag- of aluminum and its alloys, specifically manga-
nesium to form MgzSi precipitate and conmbutes nese, titanium, vanadium,or zirconium. h d o y
in the age-hardening process. of this nature retains its properties well at elevated
Silver substantially increases the strength tempemtum, fabricates ready, and has good
of heat-treated and aged aluminum-copper- casting and welding characteristics. Figure 22
magnesium alloys. Nickel improves the illustrates the effect of 3 to 8% Cu on an alloy of
strength and hardness of cast and wrought alu- Al-O.3%Mn-0.2%Zr-O.l%Vat room t e m p t u r e
minumcopper-magnesium alloys at elevated and after exposure at 315 "C (600 O F ) for two
temperatures. Addition of about 0.5% Ni low- different periods of t i e . The stability of the
ers the tensile properties of the heat-treated, properties should be noted, as reflected in the
wrought A14%-Cu-OS%Mg alloy at room small reduction in smgth with time at this tem-
temperature. perature.
The alloys containing manganese form the Gallium is an impuity in aluminum and is
most important and versatile system of com- usually present at levels of 0.001 to 0.02%. At
mercial high-strength wrought aluminumcop- these levels its effect on mechanical properties is
per-magnesium alloys. The substantial effect quite small. At the 0.2% level, gallium has been
exeIted by manganese on the tensile properties found to affect the corrosion characteristics and
of aluminumcopper alloys containing 0.5% the response to etching and brightening of some
Mg is shown in Fig. 21. It is apparent that no alloys, Liquid gallium metal penetrates very tap-
Fig. 19 t cold work and Mg addition on
~ f f e cof one composition offers both maximum idly at aluminum grain boundaries and can pm-
alloy 2419.(a) Theeffect ofcold workon strength and ductility. In general, tensile duce complete grain separation. In sacrificial
the Yield strength r ~ ~ 0 n w m % i n g a t 1 4 9 " C(3@l0R strength increases with separate or simultane- anodes, an addition of gallium (0.01 to 0.1%)
for the alloy with 0.1 8 at.% Mg. (b)The effect of cold
wolicon the yieldstrength response toagingat 149 oc ous increases in magnesium and manganese, keeps the anode from passivating.
(300 O F ) for the alloy without Mg. Source: Ref 15 and the yield strength also increases, but to a Hydrogen has a higher solubility in the liq-
lesser extent. Further increases in tensile and uid state at the melting point than in the solid at
particularly yield strength occur on cold work- the same temperature. Because of this, gas poros-
ing after heat treatment. Additions of manga- ity can form during solidification. Hydrogen is
nese and magnesium decrease the fabricating produced by the reduction of water vapor in the
sium additions can decrease with cold working characteristics of the aluminumcopper alloys, atmosphere by aluminum and by the decomposi-
(Fig. 20). The effect of magnesium on the cor- and manganese also causes a loss in ductility; tion of hydrocarbons. Hydrogen pickup in both
msion resistane of aluminum-copper alloys hence, the concentration of this element does solid and liquid aluminum is enhanced by the
Physical Metallurgy / 43

~ i22~ Variation
. of tensile properties with copper content in AI-0.3%Mn-0.2%Zr-0.1 %V alloy in the T6 Fig. 24 Tensile properties of 13 mm (0.5 in.) a h
temper minum-magnesium-manganese plate in
0 temper

h n in the solid state is very low (-0.05%, as ’article “Aluminum-Lithium Alloys’’ in this Vol
shown in Table 1); therefore, most of the iron ume). In addition, the density is decreased and the
present in aluminum over this amount appears as modulus is incmsed. This type of alloy has a
an intermetallic second phase in combination high volume fraction of coherent, ordered LW3
with aluminum and often other elements. Be- precipitate. In addition to increasing the elastic
cause of its limited solubility, it is used in el&- modulus, the fatigue crack growth r&stance. is
cal conductors in which it provides a slight increased at intermediate levels of stress intensity.
increase in strength (Fig. 23) and better creep Magnesium is the major alloying element in
characteristics at moderately elevated tempem- the 5 . m ~ series of alloys. Its maximum solid solu-
Effect o f iron plussilicon impuntieson ten- tUreS. bility in aluminum is 17.4%, but the magnesium
Fig*23 silestrength and yield strength ofaluminum Iron reduces the grain size in wrought p d - content in current wrought alloys does not exceed
ucts. Alloys of iron and manganese near the 5.5%. Magnesium precipitates preferentially at
Presence Of catah euritieS*
such as sulfur
ternary eutectic content, such as 8006 can grain boundaries as a highly anodic phase
v d v -’-
on the surface and in the
have useful combinations of strength and duc- (Mg5Al3 or MgsAls), which produces sumpti-
tility at room temperature and retain strength at bility to intergranular cracking and to stress cor-
pheR* Hydride-forminge1ements in k m& elevated temperatures. The properties are due rosion. Wrought alloys containing up to 5% Mg,
increase the pickup Of hydrogen in the liqid* to the fine grain size that is stabilized by the properly fabricated, are stable under normal us-
O h r e h n & Such as beryllium, 9- tinv finely dispersed iron-rich second phase. Iron is age. The addition of magnesium markedly in-
and silicon, decrease hydrogen pickup. added to the aluminumcopper-nickelgroup of creases the strength of aluminum without unduly
In addition to causing Primary porosity in alloys to increase strength at elevated tempera- decreasing the ductility. Corrosion resistance and
casting, hydrogen causes secondary porosity, tures. weldability are good. In the annealed condition,
blistering, and high-tmPerature deterioration Lead. Normally present only as a trace ele- magnesium alloys form Luders lines during de-
(advanced internal gas precipitation) during ment in commercial-purity aluminum, lead is formation.
heat treating. It probably Plays a role in P i n - added at about the 0.5% level with the same Magnesium-Manganese.In wrought al-
boundary &cohesion during StreSScOrroSiOn amount as bismuth in some alloys (2011 and loys, this system has high strength in the work-
cmking. Its level in melts is controlled by 6262) to impmve machinability. Additions of hardened condition, high resistance to corrosion,
f l w h g with hydrogen-free gases or by Vat- lead may be troublesome to the fabricator as lead and good welding characteristics. Increasing
uum degassing. will tend to segregate during casting and cause amounts of either magnesium or manganese in-
Indium. Small amounts (0.05 to 0.2%)of hot shortness in aluminumcopper-magnesium tensify the difficulty of fabrication and increase
indium have a marked M u e m ?on the age had- alloys. Lead m p u n d s are toxic (Ref 14). the tendency toward cracking during hot rolling,
ening of aluminum-cupper alloys, mcularly at Lithium. The impurity level of lithium is of particularly if traces of sodium are present. The
’ low copper contents (2 to 3% h). In this respect, the order of a few ppm, but at a level of less than two main advantages of manganese additions are
indium acts very much like cadmium in that it 5 ppm it can promote the discoloration (blue that the precipitation of the magnesium phase is
- reduces rn-m aging but increases corrosion) of aluminum foil under humid condi- more general throughout the structure, and that
artificial aging. The addition of magnesium de- tions. Tram of lithium greatly increase the oxi- for a given increase in strength, manganese al-
creases the effect of indium. Small amounts of dation rate of molten aluminum and alter the lows a lower magnesium content and ensures a
indium (0.03 to 0.5%)are claimed to be benefi- surface chmcteristics of wrought products. Bi- p t e r degree of stability to the alloy.
cial in aluminum-cadmim--bearing alloys. nary aluminum-lithium alloys age harden but a The tensile properties of 13 mm (0.5 in.)
Iron is the most annmon impurity found in not used commercially. Present interest is on the plate at various magnesium and manganese
ahuninum It has a high solubility in molten alu- aluminum-copper-magnesium-lithium alloys, concentrations are shown in Fig. 24 for the 0
&um and is *fore easily dissolved at all which can be heat-heated to strengths compara- temper and in Fig. 25 for a work-hardened
molten stages of @u&m. ’Ihe solubility of ble to those of present aimaft alloys (see the temper. Increasing magnesium raises the ten-
44 / Introduction t o Aluminum and Aluminurn Alloys

cipitate increases the quench sensitivity of heat-


treatable alloys.
Manganese is also used to correct the shape
of acicular or of platelike iron constituentsand
to decrease their embrittling effect. Up to the
1.25% level, manganese is the main alloying
addition of the 3 m series of alloys, in which it
is added alone or with magnesium. This series
of alloys is used in large tonnages for beverage
containers and general utility sheet. Even after
high degrees of work hardening, these alloys
are used to produce severely formed can bod-
ies.
The combined content of manganese, iron,
chromium, and other transition metals must be
limited, otherwise large primary intermetallic
crystalsprecipitate from the melt in the transfer
system or in the ingot sump during casting. In
alloys 3003 and 3004 the iron plus manganese
content should be kept below about 2.0 and
1.7%,respectively, to prevent the formation of
~ i 25~ Tensile
. properties of 13 mm (0.5 in.) a h - primary (Fe,Mn)Ab during casting.
minum-magnesium-manganese plate in
H321 temper Mercury has been used at the level of 0.05%
Fig. 26 Effect of manganese o n tensile properties in Sacrificial anodes Used to protect Steel StlUC-
of wrought 99.95% AI, 1.6 mm (0.064 m.Other than for this use, mercury in alumi-
in.) thick specimens, quenched in cold water from num or in cOntact with it as a mtal or a salt d l
sile strength by about 35 MPa (5 ksi) for each 565 oc (1 050 O F )
1% increment; manganese is about twice as
* cause rapid corrosion of most aluminum alloys.
effective as magnesium. The toxic properties of mercury must be kept in
Magnesium-Silicide. Wrought alloys of the The third group contains an amount of mind when adding it to alumhum al1oYs.
&rxr group contain up to 1.5% each of magne- Mg2Si overlapping the first two but with a Mo'ybdenum is a vq low level(Os1 to 1.o
sium and silicon in the approximate ratio to form substantialexcess silicon. An excess of 0.2% Si PPm) i m p ~ t iny aluminurn It has been usxi at a
MgzSi,that is, 1.73:1.The maximum solubility of increases the strength of an alloy containing concentration of 0.3% as a grain r e f m , because
Mg2Si is 1.85%, andthisdecreaseswithtempera- 0.8% Mg2Si by about 70 MPa (10 ksi). Larger ,peritectic,
the aluminumandend modifier for
alsoofasthea equilibrium the iron
diagram is
ture. Precipitation upon age hardening occurs by amounts of excess silicon are less beneficial.
constituena, but it is not in currentuse for tfiese
formation of G-P mnes and a very fine PreciPi- Excess magnesium,however, is of benefit only
purposes.
tate. Both confer an increase in strength to these at low Mg2Si contents because magnesium
Nickel. The solid solubifiq of nickel in alu-
alloys, though not as p a t as in the case of the
2rxr or the 7xxr alloys.
Al-MgzSi alloys can be divided into three
=
lowers the solubility of Mg2Si. In excess sili- minum does not exceed o.04%. Over this
con alloys, segregation of silicon to the bound- amounfit is present an insoluble inkmetallic,
ary causes grain-boundary fracture in usually in Combination with iron. Nickel (up to
?PUPS. In the first group, the total amount Of recrystallized structures. Additions of manga- 2%) in-s the mnfiof h i g h - p ~ t yal--
magnesium and silicon does not exceed 1.5%. nese, chromium, or zirconium COUnteraCt the num but dues ductility. Binary al-um-
These e1ements are in anearly balanced rati0 Or effect of silicon by preventing recrystallization nickel alloys are no longer in use, but nickel is
with a slight exceSSOf si1icon. Typica1 Of this during heat treatment. Common alloys of this added to alu&um<opperand to aluminum-*-
group is 60639wide1y used for extruded arch& group are 6009,6010, and 6351. Additions of con alloys to improve hardness and strength at
tecturai sections. This easi1y extrudab1e auoy lead and bismuth to an alloy of this series elevated temperatures and to reduce the c d i -
nominally contains 1.1% Mg2Si. Its solution
heat-treating temperature Of just Over 500 "'
(930 O F ) and its low quench sensitivityare such
(6262) improves machinability. This alloy has cient of expansion. Nickel promotes pitting cor-
a better corrosion resistance than 2011, which rosion in dilute alloys such as 1100. It is limited
also is used as a free-machiningalloy. in alloys for atomic reactor use, due to its high
that this alloy does not need a separate so1ution Manganese is a common impurity in pri- neutron absorption, but in other- it is a desk-
treatment after extrusion but may be air- mary aluminum,in which its Concendon nor- able addition dong With iron to improve COTTO-
quenched at the press and artificially aged to
mally mges from 5 to 50 ppm. It dam. sion resistance to high-pressure steam Nickel
achieve moderate strength, good ductility, and
excellent corrosion resistance. resistiviq. mganese inmes strengtheither in aluminides, which are ordered intermetallic com-
The second group nominally contains 1.5% solid solution or as a fiely p M p i t a a i n a t - pounds @hAI and NiAI), are being researched
allic Phase. It has no adverse effeCtOn cornsion for use as high-tempture smctural materials
or more of magnesium plus silicon and other (Ref 16).
additions such as 0.3% Cu, which increases resistance. Manganese has a very limited "lid
Niobium. As with other elements forming a
strength in the T6 temper. Elements such as s01ubilityin aluminum in the presence Of nolTnal +t&c reaction, niobium would be ex- to
manganese,chromium,and zirconium are used impkties but remaim in so1utionwhen chil1casf have agrain-refiningeffecton c&g. It has been
for controlling grain structure. Alloys of this so that most Of the manganese added is substan- used for this purpose, but the effectis not marked*
group, such as the structural alloy 6061, tiallYretainedin solutiony even in largeingo@.As Phosphorus is a &or i m p ~ t y(1 to 10
achieve strengths about 70 MPa (10 ksi) higher an addition, it iS Used to inatmestrength and to ppm) in commercial-gradealuminum. Its solubil-
than in the fust group in the T6 temper. Alloys Controlthegrain structure @g.26).Theeffmof ity in molten aluminum is very low (4.01% at
of the second group require a higher solution- manganese is to increase the r e c I y ~ ~ ~ 660 O n"C, or 1220 O F ) and considerably smaller in
treating temperature than the first and are t e m p e r a and to Promote the f O ~ t i O of n fi- the solid. phosphorus is used as a modifier for
quench-sensitive.Therefore, they generally re- brow stwture upon hot working. As a dispersed hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys where
quire a separate solution treatment followedby precipitate it is effectivein slowing recovery and aluminum-phosphideacts as nucleus for primary
rapid quenching and artificial aging. in preventing grain growth. The manganese pre- silicon, thus refining silicon and improving ma-
Physical Metallurgy / 45

chinability. The aluminum-phosphorus com-


pounds reacts with water vapor to give phosphine
(PH3), but the level of phosphorus in aluminum
is sufficiently low that this does not constitute a
health hazard if adequate ventilation is used
when machining phosphorus-nucleated castings.
phosphine can be a problem in fumace teardowns
where phosphate-bonded refractories are used.
Silicon, after iron, is the highest impurity
level in electrolytic commercial aluminum (0.01
to 0.15%).In wrought alloys, silicon is used with
magnesium at levels up to 1.5% to produce
MgzSi in the 6xwx series of heat-treatable alloys.
High-punty aluminum-silicon alloys are
hot short up to 3% Si, the most critical range
being 0.17 to 0.8%si, but additions O f Silicon ~ i 27~ Effect
. of MgZn2 and MgZn2 with excess magnesium on tensile propertiesof wrought 95%AI; 1.59 mm
(0.5 to 4.0%)reduce the cracking tendency of (0.0625 in.) specimens, quenched in cold water from 470 "C (875 "F)
aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys. Small
amounts of magnesium added to any silicon-
containing alloy will render it heat-treatable, As little as 0.01 % Sn in commercial-grade protective Cladding (7072) and in sacriticid an-
but the c o n v e x is not true because excess aluminum will cause surface darkening on an- odes.
magnesium over that required to form Mg2Si nealing and increase the susceptibility to corro- Zinc-Magnesium. The addition of magne-
sharply reduces the solid solubility of this com-sion, which appears to be due to migration of sium to the aluminum-zinc alloys develops the
pound. Modification of the silicon can be tin to the surface. This effect may be reduced strength potential of this alloy system, especially
achieved through the addition of sodium in by small additions (0.2%) of copper. Alumi- in the range of 3 to 7.5% Zn. Magnesium and zinc
eutectic and hypoeutectic alloys and by phos- num-zinc alloys with small additions of tin are form Mgzn2, which produces a far greater re-
phorus in hypereutectic alloys. Up to 12%Si is used as sacrificial anodes in salt water. sponse to heat treatmentthan occurs in thebinary
added in wrought alloys used as cladding for Titanium. Amounts of 10 to 100 ppm 'I3 are aluminum-zinc system.
brazing sheet. Hypereutectic casting alloys found in commercial-purity aluminum. Titanium The strength of the wrought aluminum-zinc
used for wear applications contain up to 23% depresses the electrical conductivity of alumi- alloys also is substantially improved by the
Si. Alloys conthing about 5% Si acquire a num, but its level can be reduced by the addition addition of magnesium. Increasing the M@n2
black color when anodized and are used for of boron to the melt to form insoluble TiBz. concentration from 0.5 to 12% in cold-water-
ornamental purposes. Titanium is used primarily as a g.lin refiner of quenched 1.6 mm (0.062 in.) sheet continu-
Silver has an extremely high solid solubility
aluminum alloy castings and ingots. When used ously increases the tensile and yield strengths.
in aluminum (UP to 55%). Because of COS6 no alone, the effect of titanium decreases with time The addition of magnesium in excess (100 and
binary aluminum-si1ver al1oYs are in use, but of holding in the molten state and with repeated 200%) of that required to from MgZn2 further
small additions (o.l to o.6%Ag) are effective in reme1ting.Thegrain-rehingeffectisenhancedif increases tensile strength, as shown in Fig. 27.
improvingthe smn@and sms-comsion resis- boron is present in the melt or if it is added as a On the negative side, increasing additions
tance of aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. master alloy containing boron largely combined of both zinc and magnesium decrease the over-
Strontium*Tram Of strontium(O.O1 to '.* as TB2. Titanium is a common addition to weld all co~osionresistance of aluminum to the
p) are found in commercial-@e aluminum. filler wire; it refmes the weld structure and pre- extent that close control over the microsmc-
Su'fur' As much as o'2 to 2o Ppm sulfur is vents weld Cracking. It is usually added alone or tu=, heat treatment, and composition are of-
present in commercial-@e aluminurn. It has with T i 2 during the casting of sheet or extrusion necessary to maintain adequate resistance to
been reported that sulfurcan be used to modifY ingots to refme the % e t grain Structure and to
both hypo- and hypereutectic aluminum-silicon stress cornsion and to exfoliatory attack. For
prevent cracking. example, depending on the alloy, stress c o m -
alloys. Vanadium. There is usually 10 to 200 ppm
Tin is used as an alloying addition to alumi- sion is controlled by some or all of the follow-
nurn-from concenmions Of 0'03to seved per-
v in commercial-grade aluminum and hause it ing:
lowers conductivity, it generally is precipitated
cent in wrought alloys, to concentrations of about
25% in casting alloys. Small amounts of tin from electrical conductor alloys with boron. The
aluminum end of the equilibrium d k i m is
.. Overaging
(0.05%) greatly increase the response of alumi-
num-copper alloys to artificial aging following a
peritectic, and therefore the intermetallic VAlii
would be expected to have a grain-refiningeffect
. Coolingrateaftersolutiontreatrnent
Maintaining a nonreqstallized structure
through the use of additions such as zirco-
solution heat treatment. The result is an increase
in sb-engthand an improvement in comsion re- on solidification,but it is less efficient than tita- nium
sistance. Higher concenmtions of tin ause hot nium and zirconium. The recrystallkition tem- Copper or chromium additions (see Zinc-
cracking in aluminum-copper alloys. ~f small pe~tu~is~sedbyv~um. magnesiumcopper alloys below)
mounts of magnesium are presenL the amficial Zinc. The aluminum-zinc alloys have been Adjusting the zinc-magnesium ratio closer
aging chmcteristics are markedly redU&, prob- known for m y YearS, but hot Cracking Of the to 3:l
ably h a u s e magnesium and tin f o m a nonce- casting alloys and the susceptibilityto streSS-C0r-
herent second phase. rosion cracking of the wrought alloys curtailed Zinc-Magnesium-Copper. The addition of
nealuminum-h bearing alloys, with ad- their use. Aluminum-zinc alloys containing other copper to the aluminum-zinc-magnesium sys-
ditions of other metals such as copper, nickel, elements offer the highest combination Of ten?& tem, togethex with S d but hpoltilnt amountS
and silicon, are used where bearings are re- properties in wrought aluminum alloys. Efforts to Of chromium and manganese, resUltS in the high-
quired to withstand high speeds, loads, and overcome the aforementioned limitations have est-stRn& aluminum-base alloys commercially
temperatures. The copper, nickel, and silicon been successful, and these aluminum-zinc alloys available. The properties of a representative
additions improve loadcarrying capacity and are being used commercially to an hcreaSing group of these compositions, after one of s e v d
wear resistance, and the soft tin phase provides extent. The presence of zinc in aluminum in- solution and aghg treatments to which they re-
antiscoring properties. creases its solution potential, hence its use in spond, are shown in Fig. 28.
46 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

