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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN

NEW DELHI

RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS

CLASS IX –MATHEMATICS
Workshop on
‘Developing resource material for teaching of Mathematics for
classes IX-XII’
Venue: Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, ZIET Mysore
(20th April to 25th April 2015)
OUR PATRONS

SHRI SANTOSH KUMAR MALL,IAS

COMMISSIONER

SHRI. G K SRIVASTAVA IAS SHRI. U N KHAWARE

ADDL. COMMISSIONER (Admin) ADDL.COMMISSIONER (Acad)

Dr. SHACHI KANT Dr. V VIJAYALAKSHMI

JOINT COMMISSIONER TRAINING JOINT COMMISSIONER (Acad)

Dr. E PRABHAKAR SHRI . M ARUMUGAM

JOINT COMMISSIONER (Personnel) JOINT COMMISSIONER (Finance)


MATERIAL CONSTRUCTION TEAM

PATRON

DR E. T. ARASU,
DEPUTY COMMISSIONER &DIRECTOR,
KVS, ZIET MYSORE

COURSE COORDINATOR

Mrs V.MEENAKSHI,
ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER,
KVS, RO ERNAKULAM

RESOURCE MATERIAL PREPARATIONTEAM

MR.GOVINDU MADDIPATLA,PRINCIPAL K V RAMAVARMAPURAM

MRS. SAIJI. B.R, PGT (MATHS) K V PATTOM (SHIFT-II)

MR. B. SIVAKUMAR , TGT (MATHS) K V PATTOM (SHIFT-II)

MRS. PRASANNA KUMARI, TGT (MATHS) KV ADOOR (SHIFT – II)

MRS. LETHA. K. NAIR, TGT (MATHS) K V PORT TRUST, KOCHI.

MRS. R.P. USHA, TGT (MATHS) K V NO.1, CALICUT.

COORDINATOR

SRI K ARUMUGAM,
PGT (PHYSICS),
KVS ZIET MYSORE
INDEX
CLASS IX

1 Foreword
2 Preface
3 Guidelines to Teachers
4 Teaching Of Mathematics -
Dr.E.T.Arasu, DY. Commissioner & Director,KVS, ZIET Mysore
5 New Trends In Assessments-
Mrs.V. Meenakshi,Asst.Commissioner , KVS(RO),Ernakulam
6 Why Mathematics Is Perceived As A Difficult Subject?-
Mr.E.Ananthan,Principal K. V. NO.1 Thambaram
7 Qualities ofa Successful Mathematics Teacher-
Mr.E. Krishna Murthy, Principal K.V.NFC Nagar, Secundarabad
8 Teaching Strategies In Mathematics-
Mr.Siby Sebastian ,Principal K. V. Bijapur
9 Teaching Learning Mathematics With Joy-
Smt. Sharada M , Teacher, DMS,RIE Mysore

10 Resources- Chapter Wise


 Expected Learning Outcomes.
 Concept mapping in VUE portal.
 Three levels of graded exercises including non-routine questions.
 Value based questions.
 Error Analysis and remediation.
 Question bank.
 Projects and practical.
 Power Point Presentations
 Web Links
11 PSA
12 OTBA
13 Sample Papers
14 Formative Assessments
15 Tips & Techniques To Score Better
16 Tips & Techniques In Teaching- Learning Process
17 The Annexure Folder -List Of Embedded Files ,Video Clips Etc.
FOREWORD

There is an adage about Mathematics: ―Mathematics is the Queen of all Sciences‖. This adage
exemplifies the significance, scope and importance of Mathematics in the realm of sciences. Being a
‗Queen‘, as a subject, Mathematics deserves to be adored and admired by all. But unfortunately, this
subject is perceived by the students as a most difficult subject. Not only in India, but across the globe,
learning of the subject creates trepidation.
The perception about this subject being difficult in India is rather surprising as ours is a land of great
mathematicians like Ramanujan, Bhaskara, Aryabatta et al. The origin and accomplishments of these
great men should be a source of inspiration to both students and teachers alike. Yet, as the truth being
otherwise, making concerted efforts to identify the reason for perceived fears, initiate suitable damage
control and undertake remedial measures assume paramount importance. Kendriya Vidyalaya
Sangathan, as a pace setting educational organization in the field of School Education which always
strives to give best education to its students, thought it fit to take a pioneering step to empower
teachers through teacher support materials. In-service education too strives to do the same. Yet,
providing Teacher Resource Material in a compact format with word, audio and video inputs is indeed
a novel one.
In the name of teacher resources the internet is abound with a lot of materials: books, audio and video
presentations. Yet their validity and usability being debatable, a homemade product by in-house
experts could be a solution. Hence, in response to KVS (HQ)‘s letter dated 03.03.2015 on the subject
―Developing Resource Material for Teaching of English and Maths‖, a six-day workshop was
organized at ZIET, Mysore from 20th April-25th April 2015. The task allotted to ZIET, Mysore by the
KVS is to prepare the resource materials for teachers of mathematics teaching classes IX to XII.
In the workshop, under the able coordinator ship of Mrs. V. Meenakshi, Assistant Commissioner,
KVS, Ernakulam Region, four material production teams were constituted for preparing materials for
classes IX, X, XI and XII separately. Mr. E.Ananathan, Principal, KV, No.1, Tambaram of Chennai
Region headed Class XII Material Production team; Mr.E.Krishnamurthy, Principal, KV,NFC Nagar,
Gatakeshar of Hyderabad region headed Class XI Material Production Team; Mr. Siby Sebastian,
Principal, KV, Bijapur of Bangalore Region headed Class X Material Production Team and
Mr.Govindu Maddipatla, Principal, KV, Ramavermapuram, Trissur of Ernakulam Region headed
Class IX Material Production Team. Each team was aided ably by a group of five teachers of
Mathematics. After a thorough discussion among KVS faculty members and Mrs.Sharada, TGT
(Maths), an invited faculty from Demonstration Multipurpose School, RIE, Mysore on the ‗Reference
Material Framework‘ on the first day, the teams broke up to complete their allotted work. Their
tireless efforts which stretched beyond the prescribed office hours on all the six days helped complete
the task of preparing four Teacher Resource Booklets – one each for classes IX, X, XI and XII in a
time-bound manner.
Even a cursory glance of the index shall reveal the opt areas of support that the Resource Booklet
strives to provide to the teachers of mathematics. The entire material production team deserves
appreciation for the commendable work they did in a short period of six days. It is the earnest hope of
KVS that the effective use of the Resource Materials will serve the purpose of real teacher
empowerment which will result in better classroom teaching, enhanced student learning and above all
creating in the minds of the students an abiding love for the subject of mathematics.
- Dr. E. Thirunavukkarasu
Deputy Commissioner & Course Director
PREFACE

“With a clever strategy, each action is self-reinforcing. Each action creates more options that are
mutually beneficial. Each victory is not just for today but for tomorrow.‖
― Max McKeon

KVS, Zonal Institute of Education and Training, Mysore organized a 6 Day Workshop on
‘Developing Resource Material for teaching of Mathematics for Class IX’ from 20th April to
25th April 2015.
The Sponsored Four Trained Graduate Teachers and one Post Graduate Teacher in Mathematics from
Ernakulum Region were allotted two/ three topics from syllabus of Class IX to prepare Resource
Material for teachers under the heads:
1. Expected Learning Outcomes. 2. Concept mapping in VUE portal.
3. Three levels of graded exercises. 4. Value based questions.
5. Error Analysis and remediation 6.Question Bank
7.Projects and Practical. 8. Power point presentation and video clips.
9.ReferenceWeb links. 10. Sample papers and Formative assessment.
11. Tips and Techniques to score better. 12.Tips and Techniques in Teaching
Learning process.
13. PSA 14.OTBA

As per the given templates and instructions, each member elaborately prepared the Resource Material
under Fourteen heads and presented it for review and suggestions and accordingly the package of
resource materials for teachers were closely reviewed, modified and strengthened to give the
qualitative final shape.
The participants shared their rich and potential inputs in the forms of varied experiences, skills and
techniques in dealing with different concepts and content areas and contributed greatly to the
collaborative learning and capacity building for teaching Mathematics with quality result in focus.

I would like to place on record my sincere appreciation to the Team Coordinator Mr.Govindu
Maddipatla, Principal, K.V. Ramavarmapuram, Ernakulam Region, the participants Mrs. Saiji.
B.R.PGT (Maths), K V Pattom (Shift II), Mr. B. Sivakumar, TGT (Maths), K V Pattom (Shift II),
Mrs. Prasanna Kumari, TGT (Maths), K V Adoor ( Shift II),Mrs.Letha K.Nair,TGT(Maths),K.V.Port
Trust, Kochi, Mrs. R.P. Usha, TGT (Maths),K V No.1, Calicut, the Course Coordinator
Mr.Arumugam, PGT (Phy) ZIET Mysore and the members of faculty for their wholehearted
participation and contribution to this programme.

I express my sincere thanks to Dr.E.T.Arasu, Deputy Commissioner and Director KVS, ZIET, Mysore
for giving me an opportunity to be a part of this programme and contribute at my best to the noble
cause of strengthening Mathematics Education in particular and the School Education as a whole in
general.My best wishes to all Post Graduate Teachers and Trained Graduate Teachers in Mathematics
for much focused classroom transactions using this Resource Material to bring in quality and quantity
results in the Class IX Examinations.
Mrs.V.Meenakshi,
Assistant Commissioner, Ernakulum Region.
Guidelines to Teachers
The Resource Material has been designed to make learning Mathematics a delightful experience
catering to every kind of learner. As the learners are introduced to a fascinating variety of tools, and
participate in meaningful, fun filled activities their Mathematics competence will grow exponentially.
Activities that cater to different learning styles such as problem solving, reasoning and proof,
analytical, logical etc. are thoughtfully placed in the Resource Material.
1. Expected Learning Outcomes:

In this section, the expected learning outcomes are enlisted chapter-wise and these are expected to be
realized among the students on completion of particular chapter. The teachers have to design their
teaching programme which includes mathematical activities, variety of tools and other mathematical
tasks. Teachers may prepare their Power point presentations and use in their regular teaching in order
to realise the desired outcomes.
2. Concept mapping in VUE portal:

The concept mapping works under Visual Understanding Environment portal, which can be
downloaded freely from ―Google‖. A concept map is a type of graphic organizer used to help
teachers/students organize and represent knowledge of a subject. Concept Maps begin with a main
idea (or concept) and then branch out to show that the main idea can be broken down into specific
topics. The main idea and branches are usually enclosed in circles or boxes of any Geometrical figure,
and relationship between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking new concepts. Each concept
is embedded into the box, and those concepts in the form of power point presentation, word
document, videos web links etc are uploaded in the same folder.

How to use a concept Mapping?

The teacher can use as a Teaching Aid for explaining the holistic view of the topic. It can be used as
revision tool. Concept maps are a way to develop logical thinking and study skills by revealing
connections and helping students see how individual ideas form a larger whole. These were
developed to enhance meaningful learning in Mathematics. It enhances metacognition (learning to
learn, and thinking about knowledge). It helps in assessing learner understanding of learning
objectives, concepts and the relationship among those concepts.
Download VUE portal from google and click on this icon to view the content embedded.

3. Three levels of graded exercises including non-routine questions:

In this section, selected questions collected from various reference books and are arranged in graded
manner, in order the child attempt and learn mathematics in that order. Questions are given in three
levels of nature easy, average and difficult respectively. These exercises facilitate the teacher to assign
home/ practice works to the students as per their capabilities.

4. Value based questions:

In this section, Value based questions are given in each chapter with an objective to make a
student aware of the moral values along with the value of problem solving. It is an endeavour to
inculcate value system among the students and make them aware of social, moral values and cultural
heritage of our great nation. It is expected that the students develop the values like friendliness,
Honesty, Initiative, Compassion, Loyalty, Patience, Responsibility, Stability, Tactfulness and
Tolerance along with problem solving skills and other applications.
5. ErrorAnalysis and remediation:

It has been observed that the students commit a few common errors. In order to overcome
this issue,teachers have listed,chapterwise, all possible common errors likely to be committed
by the students and suitable measures to overcome those errors.

6. Question Bank:

The questions were prepared chapter wise and kept in order for guiding the students suitably
in their process of learning.Two sets of sample papers were also included for better
understanding of the pattern of the Board Question Paper including weightage of marks.

7. Projects and Practicals:(Developed by CDAC Mumbai and Amritha University under


grant from Ministry of IT Gvt.Of India))

The Online Labs is based on the idea that Maths lab experiments can be taught using the Internet,
more efficiently and less expensively. The labs can also be made available to students with no access
to physical labs or where equipment is not available owing to being scarce or costly. This helps them
compete with students in better equipped schools and bridges the digital divide and geographical
distances. The experiments can be accessed anytime and anywhere, overcoming the constraints on
time felt when having access to the physical lab for only a short period of time.

The features include;

 Content aligned to the NCERT/CBSE curriculum.


 Mathematics Labs for Class 9 and 10.
 Interactive simulations, animations and lab videos.
 The concepts and understanding of the experiment.
 The ability to perform, record and learn experiments - anywhere, anytime, and individualised
practice in all areas of experimentation.

Robocompass is a Euclidean Geometry Software on a Virtual 3 D Paper. With just a handful


of commands the users can explore basic constructs to understand proofs involving
congruence, similarity, ratio, reflection, etc. Robocompass is fully integrated with Google
Drive, so teachers can save their demonstrations and give construction assignments as
homework to their students all by sharing their files through Google Drive. In this section, the
solutions to the exercises under Geometric Construction in NCERT Textbooks of class IX is
designed using the Robocompass software.
8. Power point presentation and Video clips:

As educators, our aim is to get students get energized and engaged in the hands-on learning
process and video is clearly an instructional medium that is compelling and generates a much
greater amount of interest and enjoyment than the more traditional printed material. Using
sight and sound, video is the perfect medium for students who are auditory or visual learners.
Video stimulates and engages students creating interest and maintaining that interest for
longer periods of time, and it provides an innovative and effective means for educators to
address and deliver the required curriculum content.
PowerPoint is regarded as the most useful, accessible way to create and present visual aids. It
is easy to create colourful, attractive designs using the standard templates and themes; easy to
modify compared to other visual aids, such as charts, and easy to drag and drop slides to re-
order presentation. It is easy to present and maintain eye contact with a large audience by
simply advancing the slides with a keystroke, eliminating the need for handouts to follow the
message.
The Resource material contains Power Point Presentations of all lessons of Class IX and
Video clips/links to Videos of concepts for clarity in understanding.

