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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.

1. 1990/I/1b

The two diagrams above represent part of the structure of an allotrope of carbon, and sodium chloride at
room temperature.
(i) What type of bonding exists in each of the substances shown above?
(ii) State a condition under which each substance can conduct electricity. Explain your answers
(iii) Name an allotrope of carbon other than that shown above.
(iv) Which allotrope of carbon is used to
(1) make pencil lead?
(2) cut glass?
Explain your answers with reference to the difference arrangements of atoms in these two allotropes.
(v) Do you agree with the statement "sodium chloride cannot easily be changed into sodium and
chloride"? Explain your answer. (12 marks)

2. 1991/I/1a
The following is a part of the Periodic Table :
Group
I II III IV V VI VII 0
Second a b
period
Third c d e f g
period
Referring to the letters indicated in the above table, answer the following questions :
(i) (1) What is the name for the family of elements of which b and f are members ?
(2) In what way are the electronic arrangements of the atoms of elements b and f
(I) similar to each other ?
(II) different from each other ?
(ii) Element d has a higher melting point than element c. Explain.
(iii) The oxide of element d is insoluble in water and amphoteric.
(1) Give the formula for this oxide.
(2) Suggest suitable chemical tests to show that the oxide is amphoteric.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.2

(iv) Two elements in the above table have allotropes.


(1) Explain the meaning of 'allotropes'. (Out of syll.)
(2) Suggest what the two elements are.
(v) Element e can form compounds with elements (((a and c))) separately.
(1) Draw the electronic structures of these two compounds, showing the outermost electrons
ONLY.
(2) Which of these two compounds has a higher melting point ? Explain your answer. (13 marks)

3. 1992/I/3b
Neon, a monatomic gas, occurs naturally as a mixture of three isotopes. The relative abundance of these
isotopes is tabulated below :
Isotope 20 21 22
10 Ne 10 Ne 10 Ne

Abundance (%) 90.52 0.31 9.17


(i) State the number of electrons in the outermost shell of a neon atom.
(ii) Explain why neon gas is monatomic.
(iii) What is meant by the term 'isotope' ?
(iv) Calculate
(1) the relative atomic mass of neon.
(2) the density (in g dm3) neon gas at room temperature and pressure.
(Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (7 marks)

4. 1993/I/2b
Physical properties of substances depend mainly on the types of binding force between their constituent
particles.
(i) The melting points of diamond and tetrachloromethane are 3750oC and -23oC respectively. Explain
the difference in their melting points.
(ii) In their solid states, sodium conducts electricity but sodium chloride does not. Explain.
(iii) Explain why tetrachloromethane does not conduct electricity in liquid state. (5 marks)

5. 1993/I/4a
The following table has given some information about W, X, Y and Z which represent particles of some
elements. These particles are either atoms or ions.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.3

Mass number Atomic No. of No. of No. of


number protons electrons neutrons
W 12 12 12
X 12 10 12
Y 35 17 17
Z 17 17 20
(i) In which group of the Periodic Table should W be placed ? Explain your answer.
(ii) (1) What is the relationship between W and X ?
(2) Suggest a chemical reaction which can change W into X.
(iii) Molecules of Y and of Z are both diatomic.
(1) Draw the electronic structure of a molecule of Y, showing electrons in the outermost shells
only.
(2) Do molecules of Y and of Z have the same chemical properties ? Explain your answer.
(iv) W can form a compound with Z. Calculate the formula mass of the compound formed.
(7 marks)

6. 1994/I/7b
The table below lists some physical properties of lead, bromine and lead(II) bromide.
Lead Bromine Lead(II)
bromide
o o
Melting point 328 C –7 C 370 oC
Electrical conductivity in the solid conducting non-conducting non-conducting
state
Electricity conductivity in the conducting non-conducting ----
liquid state
(i) Explain the difference in melting points between bromine and lead(II) bromide.
(ii) Explain the difference in electrical conductivity between lead and lead(II) bromide in the solid state.
(iii) Will lead(II) bromide conduct electricity in the liquid state ? Explain your answer. (5 marks)

7. 1995/I/1
Rubidium (Rb) and potassium belong to the same group in the Periodic Table. The relative atomic mass of
rubidium is larger than that of potassium.
(a) Explain whether rubidium is more reactive than potassium.
(b) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between rubidium and water. (State symbols should be
given)
(c) Suggest how rubidium can be stored safely in the laboratory.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.4

(d) Suggest ONE safety precaution for handling rubidium in the laboratory. (5 marks)

8. 1995/I/2a,d
In each of the following groups of substances, there is ONE substance which is different from the others in
terms of their properties. In each group, identify the substance which is different from the others and explain
your choice.
(a) argon, fluorine, helium, neon
(d) carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen (4 marks)

9. 1996/I/7a
The boxes below show some information about two atoms, hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) :
Mass number → 1 Mass number → 2
H D
Atomic number → 1 Atomic number → 1

(i) Suggest a term to indicate the relationship between a hydrogen atom and a deuterium atom.
(ii) State the number of neutrons in a deuterium atom.
(iii) Deuterium reacts with oxygen in the same way as hydrogen.
2D2(g) + O2(g) → 2D2O( ℓ ) ∆ H is negative
The product of the reaction is known as 'heavy water'.
(1) Explain why deuterium reacts with oxygen in the same way as hydrogen.
(2) Draw the electronic structure of 'heavy water', showing electrons in the outermost shells ONLY.
(3) What is meant by ' ∆ H is negative'?
(4) What is the formula mass of 'heavy water'?
(5) 100 cm3 of deuterium and 100 cm3 of oxygen, both measured at room temperature and pressure,
are allowed to react. Calculate the mass of 'heavy water' produced.
(Relative atomic masses : O = 16.0; Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0
dm3) (9 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.5

10. 1997/I/6a
A student used the following experimental set-up to study the migration of ions.

The student placed a drop of potassium dichromate solution at A and a drop of a deep blue solution at C. It
is known that the two solutions do not react and the deep blue colour of the solution at C is due to the cation
present.
(i) Write the formula of the ion responsible for the orange colour of the potassium dichromate.
(ii) Why was the filter paper moistened with sodium sulphate solution?
(iii) An electric current was passed through the circuit for some time.
(1) What would be the colour change at A?
(2) What would be the colour change at B? Explain your answer.
(iv) Using the same apparatus and materials, suggest how you could show that the colour changes in (iii)
are NOT due to diffusion. (8 marks)

11. 1998/I/1
Lithium is a Group I element in the Periodic Table. It occurs naturally in two isotopic forms. The
relative abundance of each of these isotopes is shown in the table below:
6 7
Isotope Li Li
Relative abundance (%) 7.4 92.6
(a) What is the meaning of the term ‘isotope’ ?
(b) Calculate the relative atomic mass of lithium. (3 marks)

12. 1998/I/7a
Both carbon and silicon are Group IV elements in the Periodic Table. The diagrams below show the
structures of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) and quartz (a form of silicon dioxide):

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.6

(i) With reference to the structures of the two substances, explain why quartz is a solid which melts at a
high temperature, while carbon dioxide is a gas at room temperature.
(ii) With the help of a labelled diagram, suggest how to show experimentally that dry ice sublimes to
give gaseous carbon dioxide.
(iii) Sand (an impure form of quartz) and limestone are raw materials used for making glass.
(1) Name the main chemical constituent of limestone.
(2) Suggest ONE reason why glass had been used by mankind for a long time.
(3) Suggest ONE reason why glass bottles are preferred to plastic bottles for the storage of
champagne. (9 marks)

13. 2000/I/1
Six compounds are classified into two groups as shown in the table below :
Gas Solid
ammonia iron(III) oxide
carbon dioxide magnesium oxide
nitrogen dioxide potassium oxide

Reclassify these compounds into two groups according to


(a) one of their physical properties, and
(b) one of their chemical properties. (4 marks)

14. 2000/I/2
The table below lists some information about four elements, W, X, Y and Z:
Element Atomic number Relative atomic mass
W 16 32.1
X 18 39.9
Y 19 39.1
Z 20 40.1
(a) What is the meaning of the term ‘relative atomic mass’ ?
(b) State, with explanation, which of the above elements
(i) should be stored under paraffin oil.
(ii) is used to fill a light bulb.
(iii) forms an oxide which dissolves in water to give a solution with pH less than 7. (8 marks)

15. 2000/I/8ci
State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Explain your answer in each case.
The melting point of sodium chloride is much higher than that of methane because the ionic bonding in
sodium chloride is much stronger than the covalent bonding in methane. (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.7

16. 2001/I/8a
A part of the Periodic Table is shown below:
Group
I II III IV V VI VII O
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
Period 3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Br Kr
5 Xe
(i) Across a period, the elements demonstrate a gradual change in some of their physical properties.
State ONE such property.
(ii) For each of the following pairs of elements, suggest ONE reaction in which both elements behave
similarly. In each case, write a chemical equation for the reaction involving either one of the
elements.
(1) magnesium and calcium
(2) chlorine and bromine
(iii) Lithium metal is used in making dry cells. State, with explanation, whether lithium acts as the
anode or cathode in these cells.
(iv) Xenon (Xe) is a Group O element. State, with explanation, what will happen if a balloon filled
with xenon is released from the top of a tower.
(Relative atomic masses: N = 14.0, O = 16.0, Xe = 131.3) (9 marks)

17. 2002/I/1ci
Calculate the percentage by mass of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate. (3 marks)

18. 2002/I/6b
Magnesium occurs naturally in three isotopic forms. The relative abundance of each isotope is shown in
the table below:
24 25 26
Isotope Mg Mg Mg
Relative abundance (%) 78.6 10.1 11.3
(i) State the meaning of the term 'isotopes of an element'.
(ii) Calculate the relative atomic mass of magnesium.
(iii) Is it possible to separate the isotopes of magnesium by chemical means? Explain your answer.
(4 marks)

19. 2002/I/8b
Both carbon and silicon are Group IV elements in the Periodic Table.
(i) Draw the electronic diagram of a carbon dioxide molecule, showing electrons in the outermost shells
only.
(ii) Explain why carbon dioxide can be used in fire fighting.(Out of syll.)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.8

(iii) Explain why carbon dioxide is a gas, whereas silicon dioxide is a solid at room temperature and
pressure.
(iv) Silicon can be obtained by heating silicon dioxide with carbon strongly.
(1) Write a chemical equation for the reaction involved.
(2) Suggest ONE use of silicon. (8 marks)

20. 2003/I/1
Consider the substances listed below:
carbon dioxide hydrogen chloride neon
nitrogen silicon dioxide sodium chloride
(a) Diagrams (i), (ii) and (iii) below show the arrangements of particles, which can be atoms, ions or
molecules, in some substances. For each diagram, choose ONE substance from the above list, which
has the arrangement of particles as shown under room temperature and pressure.

(b) From the above list, identify ONE substance which gives an acidic solution when dissolved in water.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction involved. (5 marks)

21. 2003/I/3
(a) The atomic numbers of sulphur and chlorine are 16 and 17 respectively. Draw the electronic diagrams
of the following atoms:
(i) sulphur atom
(ii) chlorine atom
(b) Chlorine reacts with sulphur to form a compound with relative molecular mass of 135.2. The
compound contains 52.5% of chlorine by mass.
(i) Deduce the molecular formula of the compound.
(ii) Draw the electronic diagram of the compound, showing electrons in the outermost shells only.
(Relative atomic masses : S = 32.1, Cl = 35.5) (6 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.9

22. 2004/I/9ai-vi
(a) A portion of the Periodic Table is shown below:
Group
I II III IV V VI VII 0
Period 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Br
(i) Identify ONE semi-metal in the above table.
(ii) Suggest why Group 0 elements seldom form compounds.
(iii) Using aluminium as an example, describe the bonding in metals. Hence, explain why metals are
ductile.
(iv) Which metal and non-metal in the above table would react most vigorously with each other ?
(v) (1) The atomic number of bromine is 35. The electronic arrangement of a bromine atom can be
represented as 2, 8, x, y. What are the values of x and y ? (6 marks)

23. 2005/I/1a,b,c
(a) Calcium is an element in Group II of the Periodic Table.
(i) Calcium reacts with nitrogen to form calcium nitride, which is an ionic compound. Draw the
electronic diagram of calcium nitride, showing electrons in the outermost shells only.
(ii) Suggest a test to show that marble is a calcium-containing substance. (3 marks)
(b) Strontium (Sr) is another Group II element. It exists in several isotopic forms.
(i) What is the meaning of the term 'isotope'?
(ii) Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radioactive isotope of strontium, and is one of the dangerous
by-products of nuclear fission.
Complete the table below by providing the relevant information for a 90Sr atom.
Number of protons Number of neutrons
90
Sr
(2 marks)
(c) (i) State the similarity between a calcium atom and a strontium atoms in terms of electronic
arrangement.
(ii) Children's teeth require a large amount of calcium to grow. Scientists found that in areas where
nuclear weapon tests were conducted above the ground, children's teeth contained a higher level
of 90Sr.
Suggest a reason for the findings of the scientists. (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.10

24. 2007/I/1
A is a compound formed from oxygen and magnesium, while B is a compound formed from oxygen and
fluorine.
(a) Draw the electronic diagram of A, showing electrons in the outermost shells only. (1 mark)
(b) Draw the electronic diagram of B, showing electrons in the outermost shells only. (1 mark)
(c) Compare the melting points of A and B. Explain your answer. (2 marks)

25. 2008/I/1
T, X and Z are three elements in the Periodic Table, with the sum of their atomic numbers equals to 38.
Moreover, both T and X are Group VII elements, while the atomic number of T is smaller than that of X.
(a) What are elements T, X and Z ?
T : ___________________________
X : ___________________________
Z : ___________________________ (1 mark)
(b) Draw the electronic diagram of the compound formed from T and X, showing electrons in the
outermost shells only.
(c) Discuss, with explanation, the electrical conductivity of the compound formed from X and Z with
reference to the type and property of the particles in it. (2 marks)

26. 2008/I/2
Boron occurs naturally in two isotopes, 10B and 11B.
(a) What is meant by the term 'isotopes' ? (1 mark)
11
(b) With reference to the Periodic Table on page 20, calculate the percentage abundance of B in nature.
(2 marks)
10 11
(c) BCl3 and BCl3 are compounds formed respectively from the two isotopes of boron with chlorine.
10
BCl3 reacts with water to give white fumes. State, with explanation, the expected observation when
11
BCl3 is added to water. (1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 1 Fundamentals of matter | P.11

27. 2008/I/12
The simplified diagram below shows a tungsten light bulb. The filament inside is made of tungsten metal
(atomic number = 74). The filament can emit light by passing an electric current until it reaches an
extremely high temperature. Under vacuum condition, the filament would emit tungsten particles under
extremely high temperature and blacken the light bulb. To avoid this from happening, the light bulb should
be filled up with gas.

(a) Describe the structure and bonding in tungsten metal with the help of a diagram. (3 marks)
(b) Apart from the property that tungsten can emit light at extremely high temperature, suggest another
physical property that can render it suitable for making filament. Explain why it has this property.
(2 marks)
(c) Tungsten is stable in air under normal conditions. However, it is not appropriate to fill up a tungsten
light bulb with air. Explain. (1 mark)

(d) Suggest, with explanation in terms of electronic arrangement, a suitable gas for filling up a tungsten
light bulb. (2 marks)
(e) Explain, from the perspective of energy, why the efficiency of tungsten light bulb is not high enough.
(1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.1

1. 1991/I/4a
A student used the following set-up to determine the empirical formula of an oxide of iron.

Before the experiment, the student was instructed to see whether the iron powder was rusty and to remove
any rust from it.
After weighing a sample of pure iron powder, the student then heated it strongly in a crucible, opening and
closing the lid from time to time until the reaction was complete. He then reweighed the content after
cooling.
The following results were obtained :
Mass of crucible + lid 25.27 g
Mass of crucible + lid + iron powder before heating 26.16 g
Mass of crucible + lid + content after cooling 26.50 g
(i) If the iron powder were rusty, describe briefly how the rust could be removed chemically. Write an
appropriate equation for the reaction.
(ii) Give TWO reasons why the crucible lid was opened and closed from time to time during heating.
(iii) Calculate the empirical formula of the oxide of iron from the above data.
(Relative atomic masses : O = 16.0; Fe = 56.0) (9 marks)

2. 1992/I/1b
The table below gives some information about three metals A, B and C :
Metal Rate of corrosion in moist Electrical Strength of metal Cost per tonne
air conductivity
A fast very good moderate $134000
B fast good good $138000
C slow very good moderate $370000
(i) Based on the information given above, explain which metal is most suitable for making
(1) electrical cable.
(2) window frames.
(ii) Suggest one method to reduce the rate of corrosion of metal in moist air.
(iii) Why can metals conduct electricity ? (7 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.2

3. 1992/I/4b
Silvery metal A reacts vigorously with water to form colourless solution B. When B is subjected to the flame
test, it gives a persistent yellow flame. When B is added to copper(II) nitrate solution, precipitate C is
formed. C changes into black solid D upon strong heating.
(i) What is metal A ? Write a balanced equation for the reaction between A and water.
(ii) Describe how the flame test on B can be carried out in the laboratory.
(iii) Write an ionic equation for the formation of C.
(iv) Give the name for D. (6 marks)

4. 1993/I/1a
Aluminium and iron can be used in making window frames.
(i) Describe an experiment to show that aluminium is more reactive than iron.
(ii) Although aluminium is more reactive than iron, explain why most window frames are now made of
anodized aluminium instead of painted iron. (5 marks)

5. 1994/I/1
The table below lists some information about three metals X, Y and Z.
Metal X Y Z
Atomic number 12 20 ----
A colourless gas
Action of cold water No apparent change No apparent change
slowly evolves
Action of 0.1 M A colourless gas
--- No apparent change
hydrochloric acid evolves
(a) To which group in the Periodic Table does Y belong ?
(b) (i) Write an equation for the reaction between X and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. (An ionic equation
will NOT be accepted for this equation)
(ii) Draw electronic structures for the TWO products formed in (i) above, showing electrons in the
outermost shell ONLY.
(c) What would be observed when Y is added to 0.1 M hydrochloric acid ?
(d) Based on the results of the reactions given in the above table, arrange the three metals in descending
order of reactivity. Explain your answer. (8 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.3

6. 1994/I/2a
For each of the following experiments, decide and explain which of the experimental set-ups, X or Y, should
be used.
Experiment Set-up X Set-up Y
(a) To dehydrate
hydrated iron(II)
sulphate crystals

(2 marks)

7. 1994/I/6a
The following experimental set-up was used to determine the empirical formula of an oxide of copper.