3. W.B. Pearson, Handbook of Lattice Spac-


ings andstructures of Metals and Alloys,
Vol 2, Pergamon Press, 1967
4. L.F. Mondolfo, Aluminum Alloys: Struc-
tures and Properties,Butterworths, 1976
5. W. Hume-Rothev and G.V. Raynor, The
Structure of Metals anddlloys, The Insti-
tute of Metals, 1962
6. LR. Moms et al., Formability of Alumi-
num Sheet Alloys, Aluminum TraMor-
mation Technology and Applications,
C.A. F'ampilloet. al., Ed., American Soci-
ety for Metals, 1982, p 549-582
~ i 28~ Effect
. of zinc o n aluminum alloy containing 1.5% Cu and 1 and 3% Mg; 1 . 6 mm (0.064 in.) thick sheet. 7. T.H. Sanders, Jr. and J.T. Staley, Review
Alloy with 1 Yo Mg heat treated at 495 "C (920 O F ) ; that with 3% Mg heat treated at 4 6 0 "C (860 O F ) . All of Fatigue and Fracture Research on
specimens quenched in cold water, aged 12 h at 135 "C (275 O F ) High-Strength Aluminum Alloys, Fa-
tigue andMicrostmcture,American Soci-
ety for Metals, 1979, p 467-522
In this alloy system, zinc and magne- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 8. J.T. Staley, Microstructures and Tough-
sium control the aging process. The effect ness of High-Strength Aluminum Alloys,
of copper is to increase the aging rate by Properties Related to Fracture Tough-
increasing the degree of supersaturation The information in this article is largely ness, STP605, ASTM, 1976, p 71-103
and perhaps through nucleation of the takenfrom: 9. G.T. Hahn and AR. Rosenfield, Metallur-
CuMgAlz phase. Copper also increases gical Factors Affecting Fracture Tough-
quench sensitivity upon heat treatment. In Effects of Alloying Elements and Impurities ness of Aluminum Alloys, Metal. Trans.
general, copper reduces the resistance to on Properties, Aluminum: Properties and, A., Vol 6A, April 1975, p 653-670
general corrosion of aluminum-zinc-mag- PhysicalMetallurgy, J.E. Hatch, Ed., Ameri- 10. J.S. Santner and D. Eylon, Fatigue Be-
nesium alloys, but increases the resistance havior and Failure Mechanisms of Modi-
to stress corrosion. The minor alloy addi-
tions, such as chromium and zirconium,
. can Society for Metals, 1984, p 200-241
Aluminum Mill and Engineered Wrought
products, Properties andselection: Nonfer-
fied 7075 Aluminum Alloys, Metal.
Trans.A., Vol lOA, July 1979, p 841-848
have a marked effect on mechanical prop- 1 1. J.M. Vanorden, W.E. Kmpp, E. Walden,
row Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials,
erties and corrosion resistance. and J.T. Ryder, Effects of Purity on Fa-
Vol 2, ASM Handbook (formerly Metals tigue and Fracture of 7XXX-T7651 1 Alu-
Zirconium additions in the range of 0.1 Handbook, 10th d.),ASM International, minum Extrusion, J. Aircrajf?, Vol 16,
to 0.3%are used to form a fine precipitate of 1 9 0 , p 200-241
intermetallic particles that inhibit recovery
and recrystallization. An increasing number
. Constitution of Alloys, Aluminum: proper- 12.
May 1979, p 327-335
W.G. Truckner, J.T. Staley, RJ. Bucci,
ties and Physical Metallurgy, J.E. Hatch, and A.B. Thakker, Effects of Microstruc-
of alloys, particukwly in the ahminum-zinc- Ed., American Society for Metals, 1984, p ture on Fatigue Crack Growth of High-
magnesium family, use zirconium additions
to increase the recrystallization temperature
and to control the grain structure in wrought
. Metallography
25-57
and Microstructures of Alu-
Strength Aluminum
AFML-TR-76-169, O a 1979
Alloys,

minum Alloys, Metallography and Micro- 13. R.J.H Wanhill, Spectrum Fatigue Crack
products. Zirconium additions leave this stmctures, v0l 9, ASM Handbook (formerly Propagation in Aluminum Alloy Sheet
family of alloys less quenchsensitive than Metals Handhok, 9th ed.), ~ -i- , , ~,s ~ f
Materials, Aluminum,
i ~Vol 55, May
~ 1979,
similar chromium'additions. Higher levels of ety for Metals, 1985, p 351-388 p 340-343
zirconium (0.3 'and 0.4%) are employed in 14. R.A. Coyer, Toxicity of Metals, loth ed.,
some superplastic alloys to retain the re- Vol 2, Metals Handbook, ASM Intema-
quired fine substructure during elevated- tional, 1990, p 1233-1269
temperature forming. Zirconium additions REFERENCES 15. R.K. Wyss and RE. Sanders, Jr., Mims-
have been used to reduce the as-cast grain tructurePropeI.ty Relationship in a k
size, but its effect is less than that of tita- Aluminum Alloy with Mg Addition, Met-
nium. In addition, zirconium tends to reduce 1. D. Altenpohl, Aluminum Waved from al. Trans.A., Vol 19A, 1988,p 2523-2530
the grain-refining effect of titanium plus bo- Within, Ahnhum-verlag, Dusseldorf, 16. C.T. Liu, J.O. Stiegler, and EH. F m s ,
ron additions, so that it is necessary to use 1982 Ordered Intermetallics, loth ed., Vol 2,
more titanium and boron to grain refine zir- 2. D. Munson, J. Inst. Met., Vol 95,1967, p Metals Handbook, ASM International,
conium-containing alloys. 217-219 1990, p 913-942
ALUMINUM RECYCLING started less The energy requirementsfor the conversion to the aluminum industry in material competi-
than 20 years after the commercialization of of aluminum scrap are low when compared tions for major product markets. The current
the Hall-Heroultprocess in 1888,driven by the with the energy consumed in primary alumi- driving forces for aluminum recycling are:
high value and several unique properties of the num production. For example, the actual ratio
metal. In the early days of the developing alu- of primary total energy to recycled total energy
minum industry, the primary producers at- for used beverage cans is 28.5:l (Ref 1).
. Regulatory actions taken by government
agencies to encourage resource conserva-
tempted to maximize new metal sales to reduce The objective of recycling is to produce a tion, energy conservation, and waste reduc-
the unit price and make aluminum competitive salable commercial aluminum alloy product. tion through mandatory segregation and de-
with the traditional construction metals. They Currently, more than 300 compositions cover- posit programs
were not interested in scrap recycling, leaving ing wrought and cast alloys are registered with
that activity to others, who in time developed the Aluminum Association (see the article
. Consumer sensitivity to environmental is-

an independent secondary industry. “Alloy and Temper Designation Systems” in


As both industries grew, their objectives this Volume). Many of these alloys are de-+
.. sues and the solid-wastecrisis
Competitive pressures from other materials
Economic advantages based on the relative
changed. The primary producers started to use signed to tolerate the variations in composition value and availability of aluminum scrap
scrap of all forms and origins, and the secon- and ranges in impurity content that may be
dary producers began producing more sophis- experienced in the recovery of scrap. Even
ticated end products, thus reducing the widely varying scraps can be melted to pro-
onginally distinctive differences between the duce alloys that a commonly used in die and The Recycling loop
two industries. Similardevelopments occurred gravity casting, extrusion, and sheet rolling.
in the teChnOlOgY arena The secondary Pro- In the early decades of this century, the nereclamation of aluminurn scrap is a
ducers were originally 1OwCapitalSalvage Op- output of the secondary aluminum industry complex interactive process involving collec-
erators- Some still operate in that mode, was largely tied to the consumptionof castings tion centern, primary producers, secondary
Whereas other have grown into large coV’ra-by the automotive industry. As shown in Fig. 1, smeltem, metal processors, and consumers.
tions using advanced technology. This latter the recycling of aluminum has i n m a s 4 stead- Figure 2 depicts the flow of metal originating
P U P Patterned its develoPent after that Of ily from 1950 until the present despite reces- in primary smeltingoperationsthroughvarious
the primary industry, which has taken a more sions and energy crises. This increase is the
capital-intensivea~pr~~htosolving recycling result of growth in the automotive market as recycling activities.The initial reprocessing of
scrap takes place in the facilities of primary
p ~ b l ~Thiss . h c l e will emphasize mainly well as the developmentof new and significant producers. In-process scrap, generated both in
these general t ~ h n o l o g i trends
~l and devel- recycling applications, such as the consump-
o p m t s rather than the traditional methods tion of used beverage cans (UBC) in the manu- casting and fabricating,is reprocessed by melt-
and h a d w m . Statistical informationrelated to factureof sheet for new cans. ing and recasting. Increasingly, primary pro-
primary and secondary aluminum production ducers are purchasing scrap to supplement
In Itcent years’ environmenta1 concemS
primary metal supply; an example of such ac-
can be found in the hcle ‘’Genera1Introduc- have contributed to an increased awareness of tivity is he purchase or to” conversion of uBc
tion” in this Volume. the hpmce Of scrap recyc1ing‘ Today’ the
recyclability of aluminum is a major advantage by primary producers engaged in the produc-
tion of rigid container stock.
Scrap incurred in the processing or fabrica-
Recyclability of Aluminum tion of semifabricatedaluminum products rep-
resents and additional source of recyclable
Aluminum possesses many characteristics aluminum. Traditionally, this form of new
that make it highly compatible with recycling. scrap has been returned to the supplier for
It is resistant to corrosion, and a low ratio of recycling, or it has been disposed of through
energy is required to remelt aluminum com- sale on the basis of competitive bidding by
pared with that required for its primary produc- metal traders, primary producers, and secon-
tion. Also, the alloy versatility of aluminum dary smelters.
has resulted in a large number of commercial Finished aluminum products, which in-
compositions, many of which were designed to clude such items as consumer durable and non-
accommodate impurity contamination. durable goods; automotive, aerospace, and
Aluminum is resistant to corrosion and it military products; machinery; miscellaneous
thus retains a high level of metal value after transportation parts; and building and con-
use, exposure, or storage. Once produced, alu- shuction materials, have finite lives. In time,
minum can be considered a permanent re- discarded aluminum becomes available for
source for recycling, preferably into similar ~ i 1 ~years
U.S.. aluminum supply distribution for the
1 9 4 0 t o 1990,Source:AluminumAs- collection ad recovery‘ socalled Old scrap*
products. sociation metal product that has been discarded after use,
48 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

~ i2 ~Flow. diagram for aluminum in the United States, showing the role of recycling in the industry. Scrap recycling (lower left) includes scrap collectors, processors, dealers
and brokers, sweat furnace operators, and dross reclaimers. Source: U.S. Bureau of Mines

Recycling Trends

Anumber of industry segments are in com-


petition for the available aluminum scrap,
though not necessarily the same types of scrap.
As shown in Fig. 3, the primary producers have
experienced the largest increase in scrap con-
sumption. The sporadic data available for the
period prior to 1940 suggest that recycling of
aluminum grew steadily to about 15% of total
shipments. World War I1 disrupted the pattem
drastically, but the stockpile reduction in the
years following the war reduced the recycling
rate to the prewar level (Fig. 4). Scrap con-
sumption trends describing the relationship be-
tween the contributions of the primary and
secondary industries to the recycling effort are
illustrated in Fig. 5.
The objective of all collection activities is
the conversion of scrap forms to products hav-
ing the highest commercial value. A growing
trend is the consumption of scrap in secondary
fabricating facilities. A number of extruders,
foundries, and minimill operations are produc-
ing billet, castings, and common alloy sheet
F&,. 3 U S . aluminum scrap consumption by type of company for the years 1972 to 1986. Source: U.S. Bureau
products directly from scrap. The die casting
of Mines
industry relies heavily on secondary composi-
tions for the production of automotive and
can be segregated into classifications that fa- cations, however, a~ for the most part physical other parts, and the larger die casters have, in
cilitate recycling and recovery. descriptions of scrap categories useful to dealers. many cases, expanded metal supply through
Scrap specifications have been developed Chemistry specifcations and limits on harmful direct scrap purchases.
tha allow the convenientdefinition of scrap types impurities are not defined, and treatment of extra- Aluminum Industry Trends. Recent de-
for resale and subsequent reprocessing. Those neous contaminants is inconsistent. More com- velopments have strongly influenced the rate at
developed by the Institute of Scrap Recycling prehensive scrap specifications are being which scrap is recycled and the nature of the
Industries a~ in broad use (Ref 2). These specifi- developed by the industry. markets served by recycling activity. Severalgen-
Recycling Technology / 49

Developing Scrap Streams

The traditional flow of scrap through the


primary, consuming, and secondary industries
is dominated by three major scrap streams:
UBC, automotive scrap, and municipal scrap.
Beverage Cans. The recycling of UBC is a
remarkable success story (Fig. 6). It is not an
exaggeration to suggest that aluminum recycling
has played a major role in the market growth of
aluminum beverage cans and their penetration
into a market previously dominated by compet-
ing materials. Of the approximately 145 billion
beverage cans sold each year worldwide, more
than four out of five are made eom aluminum
~ i 4 ~Aluminum
. (Ref 3). In ule alllmhlm can accounted f0r
recycling trends in the United States. The percentage of shipments recycled is only now ap-
'e
19761

proaching the peak experienced during World War II. 2 1% of the bevemge containex 46.4 billion
mhiners ~ereprodued,of which49 billion were
recycled. In 1986,72.9 billion cans were produced
and 33.3 billion cans w m recycled.
In 1988, 94% of all beverage can bodies
were produced from aluminum, and virtually
100% of all cans featured the aluminum easy-
open end. In 1992,67.9% of all beverage cans
made from aluminum were recycled in the
United States. In Sweden, a recycling rate of
83.3% was reached in 1991; the target to be
reached by the end of 1993 is 90% recycling of
aluminum beverage cans. In Australia,Canada,
Japan, South Korea, and China, recycling rates
in excess of 80% are being achieved. World-
wide, approximately 50% of all aluminum
beverage cans are recycled (Ref 3).
Fig. 5 U.S. aluminum recycling by industrytype Aluminum producers, can makers, and the
public have invested in the return system.
Large-scale consumer advertising campaigns
eralizations concerningthe US. and world alumi- have emphasized energy savings and resource
num industries can be made: conservation. Under deposit legislation, cans
Fig. 6 Increase in recycling of aluminum UBC have generally proven most convenient to han-
The aluminum industry today is truly inter- from 1978 to 1988. The calculation for the dle by consumers, retailers, bottlers, and
national. mary alurninumis p d u c e d in number of cans collected is based on a can weight
wholesalers. Collection activities include re-
survey conducted by the Aluminum Association.
virtually every global region, and the metal verse vending machines,mobile return centers,
produced competes in global markets. Alu- and public information and educational cam-
minum alloy scrap is now traded interna- place in countries with low energy costs, P ~ ~ WRecycling
S. centers m active in the de-

.
tionally as well. such as Mexico, Venezuela, and Australia. veloPment Of thematic Programs to Promote
Domestic primary a1uminum production Recycling will increase in importance. For the Concept Of recycling; these programs often
'
will *t be expanded beyond the capacity of the united states, and ulthately for the rest associaterecycling with civic causes and medi-
existing smeltingfacilities. Energy costs and cal Programs, and they encowage voluntefl,
of the aluminurnconsuming world, m y -
labor rates in the United States suggest that service, and community groups and individu-
clmg and reSOurce movery will play an
there will be substantial decreases in pri- 1' s to maximize the return of used beverage
increasingly important strategic role in en-
mary output in the absence of any foresee- cans'
suring a reliable and economical metal sup-
able new, more economical smelting tech- Recycling of UBC is based on the inher-
nologies. Ply.
. There are new risks and uncertainties. The
European and, to a lesser but siWificant
The U S .will import aluminum.On the basis
of the best assumptions, the United States
ently high scrap value of aluminum and its
convertibilityinto newcan stock. For the most
part, UBC are consumed by primary producers
extent, the U.S. aluminum industries face wil1bec0me an hporting nation as alumi- of rigidcontainer sheet and are employed in
new risks and uncertainties caused by the num requirements exceed domesti' sme1t- the regeneration of can stock. The growth in
growing geographic separation of primary kg capacity*Most hPO* wil1consist Of markets such as Western Europe, coupled with
production from major fabricating and con- unal1oyed sme1ter ingot for reme1ting*cast- high energy rates in some countries (Japan, for
ing, and fabrication in North American fa-
. suming markets.
Aluminum is a US.-dollar-based commod-
ity. Exchange rate fluctuations represent a
cilities. some ProdUCtSWfilbe imported, but
only for specialty aPP1icabOns With unique
example), has also created an active market
involving the export of UBC and can scrap.
The alloy compatibility of the components of
major complication in stabilizing prices and and/or Cost advantages over domestic prod- the can makes it uniquely suitable for the
regulating international competition and ucts. closed-loop recycling concept and is responsi-
Worldcompetitionfor scrap units will inten-
. metal supply.
The world aluminum production capacity szfy based on relative costs and availability
ble for the consistently high value of UBC as
well as the ever-increasingvolume of UBC in
will expand, but such expansion will take of primary aluminum and scrap. new can sheet.
50 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Electronic Scrap. Small amounts of alumi-


num are also recovered from discarded avionic
and/or electronic assemblies. It is estimated that
approximately 40 wt% of electronic scrap is
made up of nonprecious metals such as alumi-
num, copper, nickel, tin, lead, and zinc. Most of
the work associated with electronic scrap has,
however, centered around recovering precious
metals (Ref 5).

Technological Aspects of
Aluminum Recycling

Although the term recycling suggest a


closed loop, or a set of endless material/prod-
uct cycles, the widely accepted temtory of alu-
~ i 7 ~ Average
. use of aluminum in automobiles from 1946 to 1988. U.S. automaken have used more alumi- minum recycling includes Scrap collection and
num than world producers since the mid-1950s. preparation, remelting, refining, and the up-
grading of molten metal to a ready-to-cast con-
dition. Molten metal treatment processes such
Automotive Scrap. Increased activity in expected. The best available information indi- as demagging, degassing, filtering, composi-
the recycling of spent automobiles is based cates that more than 12 million metric tons (13.5 tion adjustment, and fluxing play an extremely
largely on new steeltechnologies that make scrap million tons) of metals are lost annually through important role in enabling the reuSe of often
conversion economically attractive. However, refuse disposal in the United States. Metals make heavily contaminated scrap in the production
the exceptional value of the nonferrous metals up only 9% of total refuse. Of the total metals + of new products; these processes are well de-
that m being sepmted through the efforts of available in metal municipal refuse, less than l % scribed in the literature.Acomprehensive over-
metal recyclers and the secondary industry also is recovered. Because the cost of separating all view of molten metal processes for alu-um
contributessignificantly to this recycling activity. COmpoonentS Of the refuse Stream must be based and aluminum alloys can be found in the micle
Because the use of aluminum in automo- on the value of reusable materials and energy “ M o l t e n ~ l ~ m i n ~ ~ P r o ~ ~ ~ ~ i n ~ ~
biles is increasing (Fig. 7), the aluminum value content, a logical conclusion is that municipal this volume. The following discussion will
recovered from shredded automobiles is of refuse p m s s i n g has not yet become economi- concentrate on issues involving scrap prepara-
special importance to the metal castings indus- cally viable; future expansion of such processing tion and melting.
try. The potential for aluminum use in automo- will depend either on government subsidies or ~nthe early days of the aluminum industry,
biles is limited only by how aggressively changes in energy costs and the availability of recycling consisted enhely of hand-charging
material advantages are pursued by the manu- raw materials. unused parts of castings (for example, risers or
facturers. In the next five to ten years the The solid-wastecrisis has exposed the need cut-to-fit scrap pieces) into an &fired vessel
growth of the use of aluminum in automobiles to increase all forms of recycling activity. In that resembled an oil drum on its side and that
is expected to be significant, with some fore- 1988, the United States generated 145 million could be tilted for tapping. After the invention
casts estimating an increase from 75 kg (165 metric tons (160 million tons) of waste. It is of the resealable taphole, the reverberatory, or
lb) in 1990 to 180 to 270 kg (400 to 600 lb) by anticipated that it may produce more than 180 open hearth, furnace evolved as the predomi-
the year 2000 (Ref 4). Growth to the present million metric tons (200 million tons) per Year nant remelting facility.
level of aluminum use in the automotive indus- by the year 2000. In 1979, the nation had There are two reasons for the long-term
try has been largely associated with construc- 18,500 landfills in operation. This number was Success ofthe dkct-fxing method in which the
tion concepts emphasizing castings. For reduced to 6500 by 1988, and the U.S. Envi- combustion chamber and the scrap charge
example, 57.5 kg (126.8 lb) of aluminum cast- ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates room are combined into one open hearth. First,
ings were used in the average automobile in that 80% of existing landfills will be closed by aluminum ofidation progresses slowly due to
1990. This constitutes nearly 77% of all alumi- the year 2010. The E’A and other agencies the protective, flexible thin oxide film that
num used in passenger cars. Aluminum alloy have argued for responsible reductions in forms instantaneouslywhen a fresh aluminum
forgings, sheet, and extrusions are presently waste, increased emphasis on recycling, the surface is exposed to any oxygen-containing
being developed by international automobile use of incheration to generate energy and re- atmosphere. Second, the surface-to-volumera-
manufacturers in cooperation with primary ductions in the reliance on landfill space. At tio of scrap particles was genedly small, be-
aluminum producers to enable the increased present, only 10% of waste in the United States cause the scrap usually consisted of large
use of these materials. is recycled. Anational goal establishedby EPA sections or parts and heavy-gage sheet. There-
In 1990, 10 million retired automobiles was to increase recycling to 25% by 1992. The fore, the penalty for direct exposure to the
may yield as much as 500,000 metric tons value of aluminum scrap can be expected to melting environment was acceptable when the
(550,000 tons) of aluminum; this figure is significantly affect the success of plans to in- scrap was generally coarse and the alloys were
based on a recovery of 55 kg (120 lb) per crease the percentage of waste that is recycled. low in magnesium content.
vehicle, about the 1980 average. In 1995, be- Clearly, the recyclability of any material The open hearth fumace was the mainstay
cause of the projected increase of the use of enhances its attractiveness in commercial ap- of the scrap-remelting business for over 50
aluminum in automobiles, recoverable alumi- plications relative to materials that are not re- years, but as the application of aluminum be-
num may increase to 820,000 metric tons cyclable, or that can be recycled only at an came more widespread and diverse, the need
(900,000 tons). Trucks and buses, in which excessive cost. The inherent recyclability of for effective and efficientrecycling technology
aluminum is used more intensively, would add aluminum and its value after recycling enable grew rapidly. The corresponding growth and
to these estimates. it to be used in a manner that is supportive of diversification of the scrap-recycling industry
Municipal Scrap. The separation of metals national environmental and waste reduction have been driven by several factors, including
h municipal refusehas not grown as originally goals. increased production requirements, alloy de-
Recycling Technology / 51

velopment, scarcity of energy and resources, volumes and induction melting for more modest Obviously, the ideal way of reusing scrap is to
and increased availability of mixed scrap. volumes. recycle it into similar products, or in other words,
Increased Production Requirements. Energy and Resource Scarcity. The en- to p m s used cans into new-can sheet, auto
Large modem casting stations may use up to 114 ergy crisis of 1973 highlighted the enormous scrap into new carparts,and so on. Melting UBC,
metric tons (125 tons) of metal per production energy advantage of using scrap rather than new removing the magnesium by chlorination, and
cycle. This requires not only a high melt rate in metal and exposed the corresponding need to adding silicon to produce a casting alloy can be
large melt furnaces, but also a minimal charge e melt losses. The primary producers profitable at times and is technically less chal-
time. The present rectangular OF hearth furnace started to keep moredifficult-to-meltscrap (US- lenging than making new-can sheet, but the metal
constructionis practicallylhited in s i x to about ing their newly developed continuous melters or units involved will be permanently degraded by
a 30 m2 (320 ft2) bath area. c y l i n 6 d furnace induction furnaces), forcing the secondary pro- such an approach.
constructionallows for he& areas of up to 75 ducers to deal with even less desirable scrap In primary aluminum production plants, a
m2 (800 ft2) and featuresa removable lid. ms
types. This scrap was processed mostly in rotary great effort is made to keep the scrap identified
configur;itionallows for very fast, welldilistrib- salt melters, which were already popular for skim and segregated. This so-called turn-around
uted overhead charging with preloaded dump and dross rec1amation. scrap is pedigreed and therefore of the highest
buckets. The old design relies on cumbersome Increased Availability of Mixed Scrap. value. However, at the production stations of
Since the early 196Os, the volume of scrap kom part fabrication (for example, a machining op-
door charging, which requires a special machine
discarded long-life-cycle products such as home eration in an aircraft manufacturingplant), it is
to push relatively small amounts of scrap as far construction materials, trailers, household goods, considered impractical and uneconomical to
back into the fumace as practicallypossib1e' and so on-often inseparably mixed with other keep scrap segregated by alloy. Furthermore,
Alloy Developments. The use Of a1umi- metalsincreased steadily. Substantial amounts in end-product fabrication, permanent attach-
num-magnesium alloys in ''&'-gage sheet for of otherwise lost aluminum are recovered from ment of some aluminum to other metals or
automotive and conher products and alumi- such scrap by sweat melting. This is a selective non-metals is inevitable. Therefore, no ideal
num-ma~esium-zinc all0Ys for aerospace and process that involves melting the scrap in a hearth process for recycling the latter two types of
extrusion aPPliCations resu1ts in large amountsOf with a sloped bottom. It works by exploiting the scrap material is readily available.
high-surface-ma Scrap *at has siaficantlY melt temperature differences of the metals p- The greatest challenge for the recycling
higher O x k b t h rate at elevated * ~ p e r a t u r e S sent: melting, draining, and collecting at the base, community is finding the most economical
than pure aluminum, aluminum-CoPper, or alU- the metal with the lowest melt point first, fol- way to separate and prepare scrap for melting
minum-SkmallOYS.The Prevalence ofthis tYPe lowed by the metal with the next-lowest melt so that is can be used in the least degraded form
of scrap has stimulated the development and use point, and SO on. with the least number of postmelt treatments
of methods that minimize the exposure of the Alloy Integrity. In addition to preservation for alloy or quality adjustments. Each product
scrap to the hostile furnace atmosphere; these and melt loss reduction, a key factor in successful has its own specific demands, which present
methods include continuous melting for large recycling is the maintenance of alloy integrity. obstacles and provide opportunities for meet-

Fig. 8 Flow diagram of closed-loop UBC recycling and manufacturing. Source: Ref 6
52 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

ing this challenge. A complete review of all


possible paths would be impractical. Because
the UBC and auto scrap loops are different in
every aspect, this article will focus on several
of the technological developments in prepara-
tion and melting in those loops. Municipal re-
fuse and automotive recovery technologies are
basically the same.

