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Applications of the Derivative

4.1 Rectilinear Motion

1. = 18;

2. = 16,

3. = 1;

4. = 82;

5. = 2;

6. 2;

7. 1,

8. |s(1/2) = 0, s(1) = −π12;tcosv(t) =πt −−2πtπsinsinπtπt,+a(1cos/2) =πt, v−(12/π2) =, a(1) =−π/2π,2v(1)

= −1, |v(1/2)| = π/2, v(1)| = 1; a(t) = −

9. v(t) = 2t − 4

5 = 0 gives t = −1,5. The velocity when s(t) = 0 is v(−1) = −6,

5 = 7 gives t = −2,6. The velocity when s(t) = 7 is v(−2) = −8,

10. v(t) = 2t + 6; a(t) = 2

194
(a) sSetting(−2) = 2.t2 + 6t + 10 = 2t + 6 we obtain t2 + 4t + 4 = 0 or (t + 2)2 = 0. Thus t = −2 and

(b) Solving 2t + 6 = −2 gives t = −4. The velocity when v(t) = −a(t) is v(−4) = −2.

11. v(t) = 3t2 − 4; a(t) = 6t

(a) Solving 3t2 − 4 = 2 gives t = ±√2. When v(t) = 2, a(−√2) = −6√2, a(√2) = 6√2.

(b) Solving 6t = 18 gives t = 3. Then s(3) = 15.

a(t)=12 t2 − 6t =6 t(2t − 1) on (3The particle is slowing down on (/4. we aconsider(t) will have the same signs whenv(t)a(t) = 18t(t − 2)(t − 1)t >>20.∞).−3) and on (0. The arrows → and ← in the charts indicate the direction of motion on the specified interval.∞). 12.−∞. we consider v(t)a(t) = (3t2 − 6t)(6t − 6) = 18t(t − 2)(t − 1) < 0. for example. it is not sufficient.3). as determined by the sign of the velocity on that interval. Solving this inequality. v(−2) = 8. a(t) = 2.3/4). That is. . it is speeding up on (0. v (t)=4 t3 − 3t2 = t2 (4t − 3). Then v(0) = −4. Problem 16).0) and on (1/2. Then s(0) = 8. This is a necessary condition. v(t) = 3t2 − 6t. Solving this inequality. this will occur when the velocity is 0. s(2) = 4. Since two numbers will have the same sign when their product is positive. Solving v = 0 we obtain t = 0. we see that v(t) and a(t) will have opposite signs when t < 0 and 1 < t < 2. the velocity may be 0 without the particle changing direction (see.−∞. 15. it is speeding up on (−3. v(t) = 2t. Since two numbers will have opposite signs when their product is negative.0) and on 14. a(t) = 6t The particle is slowing down on ((3.±2.2. (b) Solving 6t − 6 = 0 gives t = 1.1/2) and In order to draw the graphs in Problems 15–28 we need to determine when the particle changes direction. 2) = 0 gives t = 0. For a continuous position function. v(t) = 3t2 − 27 = 3(t − 3)(t + 3). we see thator 0 < t < 1. a(t) = 6t − 6 (a) Solving 3t2 − 6t = 0 gives t = 0. The particle is speeding up when its velocity and acceleration have the same algebraic sign. Then s(1) = 6. v(t) and 13. (c) The particle is slowing down when its velocity and acceleration have opposite algebraic signs.

t −3 −1 1 s 0 ← −4 → 0 v − 0 + a + The particle is slowing down on (−∞. T −1 2 5 S 3 ← −6 → 3 V − 0 + A + The particle is slowing down on (−∞.2). T −1 0 3 S 1 ← 0 → 9 V − 0 + A + The particle is slowing down on (−∞.∞). 17. it is speeding up on (0. solving a = 0 we obtain t −2 0 1 2 3 − s −40 → 0 ← −4 ← −8 → 0 v + 0 0 + − a 0 + The particle is slowing down on (−∞.∞).0) and (1. 19. t = –2 t=0 t=2 T −2 0 2 S −8 → 0 → 8 − V + 0 + A 0 + s –8 0 8 The particle is slowing down on (−∞. Solving v = 0 we obtain t = 2. 18. solving a = 0 we obtain t = 0.−1) and speeding up on (−1. a(t) = 6t.∞).2) and speeding up on (2. s(t) = t2 + 2t − 3. v(t) = 2t − 4. . v(t) = 2t + 2.0) and speeding up on (0. Solving v = 0 we obtain t = 0.2. v(t) = 6t2 12. a(t) = 2.1) and (2. a(t) = 2.0) and speeding up on (0. Solving v = 0 we obtain t = −1.∞). 16.∞). v(t) = 3t2. Solving v = 0 we obtain t = 0.

