You are on page 1of 47

AGSM MBA Programs 2017


Session 1, 2017

Last updated
Staff contact details
Course Details
Part A: Course-specific information 1
Course resources

Course evaluation and development

Course schedule


Units of credit 1
Summary of course 1 PART B: Key policies, student
responsibilities and support 16
Course aims and relationship to other
courses 2 Student resources and support 18
Course learning outcomes 2 Administrative support 19
Learning and teaching activities 5 Appendices 21
Assessment 6
Formal requirements 6
Assessment details 6
Weekly in-class quiz 7
Organisational analysis (team report) 7
Peer feedback and self-evaluation 9
Team skills reflection and action
planning 9
Live case study analysis 10
Assignment preparation and submission 10
Part A: Course-specific

Staff contact details

Course Coordinator & Facilitator: Dr Rose Trevelyan
Consultation Times: by appointment by email

Course Details
Teaching times and locations
Classes start in Week 1 and conclude in Week 12.
Updated information about class times and locations can be found on the AGSM
website and by logging in to the Google Calendar.
Units of credit
The course is worth six (6) units of credit.

Summary of course
MNGT5272 provides you with an introduction to organisational behaviour (OB). Each
Unit in this course covers a topic that contributes to your understanding of effective
management, leadership and organisation design. Topics covered include: managing
for high performance, leading individuals and groups for change and strategy
implementation, organisational politics and effective organisational design.

Course overview 1
Course aims and relationship to other courses
The course aims to develop your skills in identifying the broad range of drivers of,
and constraints to, organisational performance. We will consider both individual and
organisational factors that influence performance – for example, the impact that
individual motivation has on performance, the way people work together, leadership
styles and organisational systems and routines. Through the study of organisational
behaviour, you will be able to identify performance issues and make
recommendations to improve performance. Through this study you will also get a
greater sense of your own skills and development areas as a member of

This course provides background knowledge that is relevant to several OB-related
elective courses within the full-time MBA program, including MNGT5370 (Leadership
Concepts and Skills), MNGT5374 (Managerial Decision Making), and MNGT5388
(Negotiations and Strategy).

Course learning outcomes

After you have completed this course, you should be able to:
1. identify and evaluate organisational behaviour challenges faced by managers
2. analyse workplace behaviours from one or more theoretical perspectives/frames
3. diagnose organisational performance by identifying key performance drivers
4. make recommendations for key OB-related challenges and assess their impact
5. identify your own skills and weaknesses as a member of organisations.

The Course Learning Outcomes are what you should be able to do by the end of this
course if you participate fully in learning activities and successfully complete the
assessment items.
The Learning Outcomes in this course also help you to achieve some of the overall
Program Learning Goals and Outcomes for all postgraduate coursework students in
the UNSW Business School. Program Learning Goals are what we want you to be or
have by the time you successfully complete your degree (e.g. ‘be an effective team
player’). You demonstrate this by achieving specific Program Learning Outcomes -
what you are able to do by the end of your degree (e.g. ‘participate collaboratively
and responsibly in teams’).

2 Organisational Behaviour
MBA Program Learning Goals and Outcomes
Learning Goal 1: Business Management Knowledge
Students should be able to identify and apply current knowledge of disciplinary and
interdisciplinary theory and professional practice to general management and business
within diverse situations
Learning Goal 2: Critical Thinking
Students should understand and be able to identify, research and analyse complex issues
and problems in business and develop appropriate solutions
Learning Goal 3: Communication
Students should be able to produce written documents and oral presentations that
communicate effectively complex disciplinary ideas and information for the intended
audience and purpose

Learning Goal 4: Teamwork
Students should be able to participate collaboratively and responsibly in teams and to reflect
upon their own contribution to the team and on the necessary processes and knowledge
within the team to achieve specified outcomes
Learning Goal 5: Responsible Business
Students should be able to appraise ethical, environmental and sustainability considerations
in decision making and in practice in business
Students should be able to consider the social and cultural implications of management
practices and of business activities
Learning Goal 6: Leadership
Students should be able to reflect upon their own personal leadership style and the
leadership needs of business and of teams
Learning Goal 7: International Perspective
Students should understand the needs of undertaking business within a global context
Students should be able to apply business management knowledge to business situations
within global markets with due recognition for differences in cultural, legal, commercial and
other issues
Learning Goal 8: Risk Management
Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the limits in precision and the
risks associated with business models
Students should be able to appraise risk and to develop risk mitigation strategies applicable
to business undertaken within uncertain and volatile environments

