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LAB MANUAL

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

TAXILA

SOIL MECHANICS 1

NAME: AURANGZAIB

REG NO: 16-CE-139

SECTION: C

SUBMITTED TO

ENGR: HAMMAD HAIDER

LAB NO: 1

LAYOUT OF SOIL MECHANICS LAB NORTH

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OFFICE DOOR 1

OFFICE

Apparatus details
Apparatus Purpose PICS
Name
1 A mechanical device for removing a
Sample sample from a sampling tube or mold;
Extruder usually consists of a piston driven by a
jackscrew or a hydraulic mechanism.
Molds of different diameter can be
used.
2 Boring machines are mechanized tools
that are used to drill holes in the ground
Boring up to few ft. without disturbing surface
Machine conditions. Bore of different diameter can
be bored

3 A device used to shake a stackedColum
Sieve n of standardsievetest trays tocause soli
ds to sift progressively from the top(lar
Shaker ge openings) to the bottom (small open
ings and a final pan), according to parti
cle size. Operates Electrically. Operates
at various frequencies
4 To display different sieve sizes.
Sieve
Stand

5 Used for determining the in-place density
Sand Cone of soil sand to find in-situ density of soil.
Apparatus ASTM and BS standard cone apparatus
are available.

6 Max. Capacity is 30kg. Least count
Electronic is 5g. Used to find mass.
Balance

7 Used for the determination of the in-situ
Rubber density and unit weight of compacted or
Balloon grimly bonded soil
Apparatus

8 Used to mix different admixtures to the
Mixing soil
Machin
e

9 To dry the soil samples. range is 250
Oven degree Celsius

10 Used to burn organic matter present in
High soil to calculate organic content. Range 11
Temperature degree Celsius. Another same apparatus
Furnace adjacent to it has a range of 1200 degree
Celsius

Apparatus Details
Apparatus Name Purpose Pic
11 Used to find out the permeability of
Permeability soil.
Apparatus

12 To dry the soil sample

Oven

13 To dry the soil sample

Oven

14 To dry the soil sample

Oven

15 To dry the soil sample

Oven

axial Compression Machine 19 Used to find out CBR of soil. Used to load the penetration piston into the soil Machine sample at a constant rate and to measure the applied loads and piston’s penetrations at determined intervals. 16 Used to find out consolidation behavior of clayey soil. 17 To dry the soil sample Oven 18 Used to find out shear strength Mercury behavior of soil Operated Tri. The Consolidatio one-dimensional consolidation test of a soil sample enables to n Apparatus ascertain the settlement characteristic over a given period of time. Electrically CBR stands for California Controlled CBR bearing ratio. 2 Used to find out California CBR Machine bearing ratio of soil .

Shear test Shear Box machines are universal testing Machine machines specially configured to evaluate shear strength or maximum shear stress 23 Used to find out shear strength Tri-axial behavior of soil Compression Machine Computerized Controlled . 21 Used to find out shear strength Tri-axial behavior of soil Compression Machine Electrically Controlled 22 To find shear strength.

24 To find shear strength. Shear test Direct machines are universal testing Shear test machines specially configured to Machine evaluate shear strength or maximum shear stress 25 To compact. The Compactor Mechanical Compactor automatically compacts and rotates mold after each blow while keeping track of the number of hammer blows and shutting off once a preset number of blows is reached 26 Used to find out CBR of soil CBR Machine Electricall y Controlled 27 Used to find out liquid limit of soil Casagrande Apparatus . rate. CBR and compaction Auto molds at a const.

Weight out the clean and dry empty containers on electronic weight balance and mark the identification number 2. medium and coarse) Procedure: 1. 3. Apparatus andmaterials:  A thermostatically controlled oven  Weighing balance readable and accurate  Specimen container. Lab No: 02 To find out Moisture content of soil by Oven Drying Method. Weight out the bulk soil mass i. .e.  Scoop  Soil samples (fine. Significance and use: Water content testing is used to provide quality-control information that can be used as a guide during construction on whether water needs to be added or removed from the soil. Weight the oven dried soil mass and mark it asW3. IS: 2720 (Part II) – 1973 Scope: Through this practical. the consistency of a given soil type depends on its water content. Designation: ASTM D 2216. 5. This method may be applied to fine. the mass of soil in containers and weight it as W2. 4. medium and coarse grained soil for particle size from 2mm to 10mm. Take the moist soil samples from the field. we found the moisture content of three samples of soil by mass taken from the field. 6. Store into oven provided 110 ± 5 °C and for 24hrs. Note weight as W1. In fine-grained (cohesive) soils. Theory: Water Content: Water content is the ratio of the mass of water in a sample to the mass of solids in the sample. expressed as a percentage.

. Find the water content by usingformula: W = [W2-W3] / [W3-W1]*100%. Observations and calculations: Serial Description # Repetitions 1 Container Number A B C 2 Mass of empty container . W1 3 Mass of Soil + container .W3 5 Mass of Dry Soil= Wd=W3-W1 6 Mass of water =Ww=W2-W3 7 Moisture Content=W=(Ww/Wd)*100 Results and discussion: Moisture Content ofSample1=% Moisture Content ofSample2=% Moisture Content of Sample 3=% The oven-dry test can be a useful tool not only for verifying the readings from electronic moisture meters. Calculate the weight of the water Ww =W2-W3 8. 7. Calculate the weight of dry solid soil Wd= W3-W1 9. Remarks: The average value of moisture content comes out to be . W2 4 Mass of oven Dry Soil + container . but also for understanding what is happening inside of the wood as it dries.

such as fibrous matter which floats in water. WPS . given as a multiple of the mass of the same volume of a standard substance (usually water) APPRATUS AND MATERIAL  PYCNOMETER Balance PROCEDURE (1) Determine and record the weight of the empty clean and dry PYCNOMETER. (2) Place 200 g of a dry soil sample (passed through the sieve No. (3) Add distilled water to fill about half to three-fourth of the PYCNOMETER. LAB NO3 TO FIND THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL SOLIDS DESIGNATION ASTM D 854 SCOPE Soil solids for these test methods do not include solids which can be altered by these methods. SIGNIFICANCE AND USE The specific gravity of soil solids is used in calculating the phase relationships of soils. (4) Shake the sample up and down to remove entrapped air . Determine and record the weight of the PYCNOMETER containing the dry soil. THEORY SPECIFIC GRAVITY The mass of a substance. or are highly organic soil solids. 10) in the PYCNOMETER. such as void ratio and degree of saturation. contaminated with a substance that prohibits the use of these methods. Soak the sample for 10 minutes. WP.