Please double click on it to view the Power Point Presentation.

9. Reference Web links:

What is EDMODO?
• Free, privacy, secure, social learning platform for teachers, students, parents, and schools.

• Provides teachers and students with a secure and easy way to post classroom materials, share
links and videos, and access homework and school notices.

• Teachers and students can store and share all forms of digital content – blogs, links, pictures,
video, documents, presentations, Assign and explain online, Attach and links, media, files,
Organize content in Edmodo permanent Library, Create polls and quizzes, Grade online with
rubric, Threaded discussions- prepare for online learning!

10. PSA: Problem Solving Assessment:


It is a widely acknowledged fact that research and analytical skills, ability to apply basic concepts of
different subjects, solve application based problems in Mathematics and Science, comprehend and
analyses written text and effective communication are the skills which ensure success in Higher
Studies and Professional areas. These dimensions of 21st Century life skills will greatly assist learners
in acquiring higher order thinking skills such as Problem Solving and Decision Making.
There is no specific syllabus for `Problem Solving Assessment‘ (CBSE-PSA). It will assess the
Quantitative Reasoning Qualitative Reasoning related to Mathematical concepts. The items will
incorporate aspects of 21st Century Skills (Creative Thinking, Decision Making, Critical Thinking,
Problem Solving) that lead to success at Secondary Stage. They would be assessing student‘s ability
to process, interpret and use information rather than assessing student‘s prior subject matter
knowledge.

11. OTBA: Open Text-Based Assessment:

The Central Board of Secondary Education recommends that multiple modes of assessment need to be
provided to cater to the varied abilities of individual strengths of learners. It has been, therefore,
decided to introduce an element of Open Text- based Assessment for classes IX and XI in March,
2014 Examination. A textual material may be in the form of an article, a case study, a diagram, a
concept/ mind map, a picture or a cartoon, problem/situation based on the concepts taught to the
students during second term. It will be to the extent of 15-20 percent in all the main subjects and may
also include the Value Based Questions. The textual material will be related to chosen concepts taken
from the syllabi. The Open Text based Assessment (OTBA) will have questions of higher order
thinking skills and some of which may be subjective, creative and open ended.

Please double click on the box, to view the OTBA question paper.

12. Sample papers:

In this section, blue print and sample papers are included for SA1 and SA2 which helps
teachers to give practice tests in the board pattern.
13. Formative Assessment:
It is a process used by teachers and students as part of instruction that provides feedback to
adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students‘ achievement of core content. As
assessment for learning, formative assessment practices provide students with clear learning
targets, examples and models of strong and weak work, regular descriptive feedback, and the
ability to self-assess, track learning, as well as to set a goal. Formative assessments are most
effective when they are done frequently and the information is used to effect immediate
adjustments in the day-to-day operations of the course.
Assessment is not formative unless something is ―formed‖ as a result of interpreting evidence
elicited. It informs teacher where the need/problem lies to focus on the problem area. It helps
teachers to give specific feedback, provide relevant support and plan the next step. It helps
student identify the problem areas, provides feedback and support. It helps to improve
performance and provides opportunity to improve performance. Peer learning can be
encouraged at all stages with variety of tools.
Online Assessments: Online Assessments are effective 21st century tools which empower
the teachers to extend the class room beyond the four walls. In this technological era
administering online assessments are very easy and immediate feedback is obtained. Free
web portals such as Edmodo, Hot potato, Education Weekly etc. help teachers. This book
includes an insight into these web portals. Online assessment is used primarily to measure
cognitive abilities, demonstrating what has been learned after a particular educational event
has occurred, such as the end of an instructional unit or chapter. Formative assessment is
used to provide feedback during the learning process. In online assessment situations,
objective questions are posed, and feedback is provided to the student either during or
immediately after the assessment. http://www.halfbakedsoftware.com/hot_pot.php

14. Tips and Techniques to score better:

This book includes tips and techniques for the students to score better. These tips will
certainly help the teachers to guide their students for better achievements.

15. Tips and Techniques in Teaching Learning process:

The Tips and Techniques included in this book for better Teaching learning Process will
certainly be handy for the teachers who use this book.

16. Annexure folder:

This folder is a collection of all soft copies which are embedded in the section ‗Concept
Mapping in VUE portal‘.

‗Power Point Presentations‘ of the lessons are included for classroom teaching.

Further Video clippings of a few problems and concepts are included.

Feedback:

The Post Graduate Teachers and Trained Graduate Teachers are requested to use this material in
Classroom transaction and send feedback to Mrs.V.Meenakshi, Assistant Commissioner, Ernakulam
Region.

minakviswa@gmail.com

BEST WISHES!
TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
Introduction:
India is the land of Aryabhatta, Ramanujam and the like – great luminaries in the field of
mathematics. Yet, this is one subject that our students dread the most. ―It is a nightmarish experience
learning this subject, and even the very thought of the subject sends jitters‖ is a common refrain of
school-going students. Not only in India, a developing country, but also in other countries, be those
come under the category of underdeveloped or developed, Mathematics is a subject of fear among our
students. Both parents and students feel that class room teaching of the subject alone is not adequate
for learning it effectively.

The Parent’s worries:


The parents are worried lot. Getting a ‗good‘ Mathematics teacher, whatever it means, is big problem.
The ones they get in the ‗market‘ are not of any big help to their children; yet they are left with no
option but to depend upon either school teachers or coaches from outside. Class room teaching is
woefully inadequate in enabling the children acquire confidence and interest in the subject. The
quantum of individual attention paid to solving the problems of students in this subjects being almost
nil, making them get through the examination is a challenge. ―Something needs to be done to arrest
the rut being set in Mathematics teaching‖ is the common prayer of parents.

Why do children consider mathematics a difficult subject?

When you ask the teachers of Mathematics as to why Mathematics is considered as a difficult subject,
the answers you get are neither logical nor scientific. Here are a few samples:
The subject requires more of students study time than other subjects (why?)
Students fail to practice problems (what is the reason?)
The subject requires long hours of work, involving practice and drill (why is it so?)
This subject is different from other subjects (in what ways?) Though these answers might partially
tell us the reason why the subject is detested by many, they fail to throw any light on the
psychological prerequisites, if any, specially required for learning this subject.

What goes on in Mathematics classes?

A peep into Mathematics classes and a bit of observation of the ways in which Mathematics is taught
by Mathematics teachers reveal a pattern which is as follows:
Introduction of the new topic: the teacher speaking in general terms for a few minutes about the
topic on hand if it happens to be the beginning of the topic.
Working out problems on the black board either by the teacher himself or by calling
out a student to do it:If the teacher does the problem on the board, one can see him doing it
silently or lip-reading the steps involved in it. If the student does the problem on the board, either
continuous interruption or silent observation of the teacher can be seen to be taking place in the class.
Occasional fielding of questions by the teacher on the problem area: When students raise
doubts on the steps written how the steps have been arrived at etc., the teacher either clarifies the
doubts or tells them to go through the steps again.
Leaving a large number of problems for the students to solve: Often after having solved one
or two problems given under the exercise questions on the black board (at times those worked out
problems happen to be given as model problems in the text book), teaches tend to leave a large
number of remaining problems as home work to students.
What is wrong with the Existing Teaching Practices?
A critical analysis of what is wrong with the existing practices of Mathematics teaching is of prime
importance. The analysis of commonly existing Mathematics teaching practices is given below:
Introduction of the Topic
Introduction of any new topic is done in not more than 5-10 minutes duration. This duration is not
enough. You cannot throw light on the conceptual frame work of a topic integrating the related
concepts learned in classes down below in a span of 5 to 10 minutes. The teacher cannot say much in
such a short duration. What actually transpires in Mathematics classes in the name of introducing
topic can be illustrated with an example: In the illustration, I have taken here on the topic ‗quadratic
equation‘ taught by a teacher which goes like this. ―We are going to learn quadratic equations today.
Any equation of the form ax2+bx +c =0 in which a , a and b are coefficients of x2 and x
respectively and c is a constant term is called a quadratic equation. Quadratic Equations have one of
the three types of solutions –two different values for the variable x, same value for the variable x or
no solution‖. This type of introduction with a bit of additional information added or otherwise is
observed in many classes.
Obviously the introduction given by the teacher is insufficient. There are concepts learned in other
classes which have vertical connection and relevance with the topic quadratic equation, namely
algebraic equations, linear equations, factors, constants, coefficients, monomials, binomials and of
course, algebraic expressions etc. Sparing 10 to 20 minutes to brush up the memory of the students in
the topic is highly essential, if a teacher has to cater to the needs of the students of varying levels of
understanding of the subject. Introduction given in a generalized manner without taking into account
the students previous knowledge and current knowledge in a topic would serve no purpose.

Working out Problems:


Next the teacher picking up one or two problems randomly from the actual exercise for solving on the
black board is a common practice observed in the Mathematics classes. Even selecting the worked out
examples given in the text book for black board work is not uncommon among the teachers. While the
majority of Mathematics teachers prefer to articulate the steps as they work out on the black board,
the rest does not open their mouth while their written work is in progress. In the absence of any
instruction, students copy down the black board work without listening much to what the teacher says
is a common sight in Mathematics classes. The black board works with our teacher‘s explanation
cannot be beneficial to the entire class. Leaving a few motivated students, who have developed
interest in Mathematics through other sources of learning, the rest would tend to lose interest and
accumulate doubts/ignorance over a period of time, if efforts are not made by the teacher to explain
the steps as to why and how those steps occur in the way they are written on the black board. If the
sequential relation and coherence among the steps in solving a problem is lost sight of, the entire
subject matter would present a picture of mystery to students. This results in aversion to the subject
and ultimately mathematics phobia. The brain develops a conditioned response to learning
mathematics which I call, ‗Mathematics Blindness‘ Anything related to number, order, sequence,
logic and Mathematical operations becoming an anathema to the brain.

Handling students’ questions:


The third aspect of teaching Mathematics, namely, how teachers handle questions posed by students,
requires a closer examination. Questions, as a matter of fact, are not welcome in mathematics classes.
They are perceived as speed breakers to smooth progress (!?) in the completion of syllabus. ―After all
how good a teacher is not important, but are you a teacher who completes the syllabus within the
stipulated period of time is! Where is the time to explain each and everything? Even if you do so,
there are not many takers. Parents have more faith in coaching classes than in our ability than to teach
their children well. ―Explanation likes this fly thick and fast the moment you talk about poor teaching
of Mathematics. Even in the best of mathematics classes, there is no guarantee that the skill and the
mental process of learning the subject, and the components of mastery learning are taken care of.
Moving back and forth in elucidating the concepts of Mathematics is rarely done though it is an
essential component to review and refresh the previous knowledge. When teachers proceed without
this exercise, students stumble with many a doubt and asking that in the class for clarification is
straddled with many a pitfall. Right choice of words for raising questions, receptivity of teacher and
the possibility of getting answers from the teacher are all matters of speculation. Hence the students
prefer the permissive coaching classes for seeking clarification for the doubts that arise in various
levels of learning Mathematics. Yet, their hopes are dashed as coaching classes are as crowded as
regular school classes and getting conceptual understanding of the subject becomes a real challenge.

The Home Assignments:


Teachers give large number of exercise problems for the students to solve at home. As seen earlier,
doing one or two problems for the name sake does not help the students to acquire the insight required
for solving problems at home on their own. The teacher solved problems are inadequate in number
and variety, and the explanation, if any, given about problem solving in the classes is either
incomprehensive or inadequate. As a result students get frustrated when they struggle with problems
with answers not in sight. They lose interest when their woes are not taken care of.

Mathematics-the Queen of All sciences


Mathematics is one of the compulsory subjects of study up to class X and an optional one from class
XI onwards. It is an important subject as it is considered as the ‗Queen of all Sciences‘. The abstract
nature of Mathematics, precision and exactness being its hall mark, makes this subject appears as
more difficult than other subjects. Even the simplest of concepts in it like numbers, addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division prescribed for the primary classes warrant in-depth understanding
and imagination and creative thinking on the part of the teacher for effective teaching. But do we have
teachers who possess these qualities in our schools is a moot question.

Teaching Mathematics in the Primary Classes


Teachers are not having the subject specialization in Mathematics too are allotted this subject for
teaching in Primary Classes. Concepts in mathematics up to class V level in schools, consists of basic
operations such as addition, subtraction etc., that are taught in a routine manner. As a result, the
student learns to do those basic operations following certain repetitive patterns oblivious of the
―Why‖ aspect of those patterns. When they reach the middle level (Classes VI to VIII) and later on
the secondary level (Classes IX to X), they understand that the ‗patterns ‗that they learn in the primary
classes are not of much use and that they need to know ‗something more‘. The real problem to them is
to know what is that ‗something more‘. It is the understanding of basic concepts which is more
essential than knowing certain patterns of doing certain problems in Mathematics. But unfortunately,
most students come to middle classes without learning anything about Mathematical concepts and
how to use their conceptual understanding for solving problems. Mathematics learning, hence,
becomes a big riddle by then, and the slow but steady process of developing disinterest in the subject
sets in.
The Challenge in Middle and Secondary Classes:
The teachers of the middle and secondary classes have a challenge on hand: opening up the cognitive
domain of students and then taking them to higher order mental abilities though sequential learning
process. In other subjects, knowledge and understanding apart, memory play a vital role in scoring
marks. Even without the former, with the latter (memory) alone, students can score marks in other
subjects, where as in Mathematics, you are expected to do ―problem solving‖ which is a higher order
cognitive skill.