Course overview 3
The following table shows how your Course Learning Outcomes relate to the overall
Program Learning Goals and Outcomes, and indicates where these are assessed
(they may also be practised in tutorials and other activities):

Program Learning Goals and

Course Learning Outcomes Course Assessment Item

This course helps you to achieve This program learning goal is

This learning outcome will be
the following MBA Program addressed through these
assessed in the following items:
Learning Goals course learning outcomes

Business Management Organisational analysis and final live

1 1, 2, 3
Knowledge case-study analysis

Organisational analysis and final live


Critical Thinking


1, 2, 3, 4

4, 5

4, 5
case-study analysis

Organisational analysis and final

individual live case-study analysis

Peer feedback

Not specifically addressed in Not specifically assessed in this

5 Responsible Business
this course course

Individual action planning

6 Leadership 4, 5

Not specifically addressed in Not specifically assessed in this

7 International Perspective
this course course

Not specifically addressed in Not specifically assessed in this

8 Risk Management
this course course

4 Organisational Behaviour
Learning and teaching activities

Approach to learning and teaching in the Course

This course will utilise a blend of instructional methods and media to encourage both
an intellectual understanding and a personal sense of the subject matter. These will
include readings, discussions, experiential activities, business simulations, case
studies, guest speakers and mini lectures. The goal will be to use class time to
maximum effect to discuss and experience organisational issues. It is assumed that
you have read assigned notes and articles; these will not be covered in detail in each
class. This will allow you to actively contribute to each session.


Course overview 5
Formal requirements
In order to pass this course, you must:
• achieve a composite mark of at least 50; and
• make a satisfactory attempt at all assessment tasks (see below).

Assessment details
Assessment Weighting Length Due Date*


Weekly in-class

10 multiple-
choice questions
each week

analysis (team 35% 10 pages Week 7, Monday 27 March


Peer feedback Pass/Fail Online survey Week 8, Monday 3 April

Team skills
reflection and
action planning 20% 2 pages Week 9, Monday 10 April

Live case study

analysis 5 x ½ page
25% Week 13, Friday 12 May
(individual answers

Total 100%

* Assignments should be submitted on the due date by 9.30am Sydney time.

Quality Assurance

The UNSW Business School is actively monitoring student learning and quality of the
student experience in all its programs. A random selection of completed assessment tasks
may be used for quality assurance, such as to determine the extent to which program
learning goals are being achieved. The information is required for accreditation purposes,
and aggregated findings will be used to inform changes aimed at improving the quality of
UNSW Business School programs. All material used for such processes will be treated as
confidential and will not be related to course grades.

6 Organisational Behaviour
Weekly in-class quiz
Weight: 20% (in total)
Each week there will be a short quiz completed online, in class. Students will answer 10
multiple-choice questions covering the assigned readings and articles, and topics
covered in class. Students will need to have thoroughly read, digested and considered
assigned readings, and been actively involved in class to successfully complete the
quiz. The quizzes are open book and must be completed within 10 minutes.
Where a student is absent from class for good reason, the questions will relate to
pre-assigned readings only and extra questions will be set.

Organisational analysis (team report)
Weight: 35%
Week 7, Monday 27 March 2017 by 9.30am Sydney time
Length: 10 pages
Note: All pages, including appendices (but not the bibliography),
are counted in the page limit. If the report goes over the
10-page limit, the remaining pages will not be marked.
This major assessment task asks student teams to conduct an analysis of an
organisation or a business unit or team within an organisation, by applying course
concepts. Teams will make recommendations in order to improve performance. The
criteria for this assignment are in Appendix 1.
Working in syndicate teams, you are required to gain access to an organisation and
conduct an audit of the internal dynamics of either the whole organisation, or a
business unit or team. You may choose which unit of analysis you study, and this
may depend on how big the whole organisation is. You may choose any
organisation/BU/team that is larger than 10 employees. If you are unsure about
which unit of analysis to choose, please talk to the Course Coordinator.
The ideas and concepts up to Unit 6 in OB should be used to audit and analyse the
organisation. The analysis should identify how the organisation can improve its
management strategies and organisational arrangements to better meet
performance objectives.