In the experiment, 8.58 g of an oxide of copper, after complete reaction, produced 7.62 g of copper.
(i) Deduce the empirical formula of the oxide of copper.
(ii) Write an equation for the reaction that occurred in the combustion tube.
(iii) State TWO potential hazards associated with this experiment, and suggest a safety precaution for
each hazard.
(iv) At the end of the reaction, heating was stopped. However, it was necessary to continue passing the
town gas through the combustion tube until the tube had cooled down. Explain why.
(Relative atomic masses : Cu = 63.5, O = 16.0) (8 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.4

8. 1994/I/8b
A student carried out some tests on an ionic compound X which was a white solid. The results obtained were
summarized in the following flow diagram :

(i) Based on the above information, deduce the cation and anion present in X.
(ii) Describe how the flame test on X can be carried out in the laboratory. (6 marks)

9. 1995/I/6b
The table below gives some information about five metals.
Abundance in Relative resistance of corrosion Relative strength of
Price per
Metal the earth crust (1 = least resistant, 4 =most metal (1 = lowest, 3 =
kg ($)
(%) resistant) highest)
Al 8.1 170 3 1
Cu 0.0055 140 3 3
Au 0.0000004 1100000 4 2
Fe 5.0 20 1 3
Zn 0.007 160 2 2
(i) Although gold has a very low abundance in the earth's crust, gold was discovered by man a long
time ago. Why ?
(ii) Which of the metals in the above table is the most suitable to make pipes for hot water ?
Explain your answer.
(iii) (1) Aluminium does not corrode easily. Why ?
(2) Aluminium is a principal material for making aircraft but its strength is relatively low.
Suggest how the strength of aluminium can be improved to make it suitable for making aircraft.
(iv) (1) Based on the information given in the table, suggest ONE factor that affects the price of a
metal.
(2) Suggest ONE other factor (not indicated in the table) that can also affect the price of a metal.
(9 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.5

10. 1996/I/1
A student suggested the following immediate actions to deal to three domestic accidents. However, these
actions are considered inappropriate.
Accident Suggested action
(1) Some drain cleaner, which contains
Use vinegar to neutralize the sodium
mainly concentrated sodium hydroxide
hydroxide solution left on the hand.
solution, is split onto the hand.
(2) During cooking, some oil in a cooking
Use water to put out the fire.
pan catches fire.
(3) Leakage of town gas occurs in a Turn on an exhaust fan in the kitchen
kitchen. to remove the town gas.
In each case, explain why the action is inappropriate and suggest a proper action. (8 marks)

11. 1996/I/8b
The diagram below shows a ten dollar coin which is made of two alloys, X and Y.

(i) (1) What is an alloy?


(2) State TWO properties of an alloy that make it suitable as a coinage metal.
(ii) When compared with using only one alloy, using two alloys to make the ten dollar coin has certain
advantages and disadvantages. Give ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using two alloys to
make the coin.
(iii) When alloy X is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, a bluish-green solution is formed and a
colourless gas is evolved.
(1) Suggest ONE metal that may be present in X. Explain your answer.
(2) What is the colourless gas? Suggest a chemical test for the gas. (10 marks)

12. 1999/I/2b,c
For each of the following experiments, state ONE observable change and write a chemical equation for the
reaction involved.
(b) A small piece of calcium is placed in a Bunsen flame.
(c) A mixture of copper(II) oxide and carbon powder in heated in a test tube. (4 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.6

13. 1999/I/7a
The table below lists the key components of three alloys.
Alloy Key components
bronze copper, tin
steel iron, carbon
solder tin, metal X
(i) Suggest an explanation for each of the following statements:
(1) Although the amount of iron in the earth crust is greater than that of copper and tin, the Iron
Age occurred after the Bronze Age.
(2) During the Bronze Age, people used bronze instead of copper to make tools and weapons.
(3) After being exposed to air for a period of time, the surface of bronze objects turns green.
(ii) Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Explain, in terms of structure, why the addition of carbon to
iron can enhance the strength of iron.
(iii) Solder is an alloy of tin and metal X.
(1) What is X?
(2) Explain why solder, but not tin or X, is used for joining electrical wires. (9 marks)

14. 2000/I/3
Consider the following materials:
aluminium, bronze, copper, lead, mild steel and titanium
For each of the tasks below, choose the ONE material which is best to accomplish the task. Explain your
choice in each case.
(a) making electrical wiring
(b) making overhead high voltage cables
(c) making ship propellers (6 marks)

15. 2000/I/6ai,ii,iv
(a) The flow diagram below shows the stage involved in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende, ZnS.

(i) The reaction in Stage I gives apart from zinc oxide, a gaseous product.
(1) Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
(2) Give ONE industrial use of the gaseous product.
(ii) Suggest how zinc oxide can be converted to zinc sulphate solution in Stage II.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.7

(iv) Give ONE use of zinc in daily life. (8 marks)

16. 2000/I/9a
X, Y and Z are three different metals. The table below shows the results of two experiments carried out
using the metals or their oxides.
Experiment X Y Z
Adding the metal to water effervescence no observable change no observable change
Heating the metal oxide no observable change metal produced no observable change
(i) Based on the above information, arrange the three metals in order of increasing reactivity. Explain
your answer.
(ii) An oxide of Y has the formula YO. When 1.08 g of this oxide is heated strongly, it decomposes
completely to give 60.0 cm3 of oxygen, measured at room temperature and pressure. Calculate the
relative atomic mass of Y.
(Relative atomic mass : O = 16.0; molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3)
(6 marks)

17. 2001/I/7c
The photograph below shows a diamond ring:

(i) Explain why gold and diamond each has a high melting point.
(ii) 18-carat gold is an alloy of gold. Suggest ONE reason why 18-carat gold instead o pure gold is
used in making the ring.
(You are NOT required to consider the price of the materials.)
(iii) In an experiment, a piece of 18-carat gold was heated with concentrated nitric acid. A bluish green
solution was formed.
(1) Suggest another metal that may be present in the 18-carat gold. Explain your answer with the
help f a chemical equation.
(2) State another observation in the experiment. (7 marks)

18. 2002/I/2a
For each of the following experiments, state an expected observation and write a chemical equation for the
reaction involved.
A magnesium ribbon is placed in a Bunsen flame. (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.8

19. 2002/I/6a
Magnesium can be extracted from sea water which contains magnesium ions. The extraction of magnesium
from sea water involves three stages:
Stage 1 : Add slaked lime to sea water to precipitate magnesium ions as magnesium hydroxide.
Stage 2 : Heat the magnesium hydroxide obtained in a stream of hydrogen chloride gas to give magnesium
chloride.
Stage 3 : Extract magnesium by electrolysis of the molten magnesium chloride.
(i) What substance is mainly present in slaked lime ?
(ii) Write a chemical equation, with state symbols, for the reaction in Stage 2.
(iii) Explain why molten magnesium chloride can conduct electricity.
(iv) One major use of magnesium is to make aluminium alloys. Name ONE such alloy which is used to
make aircraft. (5 marks)

20. 2002/I/7a
Calcite is a mineral which contains mainly calcium carbonate. An experiment, consisting of the following
five stages, was conducted to determine the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in a sample of calcite.
Stage 1 : Weigh the sample. Add dilute nitric acid to it until the acid is in excess.
Stage 2 : Filter the mixture obtained in Stage 1 to remove any undissolved solid.
Stage 3 : Add excess sodium sulphate solution to the filtrate to precipitate out calcium sulphate.
Stage 4 : Collect the calcium sulphate precipitate and wash it with distilled water.
Stage 5 : Allow the calcium sulphate to dry and weigh it.
(i) Write a chemical equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with dilute nitric acid. Suggest how
one can know that excess acid has been added in Stage 1.
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up used in the filtration process in Stage 2.
(iii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction in Stage 3.
(iv) Explain why it is necessary to wash the precipitate with distilled water in Stage 4.
(v) The results obtained in the experiment are listed below:
mass of the calcite sample = 7.98 g
mass of the calcium sulphate obtained = 10.52 g
(1) Calculate the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in the sample of calcite.
(2) State ONE assumption in the calculation.
(Relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.0, Ca = 40.0) (10 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.9

21. 2003/I/2
X, Y and Z are three different metals. The table below lists the results of three experiments carried out using
the metals or their oxides.
Experiment X Y Z
Adding metal to formation of a no observable no observable
cold water colourless gas change change
Adding metal to formation of a formation of a no observable
copper(II) colourless gas reddish brown change
sulphate solution and a reddish solid
brown solid
Heating metal no observable formation of a formation of a
oxide with carbon change solid with solid with
powder metallic lustre metallic lustre
(a) What is the colourless gas formed when X is added to cold water ?
Suggest a test for the gas.
(b) Name the type of reaction that occurs when the oxide of Y is heated with carbon powder.
(c) Arrange the three metals in order of increasing reactivity. Explain your answer.
(d) Why is a colourless gas formed when X is added to copper(II) sulphate solution ? (7 marks)

22. 2003/I/9b
Brass is an alloy consisting mainly of copper and metal X. It is used to make musical instruments such as
trumpet.

(i) What is X ?
(ii) Suggest ONE reason for using brass instead of copper in making trumpets.
(iii) In an experiment, a piece of brass is added to a test tube containing 2M nitric acid.
State TWO observations in the experiment and write the relevant chemical equation(s). (6 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.10

23. 2004/I/1
Calcium reacts with cold water to give a colourless gas.
(a) Write a chemical equation for the reaction.
(b) In a practical lesson, a student added a few pieces of calcium granules into a beaker of cold water.
(i) Draw a labelled diagram to show how the student could collect the gas produced.
(ii) The student recorded the following observation in his laboratory report:
'Evolution of the colourless gas was at first slow but became faster after some time.'
Suggest an explanation for the student's observation.
(c) Potassium also reacts with cold water. State TWO differences in observation when potassium and
calcium are added separately to cold water. (7 marks)

24. 2005/I/2
(a) Upon strong heating, silver oxide (Ag2O) undergoes decomposition as represented by the following
word equation :
silver oxide → silver + oxygen
(i) Transcribe the word equation into a chemical equation.
(ii) Explain why the decomposition is a redox reaction.
(iii) Calculate the mass of silver that would be obtained when 3.50 g of silver oxide undergoes
complete decomposition. (5 marks)
(b) Copper(II) oxide can be reduced to copper using the set-up shown below :

(i) State an expected observable change in this experiment.


(ii) Suggest ONE way to show that a metal is formed in this experiment.
(iii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction of copper(II) oxide with hydrogen.
(iv) Suggest why it is necessary to burn the residual hydrogen in the set-up. (4 marks)
(c) Is it possible to deduce from the results of the experiment in (a) and (b) that copper occupies a higher
position in the metal reactivity series than silver does ? Explain your answer. (1 mark)

25. 2005/I/8
Lead (Pb) is an element in Group IV of the Periodic Table.
(a) An oxide of lead X, contains 90.6% of lead by mass. Calculate the empirical formula of X. (2 marks)
(b) X is known to be a mixed oxide composed of PbO and PbO2. Based on your answer in (a), deduce the
mole ratio of PbO to PbO2 in X. (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.11

26. 2006/I/1a
The set-up shown below is used to study the dehydration of hydrated copper(II) sulphate crystals.

(i) Write the chemical equation for the dehydration and state the expected observation.
(ii) Suggest why the test tube should be held in a slanting position as shown. (3 marks)

27. 2006/I/4
An aqueous solution V is known to contain the following four cations:
NH4+(aq), K+(aq), Fe3+(aq) and Ag+(aq)
The flow diagram below outlines a series of tests that can be used to detect the presence of two of the above
cations in V :

(a) Write a ionic equation, with state symbols, for the formation of W from V. (1 mark)
(b) Suggest an experimental method that can be used to separate X from W. (1 mark)
(c) Name Y. (1 mark)
(d) Z still contains two of the above-mentioned cations. Is it possible to show experimentally the presence
of each of these cations in Z ? Explain your answer. (2 marks)
(e) Based on the above information, suggest a colour for V. (1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.12

28. 2006/I/5
Silicon occurs in nature as silicon dioxide in sand and quartz. The extraction of silicon from silicon dioxide
involves the following three stages:
C(s)
Stage 1 : SiO 2 (s) ⎯⎯→
heat
Si(s)

Cl 2 (g)
Stage 2 : Si(s) ⎯⎯⎯
heat
→ SiCl4 (l)

H 2 (g)
Stage 3 : SiCl 4 (l) ⎯⎯⎯
heat
→ Si(s)

(a) What type of structure does quartz have? (1 mark)


(b) The purpose of Stage 1 is to convert silicon dioxide to silicon. The silicon obtained contains silicon
carbide, SiC, as an impurity.
The structure of silicon carbide is similar to that of diamond. Draw the three-dimensional structure of
silicon carbide. (1 mark)
(c) The purpose of Stage 2 and Stage 3 is to purify the silicon obtained in Stage 1.
(i) Is silicon oxidized or reduced in the reaction in Stage 2? Explain your answer.
(ii) Draw the electronic diagram for SiCl4, showing electrons in the outermost shells only.
(iii) The reaction in Stage 3 produces silicon and hydrogen chloride. Suggest why the silicon
obtained after Stage 3 is of high purity. (3 marks)

29. 2007/I/6
Read the paragraph below and answer the questions that follow.
Magnesium is a useful metal. Scientists adopt different methods to extract
magnesium from magnesium oxide. In 1828, a scientist obtained magnesium in two
steps. In the first step, magnesium oxide reacts with chlorine and carbon to form
magnesium chloride. In the second step, the magnesium chloride formed reacts with
potassium to give magnesium. In 1951, some scientists adopted another chemical
process to obtain magnesium from magnesium chloride. Potassium is not used in
this process, and there is even no need to use any other chemicals.

(a) Write a chemical equation for the reaction that occurred in the first step of the method used by the
scientist in 1828. (1 mark)
(b) Name the type of reaction between potassium and magnesium chloride. Why can potassium react with
magnesium chloride to give magnesium? (2 marks)
(c) (i) What would be the chemical process that can obtain magnesium from magnesium chloride,
without using potassium or other chemicals, in 1951?
(ii) What property does magnesium chloride posses so as to make the chemical process possible?
(2 marks)
(d) Suggest one use of magnesium in daily life. (1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 2 Metals | P.13

30. 2008/I/11
Copper(II) sulphate crystals (CuSO4⋅5H2O) can be prepared in a laboratory by the following steps:
Step 1: Add excess copper(II) oxide to dilute sulphuric acid and warm the mixture.
Step 2: Remove the remaining copper(II) oxide from the solution obtained.
Step 3: Evaporate the solution until it becomes saturated.
Step 4: Allow the saturated solution to cool down to obtain copper(II) sulphate crystals.
Step 5: Separate the crystals from the saturated solution.
Step 6: Dry the crystals obtained.
(a) (i) For step 1,
(1) write a chemical equation for the reaction involved, and
(2) explain why copper(II) oxide should be in excess.
(ii) For Step 2, suggest how to remove the remaining copper(II) oxide.
(iii) For Step 4, explain why crystals would be obtained when the saturated solution is allowed to
cool down.
(iv) For Step 6,
(1) explain why the crystals obtained should not be dried by heating, and
(2) suggest an appropriate method to dry the crystals. (6 marks)
(b) A student finally obtained 16.2 g dry copper(II) sulphate crystals through the above steps by reacting
150 cm3 of 1.0 M sulphuric acid with excess copper(II) oxide.
(i) Calculate the number of moles of copper(II) sulphate in the solution obtained in Step 1.
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of copper(II) sulphate crystals finally obtained.
(iii) Assuming the student dried the crystals in Step 6 by an appropriate method, comment on
whether there should be any difference between the answers obtained in (i) and (ii) above.
(3 marks)

24
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 3 Corrosion and protection of metals | P.1

1. 1990/I/5a
The set-up below was used to investigate the corrosion of iron :

After some time, the solution from each tube was tested with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution. It
was found that corrosion of iron occurred only in tubes A and B.
(i) State the colour change when the solution from tube A was tested with potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III) solution.
(ii) When the iron nail in tube B corroded,
(1) indicate what cation and anion were produced, and
(2) write the half equation to show the formation of each ion.
(iii) In which of the tubes would bubbles of gas be observed? Write an equation for the reaction involved.
(iv) Explain why corrosion of iron did not occur in
(1) tube C.
(2) tube D. (9 marks)

2. 1991/I/2c
Iron sheets can be tin-plated by electrolysis of either tin(II) or tin(IV) compounds before they are used to
make food cans.
(i) In the above electrolysis, what material should be used as the anode ?
(ii) Based on the quantity of electricity consumed, determine whether the use of a tin(II) or tin(IV)
compound is more economical in the electrolysis process.
(iii) Give one reason to explain why iron is first tin-plated before food cans are made from it.
(iv) If the tin-plated iron sheet has been scratched to expose the iron, can it still be used to make a food
can ? Explain. (6 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 3 Corrosion and protection of metals | P.2

3. 1997/I/1a,b
For each of the tasks listed in the table below, decide which substance on the right is the best to use to
accomplish the task. Explain your answer in each case.
Task Substances
(a) To attach a substance calcium,
to the iron hull of a copper,
tanker to prevent the zinc
hull from rusting
(b) To make the body of aluminium,
an aircraft duralumin,
stainless steel

4. 1997/I/8biv
Suggest TWO ways in which chromium can be used to prevent the corrosion of iron. (2 marks)

5. 1998/I/8b
The body of a can of fruit juice is made of iron coated with another metal. The top of the can and the
ring-pull are made of aluminium.
(i) (1) Suggest ONE reason why the iron body is coated with another metal.
(2) Name ONE metal commonly used for coating the iron body.
(ii) Suggest ONE reason why aluminium, rather than iron, is used for making the top of the can and the
ring-pull.
(iii) Explain why it is not advisable to buy cans of fruit juice
(1) if the cans have scratches on the iron body.
(2) if the cans are swollen.
(iv) There is an increasing tendency for manufacturers to use cans made entirely of aluminium for the
storage of fruit juice. Suggest ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using aluminium cans for
the storage of fruit juice. (9 marks)

6. 2004/I/8b
Corrosion of iron often results in the formation of rust on its surface.
(i) What is the chemical nature of rust ?
(ii) State the essential conditions for the rusting of iron.
(iii) For each of the following iron objects, suggest a suitable method to protect it from corrosion:
(1) bicycle gear wheel
(2) underground water pipe
(iv) Explain why connecting the body of a car to the negative terminal of the car battery can help protect
the car body from corrosion.