The Cognitive Domain:


The cognitive domain of the human brain is said to be responsible for thinking, understanding,
imagination and creativity. The cognitive domain becomes a fully functional component of human
brain after 10 or 11 years of age in children. This does not mean that this domain remains dormant
and nonfunctional before this stage. In fact ‗concept formation‘- one of the difficult functional outputs
of the cognitive domain –does take place even before 10 or 11 years of age. The lower order cognitive
skills such as knowledge and understanding apart, the elementary level of skills of analysis, and
simple problem solving skills are exhibited by primary class children. Systematic development of
these skills is called for when the children reach the middle classes. Therefore, a thorough
understanding of the process involved in problem solving, which has its genesis in concept learning is
a must for teachers of Mathematics.

What Is Concept Learning?


A concept is an abstract idea, and mathematics is full of them. Concept learning involves acquiring a
thorough comprehension and grasp of abstract ideas. Each concept in Mathematics has sub-
components. For example, ‗algebraic expressions‘ is a concept whose sub-components are ‗algebra‘
(What?), ‗expression‘ (What?), and ‗algebraic expressions‘ (definition?).Besides these components,
questions like what are numerical expressions, are algebraic expressions different from numeric
expressions, what are algebraic equations, how do algebraic expressions differ from algebraic
equations, and so on may needs to be answered to bring out clarity in learning the concept ‗algebraic
expressions‘.

Knowledge Redundancy:
The information age we live in help us see information explosion taking place all around us. The
newer learning taking place with geometric progression keeps replacing the current and past
information, and hence knowledge is in constant state of flux. Processing information in order to add
it to the existing corpus of knowledge is the need of the hour. Teachers, whose main business is
transacting knowledge in class room, cannot remain isolated from information processing. They need
to keep updating themselves; else they would become knowledge redundant.

Class Room transactions Cognitive Skills:


Knowledge updated by the teachers is to be transacted in an effective manner, in capsules, in class
room to facilitate students comprehending it. Students‘ language abilities and power of
comprehension should be known to the teacher so as to select the best possible way of communicating
knowledge with fosters comprehension. The real task of the teacher wanting to achieve total
comprehension exists in analyzing and synthesizing knowledge. This is also acquired to develop
application skills - in known situations to start with and progressively in unknown situations. Problem
solving requires ‗application skills‘, which are the by-product of analysis and synthesis. The skills of
analyzing and synthesizing, and application of knowledge at known and unknown situations have an
important component called ‗thinking‘. Thinking has two integral parts: divergent and convergent,
while divergent thinking results in creativity, convergent in conversation.
The vertical Connectivity among the Cognitive Skills:
The skills in various levels of the cognitive domain do not function in isolation. There is a vertical
connectivity among them, which can be presented by a flow chart as given under:
ORDERED SKILLS OF COGNITIVE DOMAIN: THE COGNITIVE LADDER

Creativity

Problem Solving Higher Order Skills

Application: known/ unknown situations

Synthesis

Middle Order Skills


Analysis

Understanding/ Comprehension

Knowledge
Lower Order Skills

Information

Information Processing:
Processing information may require special skills such as skimming and scanning. Yet ‗information‘
is kept as the bottom as a lower order skill in view of the fact that the information processed as know
ledge is readily made available in text books to study. Information processing is defined as Claude E.
Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information. Latent and manifest
information are defined through the terms equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender
has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received)
and transformation (saved effort of questioning- equivocation minus dissipation).
Knowledge:
Knowledge too has innumerable components yet the bookish knowledge is emphasized in class room
teaching and hence its categorization as a lower order skill. Understanding of what is given in text is
meant in a limited manner of ‗Knowing what it is‘ rather than why and how. The Wikipedia, free
encyclopedia, defines knowledge as information of which a person, organization or other entities
aware. Knowledge is gained either by experience, learning and perception through association and
reasoning. The term knowledge also means the confident understanding of a subject, potential with
the ability to use it for specific purpose.

What is analysis
There are many definitions given to the term ‘analysis’. Some are given below:
An investigation of the component parts whole and their relations in making up the whole.A form of
literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analyzed.The use of closed- class
words instead of infections: eg:, the father of a bride‘ instead of ‗the bride‘s father‘

In our article I use the term ‗ analysis‘ to refer to understanding the components that go into making
something. For analogy, think of a TV set. The components are picture tube, condensers, resistances,
speakers etc. are put together to make a composite whole called TV. Similarly any concepts in
Mathematics consist of micro- concepts/ sub- concepts, the understanding, defining and elucidating of
each micro- concept fall under the domain of analysis. In class VII, for example, the concept of
‗rational number‘ is defined as follows:
―Any number that can be put in the form of p/q where p and q are integers and q not equal to zero is a
rational number‖. Analysis of this concept includes the understanding and elucidation of
i) Why it is said ―that can be put in the form of‖?
ii) What does ‗any number‘ mean?
iii) What are integers?
iv) Why ‗q‘ should not be equal to zero?
v) Why and what for is this new set of numbers called rational numbers?
vi) What is ‗rational‘ about these rational numbers?
A teacher attempting to teach the definition of rational numbers without throwing the light on the
above questions and many more questions related to them is doing disservice to students wanting to
learn Mathematics. Given a permissive and receptive atmosphere, students would come out with
many questions as given above, the answers of which would be an appetizer for developing their
analytical skills.

Synthesis:
The word ‗synthesis‘ can be defined in many different ways. A few popular definitions are as follows:
 The art of putting different representations together and of grasping what is manifold in them
in one act of knowledge.
 Synthesis is what first gives rise to knowledge, ie. It is not analysis. It is an act of the
imagination.
 Synthesis suggests the ability to put together separate ideas to form new wholes of a fabric, or
establish new relationships.
 Synthesis involves putting ideas and knowledge in a new and unique form. This is where
innovations truly takes place.
 The process of bringing pieces of an analysis together to make a whole.
 The process of building a new concept, solution, design for a purpose by putting parts
together in a logical way.
 This is fifth level of Bloom‘s taxonomy and deals with the task of putting together parts to
form a new whole. This might involve working with parts and putting them together in a
creative new way or using old ideas to come up with new ones.
Synthesis is to be done for the purpose of establishing the Gestalt view that ‗the whole is more than
the sum total of its parts‘. A suitable analogy can be assembling the components of a TV set and
making it work.

Application:
A few definitions of the ‗application‘ are given as follows:
The act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose: ―he advocated the application
of statistics to the problem‖; ―a novel application of electronics to medical diagnosis‖
 A diligent effort; ―it is a job requiring serious application‖
 Utilizing knowledge acquired and processed by the mind for solving problems- both simple
and complicated.
The skills associated with information, knowledge, comprehension, analysis and synthesis are to be
acquired by students in order to go to the next level of the cognitive order called ‗application‘. The
application of knowledge, skills, and attitudes has to be done in known situations to start with so that
the students can progressively move on to unknown situations. Examples suitably selected can help
them go through simple to complex situations and would guide them to acquire insight. This insight is
a prime requisite for problem solving.
In school level Mathematics, the skills of analysis and synthesis and the insight learning that takes
place as a result of the application of those skills would pave the way for solving exercise problems,
which the teachers shy away from under the pretext of lack of time, and other priorities. The skills in
the cognitive ladder are vertically connected, and the acquisition of those skills at each level requires
the student‘s to allow their minds to think and assimilate ideas. This repetitive manner in which the
sequential cognitive skills practiced would train the mind in Mathematical thinking which is otherwise
called logical thinking.

Logical Thinking:
Logical thinking is defined as that thinking which is coherent and rational. Reasoning and abstract
thought are synonymous with logical thinking. Logical thinking be in Mathematics or any other
subject is required to establish the coherence of facts of matter and formation of logical patterns and
sequences. Mind has the special ability to think and assimilate, and retain subject matter when
presented in sequential manner. Mind grasps matter devoid of gaps quickly. Unanalyzed knowledge in
its un-synthesized form poses difficulty in retaining it in long time memory, as concepts and its
components do not function isolation. Hence, mind rejects fragmented information which lacks
patterns.

Problem Solving:
The thought process involved in solving a problem is called problem - solving. Problem solving as a
skill is developed crossing various other skills on its way. The skills lying down below ‗problem
solving‘ in the cognitive ladder can be compared to the floors of a building. You cannot reach the
sixth floor without crossing the floors down below. Similarly when problem solving is attempted in
classes with making explicit efforts to pass through the levels of knowledge, understanding, analysis,
synthesis, and application, students fail miserably.
Often it is said that practice and drill in Mathematics would help learn the subject better. Hence again,
by repeatedly working out problems, one has to ‗memorize‘ the steps, but it does not guarantee
success when problems are differently worded or twisted. Following the cognitive order- moving
from information to problem solving steps in the classroom will help the students know the sequential
mental processes involved in solving problems in Mathematics. As they practice these steps regularly
it will boost their confidence in learning the subject. But classroom learning these days mostly
concentrate on problem solving as a direct hit strategy. Working out the problems first without
following the cognitive order is equivalent to putting the horse behind the cart, which will take the
students nowhere. Even conscientious teachers tend to spend10-20% of their class time on concept
teaching and 80-90% on working out the problems. This is totally incorrect. Concept learning and
concept formation require knowledge comprehension, analysis and synthesis. After going through
these steps, as the next stage, ‗application‘ should be dealt with. At the end comes problem solving.
The process of going through and gaining thorough grasp of knowledge, understanding, analysis, and
synthesis warrants 80-90% of class room time, and hence just 10-20% class time is enough for
problem solving.
The Cognitive Order Learning:
Failure to recognize orderly thinking, the basic quality of cognitive order, is the main reason for the
difficulty faced by students in learning Mathematics. The earlier the teachers and students recognize
the need for approaching Mathematics logically, the better it would be to create and sustain interest in
the subject. The Mathematics classroom practices may, therefore, be fashioned by following the
sequential steps given as under:
i) Teacher utilizing 5-10 minutes in the beginning of the class on asking questions on the
knowledge, comprehension, analysis and synthesis part of the chapter on hand.
ii) After identifying the skill area in which students have problems, discussion to thrash out
those problems should be taken up. Often the problems of students stem from lack of
understanding of the basic concepts. It is essential therefore to keep doing ‗concept recall‘
and ‗concept clarification‘. Comprehending basic concepts is an essential condition for
moving on the further steps in the cognitive order, namely, analysis, synthesis etc.
iii) Then the points under application of skills down below may be taken up for discussion.
Once the gray areas in application are cleared, the students may be instructed to do
problem solving.
iv) If students falter in steps, the logical sequence of steps followed to solve any problem in
the given chapter falling under the concepts learnt may be discussed again.
v) Effective questioning to draw out the conceptual understanding of the subject matter
learnt by the students should be done at least every tenth minute in every period to ensure
that they are actually with the teacher.
vi) Free-wheeling of ideas related to the subject by the students should be encouraged as it
would help throw new light on the subject matter under study.
vii) Questions by the students, however silly they may seem, should be welcome in the class
and the teacher should listen to them with patience and convincing answers given.
viii) After a full-fledged concept learning session following cognitive order learning, problem
solving should be taken up where the students should be encouraged to work out the
problems under the watchful eyes of the teacher.
ix) Vertical and horizontal connectivity of concepts in mathematics should always form an
integral part of teaching learning, and students being thorough in the sequential
conceptual elements be taken care of.
The Critical aspects of learning Mathematics:
Besides taking care of the above nine aspects of teaching, teachers desirous of making students love
and do well in mathematics should need to pay heed to the following aspects as well:
A thorough comprehension of the domains - psychological, physical and practical - of effective
learning of the subject by the students;
The process they have to follow scrupulously in acquiring skills for the mastery-level learning of the
subject;
The role the teachers and parents have to play in fostering and sustaining students interest and
enthusiasm so that they learn the subject with ease at class room and face the examination with
confidence.
Let me sum up some of the benefits of Cognitive-order-Learning: This methodology- ‗Cognitive-
order-Learning‘ enables the students -
 To acquire subject learning competencies
 To develop problem solving skills
 To boost their confidence in the subject
 To widen their interest in the areas of mathematics
 To have and sustain self-directed and self-motivated activities in mathematical
learning.
 To achieve mastery level learning of the subject.
 To help apply the skills acquired in Mathematics to other subjects.
 To utilize the cognitive domain to its full extent
 To remove examination phobia.

Conclusion:
The subject matter of Mathematics teachers is vast. An attempt has been made to give only the most
rudimentary aspects of it. What requires as a clear understanding on the part of the teachers is that the
subject, Mathematics, is neither difficult unconquerable. Yet, it is perceived to be so mostly owing to
ineffective teaching, which jumps from knowledge to problem solving, leaving a vast territory of
skills in between untouched. As said earlier, Mathematics being the queen of all science deserves an
approach to teaching which is based on the sound scientific principles of human learning. In any class
room, if students declare that they like Mathematics they enjoy learning it, and they have no difficulty
in solving the problems, that class is said to have been blessed with a teacher teaching Mathematics
the way it is deserves to be taught. That way surely is Cognitive-order-Learning approach with the
thorough understanding of the critical aspects of learning Mathematics referred to above.

Dr. E.T. Arasu, Dy. Commissioner &


Director K.V. ZIET Mysore.