Course overview 7
The report should cover the following.
1. Identify the organisation/BU/team and clearly state what unit of analysis you are
2. Performance objectives: briefly describe what high performance looks like. If
these things are not clear within the organisation itself, you may describe what
you think they ought to be.
3. A diagnosis of the current situation: an assessment of current arrangements and
the consequences of any strategies, initiatives or management behaviours for
performance. This diagnosis should lead to the identification (with justification) of
organisational arrangements that most need to change.
4. A set of recommendations: arising from the diagnosis, craft a solution, or set of
recommendations, which will address the conclusions from your diagnosis – i.e.
they will fix the issues identified. The downside(s) of recommendations need to

be considered, with suggestions for managing these. A discussion of alternative
solutions for the organisation is an effective way of justifying recommendations.
Once the various options have been considered, a recommendation (with
justification) that moves the organisation towards better alignment or fit should
be given. This recommendation should be clearly linked to the performance
objectives of the organisation.

You should draw on relevant data in order to justify your diagnosis and
recommendation. This data could be from public records, any company documents
you have access to, observations of the organisation, and/or interviews with
managers. Appendix 2 gives some guidelines and suggestions for what data you
might collect and analyse.
The paper can report on some or all of the concepts introduced in the course so far.
Grades will not be given for using lots of different ideas, but for presenting a tight,
well-argued analysis.
A concern about this assignment that is often expressed is confidentiality. If the
subject organisation is concerned about privacy, the report can protect confidentiality
by hiding the identity of the firm (e.g. Company X) and managers within.
Individual grades will be the same for the whole team, unless a written complaint is
lodged with the Course Coordinator, investigated and found to warrant allotment of
individual grades.

8 Organisational Behaviour
Peer feedback and self-evaluation
Weight: Pass/Fail
Due: Week 8, Monday 3 April 2017 by 9.30am Sydney time
Format: Online survey
All team members must submit feedback on the contributions of each group member
and themselves. Feedback should cover all group activities throughout the session,
including the team’s organisational analysis and in-class activities. Team
competencies that you will give and receive feedback on are included in Appendix 3.

The feedback will be completed via an online survey. Login instructions will be
provided prior to the submission date.
This assignment is Pass/Fail only. All students who give a satisfactory quantity and
quality of feedback will pass.

Team skills reflection and action planning

Weight: 20%
Due: Week 9, Monday 10 April 2017 by 9.30am Sydney time
Length: 2 pages
Note: All pages, including appendices (but not the bibliography), are
counted in the page limit. If the paper goes over the 2-page limit, the
remaining pages will not be marked.
This assessment task asks you to reflect on the peer feedback you have received, as
well as your own evaluation of your team working, and develop action plans for
developing team skills. This paper is an individual submission. The criteria for this
assignment are in Appendix 4.
This paper requires you to:
1. Identify insights from your recent peer feedback, your self-evaluation, and
experiences of working in your team in OB to date.
2. Establish two or three specific goals and an action plan that you will apply in the
upcoming three to 12 months. These goals can be anything relevant to effective
team working, and you may draw on ideas about effective teams from
Foundations of Management, or this course, in formulating your goals.

Course overview 9
3. In articulating your goals, consider the following questions:
a. What is the goal I want to achieve?
b. Why is this important to me?
c. What specific actions will I undertake to achieve this goal?
d. What obstacle(s) might I encounter?
e. How can I overcome these obstacles?
f. What support can I use to help me achieve this goal?
g. What measures of success can I use to evaluate progress towards this goal?

Live case study analysis
Week 13, Friday 12 May 2017 by 9.30am Sydney time
5 x half-page answers to 5 questions
This assessment task asks you to consider the challenges presented to you by a
business executive. You will hear about current issues in a real organisation and be
asked to analyse the issues using concepts from across the whole course. Questions
will be set and distributed immediately after the briefing on the live case study. The
criteria for this assignment are in Appendix 5.

Assignment preparation and submission

Unless otherwise stipulated in the specific details for each of your
assignments, please prepare and submit your assignments in accordance with
the following.

Assignment format
For consistency across all assignments, students are required to supply
assignments in a standard format, which is detailed below. Assignments
should always be submitted in Word format.
Headings Body text Page setup
• Font: Arial • Font: Arial • Top: 2.54 cm
• Font size: 12 points • Font size: 12 point • Bottom: 2.54 cm
• Line spacing: 1.5 • Line spacing: 1.5 • Left: 2.54 cm
• Text style: Bold • Text style: Normal • Right: 2.54 cm
• Header: 1.25 cm
• Footer: 1.25 cm

10 Organisational Behaviour
Paragraph breaks
First line indent: 1.27cm

Diagrams and tables

Students are encouraged to include diagrams and tables in their assessments, but
must ensure they do not take up more than 20% of the assignment.