Can Recycling Technology

Considerable amounts of UBC are either


toll converted for primary producers or re-
melted by secondary operators, using open
hearth or rotary salt furnaces for use in casting
alloys. However, the majority (about 80%) of
UBC are returned directly to the primary indus-
try, and UBC recycling is thus a prime example
Fig. 9 Process by which recycled cans replace virgin metal in the beverage container market
of closed-loop product recycling. The flow dia-'
gram in Fig. 8 shows *e captive nature ofthe ~ 0 t systems
h present inherent control prob- in this section. significantamounts of skim-the
can manufacturing and recycling loop- The lems that may result in nonuniform delacquer- mixhm of metal, oxides, other contaminants, and

scribed '*''
scrap prepmtion and me1t techno1ogies de- ing. A temperature that is too low or exposure trapped gas that floats on top of the melt-
'=tion are 'Onsidered the moSt times at the proper temperatures that are too removed and treated for metal recovery. Atypical
advanced and shou1d not be viewed as industry short will leave a tar-like coating on the UBC. + skim weight is 15% of the original charge. The
standards*However*many UBc Converters are This coating causes premelt burning, which recovered metal (6 to 8% of the original charge)
using simi1ar* rather sophisticated technolo- leads to increased metal losses upon melting. A h m this skim will be used only in body stock
gies. temperature that is too high or exposure times manufacturing because of its high levels of man-
Cdlection- UBc are received from collec- at proper temperatures that are too long will ganese and contaminants.
tion centen as bales weik@% 400 kg (880 Ib) Or cause considerable oxidation of the scrap, also The metal from these dedicated melters is
as briquettes with a m u m density of 500 resulting in increased melt losses. often transferred to on-line melting furnaces,
kdm3 (31 lb/ft3)-The bnquettes can be stacked In the pan delacquering system, large bed where additional bulky scrap is remelted and
On Skids and Offerstorage advantages to the suP depths may result in temperaturegradients that primary unalloyed metal is charged to create
Plia*buttheYcanbehdon*eq~PmentOf*e cause the above-mentioned problems. In the the desired volume of the proper alloy compo-
m x k In ~ the shredding Thon* bales and kiln method, gas flows are high and these con- sition. From these melting furnaces, the metal
brisuena are bmken apart and the Cans dmdded ditions lead to nonunifom residence times and is transferred to the holding furnaces, where
to enswe that no trapped h q ~ dOr ~Xtrar~eouS the same problems. Proper operating controls minor composition adjustments are made and
material will re& the melten and Cause serious for these delacquering units, which treat about metal quality treatments are performed (for ex-
damage Or injuries. Fmm the Shredder, the mate- 18 metric tons (20 tons) of scrap (-1.25 million ample, gas fluxing to remove hydrogen).
rial parses, via a magndc Separator that removes UBC) per hour, are vital for producing low- Some metal treatment (for example, inclusion
f m U S COIltUIlhantS, through aIl air knife. h the melt-loss feedstock. removal) can be done in so-called in-line treat-
a i r ~ , h e a v Y n O n f e r r o U S m a t ~ S S U C h a s l ~ ~ Alloy Separation. The hot, delacquered ment units; again, most major companies have
zinc, and stainless Steel Scrap drop O u t The shred- UBC then move into the thermomechanical sepa- developed their own preferred methods and
ded aluminum cans then pass on to the delacquer- ration chamber, which is held at a specific tem- technology. The clean and oncomposition
ing units. perahm and containsa nonoxidizing atmosphere. metal is cast into ingots weighing up to 13.5
Delacquering. There are two basic a p In this chamber, a gentle mechanical action metric tons (15 tons). During casting and roll-
proaches to continuous thermal delacquering. breaks up the alloy 5182 lids into small fragments ing of the ingot to the sheet, about 42%of the
One is based on arelatively long exposm time at along grain boundaries, which have been weak- original melt weight may be shaved, cropped
a safe t e m p h m , and the other is based on e n d by the onset of incipient melting. An inte- or slit off in various stages. This metal is called
staged t e m p h m in- to just below melt- p t e d screening action removes the fragments as the in-house, or turnaround, scrap, and it is
ing for as short an exposure time a~ possible. The soon as they can pass the screen to avoid over- directly returned to the remelters.
first approach uses apan conveyor on which abed hgmentation. This process requires a very nar- The body and lid sheet are shipped to a can
of -shed and shredded UBC approximately row operating control capability to avoid melting manufacturer. As a result of can fabrication
200 mm (8 in.) deep moves through a chamber en& 5182 particles, which would then cluster processes, about 20% of the sheet (or 13%of
held at about 520 "C (970 O F ) . The ~hamber with the still-solid alloy 3004 particles. The the original melt) is returned to the aluminum
contains pruducts of combustion OC)gases screened-out alloy 5182 particles are transported manufacturer as skeleton scrap. On a global
that are diluted with air to provide the p r o p e r to the lid stock melters, and the large alloy 3004 basis, this means that 55% of a melt consists of
atmosphereand temperahuefor the delacquering p d c l e s continue directly into the body stock new (production-related) scrap. If all cans were
process (patt pyrolysis, part combustion). The melters. returned as UBC and total melt losses were 7%
second appmch employs a row kiln with a Melting, Preparation, and Casting. A t of the melt, this 7%would be the only makeup
sophisticatedrecirculating system for POC gases present, most melting facilities for UBC through- metal required from primary smelters to close
atvariouSentrypoints.Thete~~inthelast out the industry are dedicated units designed to the loop (provided the market remained con-
stage is near 615 O C (1140 O F ) , which is very handle the enormous volumes and to minimize stant).Figure 9 illustratesthis interrelationship.
close to the tempmtwe at which incipient melt- the melt losses inherent in melting thin-walled As the recycling rate continues to increase,
ing occurs in the aluminum-magnesium (5xxx material. Larger companies have developed their composition control and the corresponding
series) alloys typically used in can lids and tabs. own p m s s e s , some of which are described later contamination avoidance become technical
Recycling Technology / 53

The Continuous Melting Concept. From


the response of s M can scrap melted in open
hearth furnaces, it was reasoned that lowdensity
scrap must not be exposed to the fumace atmos-
phere; this means that either the scrap must be
submerged quickly in supemeated molten med
inside the fumace, or molten metal has to be taken
out of the fumacefor extemalmixing with the scrap.
The advantage of the latter procedure is that the
inevitable skim (fortunately in much smaller
amounts) can be captured outside the fumace as
well. The resulting metal stream, cooled down but
stillmolten,canbeIctumxltothefumaceforIc&-
ing by means of a molten metal pump. In this
manner, a steady-statecondition can be maintained
if the heat q u k d for melting a constantmass flow
of scrap F c l e s @lus makeup for heat losses) is
equal to the net heat input into the fumace. 'Ihe
molten metal is mass balanced by equatmg metal
overflow to the charge rate minus the skim genera-
tion rate times the oxidation constant (a correction
for weight gain due to oxidation).
A few events can cause deviation h m the
steady-state conditions; for example, skim
buildup on the metal in the furnace can change the
heat transfer efficiency,and sludge buildup in the
' passageway can affect the circulation rate. Diag-
nostic sensors monitoring the process can detect
the changes in the early stages and alert the opera-
tor.
Practical Applications. Several processes
using conthucusmeltinghave been developed.For
example, Alma developed three M m t methods
(Ref 8-10) based on pump design variations; these
~ i 10~ Melting
. processes for UBC scrap. (a) Early can scrap melter. (b)More advanced swirl scrap charge mel- designs create the scrapingesting v e x d~ in
ter, which uses a continuous melting process
the pump bay itself or in an optimized adjacent
clmge bay (see Fig. 10). Although these methods
challenges as important as melt loss reduction. the container. The scrap is piled up in this single Merin such areas as @don %
- Scrap
The developments were predicted in a mathe- chamber through a door in the h n t wall. The size m1erance, and hadware simpE% the skim
matical model of the recycling system (Ref 7). bumers are aimed at the periphery of the solid ~ d m f o r a ~ c ~ ~ i s ~ Y 1 o w f m
It appears that prudent use of salt fluxes may charge. Because aluminum is a good heat con- dthreemethods.Svariationsofthis*Ple
hold the key to improvements in these areas. ductor, the temperam of the scrap increases have beenreported by Other researches (Ref ll-13)-
fairly uniformly,provided that the volume-to-sur- Suggestingthat the mem is e g to Others in
face-am ratio of the scrap is sufficiently high for the indus@Y who are also sm@ing to reduce melt
Process Developments conductive heat transfer. The pmtective nature of losses.
a l e u m oxide N ~ will, S mder these ,-hum- Another advantage of continuous melting is
stances, prevent acceleraw Kgh-temperamre that the c o n s t a n t s u ~of ~ lwaste
~ heat can be used
Although melt loss had become the major oxidation, and the e n t k charge will melt at about veqeffective1y to preheat *e c o m t flow Of
C a t factor in ingot production, it was the soar- the ~ a m time. e The bath can then be skimmed. scraP and/or combustion air. In the batch Process
ing c o s of energy during the 1973 energy crisis The clean surface facilitates rapid heating of the Of the 'pen hearth furnace9the suPP1y and de-
mand of waste heat for scrap preheating are es-
that triggered the search for more efficient re- melt to the desired Operating temperam.
melt p m s s e s . This effort also sought to de- The situation is vastly different, however, sentially Out Of phase. The new me1ters mve
velop processes that were less labor intensive when the scrap charge consists of shredded fue1efficienCY 12% On the basis Of 'Onstant-
and more productive, specifically with respect cans with a wall thickness of 0.13 mm (0.005 waste heat utilizaton alone. Also-the fact that the
to handling mc. It was r e c o w that the in.) and a heavy oxide layer acquired during skim is confind to a re1ative1y smal1 chamber
open hearth furnace was designed for remelt- thermal delacquering.The portion of the scrap Outside the furnaceOffers an op-ty to maxi-
ing bulky scrap, which not only requires exten- contacted by the flame heats up and melts, but mize metal recovery f?om skim, without interfer-
sive charging time but also creates large the unexposed metal remains cold, due to the g' with production.
amounts of skim. This layer of skim acts as an poor heat transfer. The melting particles de-
insulating blanket between the burners and the form, breaking the oxide skin and exposing
melt, sevedy reducing the thermal efficiency additional nascent metal to the harsh fumace Automobile Scrap Recycling
of the process. It became clear that the commit- environment. This metal immediately forms a Technology
ment to beverage can recycling necessitated a new skin, while the particles solidify on the
fundamental review of processing methods. cold mass underneath.This melt/fmze cycle is
Excessive Skim Formation. The open repeated many times before the entire mass is In contrast with the explosive recent devel-
hearth fumace consists of a relatively shallow melted. By then, a thick layer consisting of a opment of closed-loop can recycling, automo-
molten metal container with a large surface anzq mixture of oxide skins, trapped metal, and air bile recycling is an established industry, and it
the combustionchamberis located directly above covers the melt. has traditionally been a multifaceted scaveng-
54 / Introduction to Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

trate aluminum fractions and mechanical,


physical, and chemical separation processes
for upgrading scrap mixtures and recovering
aluminum from low-grade sources.
High-Temperature Processes. 0 t h e r
processes, besides the delacquering processesfor
can scrap described earlier, have been developed
for separating aluminum scrap. Afluid-bedrotary
furnace has been developed in England to remove
paint, plastic, and othercombustibles from alumi-
num in a heated bed of inert material, such as
alumina Flights movethe scrap through the drum
furnace, and the evolving gases and fumes are led
to an afterburner.Rubber and wood, which do not
evaporate in this furnace, need to be removed in
advance (Ref 14).
In Sweden, the so-called Granges box de-
veloped by Grhges AB (Finspong Sweden) is
in use. This is an oven consisting of two cham-
bers, one for containing scrap, the other for
combustion of gases and fumes released from
the scrap. The scrap is heated in part by exter-
nal sources and in part by recirculation of the
hot POC from the combustion chamber. This
batch process may be suitable for certain auto
scrap fractions.
' The U.S. Bureau of Mines had developed a
hot crushing process for separating wrought
and cast alloys. It works on the same principle
as the thermomechanicalalloy separationproc-
ess for UBC. This process appears to be tailor-
made for automotive scrap, which contains
increasing amounts of sheet and die cast alloys.
low-Temperature Separation. Cryogenic
~ i 11~ Recycling
. loop for aluminum automotive components. Castings make up the bulk of aluminum auto-
sepmtion has been performed commy in
motive scrap.
Belgium on shredded automotive scrap. The
method is based on the difference in ductility of
ing activity carried out by many independent triation) is added to remove plastic and a por- nonferrous and ferrous metals at extremely low
entrepreneurs without the focused objectives tion of the rubber and glass. The aluminum temperahms. Below -65 "C (-85 O F ) , ferrous
that prevail in can recycling. Material selection fraction is usually sold to an automotive cast metals become very brittle and can be f r a m -
by car manufacturers is based on cost and per- shop, which uses open hearth as well as induc- tized easily, whereas nonfmus metals remain
formance; little consideration is given to what tion furnaces and occasionally rotary salt kilns. ductile. Simple screening achieves separation.
happens to the material at the end of the ap- The fraction of inseparablemultimetallic parti- This method is expensive and should be used
proximately 10-year life span of a car. Con- cles must be treated in a sweat furnace. In some only for separation of mixed shredder fragments
sumers are basically indifferent concerning schemes, without heavy-medium or eddy cur- (of steel aaached to aluminum, for example).
material choice. Salvagers and dismantlers rent separation, the entire nonferrous fraction Gravity separation methods include the
take what they can get. They may have prefer- goes to the sweat melter. The chemical compo- comonheavy-media/sink-float process men-
ences, but they have no say in material selec- sition of this sweat pig metal can vary substan- tioned earlier and a process developed in the
tion. tially, and this variation greatly affects the Netherlands (Ref 15). The latter uses the same
Substantialamounts of aluminum had been value of the product. heavy medium (femtehater suspension),but it is
applied in early car manufacturing, but be- The can recycling loop is totally dedicated not apassive sink-float method. Instead, the scrap
tween 1925 and 1946,its use was minimal. The to a single product of two compatible alumi- is chargeed in a cyclone through which the heavy
amount of aluminum in cars has steadily in- num alloys. Automotive recyclers, on the other medium is pumped. In this manner, the sensitivity
creased since 1946 (Fig. 7). Until 1975, most hand, must deal with a number of fractions of the p r m s is increased, and inaccuracies due
growth was in castings, but as a consequence with different destinations and relatively low to shape differencesof the particles are decreased.
of the energy crisis, more wrought alloy hang- values. These recyclers have not yet been Other Processes. Several separation p-
on parts began to be used for weight reduction, driven to develop sophisticated technology to esses used in the mining industry deserveconsid-
and sheet metal panels and space frame con- improve the quality and value of the fractions. eration for adaptation by processors of
structions are now under development. For automobile recycling to become as ef- automotive scrap and municipal refuse. The U.S.
As mentioned previously, an average 1990 fective as can recycling, a cooperativeeffort is Bureau of Mines has experimented with a jigging
model car contains approximately 75 kg (165 required by the scrap collectors, handlers, and system in which gravity separation in a bed of
lb) of aluminum, which accounts for only 5% manipulators to introduce advanced scrap shredded mixed scrap is obtained by pulsating
of the total weight of the average car. Yet it is separation and upgrading technology. A num- liquid flows through the bed. A suspension is
economically an important fraction. Figure 11 ber of alternative scrap recovery methods have formed, and the less-dense material migrates to
is a schematic showing one of several possible been developed for other mixed aluminum the top. A system of baffles, spigots, and screens
paths for the recovery of the majority of the scrap sources, and these methods could be is used to separate the fractions. The U.S. Bureau
materials presently used in cars. In alternative adapted for use in car recycling. They include of Mines has also worked on a shaking-table
schemes, a water-based classificationstep (elu- improved pre-processing methods to concen- process for recovering aluminum h m municipal
Recycling Technology / 55

refuse incinerator residue. In this process, water Electrostatic separation methods, used in 4. L. Knutsson and G. Sjoberg, Aluminum
flowing in a direction perpendicular to riffles on mineral separation, can be applied in met- Can Recycling in Sweden, Light Metals
a slightly tilted vibrating table results in the less- alhonmetal particles separation.One possible 1992, TMS, 1992,p 1137-1141
dense material flowing over the riffles and wash- application for these methods is the removal of 5. W.D. Riley, C.B. Daellenbach, and R.C.
ing downward, while the dense m a t e d havels glass, stones, and fiberglass from nonferrous Gabler, Jr., Recycling of Electronic Scrap,
upward between the riffles. This process could and/or ferrous particles. Various other sorting loth ed., Vol 2, Metals Handbook,ASM
possibly be used for separating dirty, fme shred- systems are under study in various laborato- International, 1990,p 1228-1232
der fractions or dross. ries. One system is based on the color differ- 6. J.H.L. van Linden, ~ ~ m R i ~ n ~ ~ ~
A combined air classification/flotation ences among copper, brass, and aluminum. cling-Everybody’s Business, Lighr
process for separating wire and plastic insula- Another uses x-ray fluorescence to detect spe- Metals 1990, TMS, 1990
tion has been developed in Japan (Ref 14). cific elements. A third uses infrared thermal 7. J.H.L. van Linden and R.E. ~ ~ ~
After thorough shredding to detach the insula- imaging. The success of these methods de- Light Metals 1981, AIME, 1981, P 813-
tion from the wire and removing the larger pends not only on the sensitivity and accuracy 825
metal pieces on a vibrating screen and air table, of the detection method, but also on coupling 8. J.H.L. vanLinden, J.R. Henick, and M.J.
the light fraction (with up to 15% metal) is detection with a reliable removal method. Kinosz, Metal Scrap Melting System,
charged into a flotation separator to float off U.S. Patent 3,997,366,1976
the plastic. If a method can be found to concen- 9. J.H.L. Van Linden, R.J. Claxton, J.R.
trate the substantial amount of wiring from the ACKNOWLEDGMENT Henick, and RJ. Ormesher, Aluminum
shredder output, this process could be useful Scrap Reclamation, U.S. Patent
for copper recovery, which in turn would help
4,128,415, 1978
prevent copper contaminationof the aluminum The information in this article is largely 1o. J.H.L. vanLinden and J.B. Gorss, vortex
fraction. taken from E.L. Rooy and J.H.L. Van Linden,
Recycling of Aluminum,Properties and Selec- Melting System, U.S. Patent 4,286,985,
Physical separation methods already in
use include electromagnetic, or eddy current, tion: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose 1981
separators. These work by creating a force on a Materials, Volume 2 of the ASM Handbook 11. A.G. Szekely, Vortex Reactor and
nonferrous particles that is haveling in amagnetic (formerly Metals Handbook, 10th edition), Method for Adding Solids to Molten
field; the created force is perpendicular to the ASMIntemational, 1990,p 1205-1213,1231 +
Metal Therewith, U.S. Patent 4,298,377,
direction of particle travel. The phenomenon is 1981
caused by induction of electrical c m n t s when a 12. D.V. Neff, in Proceedings of TMS Fall
conductor moves through a magnetic field, re- Meeting, AIME, 1985,p 57-72
REFERENCES 13. RJ. Claxton, Method for Submerging,
sulting in a Lorentz force. Equipment using this
phenomenon include the well-known scrap-car- Entrainment, Melting and Circulating
rying (Almag) and the lesser-known configura- 1. P.R. Atkins, Recycling Can Cut Energy Metal Charge in Molten Media, U.S. Pat-
tion of a sliding table with an array of permanent Demand Drastically, Eng. Min. J., May ent, 4,322,245, 1982
magnets mounted underneath to create an appar- 1973 14. J. Butson, AMarket Study for the Energy
ently alternatingfield for particles moving down- 2. Scrap Specifications Circular, Instituteof Efficiency Office, Alum. Recycl., 1986
ward. These separators are presently used for Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., 1988 15. Observations at Stamicarbon Pilot Plant
separating nonferrous metal from nonmetallic 3. A.H. Wirtz, Environmental Concerns on at Dalmeyer’s Salvage Yard, Nieuwerk-
particles. However, they can potentially be used One Way Packaging and Aluminum Can erk a/d Yssel, the Netherlands
for alloy separation, especially if shape differ- Recycling-A Solution, Proceedings of 16. B.C. B m , W.L. Dalmyn, and W.P.C.
ences are also characteristic, as in, for example, the International Conference on the Re- Duyvenstein, “Recycle and Recovery of
bulky cast alloy fragments mixed with light-gage cycling of Metals, ASM International, Secondary Metals,” Light Metals 1985,
wrought alloy sheet hgments (Ref 16). 1992, p 245-252 TMS, 1985, p 641
Wroughtproducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Foundryproducts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Aluminum-LithiumAlloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
PowderMetallurgyAlloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Aluminum-MatrixComposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
AluminumCoatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
ALUMINUM wrought products are those require solution heat treatment to obtain optimum alloys, they will pick up some of the alloying
aluminum products that have been subjected to properties; in the solution heat-treated condition, constituents of the latter and so respond to heat
plastic deformation by hot working and cold mechanical properties are similar to, and some- treatment to a limited extent. The alloys contain-
working processes (such as rolling, extruding, times exceed, those of lowcarbon steel. In some ing appreciable amounts of silicon become &&
and drawing, either singly or in combination), instances, precipitation heat treatment (aging) is gray to charcoal when anodic ofi& finishes are
so as to transform cast a h n h u m ingot into employed to further increase mechanical proper- applied and hence are in h a n d for =hi-
desired product form. ties. This treatment increases yield strength, with apfic&ons. Alloy 4032 has a low wear re&
The microstructural changes associated attendant loss in elongation; its effect on tensile tan=, and thus it is well suited to mudon of
with the working and with any accompanying strength is not as p a t . forged engine pistons.
thermal treatments are used to control certain The alloys in the 2snr series do not have 5xxx Series. The major alloying e1-t in
properties and characteristicsof the worked, or corrosion resistance as good as that of most 5= Seriesalloys is magnesium men it is used
wrought, product or alloy. other aluminum alloys, and under certain con- as a major alloying elemt or with mangane.,
Typical examples of wrought products in- ditions they may be subject to intergranular , the result is a m h t e - t e f i g h - s m f i wd-
clude plate or sheet (which is subsequently corrosion. Therefore, these alloys in the form hardenable alloy. ~~~~i~ is c o n s i ~ b ] y
formed or machined into products such as air- of sheet usually are clad with a high-purity more effdve than manganese as a M,
craft or building components), household foil,
extruded shapes such as storm window frames,
aluminum or with a magnesium-silicon alloy about 0.8% Mg being equal to 1.25% m and it
of the 6 m series, which provides galvanic can be added in consibb]y higher quantities.
and forged automotive and airframe compo- protection of the core material and thus greatly Alloys in this series possess good welding char-
nents. A vast difference in the mechanical and increases resistance to corrosion. acteristics and good resistance to corrosion in
physical Properties of a h n h u m wrought Alloys in the 2snr series are particularly marine atmospheres. However, certain limits-
Products Can be obtained through the control of well suited for parts and structures requiring tiom should be placed on the amount of cold
the chemistry, Processing, and thermal treat- high strength-to-weight ratios and are com-
ment . work and thesafeoperatingt e ~permis-s
monbUsed to make mck and aircraft whee1sy
sible for the higher-magnesium alloys (over
truck suspension parts, aircraft fuselage and about 35% for operafing temperatures above
wing skins?and structura1Parts and th0se Parts
about 65 O C , or 150 O F ) to avoid s ~ ~ to t y
General Characteristics of requiring good strength at temperatures up to
stresscorrosion cI-acking.
150 OC (300 OF)* Except for auoy these
Wrought Alloys Uses include architectural,ommenu],
22197