Determine the weight of the PYCNOMETER and distilled water. Determine the weight of the PYCNOMETER and contents. clean the exterior surface of the PYCNOMETER with a clean. g = WPS – WP WA = weight of PYCNOMETER filled with water WB = weight of PYCNOMETER filled with water and soil OBSERVATIONS AND CALULATIONS Specimen number 1 2 3 WP = Mass of empty. (8) Empty the PYCNOMETER and clean it. GS= [W0/W0+ (WA-WB)]*α Where: W0 = weight of sample of oven-dry soil. (6) Fill the PYCNOMETER with distilled (water to the mark). Then fill it with distilled water only (to the mark). Clean the exterior surface of the PYCNOMETER with a clean. clean PYCNOMETER (grams) WPS = Mass of empty PYCNOMETER + dry soil (grams) WB = Mass of PYCNOMETER + dry soil + water (grams) WA = Mass of PYCNOMETER + water (grams) Specific gravity (GS) GS = ? PYSNOMETER . WB. dry cloth. dry cloth. WA. DATA ANALYSIS Calculate the specific gravity of the soil solids using the following formula: Specific Gravity. (7) Empty the PYCNOMETER and clean it.

4 to No. 200 sieves. This test method uses a square opening sieve criterion in determining the gradation of soil between the 3-in. . Shear strength of soil. These data are combined to determine the particle-size distribution (gradation). and earthen dams may have gradation requirements. The gradation of the soil often controls the design and quality control of drainage filters. and groundwater drainage. Lab No: 04 Determination of Particle Size Distribution of a given soil sample by set of sieves Designation:- AASHTO T 88-97.1 Selection and acceptance of fill materials are often based on gradation. Definitions:- 2 Well graded A well graded soil is a soil that contains particles of a wide range of sizes and has a good representation of all sizes from the No. (75-mm) and No. backfills.This test method is used to separate particles into size ranges and to determine quantitatively the mass of particles in each range. highway embankments. Significance and use:- The gradation (particle-size distribution) curve is used to calculate the coefficient of uniformity and the coefficient of curvature. It is also required in the classification of soil. For example. Selection of options for dynamic compaction and grouting is related to gradation of the soil. soil settlement and permeability of soil can also found by this method. ASTM D-6913 Scope:- Soils consist of particles with various shapes and sizes. 200 (75-μm) sieves.

Apparatus and materials:- 1) Sieves of different sizes i. 2 Gap Graded A gap-graded soil is a soil that has an excess or deficiency of certain particle sizes or a soil that has at least one particle size missing.2 Poorly Graded A poorly graded soil is a soil that does not have a good representation of all sizes of particles from the No.4.NO.16.40.NO. D30. respectively. 3 Co-efficient of Uniformity The uniformity coefficient Cu is defined as the ratio of D60 by D10. it is understood as a well graded soil and when the Cu is less than 4. Range: When Cu is greater than 4 to 6. So if the Cu value is high it indicates that the soil mass consists of different ranges of particle sizes.NO. and D10 are the particle diameters corresponding to 60.e.NO. and 10% finer on the cumulative particle-size distribution curve. 30.NO. 4 to No.NO.100.Higher the value of Cu the larger the range of the particle sizes in the soil.10. Co-efficient of Curvature Cc—Coefficient of Curvature is the ratio (D30)2/ (D10.(NO.4 Range: For the soil to be well graded the value of coefficient of curvature Cc should be in the range of 1 to 3. 200 sieve.200) 2) Soil sample 3) Tray 4) Weight balance . they are considered to be poorly graded or uniformly graded. where D60. D60).50.

2) Sieves are arranged in descending order of their sizes with a pan atbottom. . Procedure:- 1) Take a soil sample of about 503.3g.

6) Remove the sieve one by one and note the weight of retained material on eachsieve.25 #100 0.43 #50 0. 4) The sieve operation should be conducted by lateral and vertical motionof sieves. 5) Sieving should be continue until not more than 1% by mass of residue passes through any sieve duringmotion. 8) And we find the percentage passing or %age finer ofmaterial.18 #40 0.00 #16 1.150 . Observations and calculations: Mass of Sieve Diameter Mass of Soil Cumulative Cumulative Soil Number (mm) Retained (g) Percentage Percentage Passing Retained Retained (%) (%) (%) #4 4. 3) Shake the sieves for 5 to 10 minutes. 7) Then we find the weight of passing material.75 #10 2.

#200 0.075 Pan Graph:- Y AXIS =CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE PASSING X AXIS=GRAIN SIZE Results and discussion:- D60 = D30 = D10 = Cu =D60/D10 = Cu= Cc= (D30)2 / (D60)(D10) = Cc= % Gravel = % Sand = % Fines = .

Higher the value of Cu the larger the range of the particle sizes in the soil. they are considered to be poorly graded or uniformly graded.dot.edu/Experiment%206-Grain%20Size%20Analysis.uic. So if the Cu value is high it indicates that the soil mass consists of different ranges of particle sizes.us/pub/txdot-info/cst/TMS/100-E_series/pdfs/soi142.3 Remarks:- When Cu is greater than 4 to 6.pdf 4.webhost.nptel.ac.pdf 2. it is understood as a well graded soil and when the Cu is less than 4.org/wiki/Soil_gradation 3.tx.wikipedia.textofvideo.state.in/105101084/lec7. For the soil to be well graded the value of coefficient of curvature Cc should be in the range of 1 to 3.cemmlab.ftp://ftp.https://en.pdf . References:- 1.