26
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 3 Corrosion and protection of metals | P.3

(v) Although aluminium occupies a higher position than iron in the electrochemical series, it is more
resistant to corrosion than iron.
(1) Provide an experiment for the phenomenon.
(2) Suggest a method to enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminium. (7 marks)

7. 2008/I/3
Four iron-made objects are placed separately in gel with rust indicator solution containing potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III), and allowed to stand in air for some time. Complete the following table by writing
down the observation and giving the relevant explanation for each of the cases.
Case Observation Explanation
Iron-made object fully plated
with zinc
Iron-made object fully plated
with tin
Iron-made object fully plated
with zinc, but part of the zinc
stretched to expose the iron
underneath
Iron-made object fully plated
with tin, but part of the tin
stretched to expose the iron
underneath
(5 marks)

27
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.1

1. 1990/I/4b
A colourless crystalline solid X was heated in a boiling tube as shown in the diagram below :

When X was heated, a brown gaseous mixture was produced. On passing the mixture into water, only a
colourless gas was collected. This colourless gas was able to relight a glowing splint. The resulting solution
in the beaker was found to be acidic.
The solid residue in the boiling tube was light yellow when hot and white when cold. It dissolved in both
excess sodium hydroxide solution and excess ammonia solution.
(i) What gases were present in the brown gaseous mixture? Explain your answers.
(ii) Write an equation to explain the formation of the acidic solution in the beaker.
(iii) Name the solid residue. Write the equations for its reaction with excess sodium hydroxide solution
and excess ammonia solution.
(iv) What is X ?
(v) Suggest a potential hazard associated with the experiment, and give an appropriate safety precaution
that should be taken. (11 marks)

2. 1992/I/2a,b
Consider the following hazard warning labels ;

Choose TWO labels which should be displayed on a bottle of concentrated nitric acid. Explain your choice.
(3 marks)
(b) What would be observed when concentrated nitric acid is added dropwise to
(i) a saturated solution of iron(II) sulphate ?
(ii) zinc granules ?
Explain the observations and write appropriate equations. (6 marks)

3. 1993/I/4b
To determine the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in egg shells, a student added 100 cm3 of 2M
hydrochloric acid to 0.3g of egg shells in a container. After 30 minutes, all the egg shells dissolved and
67cm3 of carbon dioxide were collected at room temperature and pressure.

28
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.2

(i) Write an equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.
(ii) Calculate the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in the egg shells.
(Relative atomic masses : H=1.0; C=12.0; O=16.0; Ca=40.0;
Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3)

(iii) The rate of reaction between the egg shells and 2M hydrochloric acid was slow. Suggest TWO
methods to increase the rate of this reaction without using other chemicals. Explain your answer in
each case. (8 marks)

4. 1995/I/2c
In each of the following groups of substances, there is ONE substance which is different from the others in
terms of the properties. In each group, identify the substance which is different from the others and explain
your choice.
milk of magnesium, soap, vinegar, window cleaner (2 marks)

5. 1995/I/7a
The label on a bottle of 'effervescent Calcium’ tablets is shown below.
Effervescent Calcium
Each bottle contains 10 tablets.
Each tablet contains:
Calcium carbonate 625 mg
Vitamin C 1000 mg
Citric acid 1350 mg
Dosage : 1 tablet daily
Administration : Dissolve one tablet in a glass of water.
Warning: (1) Keep out of reach of children.
(2) Keep ..................................
(i) Effervescence occurs when a tablet of 'effervescent Calcium’ is added to water. Based on the
information given on the label, explain why effervescence occurs. Write the ionic equation for the
reaction that occurs.
(ii) Suppose that a student puts a tablet of 'effervescent Calcium’ into an excess amount of water and
collects and the gas liberated.
(1) Assuming that the tablet completely dissolves, calculate the theoretical volume of gas liberated.
(2) It is found that the volume of gas collected in the experiment is less than the theoretical volume
calculated in (1). Give ONE reason to explain the difference, assuming that there is no
leakage of gas in the experiment.

29
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.3

(iii) On the label, some words are missing in the second warning statement. Complete the second
warning statement, beginning with the word 'keep’. Explain your answer.
(Relative atomic masses : C=12.0, O=16.0, Ca=40.0;
Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (9 marks)

6. 1996/I/6b
A, B, C and D are four unlabelled bottles, each containing one of the following reagents:
2M ammonia solution, 2M ethanoic acid
2M hydrochloric acid, 2M nitric acid
The following scheme is used to identify the four reagents:

(i) What is the reagent in bottle A? Explain why this reagent turns red litmus paper blue.
(ii) What is the reagent in bottle B? Write a chemical equation for the reaction between this reagent and
copper turnings, and a chemical equation for the formation of the brown fumes.
(iii) (1) Suggest a test to distinguish between the reagents in bottles C and D.
(Smelling the reagents is NOT an acceptable answer.)
(2) State the observable change in this test and explain your answer. (8 marks)

30
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.4

7. 1997/I/3
(a) Suggest ONE method to determine the pH of an aqueous solution.
(b) Arrange the following substances in the order of increasing pH and explain your answer.
1M ethanoic acid, 1M hydrochloric acid, 1M sulphuric acid
(c) Three solution samples, A, B and C, are being tested for the purpose of perming hair. The table
below lists the pH of these samples:
Sample pH
A 6.5
B 8.5
C 10.0
Which sample is most suitable for perming hair? Explain your answer. (6 marks)

8. 1997/I/7a
Malachite is a mineral containing copper(II) carbonate and copper(II) hydroxide. It is insoluble in water
but reacts with dilute sulphuric acid. The procedure for preparing copper(II) sulphate crystals from
malachite is as follows:
Step 1 Pour 50 cm3 of 2M sulphuric acid in a beaker and then warm the acid
Step 2 Add small portions of powdered malachite to the warm acid while
constantly stirring, until effervescence stops and some powdered
malachite remains in the beaker.
Step 3 Remove the remaining powdered malachite from the solution.
Step 4 Evaporate the solution slowly to obtain copper(II) sulphate crystals.
(i) Write a chemical equation for the reaction which causes the effervescence.
(ii) Why is it necessary to add powdered malachite until some of it remains in the beaker?
(iii) Draw a labelled diagram to show how the remaining powdered malachite can be removed from the
solution.
(iv) Calculate the theoretical mass of copper(II) sulphate crystals, CuSO4.5H2O, that can be obtained.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.1, Cu = 63.5) (8 marks)

9. 1999/I/2a
For the following experiment, state ONE observable change and write a chemical equation for the reaction
involved.
Dilute nitric acid is added to magnesium carbonate powder in a beaker. (2 marks)

31
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.5

10. 2000/I/7ai,ii
The sour taste of citric fruits is mainly due to citric acid which is a weak acid with the following structure:

(i) What is the meaning of the term 'weak acid'?


(ii) Given that citric acid is a tribasic acid, write a chemical equation for the complete neutralization of
citric acid by sodium hydroxide solution. (2 marks)

11. 2000/I/8cii
State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Explain you answer in each case.
When concentrated sulphuric acid is diluted, water should be added slowly to the acid. (2 marks)

12. 2001/I/2a,b
For each of the following experiments, state an expected observation and write a chemical equation for the
reaction involved.
(a) Adding dilute hydrochloric acid to zinc granules.
(b) Adding sodium hydroxide solution to iron(II) sulphate solution. (4 marks)

13. 2001/I/8biv
Suggest ONE use of ammonium nitrate in daily life. (1 mark)

14. 2002/I/1cii
Both ammonium dihydrogenphosphate and ammonium sulphate are nitrogenous fertilizers.
(c) (ii) The use of ammonium sulphate as a fertilizer adds acidity to the soil. If the soil is too acidic,
it is not suitable for plant growth. Suggest ONE substance that is commonly used by farmers
to reduce soil acidity. Explain your answer. (2 marks)

15. 2004/I/2
For each of the following pairs of substances, suggest a chemical test to distinguish one substance from the
other and state the expected observations.
(a) table salt and white sugar
(b) ammonium chloride and potassium chloride
(c) dilute sulphuric acid and dilute nitric acid (6 marks)

32
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.6

16. 2005/I/3
A student proposed the following methods to accomplish three tasks, (a), (b) and (c). The proposed methods
were all considered inappropriate.
(a) Task : To neutralize acidic soil in a flower bed.
Proposed method : Add solid sodium hydroxide to soil.
(i) State ONE reason why the method is inappropriate.
(ii) Suggest an appropriate method to accomplish the task. (2 marks)
(b) Task: To prepare hydrogen gas from an acid.
Proposed method: Add copper to dilute hydrochloric acid.
(i) State ONE reason why the method is inappropriate.
(ii) Suggest an appropriate method to accomplish the task. (2 marks)
(c) Task: To dilute concentrated sulphuric acid with water.
Proposed method: Add water to concentrated sulphuric acid and stir the mixture.
(i) State ONE reason why the method is inappropriate.
(ii) Suggest an appropriate method to accomplish the task. (2 marks)

33
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.7

17. 2005/I/10
The information below was found on the label of a brand of effervescent vitamin C tablets:
Each tablet contains 1000 mg of vitamin C.
Other ingredients: sodium hydrogencarbonate, citric acid, sugar and colourant.
(a) With the help of a chemical equation, explain why effervescent occurs when a tablet of the effervescent
vitamin C is added to water. (2 marks)
(b) An experiment was carried out to study the action of water on a tablet of the effervescent vitamin C
using the set-up as shown below. The graph shows the results obtained in the experiment.

(i) Find, from the graph, the mass of gas liberated from the reaction of the tablet with water. (You may
assume that the gas liberated is NOT soluble in water.)
(ii) At the end of the experiment, the sodium hydrogencarbonate in the tablet had been completely used
up. Calculate the mass of sodium hydrogencarbonate present in the tablet.
(iii) Suggest ONE advantage of using a data-logger in this experiment.

34
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.8

(iv) The experiment was repeated using warm water instead of cold water. Sketch, on the same graph, the
results that would be obtained in the repeated experiment. (6 marks)

18. 2006/I/7
The following two methods can be used to convert copper metal into copper(II) nitrate solution:
3(aq)dilute HNO
Method 1 : Cu(s) → CuO(s) ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Cu(NO3 ) 2 (aq)

dilute HNO
3(aq)
Method 2 : Cu(s) ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Cu(NO3 ) 2 (aq)

(a) Refer to Method 1.


(i) Suggest how copper metal can be converted into copper(II) oxide. State the expected
observation in the reaction that you have suggested.
(ii) Name the type of reaction that occurs between copper(II) oxide and dilute nitric acid. (3 marks)
(b) In Method 2, the reaction of copper metal with dilute nitric acid gives copper(II) nitrate, nitrogen
monoxide and water. Write the chemical equation for this reaction. (2 marks)
(c) Which of these methods would you recommend for the conversion of copper metal into copper(II)
nitrate solution ? Justify your answer with TWO reasons. (2 marks)

19. 2007/I/5
A solid sample contains zinc and copper only. The composition of the solid sample was analyzed
experimentally as outlined below.
2.00 g of the solid sample was added to excess dilute hydrochloric acid in a beaker. Upon completion of
reaction, the mixture inside the beaker was filtered. The residue obtained was first washed with distilled
water, and then dried. The mass of the dried residue was 1.75 g.
(a) Write a chemical equation for the reaction involved. (1 mark)
(b) How can one know that the reaction has been completed? (1 mark)
(c) Explain why it is necessary to wash the residue obtained. (1 mark)
(d) Explain why it is NOT appropriate to dry the residue with a Bunsen flame after washing. (1 mark)
(e) Assuming negligible experimental errors, calculate the percentage of zinc by mass in the solid sample.
(2 marks)

35
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.1 Acid and alkali | P.9

20. 2008/I/4
A test tube with magnesium ribbons is immersed in a beaker of freshly opened carbonated water. Dilute
hydrochloric acid is then added to magnesium ribbons as shown in the following diagram.

(a) State the expected observation inside the test tube, and give a relevant chemical equation. (2 marks)
(b) When dilute hydrochloric acid is added to the magnesium ribbons, more gas bubbles are seen in the
carbonated water outside the test tube. Explain. (2 marks)

36
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.2 Neutralization | P.1

1. 1993/I/1b
Liquid wastes discharged from some factories are acidic and need to be neutralized before discharging into
the sea. A certain factory used slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to neutralize its liquid waste, which
consisted of 0.5M hydrochloric acid, discharging at a rate of 20 dm3 per minute.
(i) Why are the liquid wastes neutralized before discharging into the sea ?
(ii) Write an equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and slaked lime.
(iii) Calculate the mass of slaked lime required per minute to neutralize the acid present in the liquid
wastes.
(iv) Although slaked lime is cheaper, factories nowadays use sodium carbonate instead of slaked lime to
neutralize their acidic liquid wastes. Suggest a reason.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0; O = 16.0; Ca = 40.0) (6 marks)

2. 1994/I/2c
For each of the following experiments, decide and explain which of the experimental set-ups, X or Y, should
be used.
Experiment Set-up X Set-up Y
(c) To prepare aqueous
ammonia

(2 marks)

3. 2003/I/6a
Ammonia gas can be prepared by heating a mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium oxide in the set-up
shown below:

(i) The reaction of ammonium chloride with calcium oxide also gives calcium chloride as a product.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction of ammonium chloride with calcium oxide.
(ii) Why is it necessary to clamp the test tube with its mouth pointing downwards as shown?
(iii) Decide which of the following set-ups, (I), (II) or (III), should be connected to the delivery tube to
collect the ammonia gas produced. Explain your answer.

37
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.2 Neutralization | P.2

(iv) Calculate the theoretical volume of ammonia gas, measured at room temperature and pressure,
which can be obtained from the reaction of 1.0 g of ammonium chloride with excess calcium oxide.
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, N = 14.0, Cl = 35.5;
molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24 dm3) (9 marks)

4. 2004/I/8a
Coral consists mainly of calcium carbonate. An experiment was carried out to determine the percentage by
mass of calcium carbonate in a sample of coral using the set-up shown below:

(i) Write a chemical equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with dilute hydrochloric acid.
(ii) The mass of the sample used was 0.36 g. At the end of the experiment, 78 cm*** of carbon dioxide
was collected at room temperature and pressure.
Calculate
(1) the number of moles of carbon dioxide collected; and
(2) the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in the sample.
(iii) Assuming that there was no leakage of gas in the set-up, suggest ONE source of error in the
experiment.
(Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24 dm3;
relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Ca = 40.0) (7 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.1

1. 1991/I/2a
A student wished to find out which of the two commercial brands of vinegar, A and B was the better buy, i.e.
of lower price per gram of ethanoic acid (CH3COOH). The following table listed some of the information
about these two brands :
Brand Price Volume of vinegar Concentration of ethanoic acid
3
A $3.00 250 cm 50 g dm–3
B $6.00 500 cm3 UNKNOWN
The student carried out a titration experiment to determine the concentration of ethanoic acid in Brand B as
follows :
25.0 cm3 of the vinegar was first diluted to 250.0 cm3 with distilled water. 25.0 cm3 portions of the diluted
solution were then titrated against 0.10 M sodium hydroxide solution, using a suitable indicator, until the
end-point was reached.
The following results were obtained :
Titration 1 2 3 4
Burette reading

Final reading (cm3) 25.50 25.70 26.20 25.90


Initial reading (cm3) 0.00 1.00 1.30 1.10
3
(i) Describe, giving the names of the apparatus used, how 25.0 cm of the vinegar should be diluted to
250.0 cm3.
(ii) Suggest a suitable indicator for this titration and state its colour change at the end-point.
(iii) Based on the titration results, calculate a reasonable average for the volume of the sodium hydroxide
solution used.
(iv) Write the equation for this titration. (Ionic equations will not be accepted.)
(v) Calculate the molarity of ethanoic acid in Brand B.
(vi) Show by calculation which brand of vinegar is the better buy.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0; C = 12.0; O = 16.0) (13 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.2

2. 1992/I/1a
A student tried to prepare a sample of a solid salt by reacting copper(II) oxide with sulphuric acid in the
laboratory as shown in the diagram below.

The student wrote the following procedure of the experiment in her notebook :
I. Excess copper(II) oxide was added to 50.0 cm*** of 2.0 M sulphuric acid in a beaker.
II. The mixture was heated for 2 minutes, and was stirred continuously during the time.
III. The remaining copper(II) oxide was filtered off.
IV. The filtrate was allowed to cool for one day.
(i) Referring to the above diagram, write down TWO aspects that are considered UNSAFE in the
laboratory.
(ii) (1) Name the salt the student tried to prepare.
(2) Calculate the theoretical mass of the salt that can be obtained.
(iii) Explain why the student heated the reaction mixture in step II.
(iv) The student followed exactly the procedure written in her notebook, but did not obtain any SOLID
salt after one day. Suggest an explanation.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0; O = 16.0; S = 32.0; Cu = 63.5) (8 marks)

3. 1992/I/2c
1.0 g of calcium carbonate is added to 50.0 cm3 of 0.1 M nitric acid. At the end of the reaction, 55.0 cm3 of a
certain gas are collected at room temperature and pressure.
(i) Draw a diagram of the set-up suitable for this experiment.
(ii) Calculate the theoretical volume of the gas which would be liberated at room temperature and
pressure.
(iii) Explain any difference between the theoretical volume and the volume of gas collected.
(Relative atomic masses : C = 12.0; O = 16.0; Ca = 40.0;
Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (6 marks)

40
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.3

4. 1998/I/6a
(i) A student prepared sodium nitrate solution by reacting 1 M sodium hydroxide solution with dilute
nitric acid. The student carried out a titration to determine the amount of dilute nitric acid required to
react with a known volume of 1 M sodium hydroxide solution.
(1) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. (An ionic equation will NOT be accepted for
this question.)
(2) Draw a labelled diagram for the set-up of the titration.
(3) Phenolphthalein can be used to determine the end point of the titration. State the colour
change at the end point.
(4) Suggest how the student can prepare a sodium nitrate solution using the titration results.
(5 marks)
(ii) Sodium nitrate is a nitrogenous fertilizer.
(1) Calculate the percentage by mass of nitrogen in sodium nitrate.
(2) Explain why nitrogen is essential for the growth of plants.
(Relative atomic masses : N = 14.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0) (9 marks)

5. 1999/I/7b
A student carried out the following experiment to determine the concentration of ethanoic acid in a brand of
commercial vinegar. ‘25.0 cm3 of the vinegar was placed in apparatus Y and was then diluted to 250.0 cm3
with distilled water. 25.0 cm3 of the diluted vinegar solution was withdrawn and titrated against 0.10 M
sodium hydroxide solution with phenolphthalein as indicator.’
(i) (1) Name apparatus Y.
(2) Suggest ONE reason for diluting the vinegar.
(ii) State the colour change at the end point of the titration.
(iii) The student carried out four titrations altogether. The titration results are listed in the table below :
Titration 1 2 3 4
Burette reading
Final reading (cm3) 23.90 23.60 23.10 23.60
3
Initial reading (cm ) 3.00 3.50 3.10 3.40
(1) Based on the titration results, calculate a reasonable average for the volume of the sodium
hydroxide solution used.
(2) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm–3, of ethanoic acid in the vinegar.
(iv) Explain why vinegar can be used as a food preservative. (9 marks)

41
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.4

6. 2000/I/7aiii
In a titration experiment to determine the concentration of citric acid in orange juice, 25.0 cm3 of a sample
of orange juice required 10.0 cm3 of 0.30 M sodium hydroxide solution to reach the end-point, at which the
citric acid had been completely neutralized.
(1) Given that the relative molecular mass of citric acid is 192, calculate the concentration of citric acid, in
g dm–3, in the sample of orange juice.
(2) State ONE assumption in your calculation in (1).
(3) Given the following materials and apparatus, briefly describe how a 0.30 M sodium hydroxide solution
can be prepared.
1.20 M sodium hydroxide solution
distilled water
25.0 cm3 pipette
50.0 cm3 volumetric flask, 100.0 cm3 volumetric flask and 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask (Only one of
these flasks should be used) (10 marks)

7. 2001/I/6b
In an experiment, 0.933 g of a sample of washing soda (Na2CO3.xH2O) was dissolved in some distilled
water. The solution was titrated against 0.258 M hydrochloric acid with methyl orange as indicator. 25.4 cm3
of the acid was required for the completion of the following reaction :
Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
(i) From the titration result, calculate the number of moles of sodium carbonate in the sample of
washing soda.
(ii) Deduce the value of x in the formula of the washing soda.
(iii) State the colour change at the end-point of the titration.
(iv) Briefly describe the procedure that should be followed to prepare a burette containing the
hydrochloric acid for the titration.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0) (9 marks)

8. 2002/I/9b
In an experiment to determine the concentration of ammonia in a sample of glass cleaner, 25.0 cm3 of the
sample was diluted to 250.0 cm3 in a volumetric flask. 25.0 cm3 of the diluted sample was transferred to a
conical flask and was then titrated against 0.23 M hydrochloric acid. 28.7 cm3 of the acid was required to
reach the end-point.
(i) State the liquid that should be used to rinse the following pieces of apparatus used in this
experiment.
(1) volumetric flask
(2) conical flask
(ii) Name the apparatus that should be used to transfer 25.0 cm3 of the diluted sample to the conical
flask.