alloys have limited weldability, but some al- and

-
decorative trim; cans and can ends; household
loys in this series have superior machinability.
~XXX Series. Manganese is the major alloy- appliances; streetlight standards; boats and
Aluminum alloys me m-only sou@ ships, ayogenic tanks; crane parts; and auto-
into an alloy designation series, as described in ing element Of 3xxx series alloys- These alloys
the article ‘ ‘ ~ and u ~T~~ ~ Designation g e n e d y are non-heat-tmtable but have about motive st*ctures*
Strength than lxxx series alloys. k- 6xm Series. Alloys in the 6wr series con-
Systems” in this Volume. The general chamc- 20% tain silicon and magnesium appro xi mat el^ in the
teristics of the alloy groups are described be- cause only a limited percentage of m g m s e (up
low, and the comparative corrosion and to about l .5%) Can be effectively added to dUllli-
ern required forfmation Of em
silicide m a s i ) , thus making dl”fl heat-treat-
fabricationcharacteristicsand mme typical ap- num, IWUlgalleSe iS used as a major element kl
ab1e. Al*ough not as smng aS most 2wx and
plications of the commonly used grades or only a few alloys. However, three of
alloys in each group are presented in Table 1. them--3003,3x04, and 310- widely used 7m alloys* (%Ktseries al1oys ha’e good for-
1xmSeries. Aluminum of 99.00% or as gelld-purpOSe alloys for moderate-Strength *b’ty- weldabili@m a c h i n a b and i i t ycolla
9
higher purity has many a#cations, especially in applications requiring good workability. ~~
sion resistance, with medium s m @ . NOYS m
the electricaland chemical fields. These grades of applications include beverage cans, cooking this heat-treatable p u p may be formed in theT4
aluminum are c h - m by excellent COTTD. utensils, heat exchangm, storagetanks, awnings, temper (solution heat-treated but not precipitation
sion resistance, high thermal and electrical con- furniture, highway signs, roofing, siding, and heat--) and strengthened atkr f h g to
ductivities, low mechanical properties, and other archikcturd applications. fill T6 properties by precipitation heat tmment,
excellent workability. Moderate increases in 4xm Series. The major alloying element in uses k l u d e architectural applications, bicycle
strength may be obtained by strain hardening. 4xxr series alloys is silicon, which can be added frames, m p t i o n equipment,bridge dings,
Iron and silicon are the major impurities. Typical in sufficientquantities (up to 12%) to cause s u b and welded structum.
uses include chemical equipment, reflectors, heat stantial lowering of the melting range without 7Xm Series. Zinc, in amounts of 1 to 8%.k
exchangers, electrical conductors and capacitors, producing brittleness. For this reason, aluminum- the major d0-g element in 7 m series alloys,
packaging foil, architectural applications, and silicon alloys are used in welding wire and as and when coupled with a smaller percentage of
decorative trim. brazing alloys for joining aluminum, where a magnesium it results in heat-treatable alloys of
2xm Series. Copper is the principal alloy- lower melting range than that of the base metal is moderate to v e y high strength. Usually other
ing element in 2rxx series alloys, often with mag- required. Most alloys in this series are non-heat- elements, such as copper and chromium, are also
nesium as a secondary addition. These alloys treatable, but when used in welding heat-treatable added in small quantities. 7 m series alloys are
60 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 1 Comparativecorrosion and fabrication characteristics and typical applicationsof wrought aluminum alloys
Resistance to corrosion r Weldability(07
Stm- Resistance
corrosion Workability spot and
Alloy temper General(a) cncking(b) (eold)(e) Machinnblllty(e) Gas Arc seam Brucnbllity(0 Solderability(@ Some typical nppllcntlons of alloys
1050 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A A E A A B A A Chemical equipment, railroad tank cars
HI2 ........................... A A A E A A A A A
H14.. A A D A A A A A
H16.. A B D A A A A A
H18.. . . . . . . . . . .A A B D A A A A A
10600........................... A A A E A A B A A Chemical equipment, railroad tank cars
HI2 ........................... A A A E A A A A A
HI4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A A D A A A A A
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .A A B D A A A A A
A B D A A A A A
I1000 ........................... A A A E A A B A A Sheet-metal work, spun hollowware,
HI2 ........................... A A A E A A A A A tin stock
HI4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A A D A A A A A
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .A A B D A A A A A
A C D A A A A A
1145 0 . . ......................... A A A E A A B A A Foil, tin stock
H12.. . . . . . . . . . . . .A A A E A A A A A
Hl4.. . . . . . . . . . ... A A A D A A A A A
HI6 . . .A A B D A A A A A
HI8 ........................... A A B D A A A A A
11990........................... A A A E A A B A A Electrolytic capacitor foil, chemical
. . .A A A E A A A A A equipment, railroad tank cars
. . .A A A D A A A A A
...A A B D A A A A A
.................... A A B D A A A A A
1350 0.. ......................... A A A E A A B A A Electrical conductors
H12, H l l l ..................... A A A E A A A A A
A A D A A A A A
A B D A A A A A
HI8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A B D A A A A ' A
201 1 T3 ......................... D(c) D C A D D D D C Screw-machine products
T4, T45l ...................... D(c) D B A D D D D C
T8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D B D A D D D D C
2014 0 ............... . . . ... ... D D D B D C Truck frames, aircraft structures
T3, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D(c) C C B D B B D C
T6, T651, T6510, T6511 . . . . . . . . .D C B D B B D C
2024 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... D D D D D C Truck wheels, screw-machine
T4, T3, T351, T3510, T3511 C C B C B B D C products, aircraft structures
. . . . . . . . . D(c) C D B D C B D C
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D B C B D C B D C
851,T8510,T8511 . . D B n B D C B D C
T72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... B . . . . . . . . . ... ...
2036 T4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .c B c ... B B D ... Auto-body panel sheet
2124 T851 . . . . . ......... D B D B D C B D C Military supersonic aircraft
.................... D C ... ... ...... C ... C Jet engine impellers and rings
T72.. ......................... D C ... D C B D C
22190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... D A B D Structural uses at high temperatures
T31, T351 C C A A A D NA (to 315 "C, or 600 "F) high-strength
T37.. . . . C D B A A A D weldments
T81, T851 B D B A A A D
T87.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D B D B A A A D
2618 T61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D C ... B D C B D NA Aircraft engines
3003 0 ........................... A A A E A A B A A Cooking utensils, chemical equipment,
A A E A A A A A pressure vessels, sheet-metal work,
..............A A B D A A A A A builder's hardware, storage tanks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .A A C D A A A A A
.................... A A C D A A A A A
H25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A B D A A A A A
3004 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A A D B A B B B Sheet-metal work, storage tanks
H32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A A B D B A A B B
. . . . . . . . . . . . .A A B C B A A B B
. . . . . . . . . . . . .A A C C B A A B B
H38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A C C B A A B B
3105 0 . . ......................... A A A E B A B B B Residential siding, mobile homes,
HI2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A B E B A A B B rain-carrying goods, sheet-metal
H14.. . ........ A A B D B A A B B work
HI6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A C D B A A B B
HI8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A A C D B A A B B
(continued)
(a) Ratings A through E are relative ratings in decreasing order of ment. based on exposures to sodium chloride solution by intermittent spraying or immersion, Alloys with A and B ratings can bc used in
industrial and seacoast atmospheres without protection. Alloys with C. D, and E ratings generally should be protected at least on faying surfaces. (b) Stress-corrosion cracking ratings arc based on service
experience and on laboratory terts of specimens exposed to the 3.5% sodium chloride alternate immersion test. A = No known instance of failure in service or in laboratory tests. B = No known instance
of fallure in service: limited failures in laboratory le517 of short transverse specimens.C = Service failures with sustained tension stress acting In short transverse direction relative to grain structure: limited
failures in laboratory tests of long transverse specimens. D = Limited service failures with sustained longitudinal or long transverse stress. (c) In relatively thick sections the rating would bc E. (d)This rating
may be different for material held at elevated temperature for long periods. (e) Ratings A through D for workability (cold).and A through E for machinability.are relative ratings in decreasing order of merit.
(0 Ratings A through D for weldability and brazeability are relative ratings defined as follows. A = Generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B = Weldable with special techniques
or for specific applications: requires preliminary trials or testing to develop welding procedure and weld performance.C = Limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion
and mechanical properties D = No commonly used welding methods have been developed.(gl Ratings A through D and NA for solderabilityare relative ratings defined as follows: A = Excellent. B = Good.
C = Fair. D = Poor. NA = Not applicable
Wrought Products / 61

Tabkl (continued)
Reslstanrr to rwmsion
SIrrSJ-
,- Weldnbility(0 7
Resistance
mrrosion Workability spot and
Alloy temper Genenl(n) crrcking(b) (edd)(e) Machinability(c) Gas Arc seam Bnzenbillty(0 Soldernbllity(g) Some typical applications of alloys
A B D B 'A A B B
B ... B D B C D NA Pistons
4043 ............................ B A NA C NA NA NA NA NA Welding electrode
5005 0 . . ....................... ..A A A E A A B B B Appliances. utensils, architectural,
HI2 A A A E A A A B B electrical conductors
H14.. ......................... A A B D A A A B B
H16.. ......................... A A C D A A A B B
H18.. ......................... A A C D A A A B B
H32 A A B E A A A B B
H34 A A C D A A A B B
H36 A A C D A A A B B
H38 ........................... A A D A A A B B
5050 0 . . ......................... A A A E A A B B C Builders' hardware. refrigerator trim,
H32 A A A D A A A B C coiled tubes
H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A A B D A A A B C
H36 ................A A C C A A A B C
H38.. ......................... A A C C A A A B C
5052 0 . . ........................ . A A A D A A B C D Sheet-metal work, hydraulic tube,
A B D A A A C D appliances
A B C A A ' A C D
H36.. ......................... A A C C A A. A C D
C C A A A C D
A D C A B D D Cable sheathing, rivets for magnesium,
A!d) B(d) A D C A A D D screen wire, zippers
H12, H32.. .................... A(d) B(d) B D C A A D D
H14, H34.. .................... A(d) B(d) B C C A A D D
H18, A(d) C(d) C C C A A D D
HI92 B(d) D(d) D B C A A D D
H392 B(d) D(d) D B C A A D D
5083 0. . . . . . . A(d) A(d) B D C A B D ' D Unfired, welded pressure vessels,
H321, H116.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A(d) A(d) C D C A A D D marine, auto aircraft cryogenics, T V
HI I I . ......................... A(d) B(d) C D C A A D D towers, drilling rigs, transportation
5086 0 . . .... A(d) A(d) A D C A B D D equipment, missile components
H32, HI 16 . . . . . . A(d) A(d) B D C A A D D
H34.. . . . . . . . . . . A(d) B(d) B C C A A D D
H36.. ........................ .A(d) B(d) C C C A A . D D
H38 ........................... A(d) B(d) C C C A A D D
A(d) A(d) B D C A A D D
A D C A B D D Welded structures, storage tanks,
H32 ........................... A(d) A(d) B D C A A D D pressure vessels, salt-water service
H34. ........................ ..A(d) A(d) B C C A A D D
H36. ......................... .A(d) A(d) C C C A A D D
H38 A(d) A(d) C C C A A D D
5182 0........................... A A(d) A D C A B D D Automobile body sheet, can ends
HI9........................... A A(d) D B C A A D D
5252 H 2 4 . . ...... A A B D A A A C D Automotive and appliance trim
H25 A A B C A A A C D
H28 A A C C A A A C D
5254 0 A(d) A(d) A D C A B D D Hydrogen peroxide and chemical
H32 .......................... .A(d) A(d) B D C A A D D storage vessels
H34 ........................... A(d) A(d) B C C A A D D
H36 A(d) A(d) C C C A A D D
H38 ....A(d) A(d) C C C A A D D
5356 . A NA B NA NA NA NA NA Welding electrode
5454 0 . . ......................... A A A D C A B D Welded structures, pressure vessels,
H32. .......................... A A B D C A A D marine service
A B C C A A D NA
A B D C A A D
5456 0 . . ......................... A(d) B(d) B D C A B D High-strength welded structures,
H l l l ...... A(d) B(d) C D C A A D storage tanks, pressure vessels,
H321, HIIS A(d) B(d) C D C A A D NA marine applications
5451 0 . . ..... A A A E A A B B B
5652 0.. ......................... A A A D A A B C D Hydrogen peroxide and chemical
H32.. ......................... A A B D A A A C D storage vessels
H34 A A B C A A A C D
H36 A A C C A A A C D
H38.. ........................ .A A C C A A A C D
5657 H241 ....................... A A A D A A A B Anodized auto and appliance trim
(continued)
(a) Ratings A through E are relative ratings in decreasing order of merit, based on exposures to sodium chloride solution by intermittent spraying or immersion. Alloys with A and B ratings can be used in
industnal and seacoast atmospheres without protection. Alloys with C. D. and E ratings generally should be protected at least on faying surfaces. (b) Stress-corrosion cracking ratings are based on service
experience and on laboratory tests of specimens exposed lo the 3.5% sodium chloride alternate immersion test. A = No known instance of failure in service or in laboratory tests. B = No known instance
of failure in service: limited failures in laboratory tests of shon transverse specimens. C = Service failures with sustained tension stress acting in short transverse direction relative to grain structure; limited
failures in laboratory tests of long transverse specimens. D = Limited service failures with sustained longitudinal or long transverse stress. (c)In relatively thick sections the rating would be E. (d)This rating
may be different for material held at elevated temperature for long periods. (e)Ratings A through D for workability (cold), and A through E for machinability. are relative ratings In decreasing order of merit.
(D Ratings A through D for weldability and brazeability are relative ratings defined as follows: A = Generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B = Weldable with special techniques
or for specific applications: requires preliminary trials or testing to develop welding procedure and weld performance. C = Limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion
and mechanical properties. D = No commonly used welding methods have been developed. (g) Ratings A through D and NA for solderability are relative ratings defined as follows: A = Excellent. B = Good.
C = Fair. D = Poor. NA = Not applicable
62 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 1 (continued)
-
Kesistanee to corrosion r Weldability(0 7
stm- ResisInnce
corrosion Workability spot and
Alloy temper (;eneral(a) cracking(b) (mld)(e) Machinability(e) Cas Arc seam Brazeability(0 Solderability(g) Some typical applications of nlloys

H25.. ......................... A A B D A A A B NA
H26. ... A B D A A A B
H28. ... A C D A A A B
6005 T5 ......................... B A C C A A A A NA Heavy-duty structures requiring good
corrosion-resistance applications,
truck and marine, railroad cars,
furniture, pipelines
6009T4 ......................... A A A C A A A A B Automobile body sheet
6010 T4 ......................... A A B C A A A A B Automobile body sheet
6061 0.. ......................... B A A D A A B A B Heavy-duty structures requiring good
B B C A A A A B corrosion resistance, truck and
T6,T651,T652, T6510.T6511 ... B A C C A A A A B marine, railroad cars. furniture,
pipelines
6063 TI ......................... A A B D A A A A B Pipe railing, furniture, architectural
A B D A A A A B extrusions
A B C A A A A B
A C C A A A A B
A C C A A A A B
A B D D B B D Forgings and extrusions for welded
B C C D B B D NA structures
T6. T6510. T65 B C B D B B D
6070T4.T4511.. B B C A A A B NA Heavy-duty welded structures,
T6 ........... B C c A A A B pipelines
6101 T6, T63 ..................... A A C C A A A A NA High-strength bus conductors
T61. T64 ..................... .A A B D A A A
6151 T6. T652. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... B Moderate-strength, intricate forgings
for machine and auto parts
6201 T81 ........................ A A ... C A A A A NA High-strength electric conductor wire
6262 T6, T65 I , T65 IO. T65 I I . . . . . . B A C B A A A A NA Screw-machine products
T9 ............................ B A D B A A A A +
. .‘B A C C A A A A B Heavy-duty structures requiring good
corrosion resistance, truck and
tractor extrusions
6463 TI .......................... A A B D A A A A Extruded architectural and trim
A B C A A A A NA sections
A C C A A A A
B C A B B B B B Heavy-duty structures requiring good
corrosion resistance, trucks, trailers,
dump bodies
7049 773. T7351. T7352.. ......... C B D B D C B D D Aircraft and other structures
T76, T765l . . . . . . . . . B D B D C B D D
7050 T74. T7451, T7452 B D B D C B D D Aircraft and other structures
T76, T76l . . . . B D B D C B D D
7072 ............................ A A A D A A A A A Fin stock. cladding alloy
7075 0 . . ......................... .. . ... ... D D C B D D Aircraft and other structures
C D B D C B D D
T73, T7351 . . . B D B D C B D D
7175, T74 T7452 B D B D C B D D Aircraft and other structures, forgings
... ... ... D C B D D Aircraft and other structures
C D B D C B D D
C D B D C B D D Aircraft and other structures
B D B D C B D D
B D B D C B D D
(a) Ratings A through E are relative ratings in decreasing order of merit. based on exposures lo sodium chloride solution by intermittent spraying or immersion. Alloys with A and B ratings can be used in
industrial and seacoast atmospheres without protection. Alloys with C. D. and E ratings generally should bc protected at least on faying surfaces. (b) Stress-corrosion cracking ratings are based on service
experience and on laboratory tests of specimens exposed to the 3.5% sodium chloride alternate immersion test. A = No known instance of failure in service or in laboratory tests. B = N o known instance
of failure in service; limited failures in laboratory tests of short transverse specimens. C = Service failures with sustained tension stress acting in short transverse direction relative to grain stmcture: limited
failures in laboratory tests of long transverse specimens. D = Limited service failures with sustained longitudinal or long transverse stress. (c) in relatively thick sections the rating would be E. Id) This rating
may be different for material held at elevated temperature for long periods. (e) Ratings A through D for workability (cold). and A through E for machinability, are relative ratings m decreasing order of merit.
(0 Ratings A through D for weldability and brazeability are relative ratings defined as follows: A = Generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B = Weldable with special techniques
or for specific applications: requires preliminary trials or testing t o develop welding procedure and weld performance. C = Limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion
and mechanical properties. D = N o commonly used welding methods have been developed. (8) Ratings A through D and NA for solderability are relative ratings defined as follows: A = Excellent. B = Good.
C = Fair. D = Poor. NA = Not applicable

used in &hnx s m c m , mobile e q u i ~ e n L Types of Wrought Products products, as they are in the steel industry, even
and other highly stressed parts. though they often are produced by extrusion
Higher-strength 7xxx alloys exhibit reduced rather than by rolling. Aluminum forgings, al-
resistance to stresscorrosion cracking and are ~OmmerCialWrought aluninum Products though usually not considered mill products,
often used in a slightly overaged temper to are d ~ v ~ d basically
ed into five major categories are considered engineered wrought products.
provide better combinationsof strength, corro- based on Production methods as well as geo- In addition to production method & prod-
sion resistance, and fracture toughness. metric configurations.These are: uct configuration,wrought aluminum products
8xxx Series. Alloys in the &uuc series en- also may be classified into heat-treatable and
compassa wide rangeof compositions (see Table * Flat-rolled products (sheet, plate, and foil) non-heat-treatable alloys. The initial strength
2 in the article “Alloy and Temper Designation Rod, bar, and wire of non-heat-treatable (lm, 3m, 4 m , and
Systems” in this Volume). Wrought alloys con- Tubuiar products 5 x w ) alloys depends on the hardening effects
taining lithium (2.4 to 2.8%) have been devel- Shapes of elements such as manganese, silicon, iron,
oped for use in aircraft and aerospace structures Forgings and magnesium, singly or in various combina-
and cryogenic applications. Such alloys are de- tions. Because these alloys are work-har-
scribed in the article “Aluminum-Lithium Al- In the aluminum industry, rod, bar, wire, denable, further strengtheningis made possible
loys” in this Volume. tubular products, and shapes are termed mill by various degreesof cold working, denoted by
Wrought Products / 63

Table 2 Recommended forging temperature


rangesfor aluminumalloys
Aluminum Forging temperature range
alloy T T
. . . . . . . . . . 31-05 600-760
785660
785640
800-880
770-850
600-760
780-860
760-860
810-900
7010.. . . .. .. . . . ..... . 370-440 700-820
720-8820
.. . . ... .. 360440 680-8820
~ i 3 ~Two. examples of extrusions with nonper- 7050.. . . . . ... .. 360440 680-8820
manent interconnections 7075.. . .... . .. .. . . . .. 380440 720-820
760450

Table 3 Standard manufacturinglimits (in inches) for aluminumextrusions


Forgeability and forging temperatures of
~ i 1 ~various
. aluminum alloys Minimum wall lhkkmss, in.
’1060, M14, 2024, 2219,
DiMcta of circunaerlblng 1100, =, 5083,7001,
circk, in. 3003 6063 6061 5454 1075, 7079,1178

Solid and semihollow shapes, rod, and bar


0.5-2 ......................... 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040
2-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.050 0.050
+l ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.062
4-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.062 0.062 0.062 0.062 0.078
M .......................... 0.062 0.062 0.062 0.078 0.094
6-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.094 0.109
7 6 .......................... 0.094 0.094 0.094 0.109 0.125
8-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.125 0.156
0.125 0.125 0.125 0.156
0.156 0.156 0.156 0.156
0.188 0.188 0.188 0.188
0.188 0.188 0.188 0.250
0.188 0.188 0.250 0.500
Class 1 hollow shapes(a)
1.25-3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.062 0.050 0.062 ...
+l .......................... 0.094 0.050 0.062 ...
4-5 . . . . . . . . . . . ............... 0.109 0.062 0.062 0.156 0.250
M .......................... 0.125 0.062 0.078 0.188 0.281
........... 0.156 0.078 0.094 0.219 0.312
0.188 0.094 0.125 0.250 0.375
0.219 0.125 0.156 0.281 0.438
Four examples of interconnecting extru- 9-10 0.250 0.156 0.188 0.312 0.500
Fig.* sions that fit together or fit other products, IO--12 0.312
. . . . . . . . . . 0.375
0.188
0.219
0.219
0.250
0.375
0.438
0.500
0.500
and four examples of joining methods
14-16 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 0.438 0.250 0.375 0.438 0.500
16-20.25.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.500 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.625
Claw 2 and 3 hollow shapes(h)
the H series of tempers, as discussed in the 0.5-1 ......................... 0.062 0.050 0.062 ... ...
all5Ae “ M O Y and Temper Designations” in 1-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.062 0.055 0.062 ... ...

z
this Volume. Alloys containing appreciable 2-3 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 0.078 0.062 0.078 ... ...
0.078 0.094 ... ...
amounts of magnesium, when supplied in 0.094 0.109 ... ...
strain-hardened tempers, usually are given a M 0.109 0.125 ...
fmd elevated-temperature treatment, called 6-7 0.125 0.156 ...
7-8 0.156 0.188 ...
stabilizing, to ensure stability of properties. g1o 0.188 0.250 ...
Initid stren@ Of heat-treatable (k* 4nxx’ (a) Minimum inside diameter is one-half the circumscribing diameter. but never under I in. for alloys in first three columns or under 2
w,7=, and some &va) alloys is enhanced in. for alloys in last two columns. (b) Minimum hole size for all alloys is 0. I10 sq. in. in area or 0.375 in. in diam.
by addition of alloying elements such as cop-
per; magnesium, zinc, lithium, and silicon. Be- Flat-rolled products include sheet, plate, of certain alloy-otably the high-strength
cause these elements, singly or in various and foil. They are manufactured by either hot or 2xxr and 7xxx series alloy~-~~lso are available
combinations, show increasing or solid soh- hot-andald rolling, are rectangular in cross sec- in Alclad form, which comprises an aluminum
bility in aluminum with increasing tempera- tion and form, and have u nf
ior
m thickness. alloy core having on one or both sides a metal-
ture, it is possible to subject them to thermal Plafe.In the United States, plate refers to a lurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum al-
treatments that will impart pronounced product whose thickness is greater than 0.250 loy coating that is anodic to the core, thus
swn@eNng. Specific examples of non-heat- in. (6.3 mm). Plate up to 8 in. (200 mm) thick elecmlytically protecting the core against cor-
treatable and heat-treatable aluminum alloys is available in some alloys. It usually has either rosion (see the discussion of Alclad products in
are given in the article “General Introduction” sheared or sawed edges. Plate can be cut into the section “Applications of Wrought Alloys”
in this Volume. circles, rectangles, or odd-shape blanks. Plate in this article). Most often, the coating consists
64 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 4 Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy foil

Tensiklarrngth Yield stwngth (a) Elongation,


Alloy nlnpa MPa ksi MPa ksi 96 (b)

Non-heat-treatable foil
1145,1235 0 75 11 30 4.5 2.4
HI9 165 24 145 21 2.5
1100 HI9 205 30 165 24 3.0
3003 H19 250 36 220 32 3.5
5052 HI9 330 48 325 41 4.0
5056 HI91 450 65 435 63 3.5
Heat-Ireatablefoil
2024 T81 450 65 415 60 2.0

Note: Ropenies of non-heat-treatable alloy foils were detRmined in the longitudinal direction. properties of 2024 heat-treatable
foil are forthe longtransversedirection. (a) At 0.2%offset. (b) In 125 mm or 5 in.