The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-µm (No. and shear strength. plastic limit. 40) sieve. either individually or together. and the plasticity index of soils. and plasticity index of soils are also used extensively. The liquid and plastic limits of a soil and its water content can be used to express its relative consistency or liquidity index. It is recommended that the multipoint method be used in cases where test results may be subject to dispute. plastic limit. hydraulic conductivity (permeability). The multipoint liquid limit method is generally more precise than the one-point method. If the liquid and plastic limits of soils are used to correlate or estimate the engineering behavior of soils in their natural moist state. The liquid limit. samples should not be permitted to dry before testing unless data on dried samples are specifically desired. compatibility. with other soil properties to correlate with engineering behavior such as compressibility. Definitions:- . shrink-swell. Significance and Use:- These test methods are used as an integral part of several engineering classification systems to characterize the fine grained fractions of soils and to specify the fine-grained fraction of construction materials. Lab No:-05 Determination of Liquid Limit of Soil using Casagrande’s Apparatus Designation:- ASTM D 4318 BS 1377 (Fall Cone Method) Scope:- These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit. or where greater precision is required.

 Fill this paste in Casagrande”s apparatus. and cam mounted on a hard rubber base.  When paste come in contact with less than of half inch (12.  Groove in paste (in center). The dish falls through a distance of 1 cm per rotation.  Pass soil sample from sieve no. #40(0.425mm).105-115˚C  Container for moisture content  Weighing balance  Soil sample Procedure:-  Collect soil sample from field. It consists of a brass dish.5 mm) than stop revolving and find the liquid limit.  Make a paste with addition of 20% water and properly mix. handle. .1 Liquid Limit:Liquid limit is defined as the minimum water content at which a pat of soil cut by a groove of standard dimension will flow together for a distance of 12 mm (1/2 inch) under an impact of 25 blows in the device.  Rotate the handle of Casagrande”s apparatus with 2 revolutions per second. 2 Casagrande’s Liquid Limit Apparatus:An appliance to determine the liquid limit of a soil. Apparatus:-  Casagrande”s apparatus  Grooving tool  Drying oven .  Take 100g of sieved sample.

3 Observations and calculations:- S. Description Repetitions 1 Container Number 1 2 3 4 2 Weight of Pan=W1 3 Weight of wet soil + pan=W2 4 Weight of dry soil + pan=W3 5 Weight of Dry soil (W4=W3-W1) 6 Weight of moisture (W5= W2-W3) 7 Moisture Content (W5/W4*100) 8 Number of Blows . No.

http://civilblog. It shows the amount of water at which the soil will remain in plastic state.org/2015/03/07/liquid-limit-of-soil-what-why-how/ 2.04% Liquid Limit is used to calculate the plasticity index which is very important property of soil. https://www. Reference:- 1.Flow Type Point curve:- Liquid Limit = Results and discussion: Liquid Limit or the moisture content required to change the soil from plastic to liquidstateis 24.mindat.org/glossary/Casagrande_liquid_limit_apparatus .

The results of two trials must be obtained for averaging.  Surface for rolling . Roll this mass between the fingers or palm of hand and the ground glass plate or satisfactory paper on a smooth horizontal surface with just sufficient pressure to roll the mass into a thread of uniform diameter throughout its length. PRACTICAL no 6 =PLASTIC LIMIT DESIGNATION ASTM D 4318 SCOPE This section describes the laboratory procedure for determining the plastic limit of soils.  Oven .  PROCEDURE i. (75 mm) long and approximately ¾ in. about 3 in. THEORY Moisture content at which soil transform from plastic to Semi solid state is called plastic limit APPARATUS AND MATERIAL  U. . (19 mm) wide. (Unglazed refers to paper similar to that used for mimeographing).S. counting a stroke as one complete motion of the hand forward and back to the starting position again. No. Paper toweling is not satisfactory. with distilled water de mineralized or tap water.. It is the moisture content at which a soil will just begin to crumble when rolled into a thread ⅛ in.  Watering bottle. expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-dry soil. (3 mm) diameter rod may be used as a guide to help the operator estimate the thread size.a ground glass plate or piece of glazed or unglazed paper on which to roll the soil sample.  Spatula. at the boundary between the plastic and semisolid states of consistency.  A ⅛ in.3 oz. Squeeze and roll a 0. 40 (0. (8 g) test sample into an ellipsoidal shaped mass. (3 mm) in diameter using a ground glass plate or other acceptable surface. This method is based upon ASTM Designation D 4318 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE The plastic limit of a soil is the moisture content.01 g. The rate of rolling should be between 80 and 90 strokes/min.a thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of maintaining temperatures of 230±9° F (110±5° C) for drying moisture samples.425 mm) sieve.  Balance sensitive to 0.