Diagrams and tables must:

• be formatted with single line spacing
• be formatted with a minimum font size of 8 points

Assignment file name
Please use the following naming convention for each assignment.
• z9999999 is your student ID – please insert your surname
• XXXX1111 is the course code
• 17s1 is the session name (2017, Session 1)
• Ass1 is the Assignment number (Ass2 for Assignment 2)

Assignment submission
1. You must submit your assignment through your online classroom as per the
instructions in your LMS User Manual.
2. Assignment submission in your LMS is performed via Turnitin, the similarity
detection software used by UNSW students and teaching staff to prevent
plagiarism by ensuring referencing is correct and that work has not been
inadvertently copied from elsewhere. You can access Turnitin under the
‘Assessments’ section in your Moodle course site.
3. You are able to submit a draft version of your assignment prior to the due date.
This enables you to view the Turnitin similarity report on your work and decide
whether it complies with the guidelines regarding referencing and plagiarism,
before you submit your final version for marking. More information about
plagiarism can be found here:
4. Please note that draft assignments submitted in this way will be regarded as the
final version at the due date if you have not uploaded a subsequent, finalised
version (each file uploaded overwrites the previous version).

Course overview 11
5. Late submissions are possible but will be marked as such and will be subject to
late penalties of 5% of the assignment weighting for each day late. If for any
reason you are unable to submit a late submission via Turnitin please contact
your Facilitator or AGSM Student Experience.
6. Extensions to assignment deadlines will be granted only in exceptional
circumstances, and where adequate supporting documentation can be provided.
Please note that work commitments do not constitute grounds for an extension.
Requests must be made through the special consideration process. For details
about this process, see:
7. You will be advised of your mark by your Facilitator within 14 days of assignment
submission date.
8. Please keep a copy of your assignment.


12 Organisational Behaviour
Course resources
Course materials will be provided in Moodle. To access Moodle, go to:
Login with your student zID (username) and zPass (password).

Other resources
BusinessThink is UNSW’s free, online business publication. It is a platform for
business research, analysis and opinion. If you would like to subscribe to
BusinessThink, and receive the free monthly e-newsletter with the latest in research,
opinion and business, go to


Course overview 13
Course evaluation and
Mid- and end-of-session feedback is sought from students about the courses offered
in the AGSM MBA Program, and continual improvements are made based on this
feedback. Significant changes to courses and programs within the Program based on
end-of-session feedback are communicated to subsequent cohorts of students.


14 Organisational Behaviour
Course schedule
Classes start in Week 1 and finish in Week 12.

Assessment due
Week Topic
(quiz each week)

1 The management challenge

2 Motivation and performance

3 Teams and creativity

Decision making

Influence and networks

6 Change leadership

Organisational transformation Organisational analysis (team

Management simulation reports)

Organisational design:
8 Peer feedback
Management systems

No weekly quiz
9 No class – Easter weekend Team skill reflection and
action planning

10 Organisational design: Corporate culture

Organisational alignment
Management simulation

12 OB review and live case study briefing No weekly quiz

13 Live case study analysis

Course overview 15
PART B: Key policies, student
responsibilities and
Academic honesty and plagiarism
The University regards plagiarism as a form of academic misconduct, and has very
strict rules regarding plagiarism. For UNSW policies, penalties, and information to
help you avoid plagiarism see: as well as the
guidelines in the online ELISE and ELISE Plus tutorials for all new UNSW students:
To see if you understand plagiarism, do this short quiz:

For information on how to acknowledge your sources and reference correctly, see:
For the UNSW Business School Harvard Referencing Guide, see:

Student responsibilities and conduct

Students are expected to be familiar with and adhere to university policies in relation
to class attendance and general conduct and behaviour, including maintaining a
safe, respectful environment; and to understand their obligations in relation to
workload, assessment and keeping informed.

AGSM MBA Programs and UNSW policies

In general, UNSW policies apply to staff and students of AGSM MBA Programs.
Where there are additional points or procedures which apply specifically to AGSM
MBA Programs they are set out on the AGSM website:
If students are in doubt about the policy or procedure relating to a particular matter
they should seek advice from the Student Experience.
Information and policies on these topics can be found in the ‘A-Z Student Guide’:
See, especially, information on ‘Attendance and Absence’, ‘Assessment Information’,
‘Examinations’, ‘Workload’ and policies such as ‘Occupational Health and Safety’.