*********
TRENDS IN ASSESSMENT
Introduction:
One of the main reasons for teachers to assess student learning is to obtain feedback that will guide
teaching and assist in making modifications to lesson planning and delivery to ensure student
progress. Assessment allows teachers to monitor progress, diagnose individual or group difficulties
and adjust teaching practices. Assessment can support student motivation when students are provided
with on-going information about their progress and with opportunities to set further goals for learning.
Assessment is an interactive process between students and faculty that informs faculty how well their
students are learning what they are teaching. The information is used by faculty to make changes in
the learning environment, and is shared with students to assist them in improving their learning and
study habits. This information is learner-centred, course based, frequently anonymous, and not
graded.
Current trends in classroom Assessment:
The terms formative assessment and summative assessment are being redefined in education circles.
Many teachers know formative assessment as the informal, daily type of assessment they use with
students while learning is occurring. Summative assessment was the term used to ―sum it all up,‖ to
indicate a final standing at the end of a unit or a course.Current trends in assessment focus on judging
student progress in three ways: Assessment for learning, assessment as learning and assessment of
learning. Each assessment approach serves a different purpose.

Assessment for learning is especially useful for teachers as they develop, modify and differentiate
teaching and learning activities. It is continuous and sustained throughout the learning process and
indicates to students their progress and growth.
In assessment for learning, teachers monitor the progress made by each student in relation to the
program of studies, outcomes and determine upcoming learning needs. Teachers ensure that learning
outcomes are clear, detailed and ensure that they assess according to these outcomes.
They use a range of methods to gather and to provide students with descriptive feedback to further
student learning. These methods may include checklists and written notes based on observations of
students as they learn. The descriptive feedback gathered is used to inform planning for learning and
to assist the teacher in differentiating instruction in order to meet the needs of all students.
The feedback may be shared in oral or written form with individual students or with the class as a
whole. As the information gathered guides the planning process, it leads to the improvement of future
student performance in relation to specific outcomes.
Assessment as learning focuses on fostering and supporting metacognitive development in
students as they learn to monitor and reflect upon their own learning and to use the information
gathered to support and direct new learning.
It focuses on the role student‘s play in their learning. In this approach to assessment, students are
viewed as the bridge between what they know and the unknown that is still to be learned. Their role is
to assess critically both what and how they are learning. They learn to monitor their thinking and
learning processes; to understand how they are acquiring and retaining new information or developing
new skills and awareness; and how to make adjustments, adaptations and even changes when
necessary.
For some students, being asked to reflect on their learning by using skills and strategies related to
metacognition (to think about thinking) might seem new and uncomfortable. They may need help to
come to the realization that learning is a conscious process in which knowledge is constructed when
the known, or previously acquired, encounters the new or unknown. This process often results in the
restructuring or reintegration of what was previously learned.
Assessment of learning is cumulative in nature. It is used to confirm what students already know
and what they can do in relation to the program of studies outcomes. Student progress is reported by
way of a mark; e.g., a percentage or letter grade, a few times a year or a term. The report card is
usually received by students, their parents/guardians as well as by school administrators.
Assessment of learning takes place at specific times in the instructional sequence, such as at the end
of a series of lessons, at the end of a unit or at the end of the school year. Its purpose is to determine
the degree of success students have had in attaining the program outcomes. Assessment of learning
involves more than just quizzes and tests. It should allow students to move beyond recall to a
demonstration of the complexities of their understanding and their ability to use the language.
Assessment of learning refers to strategies designed to confirm what students know, demonstrate
whether or not they have met curriculum outcomes or the goals of their individualized programs, or to
certify proficiency and make decisions about students‘ future program or placements.
Teacher reflections Assessment procedures:
It is important for a teacher to reflect on why and when students‘ progress is assessed.
The types of reflective questions that teachers can ask themselves when engaged in assessment
forlearning include:
► Am I observing in order to find out what my students know or are able to do?
► Does my assessment strategy allow student learning to be apparent? Are there elements I need to
change in order to minimize anxiety or distractions that might get in the way of learning?
► Will I use the results of my observations to modify my instruction, either with a particular student
or with a group of students, or the next time I teach this concept or skill to a new class?
► Will I share the results of my observations with the individual student so that the student and I can
decide how to improve future performance?
► Will I share the results of my observations with the class in general (without identifying particular
students) in order to provide some indicators as to where they can improve future performance?
The types of reflective questions that teachers can ask themselves when planning opportunities in
support of assessment as learning include:
► Are the students familiar with the purpose of reflective tools, such as the one I am thinking of
using? Will they be able to engage with the questions in a meaningful way?
► Have I provided/will I provide support for students in accordance with the various points
mentioned in the reflective instrument; i.e., do I provide clear instructions, create a model, share a
checklist, ensure that there are reference materials?
Teacher reflections: The types of reflective questions that teachers can ask themselves when
Planning opportunities in support of assessment of learning include:
► Am I using processes and assessment instruments that allow students to demonstrate fully their
competence and skill?
► Do these assessments align with the manner in which students were taught the material?
► Do these assessments allow students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills as per the program
of studies outcomes?
Student reflection assessment(Assessment as learning):
Students record their reflections by completing sentence starters such as
―Things that went well …‖; ―Things that got in my way …‖; ―Next time I will ….‖
Alternatively, they may check off various statements that apply to themselves or their performance on
a checklist.
An overview of the different practices and variety of instruments that can be used and tailored to meet
the needs of a specific assessment purpose.
Assessment for Learning Assessment as Learning Assessment of Learning
Informal observation/Formative Conferencing/Learning Performance Tasks/Projects
assessments/Peer learning conversations/ Summative assessment
Peer assessment/Quizzes or Quizzes/Pen-paper tests
Tests/ Tests or Examinations.
Self-assessment and Goal PSA
setting. OTBA

Formative Assessmentis a process used by teachers and students as part of instruction that provides
feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students‘ achievement of core content.
As assessment for learning, formative assessment practices provide students with clear learning
targets, examples and models of strong and weak work, regular descriptive feedback, and the ability
to self-assess, track learning, and set goal. Formative assessments are most effective when they are
done frequently and the information is used to effect immediate adjustments in the day-to-day
operations of the course.
Assessment is not formative unless something is ―formed‖ as a result of interpreting evidence elicited.
It informs teacher where the need/problem lies to focus on problem area. It helps teacher give specific
feedback, provide relevant support and plan the next step. It helps student identify the problem areas,
provides feedback and support. It helps to improve performance and provides opportunity to improve
performance. Peer learning can be encouraged at all stages with variety of tools. Formative
Assessment Strategies:
Tools for Formative Assessment Techniques to check for understanding
One minute answer A one-minute answer question is a focussed question with a
specific goal that can be answered within a minute or two.
Analogy prompt A designated concept, principle, or process is like _______
because_____________________.
Think, pair, share/Turn to your Students think individually, then pair (discuss with partner), then
partner share with the class.
10-2 theory/35-5 theory 10 minutes instruction and two minutes reflection/35 minutes
instruction and 5 minutes reflection.
Self -assessment A process in which students collect information about their own
learning, analyze what it reveals about their progress toward
intended learning goals or learning activity or at the end of the
day.
Conclusion:
Teachers should continuously use a variety of tools understanding different learning styles and
abilities and share the assessment criteria with the students. Allow peer and self-assessment. Share
learning outcomes and assessment expectations with students. Incorporate student self-assessment and
keep a record of their progress and Teachers keep records of student progress.

V Meenakshi,
Assistant Commissioner,
KVS (RO) Ernakulam.

*********
TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS – MOVING FROM MATHPHOBIA TO MATHPHILIA

―Mathematics is for everyone and all can learn Mathematics‖- NCF 2005
The Little Oxford Dictionary define phobia as fear or aversion.Psychology textbooks describe it as an
abnormal fear. We hear of claustrophobia, acrophobia, nyctophobia, and anthropophobia.

The pioneers in the study of Mathematics anxiety, Richardson and Suinn (1972), defined Mathematics
anxiety in terms of the (debilitating) effect of mathematics anxiety on performance: "feelings of
tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical
problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations".

Is there such a thing as math phobia? To know the answer one needs to only teach mathematics
particularly in the secondary and senior secondary classes. And the reality is that most school drop
outs in the Board exam are due to failure in Mathematics. Studies indicate that students' anxiety about
Mathematics increases between the sixth and twelfth grade.

With this reality check, this write-up aims to analyse the problem and by this parsing, redefine the
teaching learning of Mathematics firmly grounded on foundations of success- for the student for the
teacher, the society and the nation.

The suggestion that Mathematics anxiety threatens both performance and participation in
Mathematics, together with the indications that Mathematics anxiety may be a fairly widespread
phenomenon (e.g. Buxton, 1981), makes a discussion like this, concerning Mathematics anxiety in
students, particularly the Board going students, of extreme importance.

Mathematics is termed as the queen of all sciences, having logical thinking as its crown and problem
solving as its sceptre. Two essential elements which are necessary not just to master nuances of the
numeral world but more importantly to have success in life in qualitative ways- these two are also the
core life skills formulated by WHO for a healthy and successful life.

The question is, ―Does the teaching of Mathematics in our classrooms realise any of these objectives?
The huge population of children who balk at the very mention of the subject is an ever growing one as
generation gives way to another.

The NFG Position paper on the teaching of Mathematics under the section ―Problems in Teaching
and Learning of Mathematics‖ states: four problems which we deem to be the core areas of concern:

Other problems are systemic in nature:

Compartmentalisation- Segregation of Primary, Secondary and Senior secondary


Curricular acceleration- The quantum and scope of the syllabus is much larger and wider with passing
days.
The NFG recommends four fold measures to ensure that all children learn Mathematics:
Shifting the focus of mathematics education from achieving ‗narrow‘ goals to ‗higher‘ goals,- whole
range of processes here: formal problem solving, use of heuristics, estimation and approximation,
optimization, use of patterns, visualisation, representation, reasoning and proof, making connections,
mathematical communication. Giving importance to these processes constitutes the difference
between doing mathematics and swallowing mathematics, between mathematisation of thinking and
memorising formulas, between trivial mathematics and important mathematics, between working
towards the narrow aims and addressing the higher aims

1. 1. A sense of fear and failure regarding mathematics among a majority of children


(cumulative nature of mathematics, gender and social biases about math ,use of language
and more importantly symbolic language)

2. A curriculum that disappoints both a talented minority as well as the non-participating


majority at the same time(emphasises procedure and knowledge of formulas over
understanding is bound to enhance anxiety)

3. Crude methods of assessment that encourage perception of mathematics as mechanical


computation, and( only one right answer, sacrificing the process for the right solution,
overemphasis on computation and absolute neglect for development of mathematical
concepts)

4. Lack of teacher preparation and support in the teaching of mathematics.( out dated
methodology, depending on commercial guides due to insufficiency in conceptual clarity
and understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics, inability to link formal
mathematics with experiential learning , particularly in the secondary and senior secondary
stages, incapacity to offer connections within mathematics or across subject areas to
applications in the sciences)

The recommended methods are:


cross curricular and integrated approaches within mathematics and across other disciplines,
Simplifying mathematical communicationmultiplicity of approaches, procedures, solutionsusing the
common man‘s mathematics or ―folk algorithm‖- basing problems on authentic real/ daily life
contextsuse of technology

1. Engaging every student with a sense of success, while at the same time offering
conceptual challenges to the emerging mathematician- striving to reduce social barriers and
gender stereotypes and focussing on active inclusion of all children in the teaching-learning of
mathematics. Children with math phobia usually seem to have little confidence in themselves.
They feel they are not good in math; they refrain from asking questions (little realizing that
more than half the class is puzzled over the same Problem!); they are afraid to answer any
question directed to them for fear of being labelled "dumb" or "stupid." Such fear or anxiety
about math often begins during the Primary years and continues through life.
Recommendations:
 Teacher need to model ―problem –solving‖ particularly in the context of word problems. To
work out diverse problems and build personal repertoire of problem solving skills and model
them with enthusiasm and confidence.
 Move from simple step problem solving modes to increasingly complex and multi- step
problem solving.
 Inculcate positive, persevering problem solving approaches- solve problems with them
building rapport thus building their self-esteem and confidence.
 Use a ―problem solving‖ bulletin board to bring problem solving as part of everyday learning
activity
 In problem solving, arriving at the "correct answer" is not the most important step. More
important is choosing the correct strategy for solving the problem. Even though there is only
one correct answer, there will be more than a single correct strategy for solving a problem.
When students are reassured of this fact, they will then be more willing to tackle new
problems.
2. Changing modes of assessmentto examine students‘ Mathematisation abilities rather than
procedural knowledge-

3. Enriching teachers with a variety of Mathematical resources. - The development of


teacher knowledge is greatly enhanced by efforts within the wider educational community.
Teachers need the support of others—particularly material, systems, and human and
emotional support. While teachers can learn a great deal by working together with a group of
supportive mathematics colleagues, professional development initiatives are often a necessary
catalyst for major change. Activities like collaborative and strategic approaches, Mathematics
Lab and experiments help in this aspect
Reflecting on and applying these thoughts to the KV context, what should the maths teachers
need to do to ensure that all students learn Mathematics in the true sense of the word i.e.
love it, think, learn and apply it.

Mathematics teachers need to move from emphasis on Computation to holistic Mathematical


concept learning which will mathematise their thoughts and perspectives.
They need to be constantly conscious of and strive to promote a sense of achievement and
comfort in learning of mathematics.