iv. provided the soil has been previously rolled into a thread ⅛ in.5 mm) in length. Replace the covers on the containers and weigh before hygroscopic moisture can be absorbed. Place the crumbled portions of the soil together in a suitable tarred container. iii. particularly as they approach the v. ii. EB 15-025 Page 13 of 16 plastic limit. Repeat to obtain another plastic limit sample. and finally the thread falls apart in many small platy particles. When the plastic limit has been reached. (3 mm). due to drying. At no time shall the operator attempt to produce failure at exactly ⅛ in.3 to 9. is recorded as the weight of water. a sample of the soil is immediately taken to determine its moisture content. (3 mm). Weigh the container and wet soil and record on Form SM 309 (Appendices B & C).01 g and record. Oven- dry the soil samples in the uncovered containers to constant weight at 230±9° F (110±5° C). it is permissible. Crumbling may occur when the thread has a diameter greater than ⅛ in. Weigh (2) to the nearest 0. The crumbling will manifest itself differently with various soil types: some soils fall apart in numerous small aggregations of particles. ix. break the thread into six or eight pieces. to reduce the total amount of deformation by making the initial diameter of the mass near the required ⅛ in. (See Figure 3. (3 mm). then reducing the rate of rolling or the hand pressure or both. viii. This shall be considered a satisfactory end point. (3 mm) diameter by allowing the thread to reach ⅛ in. however.01 g. (6. The loss in weight of the soil in each tare. and continuing the rolling without further deformation until the thread falls apart. (3 mm) final diameter. and reroll. and finally the thread breaks into a series of barrel shaped segments each about ¼ to ⅜ in. (3 mm) in diameter. until the thread crumbles under the pressure required for rolling and the soil can no longer be rolled into a thread. kneading and rerolling. Continue this alternate rolling to a thread ⅛ in. vii. When the diameter of the thread becomes ⅛ in. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS TABLE OF 1 2 3 CONTENTS WT of empty . Heavy clay soils require much pressure to deform the thread. gathering together. i.) vi. others may form an outside tubular layer that starts splitting at both ends. Weigh and record on Form SM 309. The splitting progresses toward the middle. (3 mm) in diameter. When testing very low plastic soils. Maintain the same rate of rolling and the same hand pressure during the entire test. Place samples in a desiccator (1) and allow to cool. Weigh to the nearest 0. Squeeze the pieces together between the thumbs and fingers into a uniform mass roughly ellipsoidal in shape.

container W1 WT of empty container +wet soil=W2 WT of empty container +dry soil=W3 Wt of water WW=W2-W3 Wt of soil solids WS=W3-W1 W=WW/WS*100 COMMENTS When the soil is extremely sandy. the plastic limit test shall be done before the liquid limit test. then report the plasticity index as NP (non-plastic) . If the plastic limit cannot be determined.

Cylindrical core cutter. and structure backfill. Significance and use:- These test methods are used to determine the in-place density of compacted materials in construction of earth embankments. Definitions:- 1 Bulk Densitydefined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of soil. the cutter is pressed into the soil mass so that it is filled with the soil and when The cutter filled with the soil it is lifted up. The dry density is usually expressed as either g/cm3 or t/m3. LAB NO. 100mm internal diameter and 130mm long 2. 25mm high and 100mm internal diameter . Steel rammer. A core cutter is typically a cylindrical seamless steel tube for determination of the dry density of soil. The word “rock” in these test methods is used to imply that the material being tested will typically contain particles larger than 3 in. Steel dolly. 2 Dry Densitythe dry mass of soil per unit volume. mass 9kg. These test methods can be used to determine the in-place density of natural soil deposits. aggregates. The mass of the soil in the cutter is determined. In the of field density test. 7 To determine in-place soil density by using core-cutter method Designation:- ASTM D 2937 Scope:- These test methods cover the determination of the in-place density and unit weight of soil and rock using a pouring device and calibrated sand to determine the volume of a core cutter. road fills. overall length with the foot and staff about 900mm. (75 mm). Apparatus and materials:- 1. or other similar material. soil mixtures. which are alike. 3. Bulk density considers both the solids and the pore space.

about 300mm square in area. Straight edge. Remove the core of the soil from the cutter. Take a representative sample for the water content determination. Palette knife 6. Stop the pressing when about 15mm of the dolly protrudes above the soil surface. 5. Determine the water content. Pictures:- . 3. Procedure:- 1. 8. Soil would project from the lower end of the cutter. Expose a small area of the soil to be tested. Determine the internal diameter and height of the core cutter. 6. Level the surface. 7. 5. Trim the top and bottom surface of the core cutter carefully using a straight edge. 9. Weigh the core cutter filled with the soil (M2). and take out the core cutter. 2. steel rule etc. 4. accuracy 1g. Place the dolly over the top of the core cutter and press the core cutter into the soil mass using the rammer. Determine the mass (M1) of the cutter. Remove the dolly. Remove the soil surrounding the core cutter.4. Weighing balance.

1 Observation 1 Core Cutter No. 1 2 Internal Diameter 3 Internal Height 4 Mass of empty core cutter (M1) 5 Mass of core cutter with soils (M2) Calculations 6 Mass of soil=M=M2-M1 7 Volume of core cutter=V 8 Water content 9 Bulk density(Yb)(KN/m3) 10 Dry density using formula Yd=Yb/(1+W) Remarks:- _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ . No.Observations and calculations:- Sr. Observations and Calculations Determination No.

http://civilblog.in/~pkbd/Lab-DensityCoreCutter.php?idinformationmodule=1130447039&top icorder=6 2.html 5.iitk.unl. http://passel.edu/pages/informationmodule.ac.com/w/index.org/2014/03/31/determination-of-field-density-of-soil-by-core-cutter- method-is-27270-part-29/ 4.References:- 1.org/geotechnical/dry-density-of-soil-by-core-cutter-method/2680/ .php?title=Dry_density 3. http://home. http://tmltesting. https://theconstructor.

LAB NO 8 Determination of field density of soil by sand replacement method Designation:- ASTM D 4914 Scope:- These test methods cover the determination of the in-place density and unit weight of soil and rock using a pouring device and calibrated sand to determine the volume of a test pit. Calibrating can 3. Metal tray with a central hole . Apparatus and materials:- 1. which are alike. aggregates. Sand pouring cylinder 2. Bulk density considers both the solids and the pore space. or other similar material. and structure backfill. (75 mm). These test methods can be used to determine the in-place density of natural soil deposits. road fills. The dry density is usually expressed as either g/cm3 or t/m3. The word “rock” in these test methods is used to imply that the material being tested will typically contain particles larger than 3 in. Definitions:- 1 Bulk Density:defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of soil. soil mixtures. Significance and use:- These test methods are used to determine the in-place density of compacted materials in construction of earth embankments. 2 Dry Density:the dry mass of soil per unit volume.