Setting v = 0 we obtain 2/√t = 1. Solving v = 0 we obtain − − 23. a(t) = t−3/2. v(t) = 12t3 − 24t2 = 12t2(t − 2). it is speeding up on (1. so √t = 2 and t = 4. a(t) = 36t2 − 48t. t −2 1 4/3 5/3 3 s −36 → 0 ← −2/27 ← −4/27 → 4 v + 0 0 + − a 0 + − s –36 –4/27 –2/27 0 4 (5The particle is slowing down on (/3. .−∞.4/3) and 21. . Solving v = 0 we obtain t = 0.5/3).2. t −1 0 2 3 s 11 ← 0 ← −16 → 27 − − v 0 0 + s –16 0 11 27 t −2 −1 0 4 5 s 76 ← 57 → 60 ← −68 → −15 v 0 + 0 0 + 16. vt t 8. v(t) = 1 − 2t−1/2.1) and (0.∞).

we have t = 3/4. Thus. we haveπ sinπt. Thus.2.−π2 cosπt. for −1/2 ≤ t ≤ 5/2 t −1/2 0 1 2 5/2 − − s 1 → 2 ← 0 → 2 ← 1 v + 0 0 + 0 . Setting v = 0 we obtain cosπt = −sinπt or tanπt = −1. for 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. v(t) = −. t 0 1 3 4 − s 0 → 1 ← −1 → 0 v + 0 0 + 26. t = 0a(t) =. t 0 3/4 7/4 2 s −1 −√2 −1 → √2 ← → v + 0 0 + .7/4. for 0 ≤ t ≤ 4. v(t) = π cosπt + π sinπt. a(t) = π2 sinπt + π2 cosπt.1. Thus.3. Setting v = 0 we obtain sinπt = 0. we have t = 1. t 1 4 9 s −3 ← −4 → −3 v 0 + − s –4 –3 24. Setting v = 0 we obtain cos = 0.

and (f.c) 0 0 (c.g) + − The particle is slowing down on (a.d) and (e. (e. − – v v t 0 3 ∞ s 0 → 27e−3 ← 0 − v 0 + 0 s 0 27e–3 . t→∞ t 0 2 ∞ s 0 ← 4 − 12ln3 → ∞ v 0 + − s 4 – 12 ln 3 0 (a.f) − − Interval v(t) a(t) (f. In addition. lim v(t) = ∞.b) + − (b.d) + + (d. it is speeding up on (c.g).e).e) + − 29.f).b). (d. Setting v = 0 we obtain t = 2 for 0 ≤ t < ∞. 30. .

On+ 10. The velocity is v(4√2) = 64√2 ft/s and the acceleration is a(4√2) = 16 ft/s2. . Fors(1)[5|t <=. This height is then s(3/2) = 42 ft. 35. y = sinθ = sin16t2 and dy/dt = 1 y-coordinate is decreasing. s(t) = 16t2 sinθ.5] we obtainit moves |st(5)= 5−. v(t) = 16t. we have(−11)||s= 16(6)v >−0scm. For(5)and the particle| = |4t >−55|.v = 0 we obtain t = 3/2. Solving/2. The velocity is positive on (−∞. s(t) = 16t2 sin30◦ = 8t2. 34.∞). Since sinθ = 3/5 in this case. The velocity is v(25/2√3) = 240/√3 ft/s and the acceleration is a(25/2√3) = 96/5 ft/s2. dy/dt = 8√π cosπ = −8√π ft/s. 32. a(t) = 16. the .31. we= 1 is moving to the right. Then and . Solving v = 0. = 500 ft and . At the bottom of the hill. Since the circle has radius 1. 33. s = 8t2 = 256 and t = √32 = 4√2. (a) and negative on (3v(t) = −1t+48.6]|5it moves5−.tcos16t2. vhave(t) =v <−20t and the particle is moving to the left. Thus. Since dy/dt is negative. the total distance traveled is 17 cm. At the bottom of the hill.3/2) (b) The maximum is attained when the velocity is 0. On [1 cm. We are given θ = 16t2. For t = √π/4.