16 Organisational Behaviour
It is expected that you will spend at least 10 hours per week studying this course.
This time should be made up of reading, research, working on exercises and
problems, and attending classes. In periods where you need to complete
assignments or prepare for examinations, the workload may be greater.
Over-commitment has been a cause of failure for many students. You should take
the required workload into account when planning how to balance study with
employment and other activities.

Your regular and punctual attendance at classes and seminars is expected in this
course. University regulations indicate that if students attend less than 80% of
scheduled classes they may be refused final assessment.

General conduct and behaviour

You are expected to conduct yourself with consideration and respect for the needs of
your fellow students and teaching staff. Conduct which unduly disrupts or interferes
with a class, such as ringing or talking on mobile phones, is not acceptable and
students may be asked to leave the class. More information on student conduct is
available at:

Occupational health and safety

UNSW Policy requires each person to work safely and responsibly, in order to avoid
personal injury and to protect the safety of others. For more information, see

Keeping informed
You should take note of all announcements made in classes, tutorials or on the
course website. From time to time, the University will send important announcements
to your university email address without providing you with a paper copy. You will be
deemed to have received this information. It is also your responsibility to keep the
University informed of all changes to your contact details.

Course overview 17
Student resources and support
To access Moodle, go to:
Login with your student zID (username) and zPass (password).

Moodle eLearning support

Should you have any difficulties accessing your course online, please contact the
eLearning support below:

For login issues:

UNSW IT Service Centre

Hours: Monday to Friday: 8am – 8pm
Saturday and Sunday: 11am – 2.00pm
Phone: Internal: x51333
External: 02 9385 1333
International: +61 2 9385 1333
For assistance in using Moodle, including how to upload assignments:

The AGSM eLearning Coordinator

Hours: Monday to Friday: 9am – 5pm
Phone: Internal: x19541
External: 02 9931 9541
International: +61 2 9931 9541
For help with technical issues and problems:
External TELT Support
Hours: Monday to Friday: 7.30am – 9.30pm
Saturdays and Sundays: 8.30am – 4.30pm
Phone: Internal: x53331
External: 02 9385 3331
International: +61 2 9385 3331

18 Organisational Behaviour
Administrative support
Student Experience
If you have any administrative queries, they should be addressed to Student
Student Experience
AGSM MBA Programs
UNSW Business School
Tel: +61 2 9931 9400

Additional student resources and support
The University and the UNSW Business School provide a wide range of support
services for students, including:
• AGSM – Digital Resources and Tutorials
• Business School Education Development Unit (EDU)
The EDU provides academic writing, study skills and maths support specifically
for Business students. Services include workshops, online resources, and
individual consultations.
EDU Office: Level 1, Room 1033, Quadrangle Building.
Phone: +61 2 9385 5584; Email:
• UNSW Learning Centre
Provides academic skills support services, including workshops and resources,
for all UNSW students. See website for details.
• Library training and search support services

Course overview 19
• UNSW Counselling and Psychological Services
Provides support and services if you need help with your personal life, getting
your academic life back on track or just want to know how to stay safe, including
free, confidential counselling.
Office: Level 2, East Wing, Quadrangle Building;
Phone: +61 2 9385 5418.
• Student Equity & Disabilities Unit
Provides advice regarding equity and diversity issues, and support for students
who have a disability or disadvantage that interferes with their learning.
Office: Ground Floor, John Goodsell Building;
Phone: +61 2 9385 4734; Email:


20 Organisational Behaviour
Appendix 1 Organisational analysis marking criteria
Appendix 2 Data collection methods for organizational analysis
Appendix 3 Team competencies peer feedback
Appendix 4 Team skills reflection paper marking criteria
Appendix 5 Live case study analysis marking criteria


Course overview 21
Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the University of New South Wales
pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or
communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice.

Appendix 1
aft Organisational analysis marking criteria
Organisational analysis marking criteria

Clear conclusions that apply concepts Good choice and application Appropriate application of Inappropriate application or No concepts used in
Use of conceptual of concepts for the interpretation of the concepts. analysis.
in an insightful and compelling way. concepts, but poor choice,
20% tools and frameworks organisational issues.
Good choice of concepts for the limited range or too many
to support analysis
organisational issues. concepts chosen.