CONCLUSION

UNESCO‘s The International Academy of Education in its paper-Effective Educational


Practices Series on the topic‖ Effective Pedagogy in mathematics‖ by Glenda Anthony and Margaret
Walshaw postulates the following :
1. An Ethic of Care-Caring classroom communities that are focused on mathematical goals
help develop students‘ mathematical identities and proficiencies.
2. Arranging For Learning- Effective teachers provide students with opportunities to work
both independently and collaboratively to make sense of ideas.
3. Building on Students’ Thinking- Effective teachers plan mathematics learning
experiences that enable students to build on their existing proficiencies, interests, and
experiences.
4. Worthwhile Mathematical Tasks- Effective teachers understand that the tasks and
examples they select influence how students come to view, develop, use, and make sense of
mathematics
5. Making ConnectionsEffective teachers support students in creating connections between
different ways of solving problems, between mathematical representations and topics, and
between mathematics and everyday experiences-
6. Assessment for Learning- Effective teachers use a range of assessment, practices to make
students‘ thinking visible and to support students‘ learning.
7. Mathematical Communication- Effective teachers are able to facilitate classroom
dialogue that is focused on mathematical argumentation
8. Mathematical Language- Effective teachers shape mathematical language by modelling
appropriate terms and communicating their meaning in ways that students understand
9. Tools And Representations- Effective teachers carefully select tools and
representations(number system itself, algebraic symbolism, graphs, diagrams, models,
equations, notations, images, analogies, metaphors, stories, textbooks and technology) to
provide support for students‘ thinking
10. Teacher Knowledge-Teacher content knowledge, Teacher pedagogical content knowledge

The referred UNESCO paper can be downloaded from the websites of the IEA (http://www.iaoed.org
) or of the IBE (http://www.ibe.unesco.org/ publications.htm)

Shri. E.Ananthan
Principal, KV No.1 Tambaram, Chennai

***************
Qualities of a Successful Mathematics Teacher

A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is
hammering on a cold iron ---Horace Mann

Not all students like mathematics, but a good mathematics teacher has the power to change
that. A good mathematics teacher can help students who have traditionally struggled with
mathematics begin to build confidence in their skills. Successful mathematics teachers have certain
qualities that make them the experts they are. These are the teachers required by the society, because
of their knowledge, style and handle on the subject; they know what really work for students.

A good mathematics teacher can be thought to need some qualities that are connected to his
view of mathematics. This view consists of knowledge, beliefs, conceptions, attitudes and emotions.
Beliefs and attitudes are formed on the basis of knowledge and emotions and they influence students'
reactions to learn future Mathematics

 A good mathematics teacher should have sufficient knowledge and love of mathematics. He
needs to have a profound understanding of basic mathematics and to be able to perceive
connections between different concepts and fields.

 A teacher should have a sufficient knowledge of mathematics teaching and learning. He needs
to understand children' thinking in order to be able to arrange meaningful learning situations.
It is important that the teacher be aware of children‘ possible misconceptions. In addition, he
needs to be able to use different strategies to promote children‘ conceptual understanding.

 A good mathematics teacher also needs additional pedagogical knowledge: the ability to
arrange successful learning situations (for example, the ability to use group work in an
effective way), knowledge of the context of teaching and knowledge of the goals of
education.

 A good mathematics teacher's beliefs and conceptions should be as many-sided as possible


and be based on a constructivist view of teaching and learning Mathematics.

 In the classroom, a talented mathematics teacher serves as a facilitator of learning, providing


students with the knowledge and tools to solve problems and then encouraging students to
solve them on their own. When students answer a problem incorrectly, he does not allow
them to quit. He encourages students to figure out where they went wrong and to keep
working at the problem until they get the correct answer, providing support and guidance
where needed.

 A Good Mathematics teacher should have the ability to do quick error analysis, and must be
able to concisely articulate what a student is doing wrong, so they can fix it. This is the
trickiest part of being a good Mathematics Teacher. He should have ability to assign the home
work that targeted what the student is learning in the classroom to minimize the mistakes
committed and to have proper practice on the concepts taught.

 A successful Mathematics Teacher is seen as a leader in his classroom and in the school. His
students respect him, not only for his knowledge of Mathematics, but for his overall attitude
and actions. Students can tell that he respects them as well. He has control over the classroom,
laying out clear rules and expectations for students to follow.
 A good mathematics teacher focuses less on the content being taught than the students being
taught. A good mathematics teacher cares about his students and recognizes when a student
needs some encouragement and addresses the problem to help the student refocus on the
content.

 A Good mathematics teacher, in particular, possesses enormous amount of patience, because


there are many different ways that students actually learn mathematics. And they learn at
many different speeds. Math teachers are not frustrated by this attitude of students. He should
have sufficient understanding Jean Piaget‘s theory on how youngsters create logic and
number concepts.

 A Good mathematics teacher never lives in the past. He knows how to unlearn outmoded
algorithms and outdated mathematical terms and re-learns new ones. He appreciates the
change with all enthusiasm and welcomes it.

 He is approachable and explains, demonstrates new concepts/ problems in detail and creates
fun. He commands respect and love by his subject knowledge and transaction skills.

 A good teacher sets high expectations for all his students. He expects that all students can and
will achieve in his classroom. He doesn‘t give up on underachievers.

 A great teacher has clear, written-out objectives. Effective teacher has lesson plans that give
students a clear idea of what they will be learning, what the assignments are and what the
promoting policy is. Assignments have learning goals and give students ample opportunity to
practice new skills. The teacher is consistent in grading and returns work in a timely manner.

 Successful teacher is prepared and organized. He is in his classrooms early and ready to teach.
He presents lessons in a clear and structured way. His classes are organized in such a way as
to minimize distractions.

 Successful teacher engages students and get them to look at issues in a variety of ways. He
uses facts as a starting point, not an end point; he asks "why" questions, looks at all sides and
encourages students to predict what will happen next. He asks questions frequently to make
sure students are following along. He tries to engage the whole class, and he doesn‘t allow a
few students to dominate the class. He keeps students motivated with varied, lively
approaches.

 A good Mathematics teacher forms strong relationships with his students and show that he
cares about them. He is warm, accessible, enthusiastic and caring. Teacher with these
qualities is known to stay after school and make himself available to students and parents who
need his services. He is involved in school-wide committees and activities and demonstrates a
commitment to the school.

 A good mathematics teacher communicates frequently with parents. He reaches parents


through conferences and frequent written reports home. He doesn't hesitate to pick up the
telephone to call a parent if he is concerned about a student.

 There are five essential characteristics of effective mathematics lessons: the introduction,
development of the concept or skill, guided practice, summary, and independent practice.
There are many ways to implement these five characteristics, and specific instructional
decisions will vary depending on the needs of the students. The successful mathematics
teacher should have these characteristics in his regular teaching practice.
 In addition, every good Mathematics teacher has the positive values like Accuracy, Alertness,
Courtesy, Empathy, Flexibility, Friendliness, Honesty, Initiative, Kindness, Loyalty, Patience,
Responsibility, Stability, Tactfulness and Tolerance.
―The mathematics teacher is expected to have proficiency in the methodology ‗cognitive –
order –learning’ which enables the students to acquire subject learning competencies, to
develop problem solving skills, to boost their confidence in the subject, to widen their interest
in the areas of Mathematics, to have and sustain self-directed and self-motivated activities in
mathematics learning, to achieve mastery level learning of the subject, to help apply the skills
acquire d in learning mathematics to other subjects, to utilize the cognitive domain to its
fullest extent and to remove examination phobia‖.

National Curriculum Framework – 2005 envisages that


 The main goal of mathematics teacher in teaching Mathematics should be Mathematisation
(ability to think logically, formulate and handle abstractions) rather than 'knowledge' of
mathematics (formal and mechanical procedures)

 The Mathematics teacher should have ability to teach Mathematics in such a way to enhance
children' ability to think and reason, to visualize and handle abstractions, to formulate and
solve problems. Access to quality mathematics education is the right of every child.

A balanced, comprehensive, and rigorous curriculum is a necessary component for student


success in mathematics. A quality mathematics program which includes best mathematical tasks and
models to assist teachers is essential in making sound instructional decisions that advance student
learning.

Sri. E. Krishna Murthy


Principal, KV NFC Nagar, Ghatkesar

*********
TEACHING STRATEGIES IN MATHEMATICS FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING

Mathematics by virtue of its boundless practical applications and tasteful bid of its methods and
results has long held a prominent place in human life. From the quick arithmetic that we do in our
everyday lives to the onerous calculations of science and technology, Mathematics shapes and effects
about every item around us.

But for many secondary and senior secondary students, Mathematics consists of facts in a vacuum, to
be memorized because the teacher says so, and to be forgotten when the course of study is completed.
In this common scenario, young learners often miss the chance to develop skills—specifically,
reasoning skills—that can serve them for a lifetime.

In my 20+ years of mathematics teaching in schools across our country and in foreign lands, I have
seen some truly remarkable changes in the way secondary school children perceive Mathematics and
their ability to succeed in it depend upon the pedagogy.

Discovering approaches to make Mathematics exciting for students who are in the middle of the pack
could have a profound effect on their futures. It would attract many students who are apprehensive in
their own abilities into advanced careers. But it is going to require a fundamentally different approach
to teaching mathematics from childhood through secondary school. Here are a few of the many
possible ideas to begin that change.

Recreational Mathematics
Recreational inspiration consists of puzzles, games or contradictions. In addition to being selected for
their specific motivational gain, these procedures must be brief and simple. An effective
implementation of this procedure will allow students to complete the "recreation" without much
effort. Using games and puzzles can make Mathematics classes very amusing, exciting and
stimulating. Mathematical games provide opportunities for students to be dynamically involved in
learning. Games allow students to experience success and satisfaction, thereby building their
enthusiasm and self-confidence. But Mathematical games are not simply about fun and confidence
building. Games help students to: understand Mathematical concepts, develop Mathematical skills,
know mathematical facts, learn the language and vocabulary of Mathematics and develop ability in
mental Mathematics.

Investigating Mathematics
Many teachers show students how to do some problems and then ask them to practice. Teachers can
set students a challenge which hints them to discover and practice some new problems for themselves.
The job for the teacher is to find the right challenges for students. The challenges need to be matched
to the ability of the learners. The key point about investigations is that students are stimulated to make
their own decisions about; where to start, how to deal with the challenge, what Mathematics they need
to use, how they can communicate this Mathematics and how to describe what they have discovered.
We can say that investigations are open because they leave many choices open to the student.

Creativity in Mathematics
Creativity is a word that is perhaps more easily associated with art, design and writing than it is with
Mathematics, but this is wrong. Mathematics requires as much creativity in its teaching and learning
as any other subject in the curriculum. It is important to remember that creative teaching and learning
not only needs teachers to use creativity in planning inventive and thought provoking learning
opportunities but must also encourage creative thinking and response from learners. A lesson in which
the teachers‘ delivery and resources are creatively delivered but which fails to elicit creative thinking
and response from students has not been fully successfully creative lesson

Problem solving is a key to Mathematics and this in itself presents an excellent way of encouraging
creativity in your lessons. It is a common belief that a degree of rote learning is necessary before
learners can engage in problem solving, but such an attitude may have the effect of pre-empting
genuine creative thinking.

Group work
Research evidences has consistently shown that, regardless of the subject being studied learners
working together in small groups tend to make greater progress in learning what is taught than when
the same content is taught in other more didactic ways. Learners working collaboratively also appear
more satisfied with their classes and have been shown to have greater recollection of learning. There
are numerous ways in which you can arrange learners into groups in your class room. Informal
groups‘ can be created by asking learners to turn to a neighbour and spend 2-3 minutes discussing a
question you have posed. Such informal group can be arranged at any time in a class of any size to
check on learners understanding, to provide an opportunity to apply new knowledge, or to provide
change of pace within the lesson. A more formal arrangement can be made by the teacher establishing
the groups. There are conflicting ideas for this but my personal preference is always for mixed ability
group.

ICT in Mathematics Teaching and Learning


Appropriate use of ICT can enhance the teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary and
senior secondary level. ICT offers powerful opportunities for learners to explore Mathematical ideas,
to generalize, explain results and analyse situations, and to receive fast and reliable, and non-
judgemental, feedback. Their use needs careful planning – not just showing a power point
presentation but also of activities that allow for off-computer Mathematical thinking as well as on-
computer exploration. Decisions about when and how ICT should be used to help teach mathematical
facts, skills or concepts should be based on whether or not the ICT supports effective teaching of the
lesson objectives. The use of ICT should allow the teacher or learners to do something that would be
more difficult without it, or to learn something more effectively or efficiently.

Theatre in Mathematics
The individuals who had the delight of being in front of an audience or performing in any capacity
before an audience needn‘t be convinced about the magic of theatre. The world of theatre is one of the
most important ways children learn about actions and implications, about customs and dogmas, about
others and themselves. Students in every class room can claim the supremacy and potential of theatre
today. We don‘t have to wait for costly tools and amenities. An occasion to create their own dramas
based on what they learned in math and backing them in implementation improve the communication,
leadership and motivation skills which will have a long lasting effect in their memory.

The National Focus Group Position Papers on all segments linking to education are an extraordinary
repository of ideas, theory and procedure for teachers. The position paper devoted to Arts, music,
dance and theatre clearly mentions why and how it may be integrated in the classroom and invokes
what is called ―Sensitivity Pyramid through Drama‖. In cognizance with the NFG position papers
theatre can work extremely well as micro level experimental innovative and creative math pedagogy.
Theatre is an effective learning tool as it deals with action and imagination, understanding the concept
being taught with a view to applying this understanding to real life situations.

Function dance performed by class XI students

Mr.Siby Sebastian
Principal,K V Bijapur(Karnataka)

***************
TEACHING LEARNING MATHEMATICS WITH JOY

Every child is naturally motivated to learn and are capable of learning. Children construct knowledge
by connecting the existing ideas with the new ideas. The teaching of Mathematics must enable them
to examine and analyze their everyday experience. Mathematics is the pivot of analytical and rational
thinking. It requires a constant practices to retain different methods, theories, proofs and reasons in
memory. It can be done only through a systematic approach. The syllabus in the subject of
Mathematics has undergone changes from time to time in accordance with the changing needs of the
society. The curriculum at the secondary and senior secondary stage primarily aims at enhancing
capacity of students to apply mathematics in solving day-to-day life problems and students should
acquire the ability to solve problems.

The NCF-2005 (National curriculum frame work-2205) has elaborated on the insight of learning
without burden to ensure that a child is not taken away from the joy of being young by de-linking
school knowledge from everyday experience. One of the most important areas in this respect is
regarding mathematics learning in schools. It is a common observations that a large number of
students consider mathematics as a difficult subject when they enter secondary/senior secondary level.
This is creating a phobia in the minds of students towards mathematics. This misconception makes
the subject move abstract at that level. It is mainly due to wrong teaching practices which do not link
the subject with their real life. It is very essential to know and make them understand that
mathematics is very much related to real life, instead of teaching the subject in a mechanical manner
where students are made to memorize formulae, theorems, proofs, algorithms etc. and apply these in
solving problems.