Collect the excavated soil into the tray and weigh the soil (W) 5. Excavate a pit into the ground. with sand having the latest weight of W7. When there is no further downward movement of sand in the cone. 9. 7. Dry sand (passing through 600 micron sieve) 5.Measure the volume of sand of the hole (Vh). weight the calibrating container plus sand as W5 and measure the weight of sand in the calibrating container as W6. STAGE-2 (MEASUREMENT OF SOIL DENSITY) 1. d and height. The hole in the tray will guide the diameter of the pit to be made in the ground. Determine the moisture content of the excavated soil. h) of the calibrating can and compute its internal volume. Finally. 6. Balance 6. Find the weight of the sand cone apparatus with the remaining sand (W8). Let it be W2. close the slit. 4. approximately 12 cm deep (same as the height of the calibrating can). Vc = πd2h/4. 10. open the slit above the cone by operating the valve and allow the sand to run down. Metal tray 9. Measure the weight of sand in the hole W9. 4. Scraper tool Procedure:- STAGE-1 (CALIBRATION OF SAND DENSITY) 1. Weight the calibrating container as W4. Open the slit of the sand cone apparatus and allow the sand to run into the pit freely. over the pit so that the base of the cylinder covers the pit concentrically. 6. through the hole in the plate. 4. Clean and level the ground surface where the field density is to be determined 2. Fill the sand cone apparatus with sand with 1 cm top clearance (to avoid any spillover during operation) and find its weight W1 3. determine the bulk density of sand. Place the sand cone apparatus. 3. Determine the weight of sand required to fill the cone as W3 5. Moisture content bins 7. Glass plate 8. . till there is no downward movement of sand level in the sand cone apparatus and then close the slit. Measure the internal dimensions (diameter. Place the tray with a central hole over the portion of the soil to be tested. Place the sand cone apparatus on a plate. 2. 8.

11. No. determine the bulk and dry density of soil. Sr.0415ft3 5 Mass of calibrating container=W4 . No. Observation and Calculations Determination No.Finally. Observation and Calculations 1 1 Mass of sand cone apparatus+sand (before pouring in cone)=W1 2 Mass of sand cone apparatus+sand (after pouring in cone)=W2 3 Mass of sand in the cone W3=W1-W2 4 Volume of calibrating container=Vc 0. Pictures:- 3 Observations and calculations:- Part-I: Calibration for bulk Density of Sand Sr.

edu/pages/informationmodule. Sr. https://civildigital.php?title=Dry_density 3. Yd Remarks:- ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ References:- 1. Observations and calculations Determination No. Observations and calculations 1 1 Mass of excavated soil (W) 2 Mass of sand cone apparatus+sand (before pouring in hole)=W7 3 Mass of sand cone apparatus+sand (after pouring in hole)=W8 4 Mass of sand in the hole=W9=W7-W8-W3 5 Volume of sand in the hole=Vh=W9/Ys 6 Bulk density=Yb=W/Vh 7 Water content 8 Dry density using formula.unl.com/sand-replacement-method/ .com/w/index. No. No. 6 Mass of calibrating container+sand=W5 7 Mass of sand in calibrating container (in Vc)=W6=W5-W4 8 Dry density of sand=Ys=W6/Vc Part-II: Bulk and Dry Density of Soil Sr. http://passel. http://tmltesting.php?idinformationmodule=1130447039& topicorder=6 2.

will improve by increasing the soil density. and less susceptible to swelling than soil compacted dry of optimum to the same density. Designation:- ASTM D 1557 Scope:- These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit. The soil compacted lower than (dry of) the optimum water content typically results in a flocculated soil structure (random particle orientations) that has the opposite characteristics of the soil compacted wet of the optimum water content to the same density. The optimum water content is the water content that results in the greatest density for a specified compactive effort. plastic limit. less pervious. 40) sieve. more ductile. expressed as a percentage. and imperviousness of the soil. Compacting at water contents higher than (wet of ) the optimum water content results in a relatively dispersed soil structure (parallel particle orientations) that is weaker. Design specifications usually state the required density (as a percentage of the “maximum” density measured in a standard laboratory test). most engineering properties. moisture content is the ratio of the mass of water in a sample to the mass of solids in the sample. resistance to shrinkage. Definitions:- 1 Optimum Moisture Content:the water content at which a maximum dry unit weight can be achieved after a given compaction effort. more susceptible to shrinking. 2 Moisture Content:The moisture content of soil also referred to as water content is an indicator of the amount of water present in soil. By definition. The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-µm (No. softer. and the water content. and the plasticity index of soils. In general. LAB NO 9 To perform Standard & Modified compaction test and to obtain Moisture Density relationship for given compactive effect on particular soil. . Significance and Use:- Mechanical compaction is one of the most common and cost effective means of stabilizing soils. such as the strength. stiffness. An extremely important task of geotechnical engineers is the performance and analysis of field control tests to assure that compacted fills are meeting the prescribed design specifications.

 Manual rammer.  Drying oven .  #4 sieve. The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer. Apparatus:-  Mold.5 kg) dropping from a height of 12 inches (30.5 lbs. Use the modified compaction method and compact the soil in five equal layers. (4) Measure the dimensions of compaction mold to determine its volume. (4. The dry density is usually expressed as either g/cm3 or t/m3.5 kg) dropping from a height of 18 inches (45. The .  Moisture can. 4 Dry Density:the dry mass of soil per unit volume. (3) Determine the weight of the compaction mold without its base (without the collar) by using the balance. it should be accomplished in a manner that does not crush the soil particles. (2. (5) Use the standard compaction method and compact the soil in three equal layers. which are alike.7 cm).  Weighing balance  Soil sample. Attach the collar and base plate to the mold.3 Maximum Dry Density:The dry density obtained by the compaction of soil at its optimum moisture content.5 cm). If the material must be broken-up. 4 Sieve.105-115 c. The amount of soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mold leaving about ¼ in (5mm) to be struck off when the collar is removed. (2) Take 3 kg of the selected soil and mix with a 3% of water for modified compaction test and 6% of water for standard compaction test.  Graduated Cylinder. Procedure:- (1) Select a representative quantity of air-dried soil that passes the No. each layer being given 25 blows from the rammer weighting 10 lbs. each layer being given 25 blows from the rammer weighting 5.  Extruder.  Straight edge. The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer.