~ i 5 ~Stainless
. steel clad aluminum truck
bumper material that combines the corro-
sion resistance of stainless steel with lightweight alu-
minum
Stainless-steelclad aluminum automotive
Fig’ 6 trim provides sacrificial corrosion protec-
Coating’’ in this Volume). It may also be S U P tion to the auto body while maintaining a bright cor-
plied embossed, perforated, corrugated, rosion-resistant exterior surface.
Fig. 4 six examplesof interconnectingextrusions painted, or otherwise surfxe-tmted; in some’
that lock together or lock to other products instances, it is edgeconditioned. As with alu-
minum plate, sheet made of the heat-watabk and 8079 (Ai-1.OFea.15Si).Additional infor-
alloys in which copper or Zinc m the major mation on aluminumalloy foil can be found in
alloying constituents, notably the high- the section ~ ~ ~ of ~ wrought
f i ~ ~l l t~ ~i ~ ~,
Of a high-purity duminum*a low mwesium- strength 2m.x and 7xxx series alloys, also is
sficon doy’ Or all alloy conmining ’% zn’ available kl Alclad form for hCEaSed COITO- in this article.
hr,rod, and ,,ire are all sofid products
usdyy coating thickness (One side) is from sion resistance. In addition, special composites
2*5 to 596 Of the total thickness*The most may be obtained such as Alclad non-heat-treat- =
that exwmly long j,-, =lation to fiek cross
section. neY differh m a c h other odyin ms-
cammonl~used plate alloys are able alloys for extra corrosion protection, for and in thickness or &am. In
20249 21249

2219,7050, 7m5,7150, 7475, and 7178 for brazing purposes, or for special surface fin- sectional sbpe
aircraft structure.^; 5083, 5086, and 5456 for the UNted States,when the cross section is m u d
marine, cryogenics, and pressure vessels; and ishes. or nearly mund and over 3/8 in. (10 mm) in
1100,3(-~03,5052,and 6061 for gened appli- with a few exc@ons, m a t alloys in the diameter, it is cded rod. It is cded bar when the
cations. InUr, k9 3 m 9 5 m 3 and 7x.n Series are crosssectionissquare,rectangular,orintheshape
sheet. ~nthe united States, sheet is ,.laSsi- available in Sheet form. Along with d O Y 6061, of a regular polygon and when at least one per-
fied m a flat-rolld product with a thickness of they cover a wide range of applications from pdicular distancebetween parallelfaces (thick-
0.006 to 0.249 in (0.15 to 0.63 -). Sheet builders’hardwmtobansportationequipment ness) is over % in. (10 mm). Wire refers to a
eitges a be sheared, sfit, or sawed. Sheet is and from appliwes to aircraftstru~tures- product, regardless of its cross-section shape,
supplied in flat form,in coils, or in pieces Cut Foil is a product with a thickness less than whose diameter or greatest perpendicular ds-
to length frorn coils. Currentfacilities permit 0.006 in. (0.15 m).Most foil is supplied in tance between padel faces is less than 3/8 in. (10
pduction of a k d amomtof exba-large coils, although it is also available in rectangular mm).
sheet, for example, up to 200 in. (5 m) wide by form (Sheets). One Of the largest end uses Of Rod and bar can be produced by either hot
1 0 0 0 in. (25 m) long. he term strip, as applied foil is household wrip. There is a wider variety rolling or hot extruding and brought to final
to narrow sheet, is not used in the U.S. alumi- of surface finishes for foil than for sheet. Foil dimensions with or without additional cold
num indusw. Aluminum sheet usually is avail- often is treated chemicdy or mechanically to working.Wire usually is produced and sized by
able in several surface finishes such as mill meet the needs of specific applications. Com- drawing through one or more dies, although
finish,one-sidebright finish,or two-side bright mon foil alloys m limited to the higher-purity roll flattening is also used. Alclad rod or wire
finish (see the article “Cleaning, Finishing, and lxxx series and 2024,3003,5052,5056,811 1, for additional corrosion resistance is available
Wrought Products / 65

Table 5 Characteristics of Alclad products

Claddhgthicknessperde,
Total specikd thickness of composite produet 9%ofcanpasite thkkness
component allOys(8) _ _
mm _ ~ ~ Sides A v S W (b)
Designation core a~ding OVS Through in. C M Nominnl min m X

Alclad2014 sheet and plate 2014 6003 ... 0.63 Up through 0.024 Both 10 8 ...
0.63 1 .OO 0.025-0.039 Both 7% 6 ...
1 .00 2.50 0.040-0.099 Both 5 4 ...
2.50 ... 0.lOOandover Both 2 ‘/2 2 3(c)
Alclad 2024 sheet and plate 2024 1230 ... 1.60 UpthroughO.062 Both 5 4 ...
1.60 ... 0.063andover Both 2% 2 3(c)
1 %% Alclad 2024 sheet and plate 2024 1230 4.00 ... 0.188andover Both 1% 1.2 3(c)
Alclad one side 2024 sheet and plate 2024 1230 1.60 ... Upthrough0.062 One 5 4 1 . .

0.063 and over One 2% 2 3w


1 ‘/z % Alclad one side 2024 sheet and plate 2024 1230 4.00 ... 0.188andover One 1 v2 1.2 3(c)
Alclad2219 sheet andplate 2219 7072 ... 1.00 UpthroughO.039 Both 10 8 ...
1 .00 2.50 0.040-0.099 Both 5 4 ...
2.50 ... 0.100andover Both 2% 2 3(c)
Alclad 3003 sheet and plate 3003 7072 All AU Both 5 4 6(c)
Alclad 3003 tube 3003 7Ol2 All All Inside 10 ... ...
All All Outside 7 ... ...
Alclad 3004 sheet and plate . 3004 7072 All All Both 5 4 6(c)
Alclad 5056 rod and wire 5056 6253 AU All Outside 20 16 ...
(oftotal cross-sectional area)
Alclad6061 sheet andplate 6061 7072 AU All Both 5 4 6(c)
Alclad 7075 sheet and plate 7075 7072 ... 1.60 Upthrwgh0.062 + Both 4 3.2 ...
1.60 4.00 0.063-0.187 Both 2% 2 ...
4.00 ... 0.188andover Both 1% 1.2 3(c)
2%% Alclad7075sheet andplate 7075 7072 ... ... 0.188andover Both 2 v2 2 4(c)
Alclad one side 7075 sheet and plate 7075 7072 ... 1.60 Upthrough0.062 One 4 3.2 ...
1.60 4.00 0.063-0.187 One 2‘/2 2 ...
4.00 ... 0.188andover One 1‘/2 1.2 3(c)
21/2 % Alclad one side 7075 sheet and plate 7075 7072 ... ... 0.188andover One 2% 2 4(c)
7008 Alclad 7075 sheet and plate 7075 7008 ... 1.60 Upthrough0.062 Both 4 3.2 ...
1.60 4.00 0.063-0.187 Both 2% 2 ...
4.00 ... 0.188andover Both 1v2 1.2 3(c)
Alclad7178 sheetandplate 7178 7072 ... 1.60 Upthrough0.062 Both 4 3.2 ...
1.60 4.00 0.063-0.187 Both 2% 2 ...
4.00 ... 0.188andover Both 1% 1.2 3(c)

(a) Cladding composition is applicable only to the aluminum or aluminum alloy bonded to the alloy ingot or slab preparatory to processing to the specified compositeproduct. The canposition of
the cladding may be subsequently altered by diffusion between the core and cladding due to thermal treatment. (b) Average thickness per side as determined by averaging cladding-thickness meas-
urements taken at a magnification of 100 diameters on the cross section of a transverse specimen polished and etched for microscopic examination. (c) Applicable for thicknesses of 12.7 mm (O.so0
in.)andgmter,4343,maybe5% lrrxclad4343.

only in certain alloys. Many aluminum alloys Tube and pipe may be produced by using a are pnxluced by extruding or by extruding plus
are available in bar, rod, and wire; among these hollow extrusion ingot, by piercing a solid ex- cold finishing; shapes are now rarely produced by
alloys, 2011 and 6262 are specially designed trusion ingot, or by extruding through a port- rolling because of economic disadvantages.
for screw-machine products, 2117 and 6053 hole die ora bridge die. They also may be made Shapes may be solid, hollow (with one or nme
for rivets and fittings. Alloy 2024-T4 is a by forming and we1ding sheet. Tube maY be voids), or semihollow. The &wr series (AI-Mg-
standard material for bolts and screws. Alloys brought to fina1 dimensions by drawing Si) alloys, because of their easy extrudability, are
1350, 6101, and 6201 are extensively used as thmugh dies. Tube (b0th extruded and drawn) the most popular alloys for producing shapes.
electrical conductors. Alloy 5056 is used for for genera’ applications is availab1e in such Some 2wx and 7 m series alloys are often used
a11oys as “O0’ 2014’ 202493003’ 5050’5086’
zippers and Alclad 5056 for insect screen wire. in applications q u h g higher strength.
6061, 6063, and 7075. For heatexchanger
Tubular products include tube and pipe. standard structuml shapes such as I-bems,
tube, alloys 1060, 3003, Alclad 3003, 5052,
ney are ho”0w wrought prOducs that are long 5454, and 6061 are most widely used. Clad chmels, and angles produced in alloy 6061
in relation to their cross section and have uniform tube is available only in certain alloys and is are made in different and fewer configurations
wall thickness except as affected by comer radii. clad only on one side (either inside or outside). than similar shapes made of steel; the patterns
Tube is round, elliptical, square, rectangular, or pipe is avAlableonly in alloys 3003,6061, and especially designed for aluminum offer better
regular polygonal in cross section. When round 6063. section properties and greater structural stabil-
tubular products are in standardized combina-
tions of outside diameter and wall thickness,
Shapes. A shape is a mud that is long in ity than the Steel design by using the metal
relation to its crw-sectional dben&ns and has more efficiently.The dimensions, weights, and
commonly designated by “Nominal Pipe Sizes” a cross-sectional shape other than that of sheet, properties of the alloy 6061 standard structural
and “ANSI Schedule Numbers,” they are classi- plate, rod, bar, wire, or tube (see also the section shapes, along with other information needed
tied as pipe. “Design of Shapes” in this article). Most shapes by structural engineers and designers, are con-
66 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6 Characteristics and brazing-temperature ranges of aluminum brazing sheet minum alloys, such as 1100 and 3003, whose
forgeability would be rated significantly above
those presented; however, these alloys have
Brazing Sides Core Cladding Cladding on each side, Optimum
sheet(a) clad alloy alloy % of sheel lhickness brazing range, "F limited application in forging because they
cannot be strengthenedby heat treatment.
7 , , , .. . ., , , , , , , , , , ..I 3003 4004 15% for 0.024 in. and less 1120-1130
10% from 0.025 in. to 0.062 in. ... The 15 aluminum alloys that are most com-
7'12% for 0.063 in. and over ... monly forged, as well as recommended tem-
8 , . , . , . , . . . . , , , , . , . .2 3003 4004 15% for 0.024 in. and less 1 120-1 130 perature ranges, are listed in Table 2. All of
10% from 0.025 in. to 0.062 in. ... these alloys are generally forged to the same
7'lP%for 0.063 in. and over ...
11 . . , , , , . . , . , , , , , , , , l 3003 4343 10% for 0.063 in. and less 1100-1140 severity, although some alloys may require
5% for 0.064 in. and over ... more forging power and/or more forging op-
12 . , . , , . . . . , , , , . . . , .2 3003 4343 10% for 0.063 in. and less 1100-1 140 erations than others. The forging temperature
5% for 0.064 in. and over ...
range for most alloys is relatively narrow (gen-
13 . , . . . , . , , . . , , , , . , . I 6951 4004 15% for 0.024 in. and less 1 1 10-1 115
10% from 0.025 in. to 0.062 in. ... erally 55 "C, or 100 OF), and for no alloy is the
7'/$% for 0.063 in. and over ... range greater than 85 "C (155 O F ) . Obtaining
.2 6951 4004 15% for 0.024 in. and less 1 1 IO- I 1 15 and maintaining proper metal temperatures in
10% from 0.025 in. to 0.062 in. ...
7'12% for 0.063 in. and over ... the forging of aluminum alloys is critical to the
. . . . . . . , .1 6951 4343 10% for 0.090 in. and less I loo- I 120 success of the forging process. Die temperature
5% for 0.091 in. and over ... and deformation rates play key roles in the
22 . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .2 6951 4343 10% for 0.090 in. and less 1 1 0 0 - 1 120 actual forging temperature achieved.
5% for 0.091 in. and over ...
23 . . . . , , , , . . . . . . , , . .1 6951 4045 10% for 0.090 in. and less 1080-1120
Aluminum alloys are produced by all of the
5% for 0.091 in. and over ... current forging methods available, including
24 . . . , , , , . . . . . . , . , , .2 6951 4045 10% for 0.090 in. and less 1080-1120 open-die (or hand) forging, closeddie forging,
5% for 0.091 in. and over ...
upsetting, roll forging, orbital (rotary) forging,
(a) Designations registered with the Aluminum Association. spin forging, mandrel forging, ring rolling, and
extrusion. Selection of the optimal forging
tained in the Aluminum Construction Manual, based on the intended application. As a class of' method for a given forging shv is based on
published by The Aluminum Association. alloys, however, aluminurnalloys are gendy the desired forged shape, the sophistication of
Most aluminum alloys can be obtained as considered to be more difficult to forge than cart- the forged-shape design* and Cost* In many
precision extrusions with good asextruded on steels and many alloy steels. Compared to the cases9tWo Or more forging methods are com-
surfaces;major dimensions usually do not need nickellcobalt-base alloys and titanium alloys, alu- bined in order to achieve the desired forging
to be machined because tolerances of the as-ex- minum alloys are considerably more forgeable, shape and to obtain a thoroughly wrought
structure. For example, open-die forging fre-
truded product often permit manufacturers to particularly in conventional forging-processtech-
quently precedes closeddie forging in order to
complete the part with simple cutoff, drilling, nology, in which dies m heated to 540 OC (loo0
prework the alloy (especially when cast ingot
or other minor operations. O F ) or less.
forging stock is being employed) and in order
In many instances, long aircraft structural Figure 1 illustrates the relative forgeability to preshape (or prefom) the metal to cmfom
elements involve large attachment fittings at of ten aluminum alloys that constitute the bulk to the subsquent closed dies and to conserYe
one end. Such elements often are more eco- of aluminum alloy forging production. This input metal.
nomical to machine from stepped aluminum arbitrary unit is principally based on the defor- Most aluminum alloy forgings are pm-
extrusions, with two or more cross sections in mation per unit of energy absorbed in the range duced in closed dies. However, opendie forg-
one piece, rather than from an extrusion having of forging temperaturestypically employed for ings is frequently ~ ~ to e produe
d small
a uniform cross section large enough for the the alloys in question. Also considered in this quantities of aluminum alloy forgings when the
attachment fitting. index is the difficulty of achieving specific construction of expensive closed dies is not
Forgings. Aluminum alloys can be forged degrees of severity in deformation as well as justified or when such quantities are needed
into a variety of shapes and types of forgings with the cracking tendency of the alloy under forg- during the prototype fabrication stages of a
a broad range of final part forging design criteria, ing-process conditions. There are wrought alu- forging application. The quantity that w m t s

~ i 7 ~ Smooth
. and notched axial stress fatigue data for 7050-T7451 plate, 1 to 6 in. (25 to 150 mm) thick, shown in relation to bands established for 7075 wrought products
in T6 and T73xx tempers
Wrought Products / 67

Fig. 8 Fatigue crack growth rates a s functions of stress-intensity factor for two thicknesses of 7050-T7451 plate tested
in three directions and in threeenvironments

the use of closed dies varies considerably, de-


pending on the size and shape of the forging
and on the application for the part. However,
opendie forging is by no means confined to
small or prototype quantities, and in some
cases, it may be the most costeffective method
of aluminum forging manufacture. For exam-
ple, as many as 2000 pieces of biscuit forgings
have been produced in open dies when closed
dies did not provide sufficient economic bene-
fits. More detailed information on the forge-
ability of aluminum alloys can be found in the
article “Forging” in this Volume.
~ i g ~Values
. of 0.2% yield stress of aluminum al-
lop after exposure for 1000 h at tempera-
tures between 0 and 350 “C
~ i 10~ Stress-rupture
. results for creep tests at
Design of Shapes 180 “C (355 O F ) on aluminum alloys with
silver additions compared with those for Zxxxseries
alloys. Alloy A: 6 . 3 % Cu, 0.5% Mg, 0.5% Ag, 0.5%
Mn, and 0.2% Zr. Alloy B: 6.0% Cu, 0.45% Mg, 0.5%
Aluminum shapes can be produced in a meet functional and appearance requirements. Ag, 0.5% Mn, and 0.14% Zr. CWQ, cold-water- *
virtually unlimited variety of cross-sectional Full utilization of this capability of the extru- quenched before aging; BWQ, boiling-water-
designs that place the metal where needed to sion process depends principally on the inge- quenched beforeaging
68 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 7 Typical physical properties ofwrought aluminumalloys


Electrical conductivity
at 20 OC
Avenge camcient of Approximate Thermal conductivity (68 "F), 46IACS Electrical resistivity
lhermal expansion(.) melting rPnge(b)(c) 6-.t 25 "c (77 1 'F) Equal Equal 7st 20 "C',"
pin./in. . O F Btu . In./d h 'F
OF)