It is in the hands of teachers to make mathematics teaching learning process of joyful experience for
the learner. For this purpose a teacher has to make use of varieties of activities which involves
student‘s participation in the development of concepts. Creating link between within the subjects and
across the subjects motivates children and helps them to appreciate the subject. Mathematics has been
projected as an abstract subject much to be feared by students of limited capabilities. The teachers
can drive this phobia and make them understand the importance of the subject, that it has application
in almost all walks of life and also through mathematics we can describe – understand and work with
physical phenomena with utmost precision.

Teaching is a noble profession and the teachers are the one who has to protect novelty of this
profession. The teachers‘ positive attitude and commitment towards the profession will certainly
motivate a child to learn better mathematics need to be taught in an interactive manner by involving
children in the teaching-learning process. The theories can be developed by asking questions and
using examples and illustrations based on their daily life situation. This promotes independent
thinking and problem solving skills in children. Teacher is a constant learner and a facilitator in the
teaching-learning process. Gone are those days when teachers were to teach and children were there
to listen and learn. In the present context- their knowledge and ability to transact the curriculum in
the manner the children want to learn. For this the teachers have to improve the pedagogic skills.
Every teacher will have to improve their teaching as well as evaluation techniques in order to ensure
students to learn mathematics and love mathematics.
Let us think for a while and try to get a proper answer for the question ―what makes mathematics so
difficult and fearsome for many students?‖ It may be because of the subject itself or because of the
person who teaches the subject. Ultimately, it is the teacher who has to make the subject interesting
to learn and enable the child to understand the importance of it in one‘s life. So make use of latest
technology support activities, real life situations and constructivist approach in the process of teaching
learning. Introduce new concepts in a simple language, keeping in mind the language ability of
children. Basic concepts have to be explained through attractive illustrations which connects them to
their life outside the classroom.

Training programmes and workshops for creating appropriate leaning materials have been very
helpful to the teachers in recent days in creating a classroom with difference. To meet the challenges
of today and further it is necessary for a teacher to work with open-mind towards the learning
situations. A resource material prepared by the experienced teachers would certainly help teachers to
teach with ease, get a lot of ideas to transact and make the evaluation continuous and comprehensive.
So teachers can make use of such opportunities and can bring name and fame to teaching profession.

Welcome! Let‘s enjoy the teaching profession with our students.

Mrs.Sharada. M
Teacher, DMS,RIE Mysore

***************
Resources –Chapter wise
TERM -1
CHAPTER:1
NUMBER SYSTEM

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Identify the Natural numbers, Whole numbers, rational numbers and Irrational numbers.
2. Understand the relationship between different types of systems of number.
3. Identify the decimal form of the rational and Irrational numbers
4. Represent the irrational numbers on the number line.
5. Represent the decimal numbers having more than one digit in the decimal part by
Magnification
6. Learn how to operate two rational numbers or two irrational numbers or one rational and one
irrational.
7. Learn to simplify expressions containing surds by using the operations addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division.
8. Learn how to rationalize the denominator and using it to simplify the expressions.
9. Learn how to simplify the expressions by using Laws of Exponents where the exponents are
real numbers.

CONCEPT MAP

Number System.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL -1

1. How many integers are there between two successive integers?



2. Find the value of

√ is always a rational number only if is a ………………..
4. Express 0. ̅ in the form where Z and
5. Find two rational numbers between 0.5 and 0.55
6. Find two irrational numbers between 1.1 and 1.11
7. Represent √ on the number line.
8. Find the value of
9. Express 1.252525……. in the form where
10. Visualise 4.̅̅̅̅ on a number line up to 4 decimal places.
11. Find four different irrational numbers between

LEVEL- 2
12. Simplify :

13. Find a rational number between 0.02 and 0.2
14. Evaluate :
√ √

15. Simplify:
16. Simplify:- (a) (√ √ ) √ (b) (11+√ √
17. Find the value of
18. Find two irrational numbers between √ and 2
19. Find the value of
20. If √ , then find
21. Represent √ on the number line.
22. If √ then find the value of
23. Express 0.3 ̅ in the form where

24. Find the value of ⁄ ⁄ ⁄

√ √
25. If √ determine the rational numbers
√ √
√ √
26. Find and if √
√ √
27. If √ , then find the value of
28. If √ , find the value of √

29. If √ find the value of
LEVEL 3
30. Divide√ √ by √ √
31. Find an irrational number between √ and √
32. Find an irrational number between √ and √
33. Simplify:- √ √
√ √
√ √
34. Simplify:-
√ √
35. If , then find the value of
36. If √ , find the value of
37. If then show that


38. If √ then find √

39. Simplify : .
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
√ √ √ √
40. If and then find the value of
√ √ √ √
√ √ √ √
41.If and , find the value of
√ √ √ √
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1. In a school, 5 out of every 7 children participated in ‗SAVE WILDLIFE‘ campaign organized by


the school authorities.
(i) What fraction of the students participated in the campaign?
(ii) Find what type of decimal expansion it has?
(iii) What value do the participating students possess?

2. A shopkeeper sells its items at the rate of Rs. and Rs. Per item respectively. Which of the two is
a better deal for the customer? If the shopkeeper suggests Rs. Per item to be the better price, then
what moral value does it depicts?

3. Two students Ravi and Raj were quarrelling with each other on the issue: ―Whether ‗ isa rational
number or an irrational number‖. Ravi said that ‗ is a rational number as it is equal to . Raj
argued that ‗ is an irrational number as it is a non-terminating non-recurring decimal.
(i) Who is correct? Ravi or Raj
(ii) Comment on the behavior of Ravi and Raj.

Error Analysis and Remediation


Sl.No. ERRORS REMEDIATION
1 Identifying the decimal expansion of Give more examples like
irrational numbers 1.010010001…,12.121121112…for irrational
1.2345…..is irrational numbers. And make them understand how to
identify them.
2 Representing √ ,√ , … on a number Give more practice to start always with a
line perpendicular line at the square root of the
preceding integer
3 Simply doing the magnification without Practice the magnification problems by using the
the rules step by step rules
4 Operations of radicals Clearing basic ideas of operations of like and
√ +√ =√ unlike variables
√ +√ =√ √ +√ = 2√
5 Simplification by using rationalization Creating necessary ideas in simplification by
using L C M and other basic operations
6 Simplification by using exponential Practice more examples by using the laws
laws

Question Bank

1. The product of any two irrational numbers is :


(a) always an irrational number (b) always a rational number (c) always an integer
(d) sometimes rational, sometimes irrational
2. Every rational number is :
(a) a natural number (b) an integer (c) a real number (d) a whole number
3. A rational number between and is
(a) (b) (c) (d)
4. Which of the following is an irrational number?
(a) √ (b) √ (c) √ (d) √
5. The number 0.̅̅̅̅ is equal to
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6. . The rationalizing factor of denominator in is

(a) √ +2√ (b) √ √ √ √
7. The value of is
(a) (d)
8. Insert four rational numbers between and
9. Express the number 0.2̅̅̅̅ in the form where p and q are integers, q
10 . Represent geometrically the number √ on the number line.
11. If a and b are rational numbers and √ √ , then find the values of a and b.
√ √
√ √ √ √
12. If and , then find the value of
√ √ √ √

13. If √ then find the value of √

14. Arrange the following in the ascending order.
√ ,√ ,√
15. Express 0.00323232….. in the form
Projects
1. History of the number .
2. Geometrical representation of √ on chart paper.
3. Construct the square root spiral on a chart paper to make beautiful shapes like snail, peacock etc
4. Visualise 4.5353 on a chart paper.

Practicals
1. Representing √ √ √ etc on a number line
2. Geometrical representation of real numbers .
3. Constructing Square Root Spiral.
4. Find the sum of two irrational numbers with the help of number line.
5. Irrational number and the decimal expansions of irrational numbers.

Power Point Presentations

NUMBERSYSTEM
CLASS IX

Web Links

NUMBER SYSTEMS:- www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ocQbbD1Rh8


CHAPTER-2
POLYNOMIALS

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Identify the types of polynomials and their degree.


2. Identify the polynomials with reference to the number of terms.
3. Learn to find the value of a polynomial at a given point.
4. Factorise the polynomials using algebraic identities.
5. Learn the use of Remainder theorem and factor theorem to factorise the given polynomials.

CONCEPT MAP

.~.~New Map.vue rpu.vue


THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
3 4
1.The degree of the polynomial 4x -x +3x is ----
2. Factorisation of x3+1=-------
3. If p(x)=2x3-3x then p(1)=
4. Zero of the polynomial 3x—5 is ------
5. When p(x) =2x 2-x-6 is divided by x-2 then the remainder is-----
Ans1)4 2)(x+1)(x2+x+1) 3) 2-3=-1 4.)x=5/3 5. )p(2)

LEVEL- 2
2 2
1. Factorise a +b +2ab+2bc+2ac.
2. Factorise
3. Verify if 2 and 0 are zeroes of the polynomial
3
4. Evaluate : 999
3.
5. Expand: (3a+5b)

6. If then find the value of

ANS1)(a+b+c)(a+b+c) 2)(2x+5)(3x+1) 3.)yes 4)997002999


5)27a3+135a2b+225ab2+125b3 6)36

LEVEL -3

1. If (x+3) and(x-3) are both factors of ax2+5x+b then show that a=b.
2
2. If x= then find the value of x -4x+1.

3. Find the value of a if x+6 is a factor of


4. Factorise
5. Find the remainder when is divided by x-a.
6. If ( x − 4) is a factor of the polynomial 2 x 2 + Ax + 12 and ( x − 5) is a factor of the
polynomial x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11 x + B , then what is the value of ( A − 2 B )?
ANS; 2)0 3)a=-232 4)(x+1)(x-1)(x+2) 5)5a 6)A=-11,B=-5
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1. If the perimeter of two rectangular fields are (a+b)2 and (a2 +ab+b2)units .A property dealer
sells these fields by using a=5 and b=2.If the dealer suggests the perimeter of the field
(a+b)2units is better for the customer. Is it true? What value is depicted by the customer?
2.If a teacher divides a material of volume x3+6x2+12x+8 cubic units among three students of his
class equally .is it possible to find the quantity of material each gets? What value is depicted by
the teacher?
3. In a restaurant the owner says you divide x3-3x2-x+6 by x-3 and pay that money. If the owner
does not return any balance then what is the amount paid and remaining balance If the owner
returns the balance then what value is depicted by him.?
ANS;1)yes,honesty 2)x+2, impartial 3)x2-1, 3, honesty

Error Analysis and Remediation

SLNO COMMON ERRORS REMEDIATION


1. 4X2 +2X .Degree is 4 Correction- Degree is 2 and coefficient of x2 is
4.concept of degree and coefficient must be
made very clear to the students
2. (x-y)2 is written as x2-y2 Correction (x-y)2=x2-2xy+y2
Students must be thoroughly drilled in
Algebraic identities
3. (2x)2 is written as 2x2 Correction (2x)2 =4x2 importance of brackets
must be emphasized
4. x2-5x+6 is factorized as (x-6)(x+1) Correction x2-5x+6=x2-3x-2x+6 = (x-3)(x-2)
Product of -6 and1 is -6 and not 6. Practice
exercises must be worked out in class
5. To find the value of the polynomial x2+2x Correction (-2)2 +2(-2)=4+-4=0
if x=-2 the student writes it as Importance of brackets must be emphasized.
-22+2x(-2)=-4+-4=-8

Question Bank

1. On factorising x2+ 8x + 15, we get :


(a) (x + 3) (x – 5) (b) (x – 3) (x + 5) (c) (x + 3) (x + 5 ) (d) (x – 3) (x – 5)
2. On dividing x – 2x – 15 by (x – 5), the quotient is (x + 3) and remainder is 0. Which of the
2

following statements is true?


(a) x2– 2x – 15 is a multiple of (x – 5)
(b) x2– 2x – 15 is a factor of (x – 5)
(c) (x + 3) is a factor of (x – 5)
(d) (x + 3) is a multiple of (x – 5)
3. The value of the polynomial 3x + 2x2– 4 at x = 0 is :
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) – 4 (d) 4
4. On factorising x2– 3x – 4, we get :
(a) (x – 4) (x + 1) (b) (x – 4) (x – 1) (c) (x + 4) (x – 1) (d) (x + 4) (x + 1)
5. If p(x) = x + 3, then p(x) + p(–x) is equal to :
(a) 3 (b) 2x (c) 0 (d) 6
2
6. If x + kx + 6 = (x + 2) (x + 3) for all x, then the value of kis:
(a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 5 (d) 3
7. Writethe degree of the polynomial 4x4 + 0x5?
8. The coefficient of x in the expansion of (x + 3)3is :
(a) 1 (b) 9 (c) 18 (d) 27
2
9. Find the zeroes of the polynomial p(x) = x – 5x + 6.
10. For the polynomial 3x + 10x -5x – 25 write:
3 6 2

(i) The degree of the polynomial


3
(ii) The coefficient of x
(iii) The coefficient of x6
(iv) The constant term
11. Check whether the polynomial 3x – 1 is a factor of 9x3– 3x2 + 3x – 1.
12. Using factor theorem, show that (2x + 1) is a factor of 2x3+ 3x2– 11x – 6.
13. Check whether (x + 1) is a factor of x3 + x + x2+ 1.