(12) Plot zero air void line/saturation curve. split it. 5 Picture:- . (6) Remove the collar and base plate carefully. a peak value is followed by two slightly lesser compacted weights. (9) Repeat the same process by adding 3% more water in each trial. (10) Return to the laboratory the following day and weight the oven-dry water content samples to find the actual water content of test trial. Carefully remix and repeat steps 5 to 9 until. (11) Plot graph between dry density and moisture content. amount of soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mold leaving about ¼ in (5mm) to be struck off when the collar is removed. based on wet weights. strike both the top and base of the compacted cylinder of soil with a straight edge. (8) Extrude the cylinder of soil from the mold. Fill in any holes in the compacted specimen with soil if the smoothing process removes any small pebbles (7) Clean the mold from outside and weight it. take samples and put them in the oven for moisture determination.

rw)/(1+w.Gs/Sr) Gs= assume h(m) V(m3) w(%) (assumed) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 rd (kN/m3) (Sr=100%) RESULTS rd (kN/m3) (Sr=90%) rd max OMC in % in kN/m3 . Modified Compaction Test Trials 1 2 3 4 5 6 Can no. Can+wet soil Can+dry soil wt of water wt of Can wt of dry soil w(%) Density wt of soil+Mould wt of Mould wt of soil in mould wt of soil(kN) Observations and calculations:- rb(kN/m3) rd(kN/m3) For plotting zero air void curve (Sr=100%) and curves for degree of saturation <100% d(m) A(m2) rd=(Gs.

wikipedia.org/glossary/maximum_dry_density 4.ucmerced. https://www.civilengineeringforum.php?title=Pd 4.edu/snsjho/files/MHWG/Laboratory/Soils/Proto col/Chapter_3_Moisture_content. http://tmltesting.me/standard-proctor-compaction- test/ . http://www.com/w/index.org/wiki/Optimum_water_content_for_tillage 2.Graph:- Remarks:- ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ References:- 1.mindat.pdf 3. https://eng. https://en.

Design specifications usually state the required density (as a percentage of the “maximum” density measured in a standard laboratory test). will improve by increasing the soil density. In general. most engineering properties. Compacting at water contents higher than (wet of ) the optimum water content results in a relatively dispersed soil structure (parallel particle orientations) that is weaker. less pervious. such as the strength. LAB NO 10 To perform Standard & Modified compaction test and to obtain Moisture Density relationship for given compactive effect on particular soil. . 40) sieve. The optimum water content is the water content that results in the greatest density for a specified compactive effort. and the plasticity index of soils. plastic limit. Designation:- ASTM D 1557 Scope:- These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit. and imperviousness of the soil. Significance and Use:- Mechanical compaction is one of the most common and cost effective means of stabilizing soils. resistance to shrinkage. and less susceptible to swelling than soil compacted dry of optimum to the same density. The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-µm (No. and the water content. moisture content is the ratio of the mass of water in a sample to the mass of solids in the sample. more susceptible to shrinking. An extremely important task of geotechnical engineers is the performance and analysis of field control tests to assure that compacted fills are meeting the prescribed design specifications. Definitions:- 1 Optimum Moisture Content:the water content at which a maximum dry unit weight can be achieved after a given compaction effort. By definition. The soil compacted lower than (dry of) the optimum water content typically results in a flocculated soil structure (random particle orientations) that has the opposite characteristics of the soil compacted wet of the optimum water content to the same density. expressed as a percentage. 2 Moisture Content:The moisture content of soil also referred to as water content is an indicator of the amount of water present in soil. stiffness. softer. more ductile.

each layer being given 25 blows from the rammer weighting 10 lbs.  #4 sieve. The . (14) Take 3 kg of the selected soil and mix with a 3% of water for modified compaction test and 6% of water for standard compaction test.  Extruder.5 cm).  Drying oven .  Manual rammer.  Weighing balance  Soil sample. Procedure:- (13) Select a representative quantity of air-dried soil that passes the No. The dry density is usually expressed as either g/cm3 or t/m3. If the material must be broken-up.  Straight edge. (4.  Moisture can. Attach the collar and base plate to the mold.5 kg) dropping from a height of 12 inches (30. The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer. 4 Dry Density:the dry mass of soil per unit volume. it should be accomplished in a manner that does not crush the soil particles.7 cm). 4 Sieve. (17) Use the standard compaction method and compact the soil in three equal layers.5 kg) dropping from a height of 18 inches (45. The amount of soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mold leaving about ¼ in (5mm) to be struck off when the collar is removed.  Graduated Cylinder. (15) Determine the weight of the compaction mold without its base (without the collar) by using the balance. Use the modified compaction method and compact the soil in five equal layers. which are alike. (16) Measure the dimensions of compaction mold to determine its volume. (2.105-115 c. The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer. Apparatus:-  Mold.5 lbs.3 Maximum Dry Density:The dry density obtained by the compaction of soil at its optimum moisture content. each layer being given 25 blows from the rammer weighting 5.

based on wet weights. (23) Plot graph between dry density and moisture content. Carefully remix and repeat steps 5 to 9 until. (21) Repeat the same process by adding 3% more water in each trial. split it. (18) Remove the collar and base plate carefully. (20) Extrude the cylinder of soil from the mold. amount of soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mold leaving about ¼ in (5mm) to be struck off when the collar is removed. take samples and put them in the oven for moisture determination. Fill in any holes in the compacted specimen with soil if the smoothing process removes any small pebbles (19) Clean the mold from outside and weight it. 5 Picture:- . strike both the top and base of the compacted cylinder of soil with a straight edge. a peak value is followed by two slightly lesser compacted weights. (24) Plot zero air void line/saturation curve. (22) Return to the laboratory the following day and weight the oven-dry water content samples to find the actual water content of test trial.