Alloy pm/m . *c r c T1 Temper volume


' ' weight fl . mm'lm . circ millft
1060 . . . . . . . .23.6 13.1 645-655 1195-1215 0 234 1625 62 204 0.028 17
HI8 230 1600 61 201 0.028 17
I 100 .23.6 13.1 643-655 1190-1215 0 222 1540 59 194 0.030 18
HI8 218 1510 57 187 0.030 18
1350 . . . . . . . .23.75 13.2 645-655 1195-1215 All 234 1625 62 204 0.028 17
201 I . . . . . . . .22.9 12.7 540443(d) 1005-1190(d) T3 151 1050 39 123 0.045 27
TU 172 I190 45 142 0.038 23
2014 .23.0 12.8 507-638(e) 945-1 180(e) 0 193 1340 50 159 0.035 21
T4 134 930 34 108 0.0515 31
T6 154 I070 40 127 0.043 26
2017 . . . . . . . .23.6 13.1 51340(e) 955-118S(e) 0 193 I340 50 159 0.035 21
T4 134 930 34 108 0.0515 31
2018 22.3 12.4 507-63Hd) 945-1 180(d) T61 I54 I070 40 127 0.043 26
2024 23.2 12.9 50(M38(e) 935-1180(e) 0 I93 I340 50 160 0.035 21
T3, T4, T361 121 840 30 % 0.058 35
T6, T81, TU61 151 1050 38 122 0.045 27
2025 . . . . . . . .22.7 12.6 520440(e) 970-1185(e) T6 154 1070 40 128 0.043 26
13.0 555450(d) 1030-1200(d) T4 I59 I 100 41 135 0.0415 25
13.2 555-650(d) 1030-1200(d) T4 I54 1070 40 130 0.043 26
2124 . . . . . . . . 2 2 . 9 12.7 500438(e) 935-1 180(e) TU51 152 1055 38 122 0.045 27
2218 . . . . . . . .22.3 12.4 50543Xe) 940-1 175(e) T72 I54 1070 40 126 0.043 26
2219 _ _. . . . .22.3 12.4 543443(e) 1010-l190(e) 0 172 I190 44 138 0.040 24
T3 I , T37 I12 780 28 88 0.0615 37
T6, TU I , TU7 121 U40 30 94 0.058 35
2618 . . . . . . . .22.3 12.4 550-638 1020-1180 T6 I47 1020 37 120 0.0465 28
3003 . . . . . . . .23.2 12.9 643-655 1190-1210 0 193 1340 50 163 0.035 21
HI2 163 I I30 42 137 0.0415 25
HI4 I59 I 100 41 134 0.0415 25
HI8 I54 1070 ' 40 130 0.043 26
3004 . . . . . . . .23.9 13.3 630-655 1165-1210 All I63 I I30 42 137 0.0415 25
3105 . . . . . . . .23.6 13.1 635-655 1175-1210 All I72 I190 45 148 0.038 23
4032 . . . . . . . . 19.4 10.8 532-570(e) 990-1060(e) 0 154 I070 40 132 0.043 26
T6 138 960 35 116 0.050 30
4043 . . . . . . . .22. I 12.3 575432 1065-1170 0 163 I I30 42 140 0.0415 25
4045 . . . . . . . . 2 I .os 11.7 5754M 1065-1110 All 172 I190 45 151 0.038 23
4343 . . . . . .'. . 2 I .6 12.0 577-613 107&1135 All I80 1250 42 158 0.0415 25
5005 . . . . . . . .23.75 13.2 632455 117&1210 All 200 I390 52 172 0.033 20
13.2 625450 1155-1205 All I93 I340 50 165 0.035 21
13.2 607450 1125-1200 All 138 960 35 116 0.050 30
5056 . . . . . . . .24. I 13.4 56U-638 1055-1180 0 I I7 810 29 98 0.060 36
H38 IO8 750 27 91 0.063 38
5083 . . . . . . . .23.75 13.2 5W38 109-1180 0 I I7 810 29 98 0.060 36
13.2 585440 1085-1185 All I25 870 31 104 0.055 33
13.3 593443 11W1190 All I25 870 32 107 0.053 32
5252 . . . . . . . .23.75 13.2 6074S0 1125-1200 All I38 960 35 116 0.050 30
5254 . . . . . . . .23.9 13.3 593443 1100-1190 All I25 870 32 107 0.053 32
13.4 57M35 1060-1175 0 I17 810 29 98 0.060 36
13.1 600445 1115-1195 0 I34 930 34 113 0.OSlS 31
H38 I34 930 34 113 0.0515 31
5456 . . . . . . . .23.9 13.3 56U-638 1055-1180 0 I17 810 29 98 0.060 36
.
5457 . . . . . . .23.75 13.2 630-655 1165-1210 All I76 I220 46 153 0.038 23
5652 . . . . . . .23.75 13.2 607450 1125-1200 All I38 960 35 116 0.050 30
13.2 638457 118&1215 All 205 1420 54 180 0.0315 19
6005 . . . . . . . .23.4 13.0 6lMSS(d) I I25-1210(d) TI I80 1250 47 155 0.0365 22
TS 190 1310 49 161 0.035 21
60053 . . . . . . ..23 12.8 575450(d) 1070-1205(d) 0 I72 I190 45 148 0.038 23
T4 I54 1070 40 132 0.043 26
T6 I63 I I30 42 139 0.0415 25
6061 . . . . . . . .23.6 13.1 SXMSO(d) IO80-120S(d) 0 I 80 1250 47 155 0.0365 22
T4 I54 1070 40 132 0.043 26
T6 I67 1160 43 142 0.040 24
6063 23.4 13.0 615455 1140-1210 0 218 1510 58 191 0.030 18
TI 193 I340 50 165 0.035 21
T5 209 1450 55 181 0.032 19
T6, T83 200 I390 53 175 0.033 20
6066 . . . . . . . .23.2 12.9 56545(e) 1045-1 195(e) 0 I54 1070 40 132 0.043 26
T6 147 1020 37 122 0.0465 28
6070 . . . . . . . . . ' ' ... 565450(e) 1050-1200(e) T6 172 I190 44 145 0.040 24
6101 . . . . . . . .23.4 13.0 62MSS 1150-1210 T6 218 1510 57 188 0.030 18
T6 I 222 IS40 59 194 0.030 18
T63 218 1510 58 191 0.030 18
T64 226 I570 60 198 0.028 17
T65 218 1510 58 191 0.030 18
(continued)
la1 Coefficient from X1 to I(X1 "C (hX to 212 "FI. lhl Melting range\ shown apply to wrought p r d u c t s of 6.35 mm 1 % in.) thickness o r greater. IC1 Based on typical composition of the indicated alloys. (dl
Eutectic meltlng can he completely eliminated hy homogenization. le1 Eutectic melting is not eliminated by homogenization. (0 Although not formerly regktered. the literature and some specifications have
used T73h as the designation fur this temper. lgl Homogeniration may raise eutectic melting temperature IO to ?O "C 120 to 40 "F) but uwally does not eliminate eutectic melting.
Wrought Products / 69

Table 7 (continued)
E l a t r i d Eonductivlty
at 20 T (68 73,

AM
A v e r y Cocmcknt of
thermal expuuion(a)
pm/m . T pin./in. . T I T
ApproxiMle
d t i n g nn%e(bMc)
'F
--, Tmpr
Tkenlul Eonduetlvlty

G at 25 L%.%x Equal
volume
IIACS
~qud
weight
E M d dsHvity
r----at20%(68T)
n . mm*/m n . dre mm
6105 . . . . . . . . 23.4 13.0 600-65Wd) 1110-1200(d) TI 176 1220 46 I51 0.038 23
T5 193 1340 50 165 0.035 21
6151 ... . . . . . 23.2 12.9 59045Wd) 1090-I200(d) 0 205 1420 54 178 0.0315 19
T4 I63 1 I30 42 138 0.0415 25
T6 172 1190 45 148 0.038 23
6201
6253 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23.4
...
13.0
... 607455(d)
600-650
1125-121O(d)
11W1205
T81 205
... 1420
... 54 180
... 0.0315
... 19
...
13.0 58(MSO(d) 1080-1205(d) 172 1190 145 0.040 24
13.0 555-650 1030-1200 T6 I76 I220 46 I51 0.038 23
13.0 615-655 1140-1210 TI 193 I340 50 165 0.035 21
T5 209 1450 55 181 0.0315 19
T6 200 I390 53 175 0.033 20
695 1 . . . . . . . . 23.4 13.0 615-655 114&1210 0 213 1480 56 186 0.0315 19
T6 198 1370 52 172 0.033 20
7049 . . . . . . . . 23.4 13.0 475-635 890-1175 773 154 1070 40 132 0.043 26
7050 . . . . . . . . 24. I 13.4 490430 910-1165 V4(0 I57 1090 41 135 0.0415 25
7072 . . . . . . . . 23.6 13.1 640-655 1185-1215 0 222 I540 59 193 0.030 18
7075 . . . . . . . . 23.6 13.1 475-635(g) 890-1175(g) T6 130 900 33 I05 0.0515 31
7178 23.4 13.0 475-63Wg) 890-1165(g) T6 125 31 98 0.055 33
8017 23.6 13.1 645-655 1190-1215 H12,HtZ ... 59 193 0.030 18
H2l2 ... 61 200 0.028 17
8030 . . . . . . . . 23.6 13.1 645-655 1190-1215 HZZl 230 1600 61 20 I 0.028 17
8176 . . . . . . . . 23.6 13.1 645-655 1190-1215 H24 230 1600 61 20 1 0.028 17
(a1 Coefficient from 20 to 100 "C(68 to 212 "F). (b1 Melting ranges shown apply to wrought products of 6.35 mm ( Y in.) thickness or greater. (c) Based on typical composition of the indicated alloys. (d)
Eutectic melting can be completely eliminated by homogenization. fe) Eutectic melting is not eliminated by homogenization. f0 Although not formerly registered the literature and some specifications have
uxd TIM as the designation for this temper. fg) Homogenization may raise eutectic melting temperature 10 lo 20 "C(20 to 40 'F) but usually does not climinaie eutectic melting.

nuity of designers in creating new and useful


configurations. The cross-sectional design of
an extruded shape, however, can have an im-
portant influence on its producibility, produc-
tion rate, cost of tooling, surface finish, and
ultimate production cost. The optimum design
of an extruded shape must take into account the
alloy thickness or thicknesses involved and the
size, type, and complexity of the shape. There-
fore, the extruder should be consulted during
design to ensure adequate dimensional control,
satisfactory fiiish, and lowest cost while re-
taining the desired functional and appearance
characteristics.
Classification of Shapes. 'Ihe complexity
of a shape producible as an extrusion is a function
of the metal flow characterstia of the plocess
and the means available to conttul flow. Control
Fig. 11 Young's modulus for two aluminum alloys as determined ultrasonically
of metal flow places a few limitations on the
design f e a m of the cross section of an extruded
shapethataEectproduuionrate,dimensionaland
surface quality, and costs. Extrusions are classi-
fied by shape complexity hm an extrusion-pro-
duction viewpoint into solid, hollow, and
semihollow shapes. Each hollow shape-a shape
with any part of its cross section completely en-
closing a void-is further classifiedby incleasmg
complexity as follows:

Class 1: A hollow shape with a round void


25 mm (1 in.) or more in diameter and with
its weight equally distributed on opposite
sides of two or more equally spaced axes
Class 2: Any hollow shape other than Class
1, not exceeding a 125 mm (5 in.) diam
circle and having a single void of not less
than 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) diam or 70 mm2
(0.110 in.2) area
Class 3: Any hollow shape other than Class
Fig. 12 Poisson's ratios for two aluminum alloys as determined ultrasonically 1 or2
70 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

A semihollowshape is a shape with any part satingfeaturesthatprovide uniform metal flow Table 8 Nominal densities of wrought alu-
of its cross section partly enclosing a void rates to all parts of the shape. minum and aluminum alloys
having the following ratios for the area of the Ease of extrusion improves with increasing
IDensity
void to the square of the width of the gap
leading to the void:
thickness; shapes of uniform thickness are
most easily extruded. Ashape whose cross sec-
A,loy dm' YkJ
tion has elemenb of wjdely differing thick- 1050.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.705 0.0975
1060 0.0975
nesses increasesthe difficultyof extrusion.The 1 100 0.098
Gap width thinner a flange on a shape, the less the length 1145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.700 0.0975
mm in Ratio of flange that can be satisfactorily extruded. 1175.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2.700 0.0975
0.9- 1.5 0.035-0.061 Over 2 Thinner elements at the ends of long flanges :iz 0.098
0.098
1.6-3.1 0.062-0.124 Over 3 are difficultto fill Properly and make it hard to 1235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.705 0.0975
3.2-6.3 0.125-0.249 Over 4 obtain desired dimensional control and finish. 1345 . . . . . . . . . 0.0975
Although it is desirable to produce the thinnest 1350 . . . . . . . . . 0.0975
gii ::: : :: :: 1.
6.4-12.6 0.250-0.499 Over 5
0.102
12.7andgreater 0.SOOandgteater Over 6 shape feasible for an application, reducing , . . . . . . . 2,80 0.101
thickness can cause an increase in cost of ex- 2017 0.101
trusion that more than offsets the savings in 2018 . . . . . . .... 0.102
metal cost. Extruded shapes 1 mm (0.040 in.) 'OZ4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.78 0.101
~ l Extrudability
l ~ ~ - ~ alloys &if-
izi :::
' '
A 0.101
fer in fierent extru&ifiqe ~l~~ selection is thick and even less can be produced,depending '... . . ' ' ' ' 2'81
' ' ' ' '
0.100
important because it atabli.qhes the w~ on alloy, shape, size, and design. Manufactur- 2117 . . . 0.099
~ c k n e s for a shape and has a basic effd on ing limits on minimal practical thickness of 2124 . . . 0.100
extrusion cost. ~n general, the higher the alloy extruded shapes are given in Table 3- 0.101
0.103
content and the strength of an alloy, the more sizeand thickness re1ationships among the 2618 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.76 0.100
difficultit is to extrude and the lower its extrusion Various elements Of a shape can add to its 3003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.73 0.099
complexity. Rod, bar, and regular shapes of 3004 .... 0.098
rate.
The relative extrudabilities,as measured by uniform thickness are easily produced. For ex- iE: 0.098
0.098
extrusion rate, for several of the more impor- ample, a bar 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) thick, a rod 25 4032 0.097
tant commercial extrusion alloys are given be- mm (1 in.) in diameter, and an angle 19 by 25

z::::::
4043 0.097
mm (0.75 by 1 in.) in cross section and 1.6 mm 4045 0.0%
low: 0.0%
(0.0625 in.) thick are readily extruded, whereas 0.099
extrusion of a 75 mm ( 3 in.) b a r - t w shape 4343 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.68 0.097
ExtmdsbBity,% with a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) flange is more dfii- 4643 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.69 0.097
cult. 5005 0.098
g:
A W ofratefa6063
0.097
Semihollow and channel shapes require a 0.097
1350 160
tongue in the extrusion die, which must have 5056 ........ . . 2.64 0.095
1060
1110
3003
6063
135
135
120
100
adequate strength to resist the extrusion force.
Channel shapes become increasingly difficult
to produce as the depth-to-width ratio in-
:!:!
5083

5183
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
6061 60 creases. Wide, thin shapes are difficult to pro- 5252 . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 2.67 0.0%

:::!
2011 35 duce and make it hard to control dimension. 5254.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.66 0.0%
0.0%
5086 25 Channel-type shapes and wide, thin shapes 0.097
2014 20 may be fabricated if they are not excessively 5456 0.0%
5083 20 thin. Thin flanges or projections from a thicker 5457 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.69 0.097
element of the shape add to the complexity of . . 2.69
;:
2024 15 5554 0.097
7075 9
an extruded design. On thinner elements at the . . . . . . . . . . .. . 2.66
, , , , , 2,67
, ,
0.0%
0.097
7178 8
extremities of the flanges, it is difficult to get 5654 . ., . . . . . . . . . . 2.66 0.0%
adequate fill to obtain desired dimensions. The 5657 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.69 0.097
greater the difference in thickness of individual 6003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.70 0.097
6005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.70 0.097
Actua1
sure, extrusionand
temperature* rateOther
depends On pres-
requirements elements comprisinga shape, the more difficult 6053 0.097
the shape is to produce. The effect of such 6061 0.098
for the particular shape, as we11 as ingot thicknessdifferencescan be greatly diminished 6063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.70 0.097
quality. by blending one thickness into the other by 6066 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.098
Shape and Size Factors. The important 6070 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.098
tapered or radjused tmsjtions. Sharp cmers 6101 .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.70 0.097
shape factor of an extrusion is the ratio Of its should be avoided wherever possible because 6105 . . . . . , . . , , , . , . , . , , 2.69 0.097
perimeter to its weight per unit length. For a they reduce maximum extrusion speed and are 6151 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.71 0.098
single classification, increasing shape factor is locations of stress concentrations in the die 6162 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.70 0.097
6201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.69 0.097
a measure Of increasing complexity- Designing opening that can cause premature die failure. 6262 0.098
for minimum shape factor promotes ease of Fillet radii of at lease 0.8 mm (0.031 in.) are 6351 0.098
extrusion. desirable,but corners with radii of only 0.4 mm 6463 0.097
The size of an extruded shape affects ease 695 1 0.098
(0.015 in.) are feasible. 7005 0.100
of extrusion and dimensional tolerances. As In general, the more unbalanced and un- 7008 0.100
- the circumscribing circle size (smallest di- symmetrical an extruded-shape cross section, 7049 0.103
ameter that completely encloses the shape) the more difficult that shape is to produce. 7050 ..... 0.102
increases, extrusion becomes more difficult.
In extrusion, the metal flows fastest at the
Despite this, production of grossly unbalanced
and asymmetrical shapes is the basis of the
;:;:
7178
0.098
0.101
0.102
center of the die face. With increasing circle great growth that has occurred in the use of 8017 0.098
8030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 1 0.098
size, the tendency for different metal flow aluminum extrusions, and such designs ac- 8176 , . , . . . . . , , , . , , . , .2,71
, 0.098
increases, and it is more difficult to design count for the bulk of extruded shapes produced 8177 . . 2.70 0.098
and construct extrusion dies with compen- today.
Wrought Products / 71

Table 9 Typical mechanical properties of various wrought aluminum alloys


Elongation in
50 mm (2 in.), %
Ultimate 1.6 mm 1.3 mm Ultimate
tensile Tensile yield (M6 in.) (M in.) shearing Fatigue Modulus of
strength strength thick diam Hardness. strength endurance limit(b) elasticity(c)
Alloy and temper MPa ksi MPa ksi specimen specimen HB(a) MPa ksi MPa ksi cP. 106pi
1060-0 ....................... 70 IO 30 4 43 ... 19 50 7 20 3 69 10.0
1060-Hl2 .................... 85 12 75 II 16 ... 23 55 8 30 4 69 10.0
1060-Hl4 95 14 90 13 I2 26 6 0 9 35 5 69 10.0
1060-Hl6 110 16 105 15 8 ... 30 70 IO 45 6.5 69 10.0
1060-HI8 .................... 130 19 125 18 6 ... 35 75 II 4s 6.5 69 10.0
1100.0 ....................... 90 13 35 5 35 45 23 6 0 9 35 5 69 10.0
1100-HI2 .................... 110 16 105 15 12 25 28 70 IO 40 6 69 10.0
1100-HI4 .................... 125 18 115 17 9 20 32 75 II 50 7 69 10.0
1100-HI6 .................... 145 21 140 20 6 17 38 85 I2 60 9 69 10.0
1100-HI8 .................... 165 24 150 22 5 I5 44 90 13 60 9 69 10.0
1350-0 ....................... 85 12 30 4 ... (d) ... 55 8 ... ... 69 10.0
95 14 85 12 6 0 9 ... ... 69 10.0
110 16 95 14 ... ... ... 70 IO 69 10.0
1350-Hl6 .................... 125 18 110 16 ... ... ... 75 II 69 10.0
1350-Hl9 .................... 185 27 165 24 ... (e) ... 105 15 50 7 69 10.0
2011.T3 ...................... 380 55 295 43 ... 15 95 220 32 125 18 70 10.2
. . . . . 405 59 310 45 ... 12 100 240 35 125 18 70 10.2
. . . . . 185 27 95 14 ... 18 45 125 18 90 13 73 10.6
. . . . . 425 62 290 42 ... 20 105 260 38 140 20 73 10.6
2014-T6.T651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 70 415 60 ... 13 135 290 42 125 18 73 10.6
Alclad 2014-0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 25 70 IO 21 ... ... 125 18 ... ... 72 10.5
Alclad 2014.T3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 63 275 40 20 ... ... 255 37 ... ... 72 10.5
Alclad 2014.T4. T451 . . . . . . . . . 420 61 255 37 22 ... ... 255 37 72 10.5
Alclad 2014.T6. T651 . . . . . . . . . 470 68 415 60 IO ... ... 285 41 ... ... 72 10.5
2017-0 ....................... 180 26 70 IO 22 45 125 18 90 13 72 10.5
425 62 275 40 22 105 260 38 125 18 72 10.5
420 61 315 46 12 120 270 39 115 17 14 10.8
2024.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 27 75 II 20 22 47 125 18 90 13 73 10.6
2024.T3 ...................... 485 70 345 50 18 ... 120 285 ' 41 140 20 73 10.6
2024.T4. T351 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 68 325 47 20 19 I20 285 41 140 20 73 10.6
2024.T361(0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 72 395 57 13 130 290 42 125 18 73 10.6
180 26 75 II 20 ... ... 125 18 ... 73 10.6
450 65 310 45 18 ... ... 275 40 ... 73 10.6
Alclad 2024-T4. T351 . . . . . . . . . 440 64 290 42 19 ... ... 275 40 ... 73 10.6
Alclad 2024-T361(f) . . . . . . . . . . . 460 67 365 53 II ... ... 285 41 ... ... 73 10.6
Alclad.2024-T81. T851 . . 450 65 415 60 6 275 40 ... ... 73 10.6
Alclad 2024-T861(0 . . . . . . . . . . . 485 70 455 66 6 ... ... 290 42 73 10.6
2025.T6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 58 255 37 ... 19 I IO 240 35 I 71 10.4
2036.T4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 49 195 28 24 ... ... . . . . . . 12Xg) 18 (g) 71 10.3
2117.T4 . . 295 43 165 24 ... 27 28 95 14 71 10.3
2 I24-T85 1 485 70 440 64 8 ... ... ... 73 10.6
22 18-T72 . 330 48 255 37 ... II 95 205 30 74 10.8
2219-0 ....................... 175 25 75 II 18 ... ... . . . . . . ... ... 73 10.6
2219-T42 ..................... 360 52 185 27 20 ... ... . . . . . . ... ... 73 10.6
360 52 250 36 17 ... ... ... ... 73 10.6
395 57 315 46 II ... ... ... ... 73 10.6
2219.T62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 60 290 42 IO ... ... I05 15 73 10.6
2219-T8I.T851 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 66 350 51 IO ... ... . . . . . . 105 15 73 10.6
2219.T87 ..................... 475 69 395 57 IO ... ... . . . . . . I05 15 73 10.6
2618.T61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 64 370 54 IO I I5 260 38 125 18 74 10.8
110 16 40 6 40 28 75 II 50 7 69 10.0
130 19 125 18 IO 20 35 85 I2 55 8 69 10.0
3003-HI4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 22 145 21 8 16 40 95 14 60 9 69 10.0
3003-HI6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 26 170 25 5 14 47 105 15 70 IO 69 10.0
3003-HI8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 29 185 27 4 IO 55 110 16 70 IO 69 10.0
Alclad 3003-0 . . . . 110 16 40 6 30 40 75 II ... ...
. . . . 130 19 125 18 IO 20 ... 85 12 69 10.0
Alclad 3003.H14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 22 145 21 8 16 ... 95 14 ... ... 69 10.0
Alclad 3003-Hl6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 26 170 25 5 14 ... 105 15 ... ... 69 10.0
Alclad 3003-H I . . . . . . . 200 29 185 27 4 IO 110 16 ... ... 69 10.0
3004-0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 26 70 IO 20 25 110 16 95 14 69 10.0
3004-H32 .................... 215 31 170 25 IO 17 52 115 17 105 15 69 10.0
3004-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 35 200 29 9 12 63 125 18 105 I5 69 10.0
3004-H36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 38 230 33 5 9 70 140 20 110 16 69 10.0
3004-H38 . . . . . . . . . 285 41 250 36 5 6 77 145 21 110 16 69 10.0
Alclad 3004-0 . . . . . 180 26 70 IO 20 25 ... 110 16 ... ... 69 10.0
Alclad 3004-H . . . . . 215 31 170 25 IO 17 ... 115 17 ... 69 10.0
Alclad ? W - H 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 35 200 29 9 12 ... 125 18 ... 69 10.0
Alclad 3W-H36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 38 230 33 5 9 ... 140 20 ... ... 69 10.0
Alclad 3004-H38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 41 250 36 5 145 21 ... ... 69 10.0
3 105.0 . . . . . . . . . . . 115 17 55 8 24 85 12 ... ... 69 10.0
(continued)
fa1 500 kg load and 10 mm ball . f b ) Bared on 500 OOO OOO cycles of completely reversed strers using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. IC) Average of tension and compression moduli .
.
Compression modulu\ is about 2% greater than ten\ion modulus . f d l 1350-0 wire will have an elongation ofapproximately 23% in 250 mm ( I O in.). (e) 13SOH19 wire will have an elongation of approximately
.
i ' M in 250 m m f 10 in.). (fl Temperr T36l and T861 were formerly derignated T36 and T86 respectively . f g ) Bared on 10' cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens . (h) T745i although not
.
previou4y regmered has appeared in literature and in \ome \pec!fications ar T73651
72 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9 (continued)
Ebngtbn in
3 mm (2 in.), %
Ulllmate 1.6 mm 1.3 mm UIHnute
(ensik T e d * YW (he in.) (hin.) -ring Fatigue Modulus d
strength strcnglh lhkk diam HardIlWS, strength cnduMn limll(b) eluticity(c)
Alby and tcmpr MR ksi mR ksi rpci- vinm FIB(.) MPa ksi MPa ksi GR Idpal
3105-HI2 ..................... 150 22 130 19 7 95 14 ... ... 69 10.0
170 25 150 22 5 ... ... 105 15 ... ... 69 10.0
195 28 170 25 4 ... ... 110 16 69 10.0
215 31 195 28 3 I15 17 ... ... 69 10.0
3105-H25 ..................... 180 26 160 23 8 I05 15 ... ... 69 10.0
4032-T6 ...................... 380 55 315 46 ... 260 38 79 11.4
..... 125 18 40 6 25 ... 28 75 II 69 10.0
140 20 130 19 IO ... ... 95 14 ... 69 10.0
160 23 I50 22 6 95 14 ... ... 69 10.0
500S-HI6 ..................... 180 26 170 25 5 105 I5 ... ... 69 10.0
200 29 195 28 4 110 16 ... 69 10.0
140 20 115 17 II ... 36 95 14 ... 69 10.0
160 23 140 20 8 ... 41 95 14 69 10.0
5W5-H36. . . . . . . 180 26 165 24 6 46 IO5 IS ... ... 69 10.0
5005-H38 ..................... 200 29 185 27 5 51 110 16 ... ... 69 10.0
........... 145 21 55 8 24 ... 36 105 15 85 12 69 10.0
170 25 145 21 9 ... 46 115 17 90 13 69 10.0
195 28 165 24 8 ... 53 125 18 90 13 69 10.0
5050-H36 ..... . ... . ... .... . ... 205 30 180 26 7 58 130 19 95 14 69 10.0
5050-H38.. . . . . ... ... . ... . ... . 220 32 200 29 6 63 140 20 95 14 69 10.0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 28 90 13 25 30 47 125 18 I IO 16 70 10.2
230 33 195 28 12 18 60 140 20 115 17 70 10.2
260 38 215 31 10 14 68 145 21 I25 18 70 10.2
5052-H36 ... .... .... .... .... .. 275 40 240 35 8 IO 73 160 23 130 19 70 10.2
5052-H38 ... .... .... .... .... .. 290 42 255 37 7 8 77 165 24 140 20 70 10.2
........ 290 42 I50 22 ... 35 65 180 26 140 20 71 10.3
435 63 405 59 10 I os 235 34 150 22 71 10.3
5056-H38.. . . . . . 415 60 345 50 I5 100 zm 32 ISO 22 71 10.3
290 42 145 21 22 ... ... 71 10.3
5083-H321. HI16 .............. 315 46 230 33 16 23 71 10.3
5086-0 . . . . . . . . 260 38 115 17 22 ... ... ... 71 10.3
5086H32, HI 16 290 42 205 30 12 ... ... ... ... t . .
71 10.3
5086-H34 ..................... 325 47 255 37 IO ... ... 185 27 ... ... 71 10.3
5086-HI12 .................... 270 39 130 19 14 ... ... ... ... 71 10.3
5154-0 ....................... 240 35 115 17 27 ... 150 22 I I5 17 70 10.2
5I54-H32 270 39 205 30 I5 ... 67 150 22 I25 18 70 10.2
5154-H34 290 42 230 33 13 ... 73 165 24 130 19 70 10.2
5154-H36 310 45 250 36 I2 ... 78 180 26 I40 20 70 10.2
5154-H38 ..................... 330 48 270 39 IO 80 195 28 I45 21 70 10.2
SI54-HlI2 .................... 240 35 115 17 25 ... 63 I15 17 70 10.2
. . . . 235 34 170 25 I1 ... 68 69 10.0
285 41 240 35 5 75 160 23 ... 69 10.0
240 35 I15 17 27 58 I50 22 I I5 70 10.2
5254-H12. .... . ... . ... . ... . ... 270 39 205 30 15 67 150 22 I25 18 70 10.2
5254-H34 ..................... 290 42 230 33 13 ... 73 I65 24 I30 19 70 10.2
310 45 250 36 I2 ... 78 180 26 I40 20 70 10.2
330 48 270 39 IO ... so I95 28 145 21 70 10.2
5254-HlI2 .................... 240 35 115 17 25 63 ... ... I I5 17 70 10.2
5454-0 ..... .... . ... .. . . . . . . . . 250 36 115 17 22 62 160 23 ... ... 70 10.2
..... . . . .. 275 40 205 30 IO 73 165 24 ... ... 70 10.2
.... .... . . 305 44 240 35 IO ... 81 180 26 ... ... 70 10.2
260 38 180 26 14 ... 70 160 23 ... 70 10.2
5454-HI12 .................... 250 36 125 18 18 ... 62 160 23 ... 70 10.2
5456-0 ....................... 310 45 160 23 24 ... ... ... ... ... 71 10.3
5456-HI12 .................... 310 45 165 24 ... 22 ... ... ... ... ... 71 10.3
350 51 255 37 ... 16 90 205 30 ... 71 10.3
130 19 50 7 22 ... 32 85 I2 ... 69 10.0
180 26 160 23 12 ... 48 110 16 69 10.0
205 30 185 27 6 ... 55 125 18 ... ... 69 10.0
195 28 90 13 25 30 47 125 I8 1 IO 16 70 10.2
5652-H32 ..................... 230 33 195 28 I2 18 60 140 20 115 17 70 10.2
5652-H34 . 260 38 215 31 10 14 68 145 21 125 18 70 10.2
5652-H36 275 40 240 35 8 IO 73 160 23 I30 19 70 10.2
5652-H38 290 42 255 37 7 8 77 165 24 140 20 70 10.2
5657-HZS ..................... 160 23 140 20 I2 40 95 14 ... ... 69 10.0
5 6 5 7 - m . ~ 2 . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 28 165 24 7 ... 50 105 15 ... ... 69 10.0
60614 ................. 125 18 55 8 25 30 30 85 I2 60 9 69 10.0
6061-T 240 35 145 21 22 25 65 165 24 95 14 69 10.0
6061-T 310 45 275 40 12 17 95 205 30 95 14 69 10.0
Alclad 115 17 50 7 25 ... ... 75 II ... ... 69 10.0
Alclad6061-T4, T451 . . . . . . . . . . 230 33 130 19 22 ISO 22 ... ... 69 10.0
(continued)
(a) 500 kg load and 10 mm ball. (bl Based on 500 OOO OOO cycles of completely reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.
Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus. (dl 1 3 5 0 wire will have an elongation of approximately 23y in 2SO mm (10 in.). (e) i35O-HI9wire will have an elongation of approximately
Ib%in 250 mm ( I O in.). tfJ Tempers T361 and T%l,were formerly designated T36 and T86. respectively. (E) Based on IO cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) T7451. although not
previously registered. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as l7365I.
Wrought Products / 73