ANS 1)c 2)a 3)c 4)a 5)d 6)c 7)4 8)a 9)3,2 10a)6 b)3 c)10 d)-25
Projects

1. Verify the following identities

(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
(a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2
(a + b) (a – b) = a2 – b2
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b)
(a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab (a – b)
( a3 + b3)= (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2)
(a3 – b3)= (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2)
a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca)
2. Verify factor theorem for at least 5 different polynomials.
3. Verify Remainder theorem for at least 5 different polynomials.
Practicals
1. Representation of a quadratic polynomial

Procedure
 To represent this we need 1 square tile representing x2 , 5 algebra tiles representing x and 6
algebra tiles representing
 By splitting the middle term of the given polynomial we get the expression x2 -3x -2x + 6.
Place a square tile of dimension 10x10 representing x2 .
 Subtract 3 tiles of dimension 10 x 1 each to any side of the tile x2.The area of new shape
formed represents x2 -3x.
 Add 6 tiles of dimension 1 x 1 each to get 2 tiles of dimension 10 x 1 each to the side adjacent
to the previous side. The area of new shape formed represents x2 -3x+6.
 Subtract 2 tiles of dimension 10 x 1 each to complete the rectangle. The area of new shape
formed represents x2 -3x+6-2x.

2. Verifying algebraic identities


To prove the algebraic identity (a-b)3 = a3 -3a2b+3ab2-b3 using unit cubes.
Take any suitable value for a and b.
Let a=3 and b=1.
To represent (a-b)3 make a cube of dimension
(a-b) x (a-b) x (a-b) i.e. 2x2x2 cubic units as shown below.

To represent (a)3 make a cube of dimension a x a x a. i.e. 3x3x3 cubic units as shown below.

To represent 3ab2 make 3 cuboids of dimension a x b x b i.e. 3x1x1 cubic units as shown below.
To represent a3 + 3ab2 , join the cube and the cuboids formed in steps 2 and 3 as shown below.

To represent a3 + 3ab2- 3a2b extract from the shape formed in the previous step 3 cuboids of
dimension 3x3x1 to get the shape shown below.

To represent a3 + 3ab2- 3a2b-b3 extract from the shape formed in the previous step 1 cube of
dimension 1x1x1 .The shape shown below will be obtained.

Arrange the unit cubes left to make a cube of dimension2x2x2 cubic units.

Observe the following

3
•The number of unit cubes in a = …27…..
•The number of unit cubes in 3ab2 =…9……
•The number of unit cubes in 3a2b=…27……
•The number of unit cubes in b 3 =…1……
•The number of unit cubes ina3 - 3a2b + 3a2 b- b3 = …8…..
Using the same strategy verifies the other cubic identities.

Power Point Presentations

Polynomials and
Factoring
The basic building blocks of
algebraic expressions

1. POLYNOMIALS

Polynomials
Defining Polynomials
Adding Like Terms

Web Links:
http: //www.worldofteaching.com/
https://www.projectatschool.com
https://www.sciencefairexperiments.org
https://www.math Goodies.com
CHAPTER: 3

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Identify the need of coordinate geometry.


2. Identify Cartesian system.
3. Understand the four quadrants and the nature of signs of points.
4. Identify the quadrant in which a given point lies.
5. Identify the terms - axes and origin.
6. Understand the meaning of coordinates.
7. Acquire skill in plotting points in the Cartesian plane.
8. Find the coordinates of a point plotted in Cartesian plane.
9. Identify the equations of the axes.
10. Understand the nature of coordinates of points on the two axes.

CONCEPT MAP

New Map.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1. Name the point, where the two axes meet.
2. Are the points (2,5) and (5,2) the same?
3. What is the name of each part of the plane formed by these two axes?
4. What is the abscissa of the point (-2,4) ?
5. In which quadrant does the point (-3, -6) lie?
6. What are the coordinates of origin?
7. What is the perpendicular distance of the point ( 3 , -1 ) from the x-axis?
8. If ( x , y ) = ( y, x ) then find the value of x-y
9. What are the coordinates of a point, whose ordinate is -3 and which lies on the y- axis?
10. Name the mathematician, after whose name the branch Coordinate Geometry is named.
LEVEL-2
1. Draw a quadrilateral, with vertices ( 3 , 2 ) , ( 2 , 3 ), ( -4 , 5 ) and ( 5 , -3 )
2. In which quadrant do the following points lie?
( 4 , -2 ) , ( -3 , 7 ), ( -1 , -2 ) , ( 3 , 6 )
3. Plot the points ( -1 , -1 ) , ( 2 , 3 ) and ( 8, 11 ) and show that they are collinear.
4. In the given figure, write the coordinates of the vertices of the rhombus.

2.
.
1
. . . . . . .
-3 -2 1 1 2 3
-1 .
-2 .
. -3
5. Without plotting the points, indicate the quadrant in which the following points lie if
i) Ordinate is 5 and abscissa is -3
ii) Abscissa is -7 and ordinate is -3
iii) Abscissa is 2 and ordinate is 27
iv) Ordinate is - 0.4 and abscissa is 1.5
6. What is the length of the line segment joining ( 5 , -3 ) and ( -3 , -3 )
7. In ∆ABC, if the coordinates of A and B are (4 , 0) and (0 , 3 ) respectively, the find the length of
AB.
8. Find the area of the figure obtained by joining the points ( 4,0) , ( 0 , 3 )
9. Which of the following points lie on the axes?
A ( 0 , -3 ) , B ( 3 , 4 ) , C( 5, 0 ) D ( -2 , 2 )
10. Write the coordinates of a point which lies on the x- axis and is at a distance of 5 units to the left
of the origin
LEVEL -3
1. In the following figure, ∆PQR is an equilateral triangle. Find the coordinates of the point
P

1
Q R

0 1 2 3 4
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1

-2
-3

-4
2. In which quadrants can a point have
i) abscissa = ordinate. ii ) Ordinate, equal and opposite of abscissa
3. Plot the points A ( 5 , 5 ) and B ( -5 , 5 ). Join OA , OB & AB. What is the type of figure so
obtained?
4. Plot the points A ( 4 , 0 ) and B ( -0 , 4 ). Join OA , OB & AB. Find the area of the ∆ OAB.
5. The table gives the number of pairs of shoes and their price. Plot them as ordered pairs and
Join them. What type of graph do you get ?
6. Write the coordinates of a point that is the mirror image of ( 0 , 4 ) in x- axis.
7. Plot the points A ( 2 , 3 ) , B ( 2 , 1 ) , C ( 0 , 1 ) and D ( 0 , 3 ) . Join the points in order and
Identify the type of figure obtained. Also find its area and perimeter.
8. Plot the points A ( -5 , 3 ) , B ( 3 , 3 ) , C ( 3 , 0 ) and D ( -5 , 0 ) . Join the points in order and
identify the type of figure obtained.
Also find the ratio of areas of the two parts of ABCD in the I quadrant and the ii quadrant.
9. Draw the line passing through ( 2 , 3 ) and ( 3 , 2 ). Then write the coordinates of the points,
where the line meets the two axes.
10. If the points ( -3 , a ) and ( b , 4 ) lie on a straight line with equation y = 4x , find the values
of a and b.
Non - routine Questions
1. Write the coordinates of the vertices of a rectangle whose length and breadth are 5 and 3
units respectively, one vertex at the origin, the longer side lies on the x-axis and one of
the vertices lies in the third quadrant.
2. Plot the points A (1, –1) and B (4, 5) :
(i) Draw a line segment joining these points. Write the co-ordinates of a point on this
line segment between the points A and B.
(ii) Extend this line segment and write the co-ordinates of a point on this line which lies
outside the line segment AB
3. The following table gives the number of pairs of shoes and their corresponding price. Plot these as
ordered pairs and join them. What type of graph do you get ?
Number of pairs Corresponding prices of shoes (in hundred of rupees)

Number of Pairs Corresponding Prices


Of shoes (In hundreds of rupees)
1 5
2 10
3 15
4 20
5 25
6 30

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1 Subhash starts from his home situated at point A ( 3 , 0 ) to school situated at point B ( 3 , 4 )
and then to his home situated at point C ( 0 , 4 ). Finally he returns back home by bike
i ) Find the distance travelled by him by plotting the points.
ii )If he prefers to walk , how is it useful to the society.
2 A triangular park has vertices at( 5 , 4 ) , ( 0 , 0 ) and ( 5, 0 )
i )Find the area of this park by plotting the points
ii) If 10 plants can be planted in one square unit area, how many plants can be
planted in the park?
What are the advantages of plantation?
3. A traffic police sign board is in the form of a triangle with ― SCHOOL AHEAD ―displayed
on the road side.
If f the vertices of the triangle are ( 0,0 ), ( 0,2a ) and ( a , a3 )Then find the type of triangle ,
by plotting the points. Which value is indicated in displaying the board?

Error Analysis and Remediation


SL NO COMMON ERRORS REMEDIAL MEASURE
Mark Points of the form ( 0, 4 ) For ( 0 , 4 ) - from o just move 4units upwards
and (4 , 0 ) wrongly ,because 4 is positive.
For (4 , 0 ) - From 4 of x- axis , move zero units (
i.e the point is there itself )
Remember points with x – coordinate 0 lie on y-
axis and that with y coordinate 0 lie
on x-axis
Incorrect Correct

1
(0 , 4 )
(4 , 0 )

(4 , 0 )
(0 , 4 )
Write the coordinates of the Drilling the concepts –
points of intersectionof a line If the point is on x-axis theny – coordinate
with the two axes wrongly is 0 and If the point is on y-axis then
x – coordinate is 0

Incorrect
2 correct
(4 , 0 )
(0 , 4 )

(0 , 4 )
(4 , 0 )

Question Bank
1. The distance of the point (0, 8) from the origin is:
(a) 0 units (b) 8 units (c) cannot be determined (d) none of these
2. Which of the following points lies on the x-axis?
(a) (0, 4) (b) (–5, –3) (c) (5, 0) (d) (0, 6)
3. The co-ordinates of a point are (x, y) and it lies in the 4th quadrant. Which of the
Following is true?
(a) x > 0, y > 0 (b) x < 0, y < 0 (c) x > 0, y < 0 (d) x < 0, y > 0
4. Which of the following points lies below the x-axis?
(a) (5, – 4) (b) (–5, 4) (c) (–3, 0) (d) (3, 0)
5. Which lies on the –ve x-axis?
(a) (4, 0) (b) (– 4, 0) (c) (0, –4) (d) (0, 4)
6. Write whether the following statements are true or false. Justify your answer.
(i) Point (0, –2) lies on the y-axis.
(ii) The perpendicular distance of the point (4, 3) from the x-axis is 4.
7. Where will you find all points with positive abscissa and negative ordinate?
8. (i) Where will you find all points with abscissa 0?
(ii) Where will you find all points with ordinate 0?
9. The perpendicular distance of a point from the x-axis is 6 and that from y-axis is 2.
What may be the co-ordinates of the point?
10. Where will you find all points with negative abscissa and positive ordinate?
11. Find the co-ordinates of the point:
(i) Which lies on x and y axes both.
(ii) Whose abscissa is 2 and which lies on the x-axis.
12. Write whether the following statements are true or false. Justify your answer.
(i) Point (5, 0) lies in the first quadrant.
13. Plot the following points on a graph paper.
(i) A (– 7, 0) (ii) B (2, – 3)
(iii) C (8, 1) (iv) D (– 3, – 4)
14. Plot the points P (1, 0), Q (4, 0) and S (1, 3). Find the coordinate of the point R
such that PQRS is a square.
15. Plot the point P (2, –6) on graph paper and from it draw PM and PN as perpendiculars to
x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Write the coordinates of the points M and N.
16. Plot the following points and check whether they are collinear or not.
(i) (0, 0), (2, 2), (5, 5)
(ii) (1, 3), (– 1, – 1), (–2, – 3)
(iii) (1, 1), (2, – 3), (–1, – 2)
17. On a graph paper sketch the parallelogram whose vertices are (–3, 2), (–4, –2), (3, –2)
and (4, 2).
18. Plot the points A( –3, 4) and B (5, 4) and draw the segment AB. What are the co-coordinates of
the mid-point of AB ?
19. Taking 0.5 cm as 1 unit, plot the following points on the graph paper.
A (1, 3), B (–3, – 1), C(1, – 4), D (–2, 3), E (0, – 8), F(1, 0)
20 Mark the points (0, 2), (3, 0), (–3, 0) and (0, –2) on a graph. Join these points. Name the figure
obtained and find the area of the figure so obtained.
21. Plot the points (3, 2), (–2, 2), (–2, –2) and (3, –2) in the Cartesian plane. Join these points and
name the figure so formed.
22. In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle with length 6 cm and breadth 3 cm. O is the midpoint of
AB. Find the co-ordinates of A, B, C and D.

23. In the figure, PQR is an equilateral triangle with the co-ordinates of Q and R as (0, 4)
and (0, – 4). Find the co-ordinates of the vertex P.

24 Plot the points A (6, 6), B (4, 4), C (–1, –1) in the Cartesian plane and show that the points are
collinear
25 Plot the co-ordinates of the point :
(a) Whose ordinate is –5 and which lies on y-axis
(b) Which lies on x and y axes both.
26. Three vertices of a rectangle are (– 4, 5), (– 4, 2) and (3, 2). Plot these points and find the co-
ordinates of the fourth vertex.
27. Points A (5, 3), B (–2, 3) and D (5, –4) are three vertices of a square ABCD. Plot these points
on a graph paper and hence find the coordinates of the vertex C.
28. (i) Plot each of the points A (–2, 4), B (–2, – 3), C (4, –3) and D (4, 4).
(ii) Draw the segments AB, BC, CD and DA. What is the name of the figure ABCD ?
(iii) What are the coordinates of the point where the segment AD cuts the y-axis ?
(iv) What are the coordinates of the points where the segment CD cuts the x-axis ?
29. Write the coordinates of the vertices of a rectangle whose length and breadth are 5 and 3
units respectively, one vertex at the origin, the longer side lies on the x-axis and one of
the vertices lies in the third quadrant.
30. Plot the points A (1, –1) and B (4, 5) :
(i) Draw a line segment joining these points. Write the co-ordinates of a point on this
line segment between the points A and B.
(ii) Extend this line segment and write the co-ordinates of a point on this line which lies
Outside the line segment AB.
Projects

1. Life history of Rene Descartes


2. Applications of Coordinate Geometry in daily life
Practicals
1. To plot the given points and finding their images under given axes
2. To obtain the mirror image of a given geometrical figure with respect to the x-axis
and the y-axis.
3. To obtain the mirror image of a triangle with respect to the origin.