Performance issues are clearly Performance issues are A range of organisational Key organisational elements No identification of
articulated, root causes are linked, with clearly articulated and root problems are identified with are described. key organisational
20% Diagnosis strong argument relating to which causes are linked to these some consideration of the elements or their
organisational strategies have issues. consequences for impact on
strongest impact on issues. organisational performance. performance.

Recommendations would clearly Recommendations would Requirements are identified Generic recommendations Recommendation
deliver higher performance and are clearly deliver higher and are feasible and realistic. that could be made for any inappropriate and / or
original. Consideration made of the performance and are organisation. completely unrealistic.
Appropriateness of downsides of the recommendations, Recommendations are
20% feasible and realistic.
recommendations and strategies to overcome downsides feasible but unrealistic given
Feasibility of
are identified. recommendations are resource constraints.

Strong logical arguments with excellent Coherent logical arguments Logical argument with some Arguments are logical but Arguments aren’t
evidence that support a consistent, which are strongly justified evidence (data, theory, evidence to support logical, justified or
Quality of arguments: coherent overall analysis. Alternative by evidence. benchmarking or comparison arguments is weak integrated.
25% recommendations effectively to alternatives) given to justify
logic and integration
compared. the argument.
Shows a polished and imaginative Carefully and logically Good organisation and Some attempt to organise in a Disorganised/
approach to the report with compelling organised and written coherence and mostly written logical manner, or lacking Incoherent.
Organisation, clarity of clarity of expression. clearly. Good internal flow. clearly. clarity of expression. Sections
expression disjointed or contradictory.
Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the University of New South Wales
pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or
communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice.

Appendix 2
aft Data collection methods for organizational analysis
Data collection methods for
organizational analysis
Here, we’d like to give you an overview of different data collection methods that you
may consider for your Organisational Analysis report.

If you are an external consultant, diagnosis can begin from the moment you make
contact with the organisation. From the moment you arrive at the front door or front
gate of an organisation, relevant information can be available. The building’s size,

design and outfitting can provide information about its culture and operations. How
you are greeted and treated while you are there, the physical work environment, how
meetings are run, how people are addressed and relate to each other, what people
say and do not say, all provide clues to organisational health.
Observation is a very open form of data collection, in the sense that it can throw up
unexpected issues that we did not initially include in framing the problem. By taking a
step back and not controlling the data collection process, we find out things we didn’t
think we needed to know and weren’t looking for. For example, in a meeting you may
notice tension between two managers that no one admits to openly. This might
explain significant blockages in communication processes within the organisation.
Diagnostic interviews
Interviews are probably the most common method of data collection.
The number and design of the interviews will depend on many factors such as the
organisation’s size and your diagnostic brief. If there appears to be consensus in an
organisation about the main problems, this may indicate that not many interviews will
be needed, or it might indicate that a more intensive interview program is needed to
test whether the consensus is groupthink.
If the main problems are not obvious, you may need to conduct not only many
interviews, but also multiple iterations of the entire interview process. The advantage
of data gathering by interview is that during an interview you can explore answers in
detail by asking the interviewee to elaborate on them and by testing ideas. The
interviewee’s answers can be related to each other, with answers confirming,
correcting or contradicting previous replies. Group interviews are sometimes used to
observe interactions between members, however one danger is that you come away
with a misleading impression of consensus because some group members were
unwilling to express dissenting opinions. Like observation, a flexible and adaptable
interview process is an open form of data collection, and can throw light on
unexpected relationships, influences and constraints.

Appendix 2: Data collection methods 1

Surveys are an efficient way of collecting data. The most common survey example is
the employee attitude questionnaire designed to ‘take the temperature’ of the
organisation or reveal areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. A consultant might
use such a survey to detect attitudes that could make or break the change
program’s success. Designing an effective survey often requires specialist
assistance. Questions need to be clear – neither misleading nor confusing – and
easy to answer. The questionnaire’s length is probably the most important
determinant of whether respondents complete it. Keeping the response time to less
than 20 minutes is a good rule of thumb. The advantage of this form of data
collection is the power of the results. Having large numbers of respondents

increases the reliability of the findings. Of course, the trade off is the loss of
qualitative data.
‘Survey feedback’ is a particular intervention method where the results are ‘fed back’
to all those who participated in the survey. When the results of a morale or attitude
survey are shared with all survey respondents, it can stimulate awareness of the
need for change and help develop consensus about priority areas for change.