Can+wet soil Can+dry soil wt of water wt of Can wt of dry soil w(%) Density wt of soil+Mould wt of Mould wt of soil in mould wt of soil(kN) Observations and calculations:- rb(kN/m3) rd(kN/m3) For plotting zero air void curve (Sr=100%) and curves for degree of saturation <100% d(m) A(m2) rd=(Gs. Modified Compaction Test Trials 1 2 3 4 5 6 Can no.rw)/(1+w.Gs/Sr) Gs= assume h(m) V(m3) w(%) (assumed) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 rd (kN/m3) (Sr=100%) RESULTS rd (kN/m3) (Sr=90%) rd max OMC in % in kN/m3 .

Graph:- Remarks:- ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ References:- 5.php?title=Pd 9.wikipedia.org/glossary/maximum_dry_density 8.ucmerced.me/standard-proctor-compaction- test/ .mindat. https://eng.pdf 7.edu/snsjho/files/MHWG/Laboratory/Soils/Proto col/Chapter_3_Moisture_content. http://tmltesting. https://en.civilengineeringforum. https://www.com/w/index. http://www.org/wiki/Optimum_water_content_for_tillage 6.

Permeability (or hydraulic conductivity) refers to the ease with which water can flow through a soil. Equipment:-  Permeameter  Weigh balance . LAB NO: 11 Determination of Permeability of soil by CONSTANT HEAD METHOD Designation:- ASTMD 2434 Scope: -The scope/purpose of this test is to determine the permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of a sandy soil by the constant head test method. and the calculation of the rate of settlement of clayey soil deposits. This property is necessary for the calculation of seepage through earth dams or under sheet pile walls. Definitions: - 1 Permeability of soil:The ease with which water can flow through the soil is permeability of soilOr Soil permeability is the property of the soil to transmit water and air 2 Coefficient of permeabilityis equal to the rate of flow of water through a unit cross section area under a unit hydraulic gradient. and (2) The falling head test method. ponds. the calculation of the seepage rate from waste storage facilities (landfills. The constant head test method is used for permeable soils (k>10-4 cm/s) and the falling head test is mainly used for less permeable soils (k<10-4 cm/s). Significance and Use: - Permeability refers to the porosity of a soil to allow water to move through its void spaces. There are two general types of permeability test methods that are routinely performed in the laboratory: (1) The constant head test method.). etc.

K= Co-efficient of permeability Q=Volume of outflow L= Distance between manometers A=Cross. Using a 500 or 1000 cu-cm container (preferably 1000cu-cm). 3. Compute the K value at test temperature and K20 (co-efficient of permeability at 20˚C) by using formula K=QL/Aht Where. 6. 2. Bubbles that appear (entrapped air) should be removed by tapping gently on the Permeameter.sectional area t =test duration h= difference in head Picture:- . Measure and record the water temperature as T˚C 7.  Vernier caliper  Stop watch  Container Procedure:- 1. When constant flow conditions have been achieved. record the time “t” required to collect 1000 cu-cm of water. Longer periods are sometimes required to ensure complete saturation of the sample. calculate the weight of the soil needed for the volume. Repeat two or three additional times until two runs agree reasonably well. 5. For the given bulk density and moisture. Calculate the volume of permeability from its diameter and length. 4. Place the specimen in the Permeameter and allow to flow through the sample for at least 10 min in order to saturate it. measure the hydraulic head “h” across the sample.

Observations and calculations:- . q= discharge Q=total volume of water t=time period h=head causing flow L= length of specimen A= cross-sectional area.Formula:- The coefficient of permeability (k) is obtained from the relation Where.

No. soil and base plate 3 Hydraulic head=h 4 Time interval=t 5 Quantity of flow=Q (a) First time in period t (b) Second time in period t (c) Third time in period t Average=Q Calculations 6 Mass of soil=(2)-(1) 7 Bulk Density=Yb=Mass/Volume 8 Water content=W 9 Dry Density=Yd=Yb/(1+W) 10 Void Ratio=e=(YwG)/Yd -1 11 K=(QL)/(Aht) Coefficient of permeability of the given soil =_______ mm/sec.Diameter = 100mm Length =____ Volume=______ ml G=____ Area=_____ Sr. Observations and Calculations 1 Observation 1 Mass of empty mold with base plate 2 Mass of mold. Sr. No. Remarks:- _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ References:- . Observations and Calculations Determination No.

org/fishery/static/FAO_Training/FAO_Training/Gene ral/x6706e/x6706e09.org/geotechnical/permeability-of-soil-by- constant-head-permeameter/2993/ 3. http://www.org/geotechnical/permeability-of-soil-by- constant-head-permeameter/2993/ .fao.1.htm 2. https://theconstructor. https://theconstructor.

whereas constant head permeability test is done for the coarse grained soil. Applications:-  Estimation of quantity of underground seepage water under various hydraulic conditions  Quantification of water during pumping for underground construction  Stability analysis of slopes. It is one of the most important geotechnical parameters. 4 Coefficient of permeability:is equal to the rate of flow of water through a unit cross section area under a unit hydraulic gradient. It directly affects the following:  Quantity of water that will flow toward an excavation  Design of cutoffs beneath dams on permeable foundations  Design of the clay layer for a landfill liner. However. it is probably the most difficult parameter to determine. earth dams. . Significance and Use:- The falling head permeability test is a common laboratory testing method used to determine the permeability of fine grained soils with intermediate and low permeability such as silts and clays. and earth retaining structures  Design of landfill liner Definitions:- 2 Permeability:The ease with which water can flow through the soil is permeability of soil. This testing method can be applied to an undisturbed sample. it controls the strength and deformation behavior of soils. In large part. Scope:- Permeability is a measure of the ease with which water can flow through a soil volume. LAB NO: 12 Determination of Permeability of soil by VARIABLE HEAD METHOD Designation:- ASTMD 2434. For fine grained soil Falling head permeability test is done.