Table 9 (continued)
Elongation In
50 mm (2 in.), %
Ultimate 1.6 mm 1.3 mm Ultlmatc
tensile Tensile yield (hin.) (M in.) shearing Fatigue Modulus of
strength strength thkk dlam H.rdIKS, strength endurance limit(b) el.sticity(c)
Alloy and l e m p r MPa ksi MPa ksi specimen spcimen HB(4 MPa ksi MPa ksi CPa 10~psi
Alclad 606l-T6, T65l . . . . . . . . . . 290 42 255 37 12 ... ... 185 27 ... 69 10.0
6063-0 . . 90 13 50 7 ... ... 25 70 IO 8 69 10.0
6063-TI . 150 22 90 13 20 ... 14 60 9 69 10.0
6063-T4. ...................... 170 25 90 13 22 ... ... ... ... 69 10.0
6063-T5. ..................... 185 27 145 21 12 ... 60 115 17 70 IO 69 10.0
240 35 215 31 12 ... 73 150 22 70 IO 69 10.0
255 37 240 35 9 82 150 22 ... ... 69 10.0
6063-T831 .................... 205 30 185 27 IO 70 125 18 ... ... 69 10.0
6063-T832.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 42 270 39 I2 95 185 27 ... ... 69 10.0
6066-0 ....................... 150 22 85 12 ... 18 43 95 14 ... ... 69 10.0
6066-T4, T45 I 360 52 205 30 ... 18 90 200 29 ... ... 69 10.0
6066-T6. T651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 57 360 52 12 120 235 34 I IO 16 69 10.0
6070-T6 ...................... 380 55 350 51 ... ... 235 34 95 14 69 10.0
6101-Hlll .................... 95 14 75 II ... ... ... . . . . . . ... 69 10.0
6101 -T6 220 32 195 28 15 ... 71 140 20 ... 69 10.0
635 1 -T4 250 36 150 22 20 ... . . . . . . ... ... 69 10.0
6351-T6 ...................... 310 45 285 41 14 95 200 29 90 13 69 10.0
6463-TI ...................... I50 22 90 13 20 ... 42 95 14 70 IO 69 10.0
6463-T5 ...................... 185 27 145 21 12 ... 60 115 17 70 IO 69 10.0
6463-T6 . . . . . . . 240 35 215 31 12 ... 74 I50 22 70 IO 69 10.0
. 515 75 450 65 ... 12 135 305 44 ... ... 72 10.4
7O49-T7352.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 75 435 63 ... II 135 295 43 ... ... 72 10.4
7050-T73510. T73511 . . . . . . . . . .495 72 435 63 ... 12 ... . . . . . . ... ... 72 10.4
7050-T745 1 (h) 525 76 470 68 II ... 305 44 . . . . . . . 72 10.4
7050-T7651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 80 490 71 II 325 47 ... ... 72 10.4
7075-0 ....................... 230 33 105 15 16 150 22 ... 72 10.4
7075-T6, T651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 83 505 73 II II I50 330 48 23 72 10.4
Alclad 7075-0. . . . . . . . . . 220 32 95 14 17 ... ... 150 22 ... ... 72 10.4
Alclad 7075-T6, T651 . . . 525 76 460 67 II ... ... 315 46 ... ... 72 10.4
(a1 500 kg load and 10 mm ball. (bl Based on 500 OOO OOO cycles of completely reversed stress using the R.R. Moore tyw of machine and cpecimen. (cl Average of tension and compression moduli.
compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus. Id) 1350.0 wire will have an elongation ofapproximately 23y in 250 mm (10 in.). le1 1350-HI9 wire will have an elongation ofapproximately
IYz? in 250 mm (10 in.). (0 Tempers T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86, respectively. (gl Based on 10 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h)T7451. although not
previously registered. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.

Interconnecting Shapes. It is becoming an interlocking extrusion and sheet (Fig. 4). The alloys used include 1100,1145,1235,3003,
increasingly common to include an interconnect- Extrusions also can be provided with longitu- 5052,5056, 8 11 1 and 8079. The wide range of
ing feature in the design of an extruded shape to dinal teeth or serrations, which will perma- strengths provided is shown in Table 4. Note that
facilitate its assembly to a similar shape or to nently grip smooth surfaces as well as surfaces the 125 mm (5 in.) gage length is used for elon-
anotherproduct. This featurecan be a simple step provided with mating teeth or serrations: this isgation. Properties reflect the influence of compo-
to provide a smooth lapping joint, or a tongue and illustrated in the sketch at the bottom of Fig. 4.
sition, fabricating practices, and test procedures
groove for a nestingjoint (see Fig. 2). Such con- Applicationsfor interconnectingextrusions requkd for foil. Aluminum honeycomb COR for
nections can be secured by any of the common include doors: wall, ceiling and floor panels; air& generally is made of 3003-H19, 5052-
joining methods. Of special interest when the pallets: aircraft landing mats: highway signs; H39, or 5056H39 foil, but alloy 2024 heat-
jointistobearcweldedisthefactthatlappingand window frames; and large cylinders. Addi- mated to the T81 temper is used when long
nesting types of interconnections can be designed tional information on cold impact extrusion service at elevated temperatwe is required.
to provideedge prepamtion and/or integral back- and hot extrusion of aluminum alloys can be Alclad Products. Aluminum products
ing for the weld (seethe sketch at bottom right in found in the article “Extrusion” in this Volume. sometimes are coated on one or both surfaces
Fig. 2). with a metallurgically bonded, thin layer of pure
Interlocking joints can be designed to in- aluminum or aluminum alloy. If‘the combination
corporate a free-moving hinge (see top sketch Applications of Wrought ~ l of ~ d o y~ s is selected so that the
l core ~and cladding
in Fig. 3) when one part is slid lengthwise into cladding is anodic to the core, it is called Alclad.
the mating portion of the next extrusion.Panel- The cladding of Alclad products electrochemi-
type extrusions with hinge joints have found The unique combinationsof properties pro- cally protects the core at exposed edges and at
application in conveyor belts and roll-up vided by aluminum and its alloys make alumi- abmded or corrcded areas. When a corrosive
doors. num one of the most versatile,economical,and solution is in contact with the product, c m n t
A more common type of interlocking fea- attractive metallic materials for a broad range from the anodic cladding flows through the elec-
ture used in interconnecting extrusions is the of uses from soft, highly ductile wrapping foil trolyte to the cathodic core, and the cladding
nesting type that requires rotation of one part to the most demanding engineering applica- tends to dissolve preferentially, thus protecting
relative to the mating part for assembly (see tions. This section reviews some of the more the core. Sustained protection is dependent on
bottom sketch in Fig. 3). Such joints can be important applicationsfor wrought alloys. Ad- obtaining the optimum quantity of current (which
held together by gravity or by mechanical de- ditional information on markets and applica- is influenced by the potential difference between
vices. If a nonpermanentjoint is desired, a bolt tions for aluminum and aluminum alloys can the cladding and core), the conductivity of the
or other fastener can be used, as illustrated in be found in the article “General Introduction” corroding medium, fim fomtion, and polariza-
the bottom sketch in Fig. 3. in this Volume. tion (see the article “Corrosion Behavior” in this
When a permanent joint is desired, a snap- Aluminum Alloy Foil. An extremely im- Volume).
ping or crimping feature can be added to inter- portant and widely used wrought product, alumi- The corrosion potentials of cladding and
locking extrusions (see Fig. 4). Crimping also num alloy foil generally is produced core alloys are important in selecting a coating
can be used to make a permanentjoint between commercially from non-heat-treatable alloys. that is sufficiently anodic to electrochemically
74 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Table 10 Recommended minimum bend radii for 90° cold forming of sheet and plate

I100

2014

2024

2036
3003

3004

3105
5005

5050

5052

protect the core. Copper in solid solution in magnesium, because these elements make the a cladding iiquently used as the low-melting
aluminum is less anodic as copper content in- cladding more anodic. brazing material for flux brazing applications.
creases. Consequently, pure aluminum is an- Ths percentage of cladding thickness is de- Bmzing sheet products for the fluxless vacuum
odic to aLminum-copper-magnesiumalloys in termined principally by the thickness of the brazing process have an aluminum-magnesium-
the naturally aged T3x and T4x tempers by finished part. Because the objective is to pro- silicon alloy, for example 4004 (or its modifica-
about 0.154 V and is used as the cladding for vide an adequate absolute thickness, the per- tion4104, whichcontains aboutO.l% bismuthto
most Alclad 2m-x products. Increasing zinc in centage for thicker parts need not be as great as improve brazeability) as the cladding material.
solid solution increases the anodic potential of the percentage for thinner parts. A listing of the The core alloy is either 6951 or a non-heat---
aluminum alloys, while MgzSi and manganese most widely used Alclad products is given in able alloy !kom the 3xxx series. Table 6 lists char-
have little effect. Alloy 7072, Al-lZn, has a Table 5. Properties of Alclad products are de- acteristicsofaluminumbrazingsheet.Additional
more anodic potential than pure aluminum and scribed in the section “Properties of Wrought information can be found m the article “Brazing
is used as the cladding for Alclad 3003,5052, Aluminum Alloys” in this article. and Soldering”in this Volume.
6061, and 7075, as well as others. Clad Products. Clad products resemble Al- Automotive Products. The automotive in-
The most widely used Alclad products are clad products in many respects, but they are dis- dustry uses wrought aluminumfortrim.bumpers,
sheet and plate, although wire, tube, and other tinguished by a cladding alloy that is not body panels, and various interiorparts. Alloysfor
forms are also produced. The most generally intentionally anodic to the core. Clad products are trim applications are of the aluminum-magne-
accepted method of fabricating Alclad sheet designed to provide improved surface appearance sium type (2rxx series) as mentioned previously
and plate consists of hot rolling to pressure or other characteristics required for special appli- in this article. Avariety of 7mx series alloys have
weld the cladding slabs to a scalped core ingot. cations. Brazing products are commercial exam- been developed for bumpers; alloy 7129 and
In fabricating Alclad products, the temperature ples of clad products in which a cladding alloy 7016 are designed for bright an- face bars,
and time of thermal treatments should be mini- having a melting point appreciably lower than the and alloys 7029,7021, and 7146 provide charac-
mized to avoid extensive diffusion of soluble core is used for subsequent joining of several teristics desired for chrome-plated, painted, and
elements from the core. This is particularly parts into an assembly. Non-heat-treatable alloy clear-coatedfacebars.Alloy7021 wasalsodevel-
important in the 2rxr alloys, as diffusion of 3003 or the heat-beatable Al-Me-Si alloy 6951 oped for bumper reinfomments. Body panels
copper in the cladding makes it less anodic. It m widely used as core alloys in producing braz- have been pruduced primarily from 2036 and
is less important in alloys containing zinc and ing sheet, and the aluminum-silicon alloy 4343 is 5 182alloys.In recent years, alloys 6009 and6010
Wrought Products / 75

Table 11 Minimumand typical room-temperatureplanestrainfiaclure-toughness valuesfor several high-strength wrought aluminumalloys

Thiikness ------, . - rI L-T dlmtion(a)


Minimum
,- 7
PIancstnin fracture toughness (K,,)
T-L diratlon(b) 77S L dlmtion(c) :-
M
form
U d
Alloy and tempcr TL In. M R V m ksi- 1 rMp.
T <ymp i c d ksi-
-, ,-MiniR mm ksi- 1
muC l m ukms 1
~MTRy vpmi e nkl -s ,i f i rMMRi vn m i f i IM R
Tvm
y -ksi-l
Plate 7050-T745 I 25.40-50.80 1.000-2.000 .... 31.9 29.0 37 34 27.5 25.0 33 30 . . . . . . . . . . . .
50.83-76.20 2.001-3.000 .... 29.7 27.0 36 33 26.4 24.0 32 29 23.1 21.0 28 25
76.23-101.60 3 . 0 0 1 4 . 0 0 0 ....
28.6 26.0 35 32 25.3 23.0 31 28 23.1 21.0 28 25
101.63-127.00 4.001-5.000.... 27.5 25.0 32 29 24.2 22.0 29 26 23.1 21.0 28 25
127.03-152.40 5.001-6.000 .... 26.4 24.0 31 28 24.2 22.0 28 25 23.1 21.0 28 25
7050-7765 I 25.40-50.80 1.00&2.000 .... 28.6 26.0 34 31 26.4 24.0 31 28 . . . . . . . . . . . .
50.83-76.20 2.001-3.000 .... 26.4 24.0 . . . . . . 25.3 23.0 . . . . . . 22.0 20.0 26 24
...... 33.0 30.0 46 42 30.8 28.0 41 37 . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.3 33.0 47 43 33.0 30.0 41 37 . . . . . . . . . . . .
........... 41.8 38.0 55 50 35.2 32.0 45 41 27.5 25.0 36 33
7075-T65 I ........................ . . . . . . 29 26 . . . . . . 25 23 . . . . . . 20 18
7075-7765 1 ....................... . . . . . . 30 27 . . . . . . 24 22 . . . . . . 20 18
7075-1735 1 ........................................... . . . . . . 32 30 . . . . . . 29 26 . . . . . . 20 18
. . . . . . 30 27 . . . . . . 25 23 ... 18 16
...................... 26.4 24.0 32 29 22.0 20.0 26 24 19.8 18.0 26 24
2024-T35 I ............................................ . . . . . . 37 34 . . . . . . 32 29 . . . . . . 26 24
Die
forgings 7050-774, -T7452 ................... 27.5 25.0 38 35 20.9 19.0 32 29 20.9 19.0 29 26
29.7 27.0 38 35 23.1 21.0 34 31 23.1 21.0 31 28
7075-77352 ..................................... . . . . . . 32 29 . . . . . . 30 27 . . . . . . 29 26
Hand
forgings 7050-77452 ......................... 29.7 27.0 36 33 18.7 17.0 28 25 17.6 16.0 29 26
7075-T73, -77352 ..................................... . . . . . . 42 38 . . . . . . 28 . . 25 . . . . 28 25
33.0 30.0 40 36 27.5 25.0 3023.1 27 21.0 28 25
. . . . . . 26 24 . . . . . . 22 . . 20 . . . . 20 18
Extrusions 7050-7765 ................................... . . . . . . 40 ... 31 . . 28 . . . . 28 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 31 ... 22 20 . . . . . . 20 18
. . . . . . 33 30 ... 26 24 . . . . . . 22 20
24.2 22.0 31 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7175-7735 Ix ............. ... 33.0 30.0 40 36 30.8 28.0 34 31 . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) L-T. crack plane and growth direction perpendicular to the rolling direction. (b) T-L. crack plane and growth direction parallel to the rolling direction. (c) S-L. short transverse fracture toughness

2219 is used for good weldability and high-m-


peratme strength and is designed 2419 for higher
toughness. Development of aluminum-magne-
sium-lithium alloys offers a real potential for
high-strength alloys with lower density and
higher modulus (see the article “Aluminum-
Lithium Alloys” in this Volume).
Rigid Container Sheet. Aluminum rigid
container sheet is used mainly for container
ends or container bodies. The ends for bev-
erage cans are made of 5182 alloy and usu-
ally have tabs made from 5042 or 5082 alloy.
Alloy 5 182, containing 4.5% magnesium
and 0.35% manganese, has very high
strength and sufficient formability to permit
making the integral rivet in the easy open
end.
The bodies of drawn and ironed bever-
age cans are fabricated of 3004 or 3104
alloy, which contains 1.25% or slightly
less manganese and 1% magnesium. These
alloys provide the optimum strength and
forming characteristics needed to manu-
facture the can body and to contain the
beverage at the required pressure. Alloy
Fig. 13 cryogenic properties of alloys 2090 and 2219 5352 is used primarily for ends and drawn
bodies that in turn are used for packaging
meats, pudding, and fruits.
were developed specifically for the body P e l high-strengtfi aluminum alloys for use as Plate, Bright Finishing Alloys. A number of al-
application. Alloys used for body panels also are sheet, andextrusions. Alloys 2024 and 7075 have loys are produced especially for surface fin-
used for various interiorparts,as are general-pur- been the ~orkhorsesof the industry for many ishing by bright anodizing. Second-phase
pose alloys such as 3004,5052,6061, and 6063. yeas. Higher toughness q u k m e n t s have been particles in the size range comparable to the
Aircraft Alloys. The need for low weight in met h u g h high-purity modification of alloys wavelengths of visible light can be used to
air6ames has led to the development of very 2124,2224,7175,7475,and 7050. Additionally, develop varying shades and colors in ano-
76 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Tabk 12 Ultimate tensile strengthsof various wrought aluminum alloys at cryogenicand elevated temperatures(continued)
Ultimate tensile strength(a), MPa (ksi), a1:
Alloy and temper '-1% *C (-3u) 'F) -80 T (-112 'I?) 0 'C (-18 T) 24 T (75 'F) I 0 0 'C (212 'F) 150 OC (300 'F) 205 'C (400 T) 260 'C (500 T) 315 'C (600 'F) 370 "C (700 T,'