42
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.5

(iii) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm–3, of ammonia in the sample of glass cleaner.
(You may assume that ammonia is the only substance in the sample that reacts with hydrochloric
acid.) (6 marks)

9. 2003/I/8b
An experiment was carried out to determine the concentration of a nickel (II) solution. The experiment
consisted of the following three stages:
Stage 1: 25.0 cm3 of 0.503 M sodium hydroxide solution was added to 25.0 cm3 of the nickel (II)
sulphate solution to precipitate out nickel (II) hydroxide.
Stage 2: The mixture obtained in Stage 1 was filtered and the residue was washed thoroughly with
distilled water.
Stage 3: The excess alkali in the filtrate was titrated against 0.251 M hydrochloric acid with methyl
orange as indicator. 18.5 cm3 of the acid was required to reach the end-point.
(i) Write the ionic equation for the reaction in Stage 1.
(ii) State the colour change at the end-point of the titration in Stage 3.
(iii) (1) Based on the titration result in Stage 3, calculate the number of moles of hydroxide ions present
in the filtrate.
(2) Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide that was added in Stage 1.
(3) Using your results in (1) and (2) above, calculate the molarity of the nickel (II) sulphate
solution.
(iv) Why was it necessary to wash the residue thoroughly in Stage 2? (9 marks)

10. 2004/I/7a
An experiment, consisting of the three stages listed below, was carried out to determine the basicity of a
solid acid:
Stage 1: 1.15 g of a sample of the acid was weighed.
Stage 2: The sample of acid was dissolved in some distilled water and then made up to 250.0 cm3 with
distilled water.
Stage 3: 25.0 cm3 of the solution obtained in Stage 2 was titrated against 0.100 M sodium hydroxide
solution using phenolphthalein as indicator. 25.7 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide was required to
reach the end point.
(i) Briefly describe how the 250.0 cm3 solution was made up in Stage 2.
(ii) State the colour change at the end point of the titration in Stage 3.
(iii) (1) Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide used in the titration.
(2) Given that the molar mass of the solid acid is 90. 0g, calculate its basicity. (8 marks)

43
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.6

11. 2006/I/9
'Soda ash' is crude sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) commonly used in treating fresh water in water treatment
plants. The following experiment was carried out to determine the percentage by mass of sodium carbonate
in a sample of soda ash :
2.00 g of the sample was dissolved in distilled water, and the solution was diluted and made up to 250.0 cm3.
Four portions of the diluted solution of volume 25.0 cm3 each were titrated against 0.18 M hydrochloric acid
using methyl orange as indicator. The table below lists the titration results obtained :
Titration 1 2 3 4
Burette reading
Final reading (cm3) 21.00 21.10 25.20 25.20
3
Initial reading (cm ) 0.00 1.00 5.3 5.20
3
(a) A 25.0 cm portion of the above diluted solution was transferred to a clean conical flask. Briefly
describe how the titration of this portion of the diluted solution should be carried out. (3 marks)
(b) Based on the titration results, calculate
(i) a reasonable average for the volume of the hydrochloric acid used, and
(ii) the percentage by mass of sodium carbonate in the sample.
(You may assume that the sample does NOT contain any impurity that reacts with hydrochloric acid.)
(5 marks)
(c) Suggest another method for detecting the titration end point without the use of any acid-base indicator.
(1 mark)
(d) Why is soda ash used for treating fresh water ? Briefly describe the chemistry involved. (2 marks)

12. 2007/I/10
In an experiment to determine the concentration of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 10.0 cm3 of the acid was first
diluted to 250.0 cm3 with distilled water. 25.0 cm3 of the diluted solution was then transferred to a conical
flask and titrated with a 0.025 M sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as indicator. 17.60 cm3
of sodium hydroxide solution was needed to reach the end point.
(a) Describe briefly how 10.0 cm3 of phosphoric acid can be diluted to 250.0 cm3 with distilled water in
the laboratory. (2 marks)
(b) Phosphoric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide in the titration according to the following equation:
H3PO4 + 2NaOH → Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
Calculate the molarity of the original phosphoric acid before dilution. (3 marks)
(c) ‘At the beginning of titration, the solution in the conical flask turned pink upon the addition of sodium
hydroxide solution but became colourless immediately upon swirling. However, near the end point, the
solution took longer time to become colourless upon swirling.’
Explain why the time needed for the solution to become colourless is different at the two stages
mentioned above. (2 marks)

44
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.3 Titration | P.7

(d) In the titration, 0.025 M sodium hydroxide solution was used as a standard solution.
(i) What does the term ‘standard solution’ mean?
(ii) Comment whether it is appropriate to prepare a standard of sodium hydroxide by the following
procedure:
‘Weigh a sample of solid sodium hydroxide, dissolve it in some distilled water and make
up to a known volume of solution.’ (2 marks)

45
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.4 Rate of reaction | P.1

1. 1990/I/2b
Two different samples of calcium carbonate (A and B), each weighing 0.8 g and containing inert impurities,
were allowed to react with excess dilute hydrochloric acid under the same laboratory conditions. The
volumes of carbon dioxide gas evolved with time are shown in the graph below :

(i) Draw a diagram to show how the above experiment can be performed in the laboratory.
(ii) Explain why the slope of the curve for sample A is steeper at X than at Y.
(iii) From the two curves, deduce TWO differences between sample A and sample B.
(iv) (1) What is the total volume of gas liberated from sample B?
(2) Hence, calculate the percentage of calcium carbonate in sample B.
(Relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Ca = 40.0 ; Molar volume of gas under the laboratory
conditions = 24 dm3) (11 marks)

46
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 4.4 Rate of reaction | P.2

2. 1994/I/8a
The rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution in the presence of manganese(IV) oxide was
studied by means of the following experiment.
50.0 cm3 of a hydrogen peroxide solution was mixed with 0.5 g of powdered manganese(IV) oxide in a
conical flask. The volumes of gas evolved at room temperature and pressure at different times are shown in
the graph below.

(i) Write an equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.


(ii) Compare the rates of decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution at points A, B and C, and
explain why these rates are different.
(iii) Calculate the original molarity of the hydrogen peroxide solution.
(iv) If the experiment is repeated with an equal volume of the hydrogen peroxide solution and 1.0 g of
powdered manganese(IV) oxide, would the shape of the curve obtained be the same ? Explain your
answer.
(Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (9 marks)

47
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.1 Chemical cells | P.1

1. 1991/I/4b
The following diagram shows the longitudinal section of a dry cell :

(i) Name the material commonly used for making


(1) P , and
(2) Q.
(ii) State the oxidizing agent.
(iii) A dry cell often leaks after prolonged usage.
(1) Explain the cause of leakage based on the reaction that occurs at Q.
(2) The leaked solution is suspected to contain ammonium ions and chloride ions. Suggest a
chemical test to identify each of these ions. (9 marks)

2. 1998/I/6b
The table below includes some information about three types of dry cells. The voltage of each type of cell
is 1.5 V.
Voltage over Price per
Type Shelf life / years Life / minutes
discharge cell / $
Zinc-carbon cell falls quite
2.5 1.5 70
(AA size) rapidly
Alkaline manganese
remains steady 5.0 3 90
cell (AA size)
Silver oxide cell
remains steady 8.0 2 30
(button type)
(The life of a cell has been determined from its use in a test with a motorized toy.)
(i) Decide and explain which type of cell should be used in a small CD-player (Discman).
(ii) A package of 24 zinc-carbon cells is now being offered at a special price of $49.90. Assuming that
your radio consumes one zinc-carbon cell per month, would you buy a package of these
specially-priced cells for the use of your radio? Explain your answer.

48
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.1 Chemical cells | P.2

(iii) The half-equations below show the changes at the two electrodes, A and B, of a silver oxide cell
during discharge:
A: Zn(s) + 2OH-(aq) → ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e-
B: Ag2O(s) + H2O(l) + 2e- → 2Ag(s) + 2OH-(aq)
(1) Decide and explain which electrode, A or B, is the anode.
(2) Write the overall equation for the reaction that would occur in the cell during discharge.
(iv) The following information was found on the packaging of a brand of zinc-carbon cells:
Caution : 1. Do not dispose of used cells in fire.
2. Remove cells when not in use for prolonged periods.
(1) Explain why used cells should not be disposed of in fire.
(2) Explain why the cells should be removed when not in use for prolonged periods. (9 marks)

3. 1999/I/8a
The diagram below shows the longitudinal section of a zinc-carbon cell.

(i) Write a half-equation for the reaction that occurs at the zinc case of the cell during discharge.
(ii) State the function of following substances in a zinc-carbon cell.
(1) carbon rod
(2) manganese(IV) oxide
(iii) Suggest a chemical test to show the presence of ammonium ions in the moist paste of ammonium
chloride.
(iv) Explain whether you agree with the following statement.
‘Zinc-carbon cells cause more environmental problems than nickel-cadmium cells do.’
(v) Complete and balance the following half-equations for the reactions that occur at the electrodes of a
nickel-cadmium cell.
Cd + OH– → Cd(OH)2
NiO2 + H2O → Ni(OH)2 + OH– (9 marks)

4. 2002/I/3b
Consider the substances listed below:
ammonia, manganese(IV) oxide, potassium hydroxide,
sodium benzoate, sodium dichromate, sodium nitrite
Which substance is used in zinc-carbon cells ? State its function. (2 marks)

49
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.1 Chemical cells | P.3

5. 2003/I/9a
The diagram below shows a sodium-sulphur cell connected to an external circuit. This cell operates at a high
temperature of about 370oC, which is above the melting points of sodium and sulphur.

(i) State and explain the direction of electron flow in the external circuit when the cell is discharged.
Write half equations for the reactions at electrodes A and B.
(ii) Suggest TWO functions of the porous device.
(iii) Suggest why it is necessary for the cell to operate at a high temperature.
(iv) Sodium-sulphur cells are rechargeable and are used in power stations to reduce the wastage of
electricity generated. Suggest why these cells can be used to reduce the wastage of electricity.
(8 marks)

6. 2005/I/9c
With reference to the longitudinal section of a zinc-carbon cell shown below, suggest how chemical energy
is converted to electrical energy when the cell is producing current.

(3 marks)

50
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.1 Chemical cells | P.4

7. 2006/I/10
A student used an aluminium can, a carbon rod and household bleach to make a chemical cell. The diagram
below shows the set-up of the cell connected to a load and an ammeter.

(a) The material used by the student to make the cell are readily available at home. Suggest ONE
household item
(i) which contains a carbon rod.
(ii) which includes an aluminium can. (2 marks)
(b) When the cell is producing a current, the aluminium can undergoes oxidation to give aluminate ions,
Al(OH)4-(aq), while at the carbon rod the hypochlorite ions undergo reduction in the presence of water
to give chloride ions and hydroxide ions.
Given that household bleach is alkaline, write half equations for
(i) the oxidation of the aluminium metal, and
(ii) the reduction of the hypochlorite ions. (2 marks)
(c) The student also used the above set-up to investigate the relation between the current produced by the
cell and the concentration of hypochlorite ions in the bleach.
(i) Suggest TWO conditions which should be kept constant when conducting this investigation.
(ii) The student noticed that the current produced by the cell increases with the concentration of
hypochlorite ions in the bleach. Suggest an explanation for the phenomenon. (3 marks)

8. 2007/I/4
A student learnt from a book that an ancient chemical cell could be made by immersing an iron rod in a
liquid placed inside a copper can. The liquid used was vinegar but not wine. The diagram below shows the
set-up designed by him in simulating the cell.

51
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.1 Chemical cells | P.5

(a) Explain, in terms of structure and property of particles, why the liquid inside the ancient chemical cell
was vinegar but not wine. (2 marks)
(b) The student found that the iron rod dissolves gradually, and colourless gas bubbles were given out the
inner wall of the copper can.
(i) Write a half equation, involving iron, for the reaction that occurred at the iron rod.
(ii) Write a half equation for the reaction that occurred in the inner wall of the copper can.
(2 marks)
(c) The student found that colourless gas bubbles were also given out at the surface of the iron rod that
immersed in vinegar. Explain the observation. (1 mark)

9. 2008/I/5
The diagram below shows a set-up with metal strips inserted in fresh potatoes. The multimeter reading in
the set-up is +0.75 V.

(a) State, with explanation, the direction of electron flow across the connecting wire between zinc strip
and magnesium strip. (1 mark)
(b) (i) Which metal strip in Potato B is anode? Why?
(ii) Write the half equation for the change occurred at the anode in Potato B. (2 marks)
(c) Which two metal strips should be interchanged in order to increase the multimeter reading? (1 mark)
(d) Explain why fresh potatoes should be used in the set-up.
(e) What will the multimeter reading be if the zinc strip in Potato A is replaced by another magnesium
strip, while the other three metal strips remain unchanged? (1 mark)

52
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.2 Redox reaction | P.1

1. 1990/I/2a
A teacher asked a student to describe an experiment to illustrate a redox reaction using concentrated
hydrochloric acid.
The following is the student's answer. There are three mistakes in this answer, two of which have been
underlined by the teacher.
'Set up the apparatus in a fume cupboard as shown in the diagram below. Pour concentrated hydrochloric
acid into a filter funnel. Pass the gas generated through a U-tube containing soda lime to dry the gas and to
remove hydrochloric acid fumes. Collect the gas by downward displacement of air.'

(i) (1) Write a balanced equation with state symbols for the redox reaction.
(2) Explain why this reaction is an example of a redox reaction in terms of changes in oxidation
number of the reactants.
(ii) (1) Explain why the two underlined parts are considered to be mistakes.
(2) What is the third mistake? Explain your answer.
(3) Suggest how EACH of the three mistakes could be corrected.
(iii) What would be observed if a piece of moist blue litmus paper were put into the gas generated?
Explain your answer. (14 marks)

2. 1996/I/6a
The table below lists the oxidation number of iron in two compounds:
Compound Iron(II) sulphate Iron(III) sulphate
Oxidation number +2 +3
(i) (1) What would be observed when sodium hydroxide solution is added to iron(II) sulphate
solution? Write an ionic equation for the reaction involved.
(2) Explain whether this reaction is a redox reaction.
(ii) When iron(II) sulphate solution is mixed with dilute sulphuric acid and a small amount of a purple
solution, a reaction occurs and the oxidation number of iron changes from +2 to +3.
(1) Suggest what the purple solution may be.
(2) What would be observed in this reaction? Write an ionic equation for the reaction involved.

53
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.2 Redox reaction | P.2

(iii) When iron(II) sulphate solution reacts with an element X, the oxidation number of iron changes from
+2 to 0.
(1) suggest what X may be.
(2) What would be observed in this reaction? Explain whether iron(II) sulphate solution acts as a
reducing agent or an oxidation agent in this reaction. (10 marks)

3. 1997/I/8b
Read the following paragraph concerning chromium and answer the questions that follow:
The Greek work "chroma" means colour. Many chromium-containing compounds and
chromium-containing gemstones are beautifully coloured. The oxidation number of chromium in
its compounds can be +2, +3 and +6.
(i) Jade, a green-coloured gemstone, is chromium-containing. Suggest what chromium ion present in
jade is responsible for its green colour.
(ii) Potassium dichromate is an oxidizing agent. The oxidation number of chromium in potassium
dichromate is +6.
(1) Name ONE compound which can be oxidized by potassium dichromate.
(2) State the condition(s) under which the compound reacts with potassium dichromate.
(3) What product is formed from the compound in the redox reaction?
(iii) In the presence of a dilute acid, chromium(II) ions react with atmospheric oxygen to form
chromium(III) ions and water.
(1) Write the half equation for the formation of chromium(III) ions.
(2) Write the half equation for the formation of water.
(3) Write the overall equation for the reaction.
(iv) Suggest TWO ways in which chromium can be used to prevent the corrosion of iron. (9 marks)

4. 1998/I/2c
For each of the following experiments, state the expected observation and write a relevant chemical
equation.
A sodium sulphite solution is added to an iodine solution (iodine dissolved in aqueous potassium iodide).
(6 marks)

5. 2002/I/2b
For each of the following experiments, state an expected observation and write a chemical equation for the
reaction involved.
Excess iron(II) sulphate solution is added to an acidified potassium permanganate solution. (2 marks)

54
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.2 Redox reaction | P.3

6. 2003/I/6c
Ammonia reacts with copper(II) oxide upon heating. The products are nitrogen, copper and water.
(i) State whether or not the reaction is a redox. Explain your answer in terms of oxidation number change.
(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction of ammonia with copper(II) oxide. (3 marks)

7. 2004/I/6b
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is another oxide of hydrogen.
(i) What is the oxidation number of oxygen in hydrogen peroxide ?
(ii) Draw the electronic diagram of a molecule of hydrogen peroxide, showing electrons in the outermost
shells only.
(iii) In the presence of a dilute acid, hydrogen peroxide oxidizes iron(II) ions and it is reduced to water.
(1) Write the half equation for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide.
(2) State the expected observation and write a chemical equation for the reaction involved.
(5 marks)

8. 2005/I/4
The wastewater generated from an electroplating factory contains dichromate ions. Before wastewater is
discharged, it is treated in two stages as described below to remove the chromium-containing substances.
Stage 1: Treat the wastewater with excess sodium sulphite solution in the presence of acid to reduce the
dichromate ions to chromium (III) ions.
Stage 2: Add a suitable chemical to the treated wastewater from Stage I to precipitate the chromium (III)
ions.
(a) Why is it necessary to remove chromium-containing substances from the wastewater? (1 mark)
(b) In Stage I, the sulphite ions are oxidized to sulphate ions by the dichromate ions.
(i) Write the half equation for the oxidation of sulphite ions.
(ii) Write the half equation for the reduction of dichromate ions.
(iii) Write the overall equation for the redox reaction. (3 marks)
(c) Suggest a suitable chemical for the precipitation of chromium (III) ions in Stage 2. (1 mark)

55
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.1

1. 1990/I/4a

Diagram I shows a set-up for the electrolysis of 0.5 M potassium bromide solution. After passing electricity
for some time, gas bubbles were observed at electrode A, while the solution around electrode B turned
yellowish-brown. This colouration gradually extended to the bottom of the U-tube and a steady colour
boundary was formed as shown in diagram II.
(i) Which of the electrodes was the cathode ?
(ii) Name the gas produced at electrode A, and suggest a chemical test to identify this gas.
(iii) Write half equations for the reactions that occurred during electrolysis at electrodes A and B.
(iv) Out of syll.
(v) Name the electrolysis product responsible for producing the yellowish-brown colour and explain
why the colour extended to the bottom of the U-tube.
(vi) (1) What ions would migrate from the solution around electrode A towards electrode B during
electrolysis ?
(2) One of these ions reacted with the yellowish-brown solution. Name this ion.
(3) Briefly explain, with the aid of an equation, why a steady colour boundary was formed.
(14 marks)

2. 1991/I/5b
Iodine and a compound G are formed when solid sodium iodide reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid
according to the following balanced equations :
NaI + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HI … (1)
8HI + H2SO4 → G + 4I2 + 4H2O … (2)
(i) Suggest the chemical formula for G.
(ii) What is the function of concentrated sulphuric acid in equation (2) ?
(iii) If sodium chloride is used in place of sodium iodide, will similar reactions occur ? Explain your
answer.
Iodine can also be produced from sodium iodide solution by electrolysis using the following set-up.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.2

(iv) (1) At which electrode will iodine be formed ?