Analysis of organisational records

While observation, interviews and surveys all provide valuable information, the data
they provide are all to some extent subjective. An analysis of an organisation’s
archival records can provide important objective data regarding such issues as staff
turnover, absenteeism, health and safety, grievances, waste, quality, productivity
and error rates, sales, profitability and costs.

The ‘shadow side’ of organisations

Egan (1994) argues that when diagnosing organisations we should look beyond the
formal and overt. He describes the shadow side of organisations, that is, the things
that go on behind the scenes. These off-stage activities are covert, undiscussed and
sometimes undiscussable. In diagnosing an organisation and its need and readiness
for change, we should consider the shadow side to make a fuller and more accurate
diagnosis. As an external consultant or a recently joined employee, surface activities
quickly become clear – who reports to whom, which business units do what, how
customer relationships are managed etc. But it takes time to get beneath the surface
and discover some of the other things that go on which you don’t find on the
organisation chart or in company manuals. The unwritten rules are as important as
the written ones and if we ignore the shadow side it is possible that we will
misdiagnose the organisation.

2 Organisational Behaviour
The shadow side of business has three dimensions:
1. The shadow side refers to significant activities and arrangements that remain
unidentified or, for whatever reasons, undiscussed in some decision-making
setting of the company or institution.
2. Since shadow side factors are not formally discussed, they fall outside the reach
of ordinary managerial intervention.
3. Shadow side activities and arrangements often substantially affect both
productivity and the quality of work life in the company or institution (Egan 1994).
Picking up on the last point, shadow side activities can be both costly and can
improve the bottom line. Here’s an example of the dark side of a shadow activity. A
salesperson’s kickback deals with customers are hidden and therefore remain
undiscussed in formal company settings, fall outside the reach of ordinary
managerial control and affect company productivity. Here there is a direct effect of

the shadow side on the bottom line since the salesperson is using company funds to
pay the customer for their business. An indirect effect is that other salespeople may
miss out on bonuses and therefore may be less motivated, because the ‘dirty’
salesperson sells more and gets a bigger share of the bonus pie.
Another example of dark side shadow activity is when the CEO’s relative works in the
organisation and gets away with poor performance because nobody is prepared to
challenge him or her.
So the costs identified in these examples are monetary costs, low motivation and
poor performance. Other costs of dark side shadow activity may be ruined
reputations, stifled careers or dysfunctional teams.
Figure 1 The light and shadow in organisations

Appendix 2: Data collection methods 3

On the other hand, shadow side activities can be productive. Consider this example.
John’s boss, Barry, had little time for him. Barry undermined John and gave him few
opportunities to demonstrate his abilities. On a small project, John had to work with
another manager, Steve, who recognised his talents and became his informal
mentor. Steve is aware of Barry’s attitude towards John so he finds tactful and covert
ways to promote John’s abilities with others and give him important tasks to do. The
covert relationship between Steve and John is in the shadows but positively
contributes to John’s performance.
Other examples of productive shadow side activities are a culture of loyalty and
commitment, cutting through red tape, turning expertise gained on the job into
research papers or proposals for action, and collaboration through friendships.
Shadow side activities are found in all aspects of organisational life – in the culture,
in personal styles and behaviours, in social systems, and in politics. So how do we

find and diagnose them?
Egan suggests that to uncover the shadow side without encouraging tattling,
informing and squealing requires you to listen well and engage in open
communication. Here are some tips:
• Be alert and inquisitive – spot clues that indicate something is going on in the
shadows, explore situations that don’t feel right.
• Look for root causes of problems that haven’t previously been identified.
• Find probes that get at underlying norms – for example, ask questions such as
‘what stops us achieving this goal?’; ‘what is really going on between these two
• Name the unwritten rules – for example, ‘it is alright to come late to meetings’;
‘don’t question the boss’s decisions’.
• Welcome new perspectives – don’t rely on what one person tells you, and don’t
assume that what happens in one situation will happen in another.
• Think about ways that you might be ‘in the dark’.
• Explore ways you have been surprised by behaviour or events over the past
• Don’t avoid issues that might be uncomfortable to know about.
• Search for different strategies to discuss issues – for example, use email, meet
for coffee outside the building, use group meetings to raise concerns.
• Role-model openness by sharing some shadow side activities that you are aware
• Identify situations in which it is easier to say nothing to avoid embarrassment and
disruption and find a way to discuss the situation that isn’t embarrassing or
• Challenge excuse-making and probe into what is really happening.