103 (15) 97(14) 90(13) 70(10) 55 (8) 40 (6) 28 (4) 20 (2.9) 14 (2.1)
I38 (20) I30 (19) I25 (18) 110 (16) 97 (14) 70 (10) 28 (4) 20 (2.9) 14 (2.1)
180 (26) 172 (25) 165 (24) 145 (21) 125 (18) 40 (6) 28 (4)
201 I-T3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' ' ' ... ... 380 (55) 325 (47) 193 (28) 110 (16) 45 (6.5) 21 (3.1) 16 (2.3)
2014-T6. T651 580 (84) 510 (74) 495 (72) 483 (70) 435 (63) 275 (40) 1 10 (16) 66 (9.5) 45 (6.5) 30 (4.3)
2017-T4, T451 550 (80) 448 (65) 440 (64) 427 (62) 393 (57) 275 (40) 1 10 (16) 62 (9) 40 (6) 30 (4.3)
2024-T3 (sheet 585 (85) 503 (73) 495 (72) 483 (70) 455 (66) 380 (55) 185 (27) 75 ( 1 1 ) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
, 2024-T4, T351 (plate) . . . . . ,580 (84) 490 (71) 475 (69) 470 (68) 435 (63) 310 (45) 180 (26) 75 ( 1 1 ) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
2024-T6, T651.. . . . . . . . . . . ,580 (84) 495 (72) 483 (70) 475 (69) 448 (65) 310 (45) I80 (26) 75 (11) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
2024-TSI. T851.. . . . . . . . . . ,585 (85) 510 (74) 503 (73) 483 (70) 455 (66) 380 (55) 185 (27) 75 (11) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
635 (92) 558 (81) 538 (78) 517 (75) 483 (70) 372 (54) 145 (21) 75 ( 1 1 ) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
385 (56) 310 (45) 303 (44) 295 (43) 248 (36) 207 (30) 110 (16) 52 (7.5) 32 (4.7) 20 (2.9)
. . . . . . . ,593 (86) 525 (76) 503 (73) 483 (70) 455 (66) 372 (54) 185 (27) 75 ( 1 1) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5)
2218-T61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,495 (72) 420 (61) 407 (59) 407 (59) 385 (56) 283 (41) 152 (22) 70 (10) 38 (5.5) 28 (4)
2219-T62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,503 (73) 435 (63) 415 (60) 400 (58) 372 (54) 310 (45) 235 (34) 185 (27) 70 (10) 30 (4.4)
2219-TSI. T851 490 (71) 475 (69) 455 (66) 415 (60) 338 (49) 248 (36) 200 (29) 48 (7) 30 (4.4)
462 (67) 440 (64) 440 (64) 427 (62) 345 (50) 220 (32) 90 (13) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
3003-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,228 (33) 138 (20) 117 (17) 110 (16) 90 (13) 75 ( 1 1 ) 59 (8.5) 40 (6) 28 (4) 19 (2.8)
3003-HI4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,240 (35) 165 (24) 152 (22) 152 (22) 145 (21) 125 (18) 97 (14) 52 (7.5) 28 (4) 19 (2.8)
3003-Hl8.. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 (41) 220 (32) 207 (30) 200 (29) 180 (26) 160 (23) 97 (14) 52 (7.5) 28 (4) 19 (2.8)
193 (28) 180 (26) 180 (26) 180 (26) 152 (22) 97 (14) 70 (10) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
262 (38) 248 (36) 240 (35) 235 (34) 193 (28) 145 (21) 97 (14) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
3004-H38 . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . ,400 (58) 303 (44) 290 (42) 283 (41) 275 (40) 215 (31) 152 (22) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
4032-T6 . . . . . . . 400 (58) 385 (56) 380 (55) 345 (50) 255 (37) 90 (13) 55 (8) 35 (5) 23 (3.4)
5050-0. . . . . . . . . 152 (22) 145 (21) 145 (21) 145 (21) 130 (19) 97 (14) 62 (9) 27 (3.9)
5050-H34 207 (30) 193 (28) 193 (28) 193 (28) 172 (25) 97 (14) 62 (9) 40 (6) 27 (3.9)
5050-H38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,317 (46) 235 (34) 220 (32) 220 (32) 215 (31) 185 (27) 97 (14) 62 (9) 40 (6)
40 (6) 27 (3.9)
5052-0.. . . . . , , . . , . . . . . . . . ,303 (44) 200 (29) 193 (28) 193 (28) 193 (28) 160 (23) 117 (17) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
5052-H34 . . . 380 (55) 275 (40) 262 (38) 262 (38) 262 (38) 207 (30) 165 (24) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
5052-H38 . . . 415 (60) 303 (44) 290 (42) 290 (42) 275 (40) 235 (34) 172 (25) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
5083-0.. . . . . 407 (59) 295 (43) 290 (42) 290 (42) 275 (40) 215 (31) 152 (22) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5086-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380 (55) 270 (39) 262 (38) 262 (38) 262 (38) 200 (29) 152 (22) I17 (17) 75 ( 1 I ) 40 (6)
5154-0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,360 (52) 248 (36) 240 (35) 240 (35) 240 (35) 200 (29) 152 (22) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5254-0.. . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . ,360 (52) 248 (36) 240 (35) 240 (35) 240 (35) 200 (29) 152 (22) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5454-0. . . . . . . .372 (54) 255 (37) 248 (36) 248 (36) 248 (36) 200 (29) 152 (22) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5454-H32 . . . . .407 (59) 290 (42) 283 (41) 275 (40) 270 (39) 220 (32) I72 (25) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5454-H34 . . . . ,435 (63) 317 (46) 303 (44) 303 (44) 295 (43) 235 (34) 180 (26) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5456-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,427 (62) 317 (46) 310 (45) 310 (45) 290 (42) 215 (31) 152 (22) 117 (17) 75 ( 1 1 ) 40 (6)
5652-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,303 (44) 200 (29) 193 (28) 193 (28) 193 (28) 160 (23) 117 (17) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
5652-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,380 (55) 275 (40) 262 (38) 262 (38) 262 (38) 207 (30) 165 (24) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
. . . . . . .415 (60) 303 (44) 290 (42) 290 (42) 275 (40) 235 (34) 172 (25) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 35 (5)
... ... ... 255 (37) 220 (32) 172 (25) 90 (13) 38 (5.5) 28 (4) 20 (2.9)
6061-T6, T 6 5 l . . . . . . . . . . . . ,415 (60) 338 (49) 325 (47) 310 (45) 290 (42) 235 (34) 130 (19) 52 (7.5) 32 (4.6) 21 (3)
6063-TI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,235 (34) 180 (26) 165 (24) 152 (22) 152 (22) 145 (21) 62 (9) 31 (4.5) 22 (3.2) 16 (2.3)
6063-TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,255 (37) 200 (29) 193 (28) 185 (27) 165 (24) 138 (20) 62 (9) 31 (4.5) 22 (3.2) 16 (2.3)
262 (38) 248 (36) 240 (35) 215 (31) 145 (21) 62 (9) 31 (4.5) 22 (3.2) 16 (2.3)
248 (36) 235 (34) 220 (32) 193 (28) 145 (21) 70 (10) 33 (4.8) 21 (3) 17 (2.5)
6151-T6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,393 (57) 345 (50) 338 (49) 330 (48) 295 (43) 193 (28) 97 (14) 45 (6.5) 35 (5) 28 (4)
6262-T65 I . . . . . . . . . 415 (60) 338 (49) 325 (47) 310 (45) 290 (42) 235 (34) ... ... ... ...
6262-Ty . . . . . . . . . . 510 (74) 427 (62) 415 (60) 400 (58) 365 (53) 262 (38) 103 (IS) 59 (8.5) 32 (4.6) 21 (3)
7075-T6. T65 I 703 (102) 620 (90) 593 (86) 572 (83) 483 (70) 215 (31) 110 (16) 75 (11) 55 (8) 40 (6)
7075-T73. T 7 3 5 l . . . . . . . . . . ,635 (92) 545 (79) 525 (76) 503 (73) 435 (63) 215 (31) I10 (16) 75 (11) 55 (8) 40 (6)
7178-T6, T 6 5 l . . . _ .. . . . . . . ,730 (106) 648 (94) 627 (91) 607 (88) 503 (73) 215 (31) 103 (15) 75 ( I 1) 59 (8.5) 45 (6.5)
7178-T76, T 7 6 5 l . . . . . . . . . . ,730 (106) 627 (91) 607 (88) 572 (83) 475 (69) 215 (31) 103 (IS) 75 ( I 1) 59 (8.5) 45 (6.5)
(a) These data are hased on a limited amount of testing and represent the lowest strength during IO OOO h of exposure at testing temperature under nu load: stress applied at 34 MPdmin (5OOO psilmin) to
yield strength and then at strain rate of 0.05 mmlmmlmin (0.05 m./in./min) lo f d u r e . Under some conditions of temperature and time. the application of heat will adversely affect certain other prupelfies
of some alloys.

dized products. The common bright finish- in the same way from alumhumchromium al- duced by dipping in molten aluminum (see the
ing alloys are 1100, 3002, 5252, 5657, loys. d c l e "Aluminum Coatings" in this Volume).
6463, 7016, and 7029. Other alloys, such Composites of aluminum with other Wire mated with aluminum powder by a roll-
as 3003, while not produced specifically metals have appeared frequently as the mult of ing process is sold in substantial quantities. A
for bright finishing, are capable of achiev- effcntstoaombinetheadvantagesofd~umwith combination of an aluminum alloy with stain-
ing acceptable brightness. V i d y all alloys those of other metals. C!ertah combinations of alu- less steel has developed into a commexial
a be chemically brightened and protected by mhum with &, as W d as with copper, are PKI- product. This StdeSS-Sb%khd d&um in
clear organic topcoats. duced in limited quantities, but podudion has not sheet form is used primarily for cooking uten-
Special Surface Finish Products. Sel- been sustained. ?he aluminum-& oombination is sils, providing the desirable characteristics of
ection of an alloy for special surface finish of potential value injoining Operations, and the alu- both components. Plate has considerable po-
generally is directed toward achieving un- minum-qpercombinatiOn h a ~imilar~alueinthetential in the cryogenics field for connections
usual finishing characteristics. An outstand- eledicalfield. between aluminum and stainless steel compo-
ing example is aluminum-silicon alloys. Combinationsofaluminumwith fernusmate nents of tanks and other equipment Stainless-
Upon anodizing, colors ranging from gray to rials are produced in limited amounts by rolling steelclad automotive components have
black can be developed for architectural and processes and by explosivebonding, but generally reached commercial status. Examples are
other applications. Gold colors are developed alumhum Coatings on f m s products are pro- shown in Fig. 5 and 6.
Wrought Products / 77

Table 13 Tensile yield strengths of variouswrought aluminum alloys at cryogenicand elevated temperatures (continued)
0 . 2 1 offset yield stren@h(a), MPn (ksi), 81:
Alloy and temper '-195 "C (-320 'R -80 'C (-112 'F) 0 'C (-18 'R 24 'C (75 'F) 100 'C (212 'F) 150 'C (300 'F) 205 'c (400 T) 260 'c (500 'F) 315 'C (600 T) 370 T (700 'F)'
1100-0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 (6) 38 (5.5) 35 (5) 35 (5) 32 (4.6) 29 (4.2) 24 (3.5) 18 (2.6) 14 (2) I I (1.6)
125 (18) 117 (17) 117 (17) 103 (15) 83 (12) 52 (7.5) 18 (2.6) 14 (2) I I (1.6)
160 (23) 160 (23) 152 (22) 130 (19) 97 (14) 24 (3.5) 18 (2.6) 14 (2) I I (1.6)
201 I-T3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' ' ' ... ... 295 (43) 235 (34) 130 (19) 75 ( 1 1 ) 26 (3.8) 12 (1.8) 10 (1.4)
448 (65) 427 (62) 415 (60) 393 (57) 240 (35) 90 (13) 52 (7.5) 35 (5) 24 (3.5)
290 (42) 283 (41) 275 (40) 270 (39) 207 (30) 90 (13) 52 (7.5) 35 (5) 24 (3.5)
2024-T3 (sheet). . . . . . . . . . . ,427 (62) 360 (52) 352 (51) 345 (50) 330 (48) 310 (45) 138 (20) 62 (9) 40 (6) 28 (4)
2024-T4, T351 (plate). . . . . . ,420 (61) 338 (49) 325 (47) 325 (47) 310 (45) 248 (36) 130 (19) 62 (9) 40 (6) 28 (4)
2024-T6, T651 . . . . . . . . . . . . ,470 (68) 407 (59) 400 (58) 393 (57) 372 (54) 248 (36) 130 (19) 62 (9) 28 (4)
475 (69) 470 (68) 448 (65) 427 (62) 338 (49) 138 (20) 62 (9) 40 (6)
40 (6) 28 (4)
530 (77) 510 (74) 490 (71) 462 (67) 330 (48) 117 (17) 62 (9) 40 (6) 28 (4)
172 (25) 165 (24) 165 (24) 145 (21) 117 (17) 83 (12) 38 (5.5) 23 (3.3) 14 (2)
2124-TS51.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,545 (79) 490 (71) 470 (68) 440 (64) 420 (61) 338 (49) 138 (20) 55 (8) 40 (6) 28 (4.1)
2218-T61.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,360 (52) 310 (45) 303 (44) 303 (44) 290 (42) 240 (35) I IO (16) 40 (6) 20 (3) 17 (2.5)
303 (44) 290 (42) 275 (40) 255 (37) 228 (33) 172 (25) 138 (20) 55 (8) 26 (3.7)
372 (54) 360 (52) 345 (50) 325 (47) 275 (40) 200 (29) 160 (23) 40 (6) 26 (3.7)
2618-T61.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420 (61) 380 (55) 372 (54) 372 (54) 372 (54) 303 (44) 180 (26) 62 (9) 31 (4.5) 24 (3.5)
3003-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 (8.5) 48 (7) 45 (6.5) 40 (6) 38 (5.5) 35 (5) 30 (4.3) 23 (3.4) 17 (2.4) 12 (1.8)
152 (22) 145 (21) 145 (21) 130 (19) 110 (16) 62 (9) 17 (2.4) 12 (1.8)
200 (29) 193 (28) 185 (27) 145 (21) 110 (16) 62 (9) 28 (4) 17 (2.4) 12 (1.8)
75 ( 1 1 ) 70 (IO) 70 (IO) 70 (10) 70 (10) 66 (9.5) 52 (7.5) 35 (5) 20 (3)
3004-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,235 (34) 207 (30) 200 (29) 200 (29) 200 (29) 172 (25) 103 (15) 52 (7.5) 35 (5) 20 (3)
3004-H38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,295 (43) 262 (38) 248 (36) 248 (36) 248 (36) 185 (27) 103 (15) 52 (7.5) 35 (5) 20 (3)
4032-T6.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,330 (48) 317 (46) 317 (46) 317 (46) 303 (44) 228 (33) 62 (9) 38 (5.5) 22 (3.2) 14 (2)
5050-0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 (IO) 59 (8.5) 55 (8) 55 (8) 55 (8) 55 (8) 52 (7.5) 40 (6) 29 (4.2) 18 (2.6)
5050-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,207 (30) 172 (25) 165 (24) 165 (24) 165 (24) 152 (22) 52 (7.5) 40 (6) 29 (4.2) 18 (2.6)
5050-H38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 (36) 207 (30) 200 (29) 200 (29) 200 (29) 172 (25) 52 (7.5) 40 (6) 29 (4.2) 18 (2.6)
5052-0 . . . . . . _ .110 (16) 90 (13) 90(13) 90(13) 90(13) 90 (13) 75 ( 1 1 ) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5) 21 (3.1)
5052-H34 . . . . .248 (36) 220 (32) 215 (31) 215 (31) 215 (31) 185 (27) 103 (15) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5) 21 (3.1)
5052-H38 . . . . ,303 (44) 262 (38) 255 (37) 255 (37) 248 (36) 193 (28) 103 (15) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5) 21 (3.1)
5083-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 (24) 145 (21) 145 (21) 145 (21) 145 (21) I30 (19) 117 (17) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
5086. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 (19) 117(17) 117(17) 117(17) 117(17) llO(16) 103(15) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
117(17) 117(17) 117(17) 117(17) llO(16) 103(15) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
117(17) 117(17) 117(17) 117(17) llO(16) 103(15) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
117(17) 117(17) 117(17) 117(17) llO(16) 103(I5) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
5454-H32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 (36) 215 (31) 207 (30) 207 (30) 200 (29) 180 (26) 130 (19) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
5454-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 (41) 248 (36) 240 (35) 240 (35) 235 (34) 193 (28) 130 (19) 75 ( 1 1 ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
5456-0 180 (26) 160 (23) 160 (23) 160 (23) 152 (22) 138 (20) I17 (17) 75 ( I I ) 52 (7.5) 29 (4.2)
5652-0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I IO (16) 90 (13) 90 (13) 90(13) 90(13) 90 (13) 75 (11) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5) 21 (3.1)
5652-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,248 (36) 220 (32) 215 (31) 215 (31) 215 (31) 185 (27) 103 (15) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5) 21 (3.1)
5652-H38 . . . . 303 (44) ) 255 (37) 248 (36) 193 (28) 103 (15) 52 (7.5) 38 (5.5) 21 (3.1)
6053-T6, T651 ... 220 (32) 193 (28) 165 (24) 83 (12) 28 (4) 19 (2.7) 14 (2)
6061-T6, T651 325 (47) ) 275 (40) 262 (38) 215 (31) IO3 (15) 35 (5) 19 (2.7) 12 (1.8)
6063-TI ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,110 (16) 103 (15) 97 (14) 90 (13) 97 (14) IO3 (15) 45 (6.5) 24 (3.5) 17 (2.5) 14 (2)
6063-T5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I65 (24) 152 (22) 152 (22) 145 (21) 138 (20) 125 (18) 45 (6.5) 24 (3.5) 17 (2.5) 14 (2)
6063-T6.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,248 (36) 228 (33) 220 (32) 215 (31) 193 (28) 138 (20) 45 (6.5) 24 (3.5) 17 (2.5) 14 (2)
207 (30) 200 (29) 193 (28) 172 (25) 130 (19) 48 (7) 23 (3.3) 16 (2.3) 12 (1.8)
317 (46) 310 (45) 295 (43) 275 (40) 185 (27) 83 (12) 35 (5) 27 (3.9) 22 (3.2)
6262-T651.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,325 (47) 290 (42) 283 (41) 275 (40) 262 (38) 215 (31) ... ... ... ...
6262-T9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,462 (67) 400 (58) 385 (56) 380 (55) 360 (52) 255 (37) 90 (13) 40 (6) 19 (2.7) 12 (1.8)
7075-T6, T651 . . . . . . . . . . . . ,635 (92) 545 (79) 517 (75) 503 (73) 448 (65) 185 (27) 90 (13) 62 (9) 45 (6.5) 32 (4.6)
7075-T73, T7351 495 (72) 462 (67) 448 (65) 435 (63) 400 (58) 185 (27) 90 (13) 62 (9) 45 (6.5) 32 (4.6)
7178-T6, T65l . . . . . . . . . . . . ,648 (94) 580 (84) 558 (81) 538 (78) 470 (68) 185 (27) 83 (12) 62 (9) 48 (7) 38 (5.5)
7178-T76, T7651 . . . . . . . . . . .615 (89) 538 (78) 525 (76) 503 (73) 440 (64) 185 (27) 83 (12) 62 (9) 48 (7) 38 (5.5)

Ncte Samtest conditionsasthosespecifiedinthe footnotetoTable 12

Properties of Wrought Aluminum pilation can be found in the article "Properties be used for critical design purposes. Static
of Wrought Aluminum Alloys" in this Volume. strength values from tensile tests listed as typical
Alloys
Typical values are considered nominal or donotrepresentthesomewhathighervalues(5 to
representativevalues. Physical p r o m e s (Tables 1Wohigher) obtained in tests (longitudinaldm-
Property data on aluminum alloys are of 7 and 8), for example, are median values deter- tion) of extruded products of moderate section
two basic types: mined in labomby tests of representative com- thickness, nor do they represent the lower values
mercial products. Typical mechanical properties expected in tests of very thick, heat-treated prod-
(Table 9) are average or median values, near the ucts.
. Pmpertylimits
Typical property values
peaks of distribution curves derived h m routine Mechanical property limits are es tab-
quality control tests of commercial products lished on a statistical "A"-value basis, whereby
The data on wrought aluminum alloys pre- processed by standard mill procedures. The val- 99'30 of the material is expected to conform at a
sented in this section are primarily typical ues listed are representative of products of mod- confidence of 0.95. In most instances limits are
property values, although sources and tabular erate cross section or thickness and are most based on a normally distributed database of a
data for some mechanical property limits are useful for demonstrating relationships between minimum of 100 tests h m at least 10 different
also mentioned. Amore detailed property com- alloys and tempers. Thesedata are not intended to lots of material. Mechanical pmperty limits are
78 / Selection and Application of Aluminum Alloys

Tabk 14 Elongation of various wrought aluminumalloys at cryogenic and elevated temperatures(contmwd)


ElongMion In 50 mm (2 in.). %, aI:
A l b y and lempr ‘-195 T (-320’F) - 8 O T (-112 T) 0 T (-18 T) U T (75’F) IOOT (212 ‘F) 150T (JOO’F) 205 T (&W T) 260 T (5oo’F) 315 T (600.F) 370% (700 T!

43 40 40 45 55 65 75 80 85
24 20 20 20 23 26 75 80 85
16 15 15 15 20 65 75 80 85
201 I-T3 ...... 15 16 25 35 45 90 I25
20 I4-T6. T65 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 13 13 13 15 20 38 52 65 72
2017-T4. T451.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 24 23 22 18 I5 35 45 65 70
2024-T3 (sheet).. . . . . I8 17 17 17 16 II 23 55 75 100
2024-T4. T351 (plate) 19 19 19 19 19 17 27 55 75 100
2024-T6, T65 I . . . . . . . II IO IO IO IO 17 27 55 75 100
2024-Ts I . T85 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 7 7 8 II 23 55 75 100
2024-Ts61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 5 6 II 28 55 75 100
21 l7-T4 .................... 30 29 28 27 I6 20 35 55 80 I IO
8 8 9 9 13 28 60 75 100
14 13 13 I5 17 30 70 85 100
22 l9-T62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I6 I3 12 12 14 17 20 21 40 75
2219-TSI. TsSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 13 I2 12 I5 17 20 21 55 75
II IO IO IO 14 24 50 80 I20
42 41 40 43 47 60 65 70 70
3003-H I4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 18 16 16 16 16 20 60 70 70
3003 23 II IO IO IO II 18 60 70 70
3004 38 30 26 25 25 35 55 70 80 90
3004-H34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 16 13 12 13 22 35 55 80 90
3W-H38.. ................. 20 IO 7 6 7 15 30 50 80 90
9
...
...
5050-H38.. .................... ... ... ... ... ... ...
5052-0 ...................... 46 35 32 30 36 50 60 80 I IO I30
21 18 16 18 21 45 80 I IO I30
18 I5 14 16 24 45 80 I IO I30
5083-0..................... 36 30 27 25 36 50 + 6 0 80 I IO I30
5086-0...................... 46 35 32 30 36 50 60 80 I IO I30
5154-0 46 35 32 30 36 50 60 80 I IO I30
5254-0 46 35 32 30 36 50 60 80 I IO I30
5454-0. ..................... 39 30 27 25 31 50 60 80 I IO I30
5454-H32.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 23 20 18 20 37 45 80 I IO I30
5454-H34.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 21 18 16 18 32 45 80 I IO I30
5456-0. ...... 25 22 20 31 50 60 80 I IO I30
35 32 30 30 50 60 80 I IO I30
5652-H34.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 21 18 16 18 27 45 80 I IO I30
5652-H38.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 18 15 14 16 24 45 80 I IO I30
6053-T6. T65 I 13 13 13 25 70 80 90
606 I -T6, T65 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 18 20 28 60 85 95
6063-TI .................... 44 36 34 33 18 20 40 75 80 IO5
24 23 22 18 20 40 75 80 IO5
20 19 18 15 20 40 75 80 IO5
20 19 19 20 20 40 80 lob I05
6151-T6 ....................