(2) What would be observed at electrodes X and Y respectively during electrolysis ? Write
half-equations for the reactions involved.
(v) Out of syll. (12 marks)

3. 1993/I/2a
Tuning knobs on radios are often made of plastics plated with metal coatings.
(i) State TWO reasons why plastics are used in the manufacture of tuning knobs.
(ii) What is the purpose of plating the knobs with metals ?
The plastic knobs are first coated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The electroplating can be
conducted using the following set-up :

(iii) Why is the plastic knob first coated with copper before electroplating ?
(iv) Write an ionic equation for the reaction that occurs at the cathode during electroplating. (5 marks)

4. 1994/I/7a

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.3

In the above diagram, P and Q are two different metals. When the circuit is closed, a current flows in the
external circuit. After some time, 0.36 g of copper is deposited on the carbon electrode R.
(i) What is the direction of electron flow in the external circuit ? Explain your answer.
(ii) After the circuit has been closed for some time, what would be observed
(1) at the carbon electrode S ?
(2) in the copper(II) sulphate solution ?
(iii) What is the function of set-up X in this experiment ?
(iv) Which of the metals, P or Q, occupies a higher position in the electrochemical series? Explain your
answer. (7 marks)

5. 1995/I/9b

When the circuit in the set-up shown above is closed, the acidified potassium permanganate solution loses
its colour gradually.
(i) Write a half equation for the reaction that occurs in the acidified potassium permanganate solution.
Explain whether the permanganate ions is oxidized or reduced.
(ii) What would be observed in the potassium iodide solution after some time ? Write a half equation
for the reaction that would occur.
(iii) Identify the direction of electron flow in the external circuit.
(iv) Write an ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when an acidified potassium permanganate
solution and a potassium iodide solution are mixed together.
(v) (1) What is the function of the salt bridge in the set-up ?
(2) Explain whether a sodium sulphite solution can be used instead of a potassium nitrate solution
in the salt bridge. (8 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.4

6. 1996/I/9b
A student carried out a copper-plating experiment in the laboratory using the set-up shown below:

(i) Explain why copper(II) sulphate solution can conduct electricity.


(ii) What would be observed at the carbon anode during the experiment? Write a half equation for the
reaction involved.
(iii) In the copper-plating industry, a metal is used as the anode instead of carbon. What is this metal?
Explain your answer.
(iv) In a copper-plating factory, the waste water is treated with sodium hydroxide solution to remove the
copper(II) ions present before discharge.
(1) Suggest TWO reasons why it is necessary to remove the copper(II) ions from the waste water
before discharge.
(2) 20.0 dm3 of a sample of waste water require 3.5 dm3 of 8.0 M sodium hydroxide solution for
complete removal of the copper(II) ions present. Calculate the concentration, in mol dm-3, of
copper(II) ions in the sample. (10 marks)

7. 1997/I/9b
X and Y are different metals. A student studied the reactivity of X, Y and copper by setting up two
electrochemical cells using the following materials and apparatus:

The results of the experiment are tabulated below:


Electrochemical cell Direction of electron flow in the external circuit
formed by connecting half-cells A and C Y to Cu
formed by connecting half-cells B and C X to Y

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.5

(i) What is the meaning of the term 'saturated solution'?


(ii) Explain the use of the strips of filter paper in the experiment.
(iii) The student had to use an additional instrument to determine the direction of electron flow in the
external circuit.
(1) What instrument did the student use?
(2) Draw a labelled diagram to show the set-up for the experiment, using half-cells A and C.
(iv) Arrange X, Y and copper in the order of increasing reactivity. Explain your answer.
(v) What would be observed when a piece of copper foil is immersed in an aqueous solution containing
1 mol dm-3 of Y2+ ions? Explain your answer. (9 marks)

8. 1998/I/9b
Each of the following experiments produces a sodium hydroxide solution.

(i) What would be observed when a small piece of sodium is added to water?
(ii) Explain whether experiment I or experiment II is preferred for preparing a sodium hydroxide
solution.
(iii) During the electrolysis of brine, chlorine and hydrogen are liberated at the anode and cathode
respectively. A sodium hydroxide solution remains in the electrolytic cell after some time.
(1) Explain why hydrogen, instead of sodium, is liberated at the cathode.
(2) Suppose that 50.0 cm3 of hydrogen is liberated at the cathode at room temperature and pressure.
Deduce the theoretical volume of chlorine liberated at the anode under the same conditions.
(3) Explain why a sodium hydroxide solution remains in the electrolytic cell.
(iv) Draw a labelled diagram to show the laboratory set-up for the electrolysis of brine and the collection
of the gaseous products. (10 marks)

9. 1999/I/6a
Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. Under suitable conditions, 80.0 cm3 of hydrogen and 60.0
cm3 of oxygen (with one of the reactants in excess) react to give water. The volumes of both gases are
measured at room temperature and pressure.
(i) Draw the electronic diagram of water, showing electrons in the outermost shells only.
(ii) Assume that the two gases undergo complete reaction. Deduce the volume of the remaining gas,
measured at room temperature and pressure, at the end of the reaction.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.6

(iii) Water can be decomposed by electrolysis with the following set-up to give hydrogen and oxygen.

(1) Explain why a little sulphuric acid has been added to the water used.
(2) Suggest a suitable material for the electrodes.
(3) Write the half-equation for the formation of oxygen.
(4) Suggest a chemical test for each product obtained in the electrolysis. (8 marks)

10. 2000/I/6aiii
The zinc sulphate solution obtained contains ions of other metals. During the electrolysis in Stage III, zinc
metal is liberated at one of the electrodes.
(1) Suggest ONE way to remove ions of metals which are less reactive than zinc from the zinc sulphate
solution before electrolysis.
(2) Why is it not necessary to remove ions of metals which are more reactive than zinc from the solution ?
(3) Write half equations for the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode during the electrolysis.
(8 marks)

11. 2001/I/9a,b
(a) A student used the set-up shown below to prepare hydrogen and chlorine by electrolysis of a very
dilute sodium chloride solution. Contrary to the student’s expectation, a colourless gas X instead of
chlorine was liberated at the anode.

(i) What is X ?
(ii) Suggest a chemical test for X. (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.7

(b) The experiment in (a) was then modified so that hydrogen and chlorine were produced at the cathode
and anode respectively.
(i) Suggest how the experiment could be modified.
(ii) Deduce the ratio of the theoretical volumes of hydrogen and chlorine produced.
(iii) With the help of a chemical equation, explain why the volume of chlorine collected is
significantly smaller than the theoretical volume. (6 marks)

12. 2002/I/9c
A student used the set-up shown below to conduct a microscale experiment on electrolysis.
(i) (1) The initial colour of the drop shown above wasgreen. State the colour change of the liquid
around carbon rod A after a current was passed through the circuit for some time. Explain your
answer with the help of a half equation.
(2) A gas was liberated at carbon rod B. What was the gas ? Explain its formation.
(ii) Some objects readily available in daily life contain carbon rods which can be used in this experiment.
Suggest ONE such object.
(iii) The use of microscale experiments in studying chemistry is becoming more popular nowadays.
Suggest TWO advantages of carrying out experiments in microscale. (8 marks)

13. 2003/I/7a
The set-up shown below is used to investigate the electrical conductivity of lead(II) bromide.

When the lead(II) bromide becomes molten, the bulb lights up.
(i) What would be observed at electrode X ? Write the half equation for the reaction involved.
(ii) State ONE potential hazard when carrying out the experiment.
(iii) State what will happen to the bulb when heating is stopped and the molten lead(II) bromide is
allowed to cool down gradually to room temperature. Explain your answer. (6 marks)

14. 2004/I/6a
Water (H2O) is an oxide of hydrogen. Electrolysis of water in the presence of sulphuric acid gives hydrogen
and oxygen in a volume ratio of 2 : 1.
(i) Suggest suitable electrodes to be used in the electrolysis.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.8

(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at the cathode and that at the anode during the electrolysis.
(iii) What is the function of sulphuric acid in the electrolysis ?
(iv) Is it possible to deduce the formula of water from the results of the electrolysis ? Explain your
answer. (6 marks)

15. 2005/I/9a,b
An experiment was carried out to study the electrolysis of a concentrated sodium chloride solution using
several zinc-carbon cells as a source of electricity. The following diagram shows the set-up used :

(a) (i) What is gas X?


(ii) Give ONE use of X in industry. (2 marks)
(b) (i) What is gas Y?
(ii) If the electrolysis is repeated using a very dilute sodium chloride solution, another gas will be
liberated at carbon electrode B. Suggest an explanation for this phenomenon. (3 marks)

16. 2007/I/11
In a chemical plant, extraction of copper from its ores involves roasting copper (I) sulphide with air inside a
high temperature furnace. Copper (I) sulphide reacts with oxygen in air according to the following equation:
Cu2S + O2 → 2Cu + SO2
The copper so extracted contains impurities including metals such as silver, iron, zinc and gold. The impure
copper is then purified by electrolysis as illustrated in the diagram below:

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 5.3 Electrolysis | P.9

(a) With reference to the reaction between copper (I) sulphide and oxygen, identify the species undergoing
oxidation and the species undergoing reduction. Explain your answers in terms of changes in oxidation
numbers. (2 marks)
(b) Explain briefly how impure copper can be purified by electrolysis as illustrated in the diagram above.
(2 marks)
(c) Insoluble impurities deposit under the impure copper anode as ‘anode sludge’. According to the
information given, suggest what substances the anode sludge would contain. Explain your answer.
(2 marks)
(d) ‘The concentration of copper (II) ions in copper (II) sulphate solution remains UNCHANGED in the
above electrolysis.’ Is this statement correct? Explain your answer. (2 marks)
(e) State TWO advantages of building a factory in which contact process is carried out near the chemical
plant mentioned above. (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.1 Chlorine and bleach | P.1

1. 1992/I/5
Sodium hydroxide can be manufactured by the electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution in the
following set-up, where A and B are inert electrodes.

(a) (i) Explain which electrode, A or B, is the cathode.


(ii) Using the concept of preferential discharge of ions, explain the electrode reactions and why
sodium hydroxide can be manufactured by the above electrolysis.
(iii) If 234 g of sodium chloride are used up during the electrolysis, calculate the volume of
hydrogen liberated at room temperature and pressure. (9 marks)
(b) A domestic bleach can be prepared from the product obtained in the above electrolysis.
(i) Write a balanced equation for the formation of the domestic bleach.
(ii) Name the active ingredient in the domestic bleach.
(iii) The following label is displayed on a container of the domestic bleach :

Keep out of the reach of children


Store in a cool place
Keep away from acids

(1) Why should the bleach be kept out of the reach of children ? Suggest TWO potential
hazards.
(2) Explain why the bleach should be
(I) stored in a cool place.
(II) kept away from acids.
(Relative atomic masses : Na = 23.0; Cl = 35.5;
Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (6 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.1 Chlorine and bleach | P.2

2. 1993/I/5b
The diagram below shows an apparatus, which, when it contains water, is part of the set-up used in the
preparation of chlorine gas.

(i) Label clearly


(1) the level of water that should be used in the apparatus.
(2) the direction of the chlorine gas passing through the apparatus.
(ii) Give TWO functions of the apparatus in the preparation of chlorine gas.
(iii) The chlorine gas coming out from the apparatus is not dry. Draw a diagram showing how it can be
dried and collected. Specify the drying agent used. (6 marks)

3. 1994/I/2b
For each of the following experiments, decide and explain which of the experimental set-ups, X or Y, should
be used.
Experiment Set-up X Set-up Y
(b) To dry chlorine gas

(2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.1 Chlorine and bleach | P.3

4. 1995/I/6ai,ii,iii
The illustration below shows the plastic bottle of a domestic toilet cleaner and its label.

(i) Explain, with the help of a chemical equation, why the toilet cleaner should not be mixed with bleaches.
(ii) (1) Suggest ONE chemical, other than bleaches, that should not be mixed with the toilet cleaner.
(2) If the chemical suggest in (1) and the toilet cleaner are mixed together, what change would be
observed ? Write a chemical equation for the reaction involved.
(iii) Explain why it is necessary to handle the toilet cleaner with care. (7 marks)

5. 1995/I/8b
Small swimming pools usually use sodium hypochlorite solution rather than chlorine gas to sterilize the
pool water.
(i) Suggest ONE reason for using sodium hypochlorite solution rather than chlorine gas in small
swimming pools.
(ii) Suggest ONE chemical test to show the presence of hypochlorite ions in a sample of pool water.
State the observable change in the test.
(iii) A 100 cm3 sample of pool water contains 5.0 g of sodium hypochlorite. Calculate the concentration,
in mol dm-3, of sodium hypochlorite in the sample.
(iv) What would be observed if a petal of red flower was put into a sodium hypochlorite solution ?
Using an equation, explain this observation.
(v) Briefly describe how sodium hypochlorite solution can be produced industrially.
(Relative atomic masses : O = 16.0; Na = 23.0; Cl = 35.5) (10 marks)

6. 1997/I/8a
A class of students visited a chemical plant which manufactures chlorine by the electrolysis of brine. Some
of the chlorine produced is used to make chlorine bleach. At the end of the visit, each student was given a
bottle of chlorine bleach as a gift.
(i) Explain, in terms of preferential discharge of ions, how chlorine is produced in the electrochemical
process.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.1 Chlorine and bleach | P.4

(ii) The students found some metal cylinders containing chlorine in the chemical plant. The students
were told that these cylinders would be used in water treatment plants.
(1) Which one of the following hazard warning labels should be displayed on the metal cylinders?

(2) Explain why chlorine is used in water treatment plants.


(iii) Suggest ONE product, apart from chlorine and chlorine bleach, that is likely to be manufactured in
the chemical plant.
(iv) When the students returned to the school, their teacher asked them to carry out an experiment using
the chlorine bleach as illustrated below.

(1) Write the ionic equation for the reaction of dilute hydrochloric acid with the chlorine bleach.
(2) State the observable change that would occur on the filter paper. Explain whether or not the
change would involve a redox reaction. (9 marks)

7. 1998/I/3b
Consider the following substances :
sodium bezonate, sodium chloride, sodium hypochlorite,
sodium hydrogencarbonate, sodium hydroxide,
sodium sulphite and monosodium glutamate
Which substance is commonly used as an active ingredient in toilet disinfectants ? Briefly explain its action.
(3 marks)

8. 2000/I/6bi
(b) In Hong Kong, the supply of fresh water mainly comes from Dong Jiang (!"). After some
preliminary treatment of the river water in the water treatment plants, chlorine and calcium hydroxide
are successively added.
(i) Why are the following substances added to the river water?
(1) chlorine?
(2) calcium hydroxide (2 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.1 Chlorine and bleach | P.5

9. 2002/I/2c
For each of the following experiments, state an expected observation and write a chemical equation for the
reaction involved.
Chlorine gas is bubbled into a sodium bromide solution. (2 marks)

10. 2002/I/7b
Chlorine bleach can be made by reacting chlorine with sodium hydroxide solution.
(i) Write a chemical equation for the reaction.
(ii) The reaction is known to be a redox. State whether chlorine acts as an oxidizing agent, a reducing
agent or both. Explain your answer in terms of the change in oxidation number.
(iii) Apart from being used as a bleach, suggest ONE other use of chlorine. (5 marks)

11. 2004/I/9av2
At 5oC, the reaction of bromine with sodium hydroxide solution is similar to that of chlorine with sodium
hydroxide solution.
Write a chemical equation for the reaction of bromine with sodium hydroxide solution at this temperature.
(2 marks)

12. 2007/I/3
The diagram below shows the set-up used in performing a microscale experiment. A drop of hydrochloric
acid was added to the drop of chlorine bleach in a petri dish and the dish was immediately covered with its
lid. Chlorine gas formed by the reaction between chlorine bleach and hydrochloric acid eventually filled up
the whole set-up.

(a) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between chlorine bleach and hydrochloric acid. (1 mark)
(b) State the expected observation at position C and position D. In each case, write a relevant chemical
equation if a reaction occurred.
(i) Position C
(ii) Position D (3 marks)
(c) Suggest one advantage of replacing test tube experiments with microscale experiments. (1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.1 Chlorine and bleach | P.6

13. 2008/I/6
A student prepares dry chlorine gas by adding dilute hydrochloric acid to chlorine bleach using the
following set-up:

(a) There are two mistakes in the above set-up. Complete the following table.
State the mistake and explain why it is wrong Suggest a method for correction
Mistake 1
Mistake 2
(4 marks)
(b) Suggest a safety precaution in performing the experiment outer than wearing protective gloves and
safety spectacles. (1 mark)
(c) (i) Write an ionic equation for the reaction involved in the preparation of chlorine.
(ii) Explain, in terms of oxidation number, which species involved in the reaction in (i) is an
oxidizing agent. (3 marks)

70
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide | P.1

1. 1990/I/5c
When sulphur dioxide gas reacts with water, the following equilibrium is established :

SO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) ! 2H + (aq) + SO32- (aq) [∆H is negative]

(i) Sulphur dioxide gas is bubbled separately into cold water and hot water until an equilibrium is
established in each case. Compare the acidity of the resulting solutions. Explain your answers.
(ii) Sulphur dioxide gas is a common pollutant found in exhaust fumes from factories, and it can be
removed by using aqueous sodium hydroxide.
(1) Why is sulphur dioxide gas present in the exhaust fumes ?
(2) Give TWO reasons why sulphur dioxide gas should be removed from the exhaust fumes.
(3) Explain, in terms of the concept of chemical equilibrium, why aqueous sodium hydroxide can be
used to remove sulphur dioxide gas from the exhaust fumes. (7 marks)

2. 1991/I/3b
The following flow chart represents two different paths for converting sulphur dioxide into sulphuric acid.