Take a sample of soil and weigh it. 10. 4. 8. . Measure the height to the stand pipe water level from the same datum used in step 7 and record as h2. Measure the height of the water in the stand pipe with respect to some convenient datum and record as h1. 3. 6. or after a reasonable quantity of water has flowed out of stand pipe. 5. Once the soil is saturated close the stand pipe valve. 2. This pretest flow period should be permitted to continue until the specimen saturated. Sieve the soil sample and collect the soil passing through 19mm sieve. The coefficient of permeability is given by Where = initial head = final head t= time intervala= cross-sectional area of the liquid stand pipe A=cross-sectional area of the specimenL= length of specimen Equipment:-  Permeameter  Weigh balance  Vernier caliper  Stop watch  Container  Stand pipe Procedure:- 1. Place the undisturbed soil sample in the mold and record the weight of the mold with soil sample as W2. 7.1 Formula:- The variable head permeability is used to measure the permeability of relatively less pervious soils. Open the stand pipe valve and start the stop watch simultaneously. 9. Weight the Permeametermold and record as W1.After a reasonable period. Calculate the weight of soil sample in the mold W3=W2-W1. Attach the Permeameter with water supply and allow water to flow. close the stand pipe valve and record the time as “t”. Now take Permeameterand measure length between two manometers and its diameter.

= ___________m . b = W/V = ____________ = ____________ kN/m3 Internal diameter of tube. 11. = _________ kg Mass of mold + wet specimen. M = _________ kg Specimen bulk unit weight. D = ________ m Cross-sectional areas. L= length of specimen h1 = initial height h2= final height 3 Picture:- 5 Observations and calculations:- Specimen height.Measure and record the water temperature as T˚C. t = time duration in falling head. K=co-efficient of permeability A= Cross-sectional area of Permeameter a = Cross- sectional area of stand pipe. V = ______________ = ___________ m3 Mass of mold.Compute the K value at test temperature and K20 (co-efficient of permeability at 20˚C) by using formula Where. L = _________m Specimen diameter. A =____________=____________ m2 Specimen volume. 12. = _________ kg Specimen mass.

org/geotechnical/permeability-of-soil-by-constant-head- permeameter/2993/ 5.html 4.pdf . a = ________________ =______________ m2 Sr.utm.fullerton.Tube cross-sectional area.edu/~btiwari/geotech_Lab/mainpage_files/other/Permeability. ecs. http://www. https://theconstructor.geotechdata.my/labmanagementunitkl/files/2013/06/DDPA-3052- PERMEABILITY_2013. No.org/geotechnical/variable-head-permeability-test-of-soil/3024/ 2.pdf 3. Time. t (Sec) h1 h2 (mm/sec) 1 2 3 4 Average Remarks:- ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ References:- 1.info/geotest/falling-head-permeability-test. http://www. https://theconstructor.

while the distribution of particle sizes smaller than 75μm is determined by a sedimentation process. Thermometer 9.Scale 12. The distribution of particle sizes larger than 75μm (retained on the No. 1000ml 2. LAB NO 13 Determination of particles size distribution by hydrometric method Designation:- ASTM D-422 Scope:- This test method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. Stop watch 7. Weighing balance.01g 4. 200 sieve) is determined by sieving. Oven 5. silt and clay in the inorganic fraction of soil is measured in this procedure.75 sieve 11. Definitions:- Apparatus and materials:- 1. The method is based on Stoke’s law governing the rate of sedimentation of particles suspended in water. Glass measuring cylinder (jar). 1000ml 6. accuracy 0. Reagents:- . Mechanical stirrer 3. Conical flask or beaker. Significance and use:- The percentage of sand. Glass rod 10.Deflocculating agent. Hydrometer 8.

8. Na6(PO3)6 in deionized water and dilute to 1 liter. Observations and calculations: Pictures .). Attach dispersing cup to mixer and mix the sample for 30 – 60 sec. (Repeat 7. 52 minutes. This mixture is the blank. 6.Dispersing solution.8 – 7. This blank is not diluted to 1000 ml. Fill to the 1000-ml mark with deionized water equilibrated to room temperature. Mix 100 ml of the 5% dispersing solution and 880 ml of deionized water in a 1000 ml cylinder. 7. the other 20 ml is the volume occupied by 50 g of soil. Add 100-ml of 5% dispersing solution. To determine the density insert plunger into suspension. 9. 5. until a uniform suspension is obtained. (Note: 100 ml + 880 ml = 980 ml. The silt has settled to the bottom of the cylinder by this time. Procedure:- 1. Transfer the suspension quantitatively from the dispersing cup to a 1000 ml cylinder. and carefully mix for 30 sec.9 for each sample) 10.Record the hydrometer reading again after 6 hours. This is the amount of silt plus clay suspended. and the hydrometer reading of the blank. 2. Remove plunger (begin 40 second timer) and gently insert the hydrometer into the suspension. Record the hydrometer reading at 40 sec. This is the amount of clay in suspension. or allow to stand overnight to equilibrate. The sand has settled to the bottom of the cylinder by this time. using the procedure described below. 3. 5%: Dissolve 50 g of sodium hexametaphosphate. record the temperature. 4. Weigh 25-50 g of soil and transfer to a dispersing cup. At the beginning of each set.

Observations and Calculations Zero Error = Specific Gravity = Sample Mass = Agent Na6(PO3)6 = Cont. Sieve #200 = a= Date Time Time Temp Actual Corrected %Fine Hydrometer Of Hydrometer Hydrometer Corrected Reading Reading Reading for Meniscus L K L/t √L/t D=kx√L/t Remarks _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ References .