4 Organisational Behaviour
Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the University of New South Wales
pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or
communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice.

Appendix 3
aft Team competencies peer feedback
Team competencies peer feedback

Rarely met deadlines. Unable to Some deadlines met, but Mostly met deadlines but Usually met deadlines. Consistently met deadlines.
1. Timeliness make and implement plans. often despite lack of somewhat disorganised Good management of time Managed his / her time
planning. in planning own work. and planning of own work. extremely well.
No contribution to goal setting and Some contribution to work Contribution to work Good contribution to work Significant contribution to
work planning. He / She was often planning, but tasks set were planning, but no planning and goal setting, work planning, including
2. Goal setting and
confused about what they were not sufficiently specific or contribution to some suggestions for prioritising tasks and making
Work planning
trying to accomplish, or was linked to one another. contingency planning. contingency planning. contingency plans.
resistant to contingency planning.
Either "monitored everything" or Some monitoring of Assessed team Made good assessments Actively monitored progress
3. Monitoring hardly anything at all. No progress using relevant progress, but didn’t of team progress and toward team goals using data
progress comparison of progress with information, but comparison discuss concerns generated discussion of and benchmarks. Regularly
towards goals goals. of progress with goals effectively. progress with team. communicated progress to
wasn’t clear. team.
Was not aware of others' actions Offered feedback when Offered feedback to Observed others’ actions Proactively observed others’
and provided little feedback. necessary, but didn’t others occasionally, and offered feedback and actions and offered feedback
4. Support for other
appear to take this role though usually only when task related support. Made and task related support; took
team members
seriously. asked. some attempt to help a strong coaching role with
others where appropriate. team members.
Many coordination breakdowns. A few breakdowns in Some coordination with Coordinated activities well, Clearly understood roles and
Could not effectively combine coordination, but these did others, but little contact with others was responsibilities then organised
5. Coordination their contribution into the team. not lead to major team leadership of group appropriate. activities appropriately.
activities problems. Insufficient or too coordination. Amount of contact with others
much contact with others to was appropriate given the
establish coordination. tasks.
Instigated conflict in the team Discussed teamwork issues Could negotiate and Worked through cognitive Openly discussed teamwork
which was not productive. Task- with relatively little ill handle conflict so that and interpersonal conflict issues, anticipated and
based disagreements deteriorated feelings developing. Sought the task was not sufficiently so the team prevented potential
6. Conflict and began to get personal. consensus that did not hindered. task was not hindered and interpersonal conflict. If any
management undermine the team efforts. there was no ill-feeling. interpersonal conflict
Sometimes task-based developed, dealt with it
disagreements turned into quickly and effectively. Always
interpersonal conflict. kept conflict task-based.
Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the University of New South Wales
pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or
communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice.

Appendix 4
aft Team skills reflection paper marking criteria
Team skills reflection
paper marking criteria
Reflections and goals are developed using theories
Use of conceptual tools and frameworks from OB and / or FOM. Goals are
and frameworks developed using goal setting theory, i.e. are specific,
measureable, feasible and obstacles are identified.
Insights regarding personal strengths and weaknesses
based on an honest evaluation of team skills.
25% Analytical self-reflection
Consideration of the impact or consequences of your
team skills on you and others.
Integration of evidence from multiple sources to form
Logic, evidence and
25% and justify reflections. Goals address insights from self-

15%aft Organisation, clarity of

Carefully and logically organised, written and presented

Appendix 4: Team skills reflection paper marking criteria 1

Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the University of New South Wales
pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or
communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice.

Appendix 5
aft Live case study analysis marking criteria
Live case study analysis
marking criteria
Use of conceptual tools and Clear conclusions that apply concepts in an insightful
35% frameworks to support and compelling way. Good choice of concepts for the
analysis organisational issues.
Organisational issues are clearly articulated, root
Diagnosis & any causes are linked to outcomes, with strong argument
recommendations relating to which organisational strategies have
strongest impact on issues.
Excellent evidence that is clear, relevant and
20% Evidence and illustration appropriately cited. Any recommendations are specific
and feasible.

Organisation, clarity of
Shows a polished approach with strong clarity of

Appendix 5: Live case study analysis marking criteria 1