The upper path shows the industrial process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
(i) Name the industrial process.
(ii) (1) Suggest a suitable catalyst in the upper path.
(2) The catalytic effect of the catalyst gradually diminishes after some time. Give a reason for this
and hence suggest how its catalytic effect could be prolonged.
(iii) Instead of dissolving sulphur trioxide directly in water to form sulphuric acid, sulphur trioxide is
absorbed by concentrated sulphuric acid, followed by dilution with water. Give TWO advantages of
this method.
(iv) The sulphuric acid obtained by this industrial process contains 98% by mass of sulphuric acid and
has a density of 1.84 g cm3. Calculate the volume of the acid required for dilution to 500 cm3 of 0.10
M sulphuric acid.
In the laboratory, sulphur dioxide can be converted to sulphuric acid according to the lower path.
(v) Write the equation for the reaction involved.
(vi) Draw a labelled diagram to show how this reaction can be carried out in the laboratory.
(vii) Name a potential hazard associated with this reaction.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0; O = 16.0; S = 32.0) (12 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide | P.2

3. 1992/I/1d
Fixed amount of sulphur dioxide and oxygen are mixed in a container and heated to 750oC. After some time,
the following equilibrium is established :

2SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ! 2SO3 (g) ∆H = -197 kJ mol-1

(i) Suggest one method by which the amount of sulphur trioxide in the above equilibrium can be raised.
Explain your suggestion.
(ii) In applying the above reaction to the industrial preparation of sulphur trioxide, the following two
sets of conditions are proposed :
Reactants Temperature Pressure Catalyst
o
( C) (atm)
Case A SO2 + 1000 100 V2O5
excess air
Case B excess SO2 500 2 Pt
+ air
In each of the above cases, identify TWO conditions which are NOT favourable in industry. Explain
your answer. (6 marks)

4. 1997/I/6b
In a certain country, sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact Process using sulphur as the raw material.
The uses of sulphuric acid in this country are summarized in the following pie-chart.

(i) The stages involved in the Contact Process can be represented by the following equations:
S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g)
2SO2(g) + O2(g) → 2SO3(g)
SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) → H2S2O7(l)
H2S2O7(l) → 2H2SO4(l)
Suppose that the conversion of sulphur to sulphuric acid is 100%.
(1) How many moles of sulphur are required to produce one mole of sulphuric acid?
(2) If the annual production of sulphuric acid in this country is 2.6 x 109 kg, calculate the annual
consumption of sulphur, in kg, in the Contact Process.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide | P.3

(3) Referring to the above equations, explain why the actual annual consumption of sulphur is
greater than the value calculated in (2).
(ii) Suggest ONE other method that can be used to produce sulphur dioxide required for the Contact
Process. Write the chemical equation(s) involved.
(iii) As we enter the twentieth century, global demand for fertilizers is increasing annually.
(1) Name ONE fertilizer which can be made from sulphuric acid.
(2) Explain why global demand for fertilizers is increasing annually.
(iv) Sulphuric acid is also used in the paint industry. Suggest ONE paint additive that can be prepared
from sulphuric acid.
(v) Suggest ONE use of sulphuric acid categorized as 'Others' in the pie chart.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.1) (10 marks)

5. 1998/I/8a
A student added concentrated sulphuric acid dropwise to some sugar cubes as illustrated in the diagram
below:

(i) (1) State the observable changes in the above experiment and write the chemical equation for the
reaction involved.
(2) What property of concentrated sulphuric acid is responsible for the reaction?
(ii) When there was no further change, the student added excess concentrated sulphuric acid to the
reaction mixture. Upon heating, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and water were produced.
(1) Write the chemical equation for the reaction that occurred during heating.
(2) What property of concentrated sulphuric acid is responsible for this reaction?
(3) State ONE safety precaution that should be taken. Explain your answer.
(iii) Draw ONE hazard warning label which should be displayed on a bottle of concentrated sulphuric
acid. (9 marks)

6. 1999/I/9a
In an experiment to prepare sulphur dioxide, a mixture of copper turnings and concentrated sulphuric acid
was heated in a test tube as shown in the diagram below :

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide | P.4

(i) Write a chemical equation for the reaction that occurred in the test tube.
(ii) Decide which of the following set-ups, (I), (II) or (III), should be connected to the delivery tube to
collect the sulphur dioxide produced. Explain your decision.

(iii) (1) State and explain the observation when a piece of wet blue litmus paper is added to a gas jar of
sulphur dioxide.
(2) State the observation when a few drops of bromine water are added to a gas jar of sulphur
dioxide. Write a chemical equation for the reaction that occurs. (8 marks)

7. 2001/I/9c
The diagram below shows the set-up used in an experiment to study the reaction of copper with
concentrated sulphuric acid.

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide | P.5

(i) During the experiment, a black substance was formed on the surface of the copper wire. What is the
black substance ?
(ii) What other changes would be observed in test tube A ? Write the chemical equation for the reaction
that occurred.
(iii) State the observation in test tube B. Explain your answer.
(iv) What is the use of the sodium hydroxide solution in test tube C ? State the potential hazard if sodium
hydroxide solution is not used. (8 marks)

8. 2004/I/7ci
State what would be observed in each of the following experiments and explain your answer.
A beaker containing some concentrated sulphuric acid was left in air for a long period of time. (2 marks)

9. 2006/I/3
(a) A student wrote the following notes about the Contact Process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid
when doing his homework assignment:
1. Treat sodium sulphite with dilute sulphuric acid to produce sulphur dioxide.

2. At 1 atm and room temperature, allow sulphur dioxide to react with oxygen in
air in the presence of vanadium (V) oxide as catalyst to produce sulphur
trioxide.

3. Pass sulphur trioxide in water to obtain concentrated sulphuric acid.


There are THREE mistakes in the above notes. Please correct these mistakes. (3 marks)
(b) Concentrated sulphuric acid can be used as a toilet bowl cleaner. However, many toilet bowl cleaners
contain granular sodium hydrogensulphate (NaHSO4) as the active ingredient instead of concentrated
sulphuric acid.
(i) Write the chemical equation for the formation of sodium hydrogensulphate from sulphuric acid.
(ii) State ONE advantage of using granular sodium hydrogensulphate over using concentrated
sulphuric acid as a toilet bowl cleaner. (2 marks)

10. 2008/I/10
Manufacture of sulphuric acid by the Contact Process involves the following stages:

(a) (i) Suggest a catalyst needed in converting sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide.
(ii) Briefly describe how sulphur trioxide can be converted to concentrated sulphuric acid.
(3 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 6.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide | P.6

(b) Under 1 atm, the percentage of sulphur dioxide converted to sulphur trioxide at different temperatures
is shown in the table below.
Percentage of sulphur dioxide converted / % 98 97 93 86 78 66
o
Temperature / C 400 440 480 520 560 600
(i) Using the graph paper below, plot a curve showing the relationship between the percentage of
sulphur dioxide converted and temperature.

(ii) Explain why the percentage of sulphur dioxide converted to sulphur trioxide can hardly reach
100%.
(iii) The conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide in the Contact Process is usually carried
out at 450oC and 1 atm. With reference to the curve obtained in part (i), calculate the maximum
volume of sulphur trioxide that can be formed from 321 kg of sulphur. (You may assume that
all the sulphur can be converted to sulphur dioxide. Molar volume of gas at 450oC and 1 atm =
58.2 dm3) (6 marks)

76
HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 7.1 Fossil fuels and carbon compounds | P.1

1. 1990/I/3a
Hong Kong imports naphtha (mainly C5H12), from which town gas is produced.
(i) What is the raw material from which naphtha is obtained?
How is naphtha obtained from this raw material?
(ii) Town gas is produced by reacting naphtha with steam. Write an equation for this reaction. Name
two major components in town gas.
(iii) What is observed when town gas is passed through a sample of citrated blood? Explain your
answer.
(iv) What is observed when town gas is passed over heated copper(II) oxide in a combustion tube?
Explain your answer and write appropriate equations.
(v) State TWO potential hazard associated with the use of town gas.
(vi) If you suspect there is a leakage of town gas in your home, explain why
(1) you should open all the window at once.
(2) you should NOT use your telephone to call for help. (13 marks)

2. 1991/I/3a
Petroleum, often referred to as a 'fossil' fuel, can be separated into various fractions by fractional distillation.
The following table shows the annual production and consumption of petroleum fractions in a certain
country.
Petroleum fraction Annual production Annual consumption
(in million tonnes) (in million tonnes)
Petrol 10 25
Naphtha 5 5
Kerosene 20 20
Diesel oil 15 35
Heavy oil 40 5
Liquefied petroleum gas 6 4
(i) Why is petroleum referred to as a 'fossil' fuel ?
(ii) Why can the various petroleum fractions be obtained from petroleum by fractional distillation ?
(iii) According to the above table, some fractions are produced in excess while some others are not
sufficient to meet the annual consumption requirements.
(1) Identify a fraction that is produced in excess and can be converted into those which are not
sufficient.
(2) Suggest a chemical method for the above conversion.

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(iv) A sample of liquefied petroleum gas is known to contain propene and propane.
(1) Draw the structural formula of
(I) propene, and
(II) propane.
(2) (I) Write the equation for the complete combustion of propane in air.
(II) Explain whether the combustion of propene or propane would produce a more sooty flame.
(3) How would you show that propane consists of
(I) carbon, and
(II) hydrogen ?
(4) Apart from combustion, describe another chemical test to distinguish propene from propane.
(13 marks)

3. 1992/I/1c
In motor car engines, petrol is mixed with air and burnt to produce power.
(i) Using C8H18 to represent petrol, write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of petrol.
Explain why this reaction can produce power.
(ii) What would happen if the supply of air is insufficient for the combustion of petrol in the car engine ?
(iii) Leaded petrol has been used for a long time in Hong Kong. In April 1991, unleaded petrol was
introduced.
(1) (I) What is leaded petrol ?
(II) Why is petrol leaded ?
(2) Explain why unleaded petrol has been introduced to Hong Kong.
(3) With reference to its chemical nature, explain why unleaded petrol can function almost as
efficiently as leaded petrol. (9 marks)

4. 1993/I/1c
Alkenes can be obtained from petroleum fractions by a process called 'cracking’. Using a suitable
petroleum fraction, a student carried out this process in the laboratory and collected the gaseous product
over water.
(i) What is 'cracking’ ?
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram of a laboratory set-up that can be used for carrying out the process and
collecting the gaseous product.
(iii) An important safety precaution in the experiment is to prevent sucking back.
(1) What is the potential hazard if sucking back occurs ?
(2) How can sucking back be prevented ?
(iv) If the gaseous product decolorizes a solution of bromine in tetrachloromethane, can you conclude
that the gaseous product in ethene ? Explain your answer. (8 marks)

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5. 1993/I/1d
Chemical reactions play important roles in our daily life. Some are beneficial to us while others are not.
In the case of a motor car, chemical reactions occur both when it is in motion and at rest. With reference to
these reactions, answer the following questions :
(i) State ONE reaction that is beneficial. Explain your answer.
(ii) (1) State ONE reaction that is not beneficial. Explain your answer.
(2) How can the undesirable effect of this reaction be minimized ? (5 marks)

6. 1993/I/3b
In school laboratories, chemical wastes such as concentrated hydrochloric acid, methylbenzene and
tetrachloromethane produced during practical work are to be stored in containers and then sent to a chemical
waste treatment plant for disposal.
(i) Explain why chemical wastes should not be poured down the sink in the laboratory.
(ii) Explain why chemical wastes such as concentrated hydrochloric acid should be stored in containers
made of plastics instead of metals.
(iii) When chemical wastes such as methylbenzene and tetrachloromethane are burnt in the incinerator in
the plant, several pollutants including sulphur dioxide are produced.
(1) Explain why sulphur dioxide is emitted from the incinerator.
(2) Name TWO pollutants other than sulphur dioxide which are emitted from the incinerator and
state ONE harmful effect for each pollutant. (5 marks)

7. 1995/I/8a
The fumes emitted from a factory using diesel fuel contain several gaseous pollutants. One of these
pollutants, Z, has a choking smell and can decolourize bromine water.
(i) (1) What is Z ?
(2) What is the effect of Z on the environment ?
(3) Suggest ONE way to reduce the amount of Z in the fumes.
(ii) (1) Suggest ONE other pollutant that is present in the fumes.
(2) Explain how this pollutant is formed.
(3) What is the effect of this pollutant on the environment ?
(4) Suggest ONE way to reduce the amount of this pollutant in the fumes.
(iii) If a fire is caused by the burning of diesel fuel, what type of fire extinguisher should not be used to
put out the fire ? (Out of syll.) (8 marks)

8. 1996/I/3
'Fossil fuels' such as petroleum and coal constitute the world's major source of energy. However, many
countries have been developing alternative energy sources.
(a) Why are petroleum and coal called 'fossil fuels'?
(b) Give TWO reasons why it is necessary to develop alternative energy sources.

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(c) Nuclear power is used as an alternative to fossil fuels in many countries. Suggest ONE advantage
and ONE disadvantage of using nuclear power.
(d) Suggest ONE energy sources, other than nuclear power, that can be used as an alternative to fossil
fuels. (6 marks)

9. 1997/I/9a
The photograph below shows a gas burner with a can of fuel. The can contains 250 g of liquefied butane.

(i) Write the structural formula of butane.


(ii) (1) Write the chemical equation for the complete combustion of butane.
(2) Suggest a chemical test for EACH of the products formed when butane is completely burnt in
air.
(3) Calculate the volume of the gaseous product formed, measured at room temperature and
pressure, if all the butane contained in the can is completely burnt in air.
(iii) Explain why it is dangerous to use such gas burners in a poorly-ventilated room.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0;
molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (9 marks)

10. 1998/I/2a,b
For each of the following experiments, state the expected observation and write a relevant chemical
equation.
(a) Ethene is passed into an acidified potassium permanganate solution.
(b) A mixture of butane and bromine vapour is exposed to diffused sunlight. (4 marks)

11. 1999/I/3
The illustration below shows the exhaust from a motor car using unleaded petrol :

(a) Explain why the exhaust contains carbon monoxide.

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(b) (1) Write TWO chemical equations for the formation of acid rain from nitrogen oxides.
(2) State ONE undesirable effect of acid rain.
(c) State ONE health hazard associated with particulates.
(d) Suggest ONE other pollutant that may be found in the exhaust.
(e) Suggest a device that can be installed in the motor car to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide and
nitrogen oxides. (7 marks)

12. 2000/I/6bii,ci
Chlorine can react with organic matter present in the river water to give trichloromethane which is harmful
to human beings.
(b) (ii) (1) Draw the structure of trichloromethane.
(2) Why is trichloromethane harmful to human beings ?
(3) Suggest ONE preventive measure to reduce the amount of organic matter in the river
water. (5 marks)
(c) (i) Explain the following statements :
In cold weather, a person trying to warm up a room with a coal fire soon gets dizzy. (2 marks)

13. 2000/I/8a
Crude oil is a mixture consisting mainly of alkanes. Fractional distillation of crude oil gives different
petroleum fractions. The table below lists the length of carbon chain of the alkanes in some of the
fractions.
Fraction Length of carbon chain
petrol/naphtha C5 – C10
kerosene C11 – C18
diesel C18 – C25
X C20 – C34

(i) Describe the principle underlying the fractional distillation of crude oil.
(ii) (1) Explain why the global demand for petrol is greater than that for kerosene.
(2) Cracking kerosene can produce petrol. State the conditions required for the cracking process.
(iii) In Hong Kong, naphtha instead of coal is used to manufacture town gas.
(1) State ONE advantage of using naphtha instead of coal to manufacture town gas.
(You are NOT required to consider the price of the materials)
(2) Explain why an additive with a foul smell is added to town gas before it is delivered to the
consumers.
(iv) Give ONE use of fraction X in cars. (9 marks)

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14. 2000/I/9b
Carbon dioxide constitutes about 0.03% of the atmosphere. Over millions of years, the concentration of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has remained almost constant because of a number of processes.
(i) Suggest ONE process by which carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere.
(ii) Suggest ONE process by which carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is consumed.
(iii) Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
(1) Explain why carbon dioxide can cause the greenhouse effect.
(2) State the importance of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to living things on earth.
(3) Increasing the concentration of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leads to global warming.
State ONE harmful effect of global warming. (6 marks)

15. 2001/I/1a
The photograph below shows a burning candle:

The candle wax is a petroleum product. What type of compounds is mainly present in the wax? (1 mark)

16. 2001/I/7b
For environmental reasons, the Hong Kong Government has launched a plan for taxis to switch from using
diesel to using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
(i) Both LPG and diesel are petroleum products. State the origin of petroleum.
(ii) With reference to their chemical constituents, explain why LPG is a cleaner fuel than diesel.
(iii) State ONE problem that may occur in the initial stage in launching this plan. (5 marks)

17. 2002/I/8a
Sulphur dioxide is formed when coal is burnt in a power station.
(i) The coal used in the power station contains 1.5% of sulphur by mass. Calculate the volume of
sulphur dioxide released, measured at room temperature and pressure, when 1.0 kg of the coal is
burnt. (You may assume that all the sulphur in coal is converted to sulphur dioxide upon burning.)
(ii) State ONE environmental problem associated with the emission of sulphur dioxide into the
atmosphere.
(iii) Suggest ONE measure to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide from the power station.

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(iv) Particulates are also present in the flue gas generated in the power station.
(1) State ONE environmental problem associated with the discharge of particulates into the
atmosphere.
(2) Suggest ONE way to remove particulates from the flue gas.
(Relative atomic masses : O = 16.0, S = 32.0;
molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24 dm3) (7 marks)

18. 2003/I/7b
Cracking is an important process in petrochemical industry.
(i) What is the meaning of the term 'cracking' ?
(ii) Account for the importance of cracking in petrochemical industry.
(iii) Octane (C8H18) is used in an experiment to study cracking in a school laboratory. Cracking of octane
gives a mixture of products, some of which are gases.
Draw a labelled diagram for the set-up used in the experiment, including the collection of the
gaseous products.
(iv) One of the reactions involved in the cracking of octane give two hydrocarbons, each containing the
same number of carbon atoms.
(1) Write the chemical equation for this reaction.
(2) Suggest a chemical test to distinguish the two hydrocarbons from each other. (9 marks)

19. 2003/I/9c
Organic wastes can be used as an alternative energy source. Under suitable conditions, the wastes can be
digested by bacteria to give a gaseous mixtue containing a high proportion of methane. Methane can be used
as a fuel.
(i) Suggest ONE organic waste that can be used for this purpose.
(ii) Write the chemical equation for the complete combustion of methane.
(iii) Suggest ONE advantage of using organic wastes as an alternative energy source.
(iv) Suggest ONE reason why organic wastes are not yet widely used as an energy source. (4 marks)

20. 2005/I/5
Both pentane (C5H12) and octane (C8H18) are members of the same homologous series.
(a) Using pentane and octane as examples, illustrate TWO characteristics of the members of a homologous
series. (4 marks)
(b) Which compound, pentane or octane, will burn with a more sooty flame ? Explain your answer.
(2 marks)
(c) Draw TWO structures which have the same molecular formula C5H12. (2 marks)

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21. 2006/I/1b
A student suggested using the set-up shown below to separate hex-1-ene from a mixture of hex-1-ene and
hexane.
(At atmospheric pressure, the boiling points of hex-1-ene and hexane are 64oC and 69oC respectively.)

