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Universiti Kuala Lumpur

Malaysian Institute of Chemical & Bioengineering Technology


Tutorial 2

1. List types of inputs in a process.

Figure 1: Steps to Solve ODE using Laplace Transform

2. Solve the following ODE to obtain y(t), all initial conditions are y (0) = 0, x (0) = 0:

d 3 y( t) d 2 y(t ) dy ( t )
i) 30 + 43 +14 + y ( t ) = 2.5x ( t )
dt 3
dt 2
d 2 y(t) dy(t)
ii) 7 - 50 + 43y(t) = 3x(t)
dt 2
d 2 y (t ) dy ( t )
+2 + 3y ( t ) = 2x ( t )
iii) dt 2
dt , with x(t) = be-2t, b is a constant.


The manipulated variable for the system is the steam flow rate. the controlled variable is the temperature of the product. iii) Suppose that steam flowrate is at steady state flowrate as calculated in (i). Figure 2 shows a steam heated stirred tank. Figure 3 depicts a blender is mixing a stream w1 containing 80 kg/m3 of solute with a second stream w2 containing 30 kg/m3 of solute to produce 5. ii) Assuming linear dynamics model. ρ = 103 kg/m3. how long does it take to reach T=95°C? Will the temperature remain at 95°C once it reaches the new steady state? If not. 4. C = 1 cal/g. i) Define the dynamic equation that relates the outlet composition to the input variable. V = 100 m3 i) Determine the steady state steam flowrate at setpoint temperature. The volume of the blender is 60 m3.0 m3/min of a solution containing 50 kg/m3 of the solute. 
 ii) Calculate the flowrate w1 and w2 when the outlet composition is at steady state condition. The setpoint of the temperature is 150°C.
 Ruby/ProcessControl/UniKLMICET . Calculate also the time for the temperature to reach within the final 1°C steady state condition. how can you keep it there? Sketch the temperature trajectory as a function of time. The tank has the following conditions: Ti = 40°C. Figure 2 3. calculate the value of process gain and time constant. w = 104 kg/hr. determine the new steady state temperature. The flowrate is then halved. iv) How can the time to reach the value in (iii) be shortened? Suppose the steam rate is zero (the steam is stopped). °C. ΔHv = 600 cal/g. iii) Calculate the new x value for a step change in x2 to 45 kg/m3 when t = 5 min. x1 remains unchanged.

 = 0.  = 3 min. ii) Sketch the response of process. The input flow rate changes suddenly from 120 to 140 gal/min. If the process is initially at steady state at 70C with heater input of 20 kW and the heater input is suddenly changed to 26 kW and held there: i) What will be the expression for the process temperature as a function of time? ii) What will be the maximum temperature that one observes? When will it occur? 6.7. Figure 3 5. An operator notes that the tank level changes as follows: Before input change: level = 6 ft and steady Four minutes later: level = 11 ft Forty minutes later: level = 10 ft and steady i) Find the transfer function model that describes this process. at least approximately. including units. Ruby/ProcessControl/UniKLMICET . An electrical heated process is known to exhibit second-order dynamics with the following parameter values: K = 3°C/kW. A tank used to dampen liquid flow rate surges is known to exhibit second-order dynamics. Evaluate parameters in your model.