(i) Explain why it is dangerous to use the above set-up to carry out the experiment. Suggest a
modification to the set-up so that the experiment can be carried out safely.
(ii) After the set-up has been modified as suggested in (i), can it be used to separate hex-1-ene from
hexane effectively ? Explain your answer.
(iii) Suggest a chemical test to distinguish hex-1-ene from hexane. (5 marks)

22. 2006/I/6
Carbon dioxide and methane are two major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The table below shows the
average concentrations of the two gases in the atmosphere in 1900 and in 2000.
Gas Average concentration in the atmosphere (arbitrary units)
Year 1900 Year 2000
carbon dioxide 300 000 400 000
methane 1 000 2 000
(a) Suggest TWO reasons why there was a large increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere in the past ten decades. (2 marks)
(b) Suggest ONE reason why there was a large increase in concentration of methane in the atmosphere in
the past ten decades. (1 mark)
(c) The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is important to life on Earth. However, too much
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can cause global warming, which may lead to severe
environmental consequences.
(i) State the importance of greenhouse gases to life on Earth.
(ii) State ONE severe environmental consequence associated with global warming.

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(iii) Suggest ONE possible way to prevent further increase in the concentration of each of the
following greenhouse gases in the atmosphere without sacrificing our present standard of
living:
(I) carbon dioxide
(II) methane (4 marks)

23. 2007/I/2
A student performed an experiment to crack paraffin oil an collect the gaseous products by using a boiling
tube.
(a) Draw a labelled diagram to show how this experiment can be performed in the laboratory. (3 marks)
(b) (i) The student added a few drops of bromine water into the boiling tube containing the gaseous
products. The brown colour of bromine water disappeared immediately. Why?
(ii) The student then dropped more bromine water into the boiling tube until the brown colour of the
bromine water persisted. After about 10 minutes, the brown colour disappeared. Why?
(4 marks)

24. 2007/I/12
Organic compound Z contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only. Analysis of Z gives the following results:
(I) 1.0 g of Z contains 0.401 g of carbon, 0.068 g of hydrogen and 0.531 g of oxygen.
(II) 1.0 g of Z, upon complete vaporization, occupies 400 cm3 at room temperature and pressure.
(III) There are no observable changes when potassium carbonate solution is added to Z.
(IV) Brown colour of bromine remains unchanged when several drops of bromine in organic solvent are
added to Z.
(Molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24 dm3)
(a) Calculate the empirical formula of Z. (2 marks)
(b) Deduce the molecular formula of Z. (2 marks)
(c) (i) Suggest a possible structure of Z. Explain your answer.
(ii) Give the systematic name for the compound represented by the structure you suggested in (i).
(4 marks)
25. 2008/I/7
Crude oil can be separated into different products such as petrol, diesel oil and fuel oil by a process called
'A'. The fuel oil obtained can then be converted into smaller molecules by another process called 'B'.
(a) Name process A and process B.
A:
B: (2 marks)
(b) (i) Explain whether petrol or diesel oil has a higher viscosity.
(ii) Explain whether petrol or diesel oil is a cleaner fuel. (2 marks)

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(c) (i) Suggest one importance of process B in industry.


(ii) One of the compounds in fuel oil is C28H58, which can be converted into smaller molecules as
shown in the following equation.
C28 H58 → C20 H 42 +2D
(1) Suggest a possible structure of D, and state its systematic name.
(2) Suggest a chemical test to distinguish D from C20H42, and state the expected observation.
(5 marks)

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1. 1990/I/1ai,ii,iii
The table below describes some reactions of liquid propan-1-ol :
EXPERIMENT RESULT
1. Propan-1-ol is heated with Substance X is formed. X
acidified potassium produces effervescence with
permanganate solution. sodium carbonate solution.
2. A mixture of propan-1-ol A sweet smelling liquid Y is
and substance X is heated formed.
with concentrated
sulphuric acid.
3. Propan-1-ol is heated and Gas Z is produced.
the vapour passed over
heated broken porcelain.
(i) Name X.
Write an ionic equation for the reaction of X with sodium carbonate solution.
(ii) Write an equation for the formation of Y.
Suggest TWO functions of the concentrated sulphuric acid in experiment 2.
(iii) Draw a diagram to indicate how experiment 3 can be carried out in the laboratory, and how gas Z
should be collected. (8 marks)

2. 1990/I/3b
The formula of a week alkanoic acid can be represented by
CnH2n+1CO2H (where n is an integer).
A sample of the alkanoic acid weighing 0.355 g was dissolved in about 20 cm3 of water in a conical flask.
The solution was then titrated against a 0.180 M sodium hydroxide solution. A total of 22.40 cm3 of the
alkali was required for complete neutralization.
(i) Explain the meaning of the term ‘weak acid’.
(ii) Describe how the end-point in this titration can be determined.
(iii) Calculate (1) the number of moles of sodium hydroxide used for the titration.
(2) the relative molecular mass of the alkanoic acid.
(iv) (1) Deduce the molecular formula of the alkanoic acid.
(2) Draw TWO molecular structures for the alkanoic acid.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0.) (12 marks)

3. 1992/I/3a
Fermentation of cooked rice produces an alcoholic drink which contains about 8% of ethanol.
(i) Describe briefly how such fermentation can be carried out in the laboratory.
(ii) How can the alcoholic drink be concentrated so as to raise its ethanol content to about 30% ?
(iii) Some alcoholic drinks become sour when exposed to air for some time. Suggest a reason for this.

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(iv) State one health hazard and one social problem associated with the excessive taking of alcoholic
drinks. (8 marks)

4. 1994/I/6b
The following paragraph was taken from a student's laboratory report :
'A mixture of ethanol, ethanoic acid and several drops of concentrated sulphuric acid was heated
under reflux for some time. The resulting mixture was then cooled and poured into a beaker
containing some saturated sodium chloride solution.’
(i) Draw a labelled diagram of the experimental set-up used for heating the mixture under reflux.
(ii) Why is it necessary
(1) to use concentrated sulphuric acid in the above experiment ?
(2) to heat the mixture under reflux ?
(iii) What would be observed when the resulting mixture was poured into the saturated sodium chloride
solution? (7 marks)

5. 1995/I/7b
The following flow diagram shows the conversion of a compound X to an acid Y.

X can rapidly decolourize a solution of bromine in 1,1,1-trichloroethane.


(i) What is X ? Name the industrial process by which X is converted to ethanol.
(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between X and bromine.
(iii) (1) Give the systematic name of Y.
(2) Draw a labelled diagram of the laboratory set-up for the conversion of ethanol to Y.
(iv) Ethanol can be detected in the breath of a drunken driver. Suggest ONE chemical test to show the
presence of ethanol in his breath and state the observable change produced by the test. (9 marks)

6. 1996/I/2
The relative molecular mass of an alkanol X is 60.0. X contains 60% of carbon by mass.
(a) Calculate the number of moles of carbon in one mole of X and hence deduce the molecular formula of
X.
(b) Draw ONE possible structure of X and give its systematic name.
(Relative atomic mass : C = 12.0) (5 marks)

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7. 1998/I/9a
A student used the following set-up to prepare propanoic acid:

(i) Name apparatus X.


(ii) Explain why some pumice stones were added to the reaction mixture before heating.
(iii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction involved.
(iv) Suggest a method to obtain propanoic acid from a reaction mixture.
The student used to propanoic acid obtained to carry out the following experiment:

(v) Why is a water bath, instead of a naked flame, used for heating the test tube and its contents?
(vi) (1) State TWO observable changes when the contents of the test tube were added to the sodium
carbonate solution.
(2) Give the systematic name of the carbon compound formed in the experiment. (8 marks)

8. 1999/I/6b
(i) A teacher prepared an ethanol solution by fermentation of glucose using the following set-up.

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(1) Suggest what X may be.


(2) Explain why the lime water turned milky during the fermentation process.
(3) Write the chemical equation for the fermentation of glucose.
(ii) The teacher used the ethanol solution obtained in (i) to carry out the following experiment on a
redox reaction :

(1) State the observable change in the test tube.


(2) Explain, in terms of oxidation number, whether potassium dichromate was oxidized or reduced.
(3) Give the structural formula of the product formed from ethanol in the reaction.
(iii) Suggest ONE reason for each of the following statements :
(1) Drinking a small quantity of wine may be good for health.
(2) Excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages may cause health problems. (10 marks)

9. 2000/I/8b
In some countries, 'gasohol' (a mixture of petrol and ethanol) is used as fuel for cars.
(i) Explain why burning gasohol causes less air pollution than burning petrol.
(ii) Ethanol can be manufactured from a petroleum product. Name the manufacturing process and write
the chemical equation for the reaction involved.
(iii) Ethanol can also be manufactured by another process. Name this process.
(iv) Of the two processes you have mentioned in (ii) and (iii), which one is better for the manufacture of
ethanol in gasohol ? Explain your answer. (5 marks)

10. 2001/I/3c
A can of fizzy drink includes the following ingredients :
carbonated water, sucrose, vitamin C, butyl butanoate, citric acid
(c) (i) Why is butyl butanoate used in the drink ?
(ii) Suggest how butyl butanoate can be prepared in the laboratory. (3 marks)

11. 2002/I/3c
Consider the substances listed below:
ammonia, manganese(IV) oxide, potassium hydroxide,
sodium benzoate, sodium dichromate, sodium nitrite

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(c) Which substance is used in breathalysers to detect the presence of ethanol in the breath of suspected
drunk drivers ? State the expected observation in the breathalyser if a positive result is obtained.
(2 marks)

12. 2002/I/6c
Ethyl ethanoate is an ester. It can be prepared by heating a mixture of ethanoic acid and ethanol under reflux
in the presence of a catalyst.
(i) What is the catalyst used in the preparation ?
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up used for heating the mixture under reflux.
(iii) Ethyl ethanoate is commonly used as a solvent. Explain why ethyl ethanoate can dissolve iodine but
cannot dissolve sodium iodide.
(iv) Which ONE of following hazard warning labels should be displayed on a bottle of ethyl ethanoate ?

(v) Draw the structure of another ester which has the same molecular formula as ethyl ethanoate, and
give its systematic name. (9 marks)

13. 2003/I/8a
A mixture of grapes, water an substance X is used to produce wine in the set-up shown below:

(i) The wine contains ethanol.


(1) State ONE substance in grapes that can be converted to ethanol. Write the chemical equation
for the reaction involved.
(2) Suggest what X may be. State its function in the production of ethanol.
(ii) State TWO functions of device Y.
(iii) (1) Explain why the concentration of ethanol in the wine cannot exceed a certain level (about 18%
by volume).
(2) Suggest a means to increase the concentration of ethanol in the wine to a level higher than 18%
by volume.
(iv) Explain why a glass of wine turns sour upon standing in air. (9 marks)

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14. 2004/I/3
(a) Suggest how iodine tincture can be prepared in a school laboratory.
(b) A student spilt some iodine tincture on his laboratory coat. His classmate suggested the following two
methods to remove the iodine stain from the laboratory coat:
(1) treating the stain with sodium sulphite solution
(2) treating the stain with 1,1,1-trichloroethane
State the principle underlying each method. Describe and explain which method is better. (5 marks)

15. 2004/I/8c
A policeman suspected a car driver to have drunk an excessive amount of alcoholic drinks, and used a
dichromate breathalyser to conduct a test on the driver's breath. The result was positive.
(i) State the principle underlying the test of ethanol using a dichromate breathalyser.
(ii) The driver claimed that he had just rinsed his mouth using ethanol-containing mouthwash. Without
using other instruments, suggest how the policeman could check whether the driver's claim was valid
or not. Explain your answer. (4 marks)

16. 2004/I/9b
An ester can be prepared by heating an alkanol with an alkanoic acid under reflux in the presence of
concentrated sulphuric acid.
(i) Draw a labelled diagram to show the set-up used in heating the reaction mixture under reflux.
(ii) Suggest ONE reason why it is necessary to heat the mixture under reflux. (3 marks)

17. 2005/I/11
Vegetable oils are esters formed from carboxylic acids with long carbon chains. Although vegetable oils
have high calorific values comparable to diesel, they are not used directly as fuel in cars. One of the reasons
is due to their high viscosity. By heating with methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide solution,
vegetable oils can be converted to less viscous esters, methyl carboxylates. These methyl carboxylates can
be used to substitute diesel as fuel in cars.
(a) The equation below shows the conversion of vegetable oil X to methyl carboxylate Y and alcohol Z:

(i) Draw the structure of (((Z))).


(ii) Suggest why (((Y))) is less viscous than (((X)))).

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(iii)Sodium hydroxide solution acts as a catalyst in this conversion. What is the meaning of the
term 'catalyst' ?
(iv) Y and Z are immiscible liquids. Suggest a method to separate Y and Z from their mixture.
(5 marks)
(b) The term 'biodiesel' refers to the methyl carboxylates obtained from vegetable oils. Suggest TWO
reasons why biodiesel is considered a more environmentally-friendly fuel than diesel. (2 marks)

18. 2006/I/2
X, Y and Z are organic compounds. The flow diagram below shows the conversion of X to Z.

(a) Z has a pleasant smell and its molecular formula is C4H8O2. Draw the structure of Z. (1 mark)
(b) To which homologous series does Y belong ? (1 mark)
(c) Give the systematic name of X. (1 mark)
(d) State the expected observation when X reacts with acidified potassium dichromate solution.
(1 mark)
(e) State the function of concentrated sulphuric acid in the reaction of Y with methanol. (1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 8.1 Plastics | P.1

1. 1990/I/1aiv
EXPERIMENT RESULT
1. Propan-1-ol is heated with Substance X is formed. X
acidified potassium produces effervescence with
permanganate solution. sodium carbonate solution.
2. A mixture of propan-1-ol A sweet smelling liquid Y is
and substance X is heated formed.
with concentrated
sulphuric acid.
3. Propan-1-ol is heated and Gas Z is produced.
the vapour passed over
heated broken porcelain.
Z can undergo addition polymerization to form a polymer.
(1) Name the polymer and draw the repeating unit.
(2) State one household article that can be made from the polymer.
Briefly describe how this article can be manufactured. (5 marks)

2. 1991/I/2b
The following diagrams show three plastic items. The universal adaptor is made of thermosetting plastic
while the other two are made of thermoplastics.

(i) Explain why thermoplastics are not suitable for making universal adaptors.
(ii) The foam lunch box is made from plastic containing a trapped gas. Name the plastic that is
commonly used and state the purpose of trapping a gas within the plastic.
(iii) (1) Name a plastic that is commonly used to make food wrap, and write an equation to show the
formation of the plastic from its monomer.
(2) State the moulding method used to make food wrap. (6 marks)

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3. 1992/I/4a
(i) The structure of polymer X can be represented by the following diagram :

where represent a group containing carbon and hydrogen atoms only.


(1) Draw the structure of the monomer of X.
(2) Name an example of a polymer with the structure of X.
(3) Two separate pieces of X are strongly heated as shown in diagrams A and B below :

What would be observed in each case ? Explain your answer.


(ii) Upon analysis, 5.00 g of the monomer of X are found to contain 4.62 g carbon. If the relative
molecular mass of the monomer is 104, deduce its molecular formula.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0; C = 12.0) (9 marks)

4. 1994/I/3
The following diagrams show some items made of synthetic polymers.

(a) Which of the above items is most likely to be made of thermosetting plastics ? Explain your answer.
(b) Name one synthetic polymer which is suitable for making the plastic bag.
(c) Suggest a suitable moulding method used in making the electric switch.
(d) Terylene, a polyester fibre used for making the shirt is synthesized from ethane-1,2-diol,
HOCH2CH2OH and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, HOOCC6H4COOH.
(i) Name the type of polymerization involved in the synthesis of terylene.
(ii) Write a repeating unit of terylene. (6 marks)

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5. 1995/I/2b
In each of the following groups of substances, there is ONE substance which is different from the others in
terms of their properties. In each group, identify the substance which is different from the others and explain
your choice.
nylon, perspex, polyethene, urea-methanal (2 marks)

6. 1995/I/6aiv
(1) Explain why plastic is used for making the bottle for the toilet cleaner.
(2) Name ONE plastic material suitable for making the bottle for the toilet cleaner. (2 marks)

7. 1996/I/7b
The flow diagram below shows the three key stages involved in the production of polypropene bottles from
crude oil.

(i) What is the process involved in obtaining heavy oil from crude oil in Stage I ?
(ii) (1) Draw the structure of monomer A.
(2) What are the TWO main processes involved in the production of monomer A from heavy oil in
Stage II?
(iii) What are the TWO main processes involved in the production of polypropene bottles from monomer
A in Stage III?
(iv) Suggest ONE reason why the disposal of polypropene wastes can cause pollution problems.
(v) Polypropene wastes can be recycled by melting and remoulding.
(1) What preliminary treatment of the polypropene wastes is required before recycling?
(2) Name ONE plastic which cannot be recycled by melting and remoulding. (9 marks)

8. 1997/I/1c
For the task listed in the table below, decide which substance on the right is the best to use to accomplish the
task. Explain your answer in each case.
Task Substances
(c) To make feeding Polyethene,
bottles for babies Polystyrene,
Urea-methanal
(3 marks)

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9. 1997/I/7bi,ii
The structures of five compounds, I, II, III, IV and V, are shown below:

In the above structures, represents a saturated hydrocarbon chain containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and
represents a saturated hydrocarbon chain containing 12 to 20 carbon atoms.
(i) Which compound can be used to make an addition polymer? Write a chemical equation to
represent the addition polymerization.
(ii) Which TWO compounds can be used to make a condensation polymer? Draw the repeating unit of
the polymer formed. (4 marks)

10. 1998/I/7b
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a plastic which has a wide range of uses.
(i) Write the chemical equation for the formation of PVC from its monomers.
(ii) Plastic products made of PVC may vary greatly in rigidity.
(1) Give ONE flexible product made of PVC.
(2) Give ONE rigid product made of PVC.
(3) Explain whether PVC is suitable for making electric sockets or not.
(iii) Incineration of PVC wastes produces hydrogen chloride which causes air pollution.
(1) State ONE harmful effect of the discharge of hydrogen chloride into the atmosphere.
(2) Suggest how hydrogen chloride can be removed from incinerator flue gas prior to its discharge
to the atmosphere.
(3) Suppose that all the chlorine in PVC is converted to hydrogen chloride upon incineration.
Calculate the volume of hydrogen chloride produced, measured at room temperature and
pressure, when a plastic waste containing 1000 kg of PVC is incinerated.
(You may assume that no other chlorine-containing compounds are present in the waste.)
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, Cl = 35.5;
molar volume of gas at room temperature and pressure = 24.0 dm3) (9 marks)

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11. 1999/I/1
Each of the tasks listed in the table below can be accomplished by using material A or B.
Task Materials
A B
(a) To make water pipes polyvinyl chloride iron
(b) To make lenses perspex glass
(c) To make shopping bags polyethene paper

In each case, state an advantage of


(i) using A over B to accomplish the task.
(ii) using B over A to accomplish the task.
(You are not required to consider the price of the materials.) (6 marks)

12. 1999/I/9b
Cracking of naphtha gives alkane X (relative molecular mass 44), alkene Y (relative molecular mass 42) and
other products.
(i) What is the meaning of the term ‘cracking’ ?
(ii) Suggest a chemical test to distinguish between X and Y .
(iii) Deduce the molecular formula of Y.
(iv) Y can be used as a starting material for the production of plastic Z.
(1) Write the chemical equation for the formation of Z from Y.
(2) Suggest how plastic cups can be made from Z.
(v) Suggest an advantage and a disadvantage of using plastic wastes as an energy source.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, C = 12.0) (10 marks)

13. 2000/I/7b
Polystyrene can be prepared in the laboratory by heating a mixture of styrene and kerosene under reflux.
(i) Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up used for heating the mixture under reflux.
(ii) Suggest ONE safety precaution that should be taken when heating the mixture. Explain your answer.
(iii) Styrene has the following structure:
C6H5CH=CH2
(1) What characteristic in the structure of styrene enables it to act as a monomer?
(2) Write the chemical equation for the polymerization.
(iv) Disposable lunch boxes are commonly made of expanded polystyrene.
(1) Suggest ONE reason why polystyrene should be expanded before it is used to make disposable
lunch boxes.
(2) State whether you agree with the following statement. Explain your answer.
‘Landfilling is better than incineration for the disposal of polystyrene wastes.’ (8 marks)

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14. 2001/I/7a
Polyethene is used in making shopping bags and its monomer is ethene.
(i) Draw the electronic diagram of ethene, showing electrons in the outermost shells only.
(ii) Name the type of polymerization involved in the production of polyethene.
(iii) State ONE property of polyethene that makes it suitable for making shopping bags.
(iv) (1) Suggest ONE way to dispose of polyethene wastes.
(2) Give ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of the way you have suggested in (1).
(6 marks)
15. 2002/I/8c
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a polymer which is commonly used in making plastic bottles for fizzy
drinks. PET has the following repeating unit :

(i) PET is formed by condensation polymerization. What is meant by the term ‘condensation
polymerization’ ?
(ii) PET is a polyester formed from two monomers. Draw the structures of the monomers. (3 marks)

16. 2004/I/6c
Pyrolysis is one of the methods commonly used for treating plastic wastes. During pyrolysis, plastic wastes
are decomposed at high temperature in the absence of air to give a mixture of products, including methane
and ethene.
(i) Explain why it is necessary to carry out the pyrolysis in the absence of air.
(ii) Suggest a method that can be used to separate methane from other pyrolysed products.
(iii) Give ONE major use of methane and ONE major use of ethene in industry.
(iv) (1) Suggest another method which is commonly used for treating plastic wastes.
(2) For each of the two methods, pyrolysis and the method you have suggested in (1) above, state
ONE advantage. (7 marks)

17. 2004/I/7cii
State what would be observed in each of the following experiments and explain your answer.
A few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid were added to an aqueous solution of methanal saturated with
urea. (3 marks)

18. 2005/I/6a,b,c
(a) Polystyrene is a plastic with a wide range of uses. It has the following structure:

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(i) Draw the structure of styrene, the monomer of polystyrene.


(ii) Suggest why polystyrene does NOT have a constant relative molecular mass. (2 marks)
(b) Polystyrene can be prepared from styrene using the set-up shown below:

(i) Name apparatus A.


(ii) Suggest, with explanation, a safety precaution that should be taken in the preparation.
(iii) Name the type of polymerization involved in the formation of polystyrene from its monomer.
(4 marks)
19. 2006/I/11
Plastics can be classified into thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics according to their thermal
properties.
(a) Explain, in terms of bonding and structure, why thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics behave
differently upon heating. (3 marks)
(b) Polyethene (PE) is a thermoplastic commonly used in making shopping bags. Such bags are durable.
(i) Write the chemical equation for the formation of PE from its monomer.
(ii) Explain, in terms of bonding, why objects made of PE are durable. (2 marks)
(c) Some scientists suggested using polylactic acid (PLA) instead of PE to make shopping bags as this can
help reduce environmental problems. PLA is a polyester made from lactic acid, which has the
following structure:

(i) Identify the functional groups in lactic acid.


(ii) Write the repeating unit of PLA.
(iii) Explain, in chemical terms, why the disposal of PLA poses less harm to the environment than
that of PE. (4 marks)

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20. 2008/I/8
The active ingredient of a superglue has the following structure:

Superglue can join objects together quickly through the polymerisation of the active ingredient in the
presence of water vapour.
(a) Name the type of polymerisation that the active ingredient undergoes. (1 mark)
(b) Write a chemical equation for the polymerisation involved. (1 mark)
(c) Assuming that the active ingredient comes from esterification of two compounds, write the structural
formulae of these two compounds. (2 marks)
(d) In addition to putting back the cap for the superglue that remains after use, what storage method could
help extendd the lifetime of the superglue ? (1 mark)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 8.2 Detergents | P.1

1. 1990/I/5b
A student heated a mixture of aqueous sodium hydroxide and ethyl ethanoate for some time using the
following set-up :

(i) (1) Name the type of reaction that took place. Write an appropriate equation for the reaction.
(2) What would be observed when the reaction was complete ?
(3) Give an industrial application of this type of reaction.
(ii) What is the function of the 'cold finger' ?
(iii) State a potential hazard in the set-up shown above.
(iv) The quantity of the products obtained in this experiment was much less than that expected.
(1) Give an explanation for this.
(2) Draw a labelled diagram of a completely different set-up to illustrate how the quantity of the
products can be increased by using the same quantities of reactants. (9 marks)

2. 1991/I/1b
A vegetable oil, X, can undergo reversible hydrolysis in the presence of sulphuric acid as given by the
following equation :

(i) Write the structural formula of X.


(ii) What is the function of sulphuric acid in this reaction ?
X can be hydrolysed more effectively by using sodium hydroxide solution instead of sulphuric acid,
and the products are propane-1,2,3-triol and Y.
(iii) Name this process.
(iv) Write the structural formula of Y.
(v) Using the concept of chemical equilibrium, explain why the use of sodium hydroxide solution is
more effective.
When a solution of Y is slowly added, with stirring, to a mixture of peanut oil and water, a milky solution is
obtained.

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(vi) Based on the structural formula of Y, explain why a milky solution is formed.
(vii) Name the process leading to the formation of the milky solution and suggest one domestic
application of this process. (12 marks)

3. 1993/I/1e
(i) The structure of a typical anionic detergent can be represented by :

where represents a hydrocarbon tail

and represents an anionic part attached to the hydrocarbon tail.


(1) Using the above represented, draw a diagram to show how the detergent can suspend an oil
droplet in water.
(2) A table cloth stained with oil can be cleaned using the detergent in water. Explain the cleaning
action with reference to your diagram in (1).
(ii) Scientists have also developed cationic detergents for special cleaning purposes. The structure of a
typical cationic detergent is shown below :

Can anionic and cationic detergents be used together ? Explain your answer. (6 marks)

4. 1994/I/5a
A domestic drain cleaner named 'RAINBOW' contains concentrated sulphuric acid as the active ingredient.
A student carried out the following experiment to determine the concentration of sulphuric acid in
'RAINBOW'.
1.0 cm3 of 'RAINBOW' was diluted to 500 cm3 with distilled water. 25.0 cm3 of the diluted solution were
measured and transferred to a conical flask. The solution in the flask required 18.2 cm3 of 0.10 M sodium
hydroxide solution for complete neutralization.
(i) Name the apparatus used to measure 25.0 cm3 of the diluted solution.
(ii) Calculate the molarity of sulphuric acid in 'RAINBOW'.
(iii) Suggest ONE disadvantage of using 'RAINBOW' for cleaning drains.
(iv) State ONE safety precaution needed when using 'RAINBOW'. Explain your answer.

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(v) If 'RAINBOW' is poured into drains blocked with fat, the fat can be removed. Assuming the
formula of fat is .

Explain how ‘RAINBOW' can remove the fat. (8 marks)

5. 1995/I/9a
Sodium hydroxide can be used as a raw material in the manufacture of both soapy and soapless detergents.
(i) Briefly describe how a soapy detergent can be prepared from a vegetable oil in a school laboratory.
(ii) The formula of a certain soapy detergent is CnH2n+1COONa and its formula mass is between 300
and 310. Calculate the value of n.
(iii) The structure of a certain soapless detergent is shown below :

(1) What other raw materials, apart from sodium hydroxide, are required in the manufacture of this
soapless detergent ?
(2) Give ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using this soapless detergent for domestic
cleaning compared with using a soapy detergent.
(Relative atomic masses : H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0 ) (10 marks)

6. 1997/I/7biii
The structures of five compounds, I, II, III, IV and V, are shown below:

In the above structures, represents a saturated hydrocarbon chain containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and
represents a saturated hydrocarbon chain containing 12 to 20 carbon atoms.

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Upon heating with sodium hydroxide solution, one of these compounds produces a soapy detergent.
(1) What is this compound ?
(2) Draw the structure of the soapy detergent produced.
(3) Briefly explain the emulsifying action of the detergent when it is used to remove greasy dirt.
(6 marks)
7. 1998/I/3c
Consider the following substances :
sodium bezonate, sodium chloride, sodium hypochlorite,
sodium hydrogencarbonate, sodium hydroxide,
sodium sulphite and monosodium glutamate
Which substance is commonly used as an active ingredient in oven cleaners ? Briefly explain its action.
(2 marks)
8. 2000/I/6cii
Explain the following statements:
Detergents can be used to clean up oil spillage in the sea. (3 marks)

9. 2001/I/6a,c
(a) Soap powder usually contains washing soda, a hydrated form of sodium carbonate, which can help
reduce the hardness of water.
(i) Explain why soap does not function well in hard water.
(ii) With the help of an ionic equation, explain why washing soda can help reduce the hardness of
water. (4 marks)
(c) (i) State the structural characteristics of a detergent. Hence, explain why detergents can remove
oily dirt.
(ii) Suggest, with explanation, an environmental consequence associated with the discharge of
waste water containing detergents into rivers and lakes. (5 marks)

10. 2002/I/9a
Ammonia is a weak alkali. It is used as an active ingredient in domestic glass cleaners.
(i) (1) Write a chemical equation to represent the ionization of ammonia in water.
(2) Explain why an alkaline solution can help remove oily dirt on glass.
(ii) Suggest, with explanation, a precaution necessary when using such glass cleaners. (4 marks)

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11. 2004/I/7b
The structure of a detergent is shown below:
CH3(CH2)16CO2–Na+
(i) This detergent, when shaken with a mixture of water and paraffin oil, gives an emulsion. With
reference to the structure of the detergent, explain this phenomenon.
(ii) An oil tanker was wrecked and spilt a lot of crude oil in the sea. State whether this detergent is
suitable for treating the oil spill. Explain your answer. (5 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 9 Detection and analysis | P.1

1. 1991/I/4c
A, B, C and D were aqueous solutions, each containing one of the following anions :
bromide, carbonate, iodide, sulphate.
The experiment below was carried out to identify the anions contained in the solutions :
Solution A B C D
Observation
Procedure
1. Silver nitrate pale yellow yellow white no change
solution was precipitate precipitate precipitate
first added formed formed formed
2. dilute nitric precipitate precipitate precipitate no change
acid was then remained remained dissolved;
added colourless
gas evolved
(i) Which anion is present in solution C ? Write appropriate equations for the reactions involved.
(ii) Suggest which anion is present in solution D. Describe a chemical test to confirm your suggestion.
(iii) The anions present in solution A and solution B cannot be distinguished easily using the above
procedures. Suggest another chemical test to distinguish between these anions. (7 marks)

2. 2003/I/7c
Explain why filtration can be used to remove mud particles from muddy water, but cannot be used to
remove sodium chloride from sea water. (3 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 10 Essay writing | P.1

Candidates are required to give paragraph-length answers. 3 out of the marks for each of these
questions will be awarded for the effective communication of knowledge in Chemistry .

1. 1995/I/4
“ When atoms combine, they tend to attain noble gas electronic structures.”

Discuss how atoms can attain the noble gas electronic structures. In your answer, you should give suitable
examples and the electronic structures of the products formed.
(8 marks)
2. 1995/I/5
Describe how large crystals of ammonium sulphate can be prepared from an aqueous solution of ammonia
in a school laboratory.
(9 marks)

3. 1996/I/4
Briefly describe an experiment, using the following apparatus and materials, to show that air is necessary for
the rusting of iron.
2 test tube, a test tube holder, a Bunsen burner,
2 clean iron nails, paraffin oil and tap water
(8 marks)

4. 1997/I/4
Briefly describe how you would conduct an experiment, using the materials and apparatus listed below, to
nickel-plate a clean metal spoon. (Diagrams are NOT required.) State the expected observation of the
experiment.
a clean metal spoon, a nickel plate, nickel(II) sulphate crystals,
a large beaker of distilled water, a d.c. power supply and
connecting wires
(8 marks)

5. 1997/I/5
In March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez was wrecked off the coast of Alaska and spilt a large amount of
crude oil into the sea. The oil spillage caused serious environmental problems.

Briefly explain why oil spillage in the sea cause serious environmental problems and suggest ONE method
of treating the spilt oil.
(8 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 10 Essay writing | P.2

6. 1998/I/5
Each of five unlabelled bottles contains one of the following chemicals :
2 M hydrochloric acid 2 M nitric acid
2 M sodium chloride solution 2 M sodium hydroxide solution
distilled water
Suggest how you would carry out tests to identify the contents of each bottles, using the materials and
apparatus listed below. Your answer should include the observation of each test.
copper foil, solid copper(II) carbonate, 2 M copper(II) chloride solution,
test tubes and a Bunsen burner
(You are NOT required to write chemical equations. Answers in the form of flow diagrams will NOT be
marked.)
(8 marks)
7. 1999/I/4
With the help of electronic diagrams, describe the formation for magnesium chloride and
tetrachloromethane form atoms of relevant elements. State, with explanation, which of the two
compounds has a higher melting points.
(9 marks)

8. 1999/I/5
The diagram below shows a bottle of chemical waste in a school laboratory.

Describe and explain how you would remove kerosene and iron(III) ions from the chemical waste.

(You may use any apparatus and chemicals available in a school laboratory.)
(8 marks)

9. 2000/I/4
The mass of a sample of copper powder contaminated with copper(II) oxide is known. Describe how you
would conduct an experiment to determine the percentage by mass of copper powder in the sample. State
the expected observation of the experiment.

(Hint : You may use an acid in the experiment.)


(9 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 10 Essay writing | P.3

10. 2001/I/4
A small piece of sodium is added to a tall jar containing two layers of liquids, paraffin oil and water with a
few drops of phenolphthalein, as shown in the diagram below. Describe and explain all expected
observations.

(Density of sodium = 0.97 g cm–3, density of paraffin oil used = 0.82 g cm–3)

(9 marks)

11. 2001/I/5
Explain why anodization, sacrificial protection and tin-plating can protect metals from corrosion.
(9 marks)
12. 2002/I/4
Using the electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution as an example, briefly discuss the factors affecting the
discharge of ions in electrolysis.
(9 marks)
13. 2002/I/5
Using alkenes as an example, describe the characteristics of members of a homologous series.
(9 marks)
14. 2003/I/4
Discuss the similarities and differences in chemical properties of concentrated sulphuric acid and dilute
sulphuric acid. Illustrate your answer using appropriate examples.
(9 marks)
15. 2003/I/5
Plastic wastes cause environmental problems in modern cities. Suggest possible ways of treating plastic
wastes, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
(9 marks)
16. 2004/I/4
Acid rain is a serious environmental problem. Discuss the formation of acid rain in relation to human
activities, and suggest possible ways to reduce its formation.
(9 marks)

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17. 2004/I/5
Na2O, MgO, SiO2 and SO2 are oxides of Period 3 elements in the Periodic Table. Discuss how the melting
points of these oxides are related to their bonding and structure.
(9 marks)
18. 2005/I/7
A chemical cell can be made from two metal strips and a lemon. Given the following materials and
equipment, outline how you can set up a chemical cell with the maximum output voltage.

a lemon, a copper strip, a magnesium strip, a zinc strip, a multimeter and several connecting wires

(Your answer should include variables that need to be controlled.)


(9 marks)
19. 2005/I/12
There are four unlabelled reagent bottles each containing one of the white solids listed below :
ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulphate
Suggest how you would carry out tests to distinguish the four solids from one another.
(9 marks)
20. 2006/I/8
‘ Elements in Group VII of the Periodic Table exhibit similar chemical properties. However, their
reactivity decreases down the group.’

Elaborate the first statement above using two reactions of halogens. Also, outline an experiment to
illustrate the second statement.

(You are suggested to use chlorine and bromine as examples of halogens in answering this question.)
(9 marks)
21. 2006/I/12
You are provided with the following materials :
magnesium ribbon and 2 M hydrochloric acid
Design an experiment to determine the molar volume of hydrogen at room temperature and pressure.

(You may use apparatus commonly available in a school laboratory.)


(9 marks)

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HKCEE CHEMISTRY | 10 Essay writing | P.5

22. 2007/I/9
A certain brand of rust remover contains an acid of high concentration. The rust remover can be used for
removing tough rust stains; while the rust remover, after dilution, can be used for removing comparatively
light rust stains.

Write some instructions, with reasons, on how the rust remover can be used safely at home. Two sentences
have been given below as an introduction.
(9 marks)

The rust remover should be kept out of reach from children as it contains an acid of high
concentration. The rust remover should not be swallowed because it is harmful.

23. 2007/I/13
Discuss the similarities and differences between soapy detergents and soapless detergents with reference to
their raw materials, structures and properties.
(9 marks)

24. 2008/I/9
Outline the steps showing how a sample of ethyl ethanoate (CH3COOCH2CH2) can be prepared and isolated
in the laboratory by using ethanol, concentrated sulphuric acid, 0.1 M potassium dichromate solution,
qucikfit apparatus, heating source, and other common apparatus.

(Diagrams, chemical equations, and detailed descriptions in setting up of apparatus are NOT required.)
(9 marks)
25. 2008/I/13
With reference to the properties of 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M HNO3, suggest THREE methods based on different
chemical principles to distinguish these two acids.

(You can use any common chemicals available in a school laboratory. Both the processes and the
observations involved are required in your answers.)
(9 marks)

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