Power Point Presentations

Web Links:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQFNDoxd5eU ( video)
www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VUXGnbfZQE ( video )
www.learnnext.com
CHAPTER: 5
INTRODUCTION TO EUCLIDS GEOMETRY

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Know the history of Geometry and Euclid‘s contribution to Geometry
2. Understand the terms and definitions given by Euclid.
3. Understand the undefined terms in basic geometry.
4. Understand the Euclid‘s postulates.
5. Understand the 5th postulate and its versions
6. Applications of axioms and postulates in proving the geometrical results.
CONCEPT MAP

Euclid's Geometry-copy.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1. How many dimensions a solidhas?
2. How many dimensions a surfacehas?
3. Which of the following statements are true?
a. A line segment has no definite length.
b. A line separates a plane into three parts, namely the two half-planes and the line itself
c. Three lines are concurrent if they have a common point
d. Two lines are concurrent if they have a common point.
e. Two distinct intersecting lines can be parallel to the same line
f. A line segment can be produced indefinitely on either side.
4. If lines AB, AC, AD and AE are parallel to a line.Then show that the points A, B, C,D and E
are collinear.

LEVEL-2
1. Which term is known as boundaries of solids?
2. How many lines can be drawn to pass through a given point?
3. Euclid divided the book ‗ELEMENTS‘ into how many parts?
4. If AB= , BC= and AC= then for what value of B lies on AC ?
5. If and then show that
6. It is known that if then . Which of Euclid‘s axiom illustrates
this statement?
7. If a point P lies in between A and B on a line segment AB, then justify that
AP + BP =AB
8. If P and Q are the centers of two intersecting circles, then prove that PQ = QR = PR

7. If and be three lines such that , then prove that


8. In figure, C is the mid-point of the segment AB and P is the mid-point of the segment AC.
Show that CP = AB.

LEVEL -3
1. Thales belongs to which country?
2. In how many points can two distinct lines intersect?
3. In the given figure if AB=CD, then prove that AC=BD

4. In the given figure if AB = BC and BX= BY, then show that AX = CY.
6. In the given figure, if  1 =  2 and  2 =  3 then show that  1 =  3

7. Prove that two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.
8. State Euclid‘s fifth postulate and explain it with the help of a diagram.
9. Explain geometrically, a line segment.
10. In the given figure, if AC = DC and CB = CE, then prove that AB = DE

11. Let A be a given point and B be some other point. If we draw several lines passing
through the point A,
a. We see that only one of these lines also passes through the point B. Similarly, if we
draw several lines
b. Passing through the point B, we see that only one of these lines also passes through
the point A.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1. In a school, cash awards were given for honesty, punctuality and obedience. Prize money for
punctuality is half of that for honesty. Also, the prize money for obedience is half of that for honesty.
(i) Is the prize money for punctuality same as that of obedience?
(ii) State Euclid‘s axiom which is used to answer part (i)
(iii) Why the prize money for honesty is higher than that for punctuality or obedience?
2. If a father divides his plot of size 30 sq yards among his 3 children. How can he divide it
equally? Also write the size of the plot with area. State which concept and which moral value is
depicted by the father?
3. Suppose Lucknow, Jaipur and Bombay are three capital cities of Indian states and these
arerepresented by the letters A, B and C respectively. AB, BC and AC are highway to join this city,
toprotect these cities from enemy countries. The Indian Government decided to build two air bases at
D and E, in such a way that D and E are mid-points of the highway AB and AC.
(i) If AB = AC, then prove that AD = AE
(ii) What values are depicted by Indian government to build two air bases?
4. Rehman and prakash contributed equal amount towards Prime Minister Relief Fund. Prakash and
Rahul also contributes equal amount towards Prime Minister Relief Fund. If Rahul contributed Rs.
500 then how much Rehman contributed? What value they all are exhibiting by doing so? Which
Euclid axiom in reaching the correct answer? State any one more Euclid‘s postulate.
5. In a game PQRS is a square field. Three students started from point P with same speed to follow
paths PR, PQR and PSR.
(i) State who reached first at point R.
(ii) Which value is depicted by the students?
5. To promote health and well-being, a state government opens hospitals in the rural areas all over
the state. The two towns X and Z are located along a straight road in such a way that the distance
between X and Z is 40 km. The government opens a hospital Y between the towns X and Z ie.
15 km apart from Z.
(i) What is the distance of hospital from the town X?
(ii) Is the distance equal from both towns?
(iii) What values are shown by the government?

Error Analysis and Remediation

Sl Errors Remediation
No
1 Meaning of definitions of different terms like Explain the terms in simple language by using
point, line, line segment etc different examples from our surroundings
Misunderstanding the concept of line and
line segment LINE
LINE

LINE SEGMENT

2 Euclid‘ Axioms Give both algebraic and geometric examples


If If
Then, Then,
3 Euclid‘s postulates Draw the figures in understandable manner
and give clear explanations

Question Bank
1. A point has ................... dimension(s).
(a) no (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
2. A breathless length is called:
(a) Point (b) line (c) surface (d) none of these
3. Things which are equal to the same thing are ............. to one another.
(a) equal (b) unequal (c) smaller (d) none of these
4. A surface has ............ dimension(s).
(a) no (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
5. In the given figure, if AB = PQ and PQ = XY then :
(a) AB > XY

(b) AB = XY
(c) AB < XY
6. The edges of a surface are:
(a) points (b) lines (c) either (a) or (b) (d) none of these
7. A line segment has:
(a) one mid-point (b) two mid-points (c) no mid-point (d) infinite number of mid points
8. Number of points contained in a line is :
(a) one (b) two (c) three (d) infinitely many
9. The whole is .............. the part.
(a) equal to (b) smaller than (c) greater than (d) none of these
10. How many lines can pass through a single point ?
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) infinite (d) 0
11. In the adjoining figure name the following

(i) Two pairs of intersecting lines and their corresponding points of intersection.
(ii) Three concurrent lines and their points of intersection
(iii) Three rays
(iv) Two line segments
12. PQ is a line segment 12 cm long and R is point in its interior such that PR = 8 cm. Then,
Find QR,
13. If S is point lies in the interior of  PQR. Given that,  PQR = 800 and  PQS = 350,
determine the measure of  RQS
14. ‗ Lines are parallel, if they do not intersect ‗, Explaing the statement with suitable diagram.
Projects

1. List the things from the surroundings and identify their shapes to verify that they are 2-D or 3-D
2. Write short notes on Euclid‘s book ―Elements‖.
3. Construct equilateral triangle using Euclid‘s axiom.

Practicals

1. To list all the line segments of a line by taking four points P, Q, R and S
2. For every line and for every point P not lying on , there exists a unique line passing through
P And parallel to .
2. Verify that a line segment has one and only one mid-point.
3.
Power Point Presentations

Web Links:https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/intro_euclid/.../points_line...
CHAPTER: 6

LINES AND ANGLES

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Recall the terms complementary angles, supplementary angles.


2. Understand adjacent angles, vertically opposite angles and linear pair.
3. Understand and apply linear pair axiom.
4. Understand the meaning of transversal, corresponding angles, alternate interior angles and
co-interior angles.
5. Learn the necessary conditions for two lines to be parallel.
6. Understand and apply the statement : The sum of the three angles of a triangle is 1800 and
acquire skill in applying angle sum property of a triangle.
7. Understand exterior angle property and acquire skill in applying the same.

CONCEPT MAP

LINES AND ANGLES.vue


THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1

1.If two lines intersect each other, then the vertically opposite angles are equal. Prove.
2. Prove that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 1800.
3. If the measure of  1 is 550 then find the measure of  3 ?

4. Find the measure of the angle complementary to 360


5.  MRQ and  RPN are alternate interior angles. If ∠MRQ = 5x + 7and ∠RPN = 7x - 21, what is
the value for ∠ MRQ?
6. In ∆ABC , m ∠A = 23, m ∠B = 57. Find m ∠C.
7. In ∆ABC ∠A = 500 and ∠ C = 50 0. What can we tell about this triangle?
8. An angle measuring 320 has a complement that measures (2x-16)0. What is the value of x?
9. The angles of a linear pair are (x-1 )0 and (x + 7)0. Find the angles.
10. Of the three angles of a triangle, one is twice the smallest and another isthree times the smallest.
Find the angles of the triangle.
LEVEL-2

1. In the given figure, find the values of x and y and then show that AB || CD.

2. In the given figure, If AB || CD, EF CD and ∠GED = 126º, find ∠AGE, ∠GEF and
∠FGE.

3. In the given figure, if AB || CD, ∠APQ = 50º and ∠PRD = 127º, find x and y.

4. In the given figure, if AB || DE, ∠BAC = 35º and ∠CDE = 53º, find ∠DCE.

5. In the given figure, if PQ PS, PQ || SR, ∠SQR = 28º and ∠QRT = 65º, then find the values
of x and y.
6. In the given figure, if AB || CD, CD || EF and y: z = 3: 7, find x.

6. In the given figure, ∠X = 62º, ∠XYZ = 54º. If YO and ZO are the bisectors of ∠XYZ and
∠XZY respectively of ΔXYZ, find ∠OZY and ∠YOZ.

8. ∆ABC is right angled at A and AL ┴ BC. Prove that ∠ BAL = ∠ACB

9. In the given figure, if PQ || ST, ∠PQR = 110º and ∠RST = 130º, find ∠QRS.

[Hint: Draw a line parallel to ST through point R.]

9. In fig, ∠ AOC = ∠ACO and ∠BDO = ∠ BOD. Show that AC ∥ BD


B

LEVEL -3

1. In the given figure, the side QR of ΔPQR is produced to a point S. If the bisectors of
∠PQR and ∠PRS meet at point T, then prove that ∠QTR= 1/2∠QPR.

2. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, prove that the bisectors of the two
pairs of interior angles enclose a rectangle.

3. In fig,∠Q >∠R, PA is the bisector of ∠ QPR and PM┴ QR. Prove that ∠ APM = ½ (∠Q - ∠R ).

Q M A R
4.If the arms of an angle are respectively parallel to the arms of another angle, then prove
that these angles are either equal or supplementary.
5.If the bisectors of a pair of alternate interior angles, formed by a transversal with two given
lines, are parallel then prove that the lines are parallel.
6. In ∆ ABC, the bisectors of ∠B and ∠C intersect each other at O. prove that ∠BOC = 900 + ½ ∠A
A

B C
7. In fig, the side AB and AC of ∆ ABC are produced to E and D respectively. Bisectors of
∠CBE and ∠DCB intersect each other at O. Prove that ∠BOC = 900 – ½ ∠BAC

B C

8. Prove that x = a + b + c
A

D x
B

9. The sides BC of ∆ABC is produced on both sides. Prove that the sum of the two exterior angles
so formed is greater than ∠A by 1800
10. Find the angles of a triangle PQR, if ∠P - ∠Q = 450 and ∠Q - ∠R = 300

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1. In a mathematical activity , a teacher asks the students to divide a circular sheet of radius 13cm
into 5 equal parts. If a student states that each sheet will subtend central angle of 720, is she
correct?
2 In a game students are required to start from point M and touch points P , Q , R , S and T,
which are at equal distance with one another, MR PT. The teacher starts the game and asks
the students to touch the nearest point. A student says that R is the nearest point and you
should touch R, is she correct? Which moral value does she depict?
Error Analysis and Remediation

SLNO COMMON ERRORS CORRECT ANSWER & REMEDIAL


MEASURE

A D
AA

E O
E O

C B
C B
1
incorrect correct
Vertically opposite angles Vertically opposite angles are
are ∠AOE and ∠BOD I ∠AOC and ∠BOD ; ii) ∠AOD and ∠BOC

1 2
4 3 1 2
2
4 3
5 6
8 7 5 6
8 7
Incorrect correct
corresponding angles are ∠1 and ∠5 ;
corresponding angles are ∠1 and ∠8 ∠2 and ∠6 ; ∠3 and ∠7
Alternate interior angles are ∠1 and ∠6 Alternate interior angles are ∠4 and ∠6 ;
Int. angles on the same side of the
transversal are ∠2 and ∠6
∠3 and ∠5
Int. angles on the same side of the
transversal are ∠3 and ∠6 ; ∠4 and ∠5
Remedy
corresponding angles are ( angles at the same
position )
The two top left angles, The two top right angles ,
The two bottom left angles & The two bottom right
angles
Alternate interior angles are formed in the shape of
Z or the mirror image of Z
Int. angles on the same side of the transversal are
the two angles on the same side between the two
lines
If two angles of a triangle are 400and Correct - 180 – ( 40 + 60 ) = 1000
3 600 then 3rd angle = Subtraction must be from 1800
(40 + 60) – 180 = 1000
Question Bank

1 In the figure, ray OC stands on the line AB, ray OL and ray OM are angle bisectors of ∠AOC
and ∠BOC respectively. Prove that ∠LOM = 90°

2 In the figure, PQ||SR, ∠SQR = 25°, ∠QRT = 65°, find x and y

3 In the figure, if PQ||RS, ∠PAB = 60° and ∠ACS = 117°, then find (x – y).

4 If two lines are perpendicular to the same line, prove that they are parallel to each other.
5 In the figure, if AB||CD, then find ∠PQR.

6 In the figure, find x and y and then show that AB||CD.

7 If the complement of an angle is one-third of its supplement, find the angle.


8 Lines PQ and RS intersect each other at point O. If ∠POR : ∠ROQ = 5 : 7, find all the
remaining angles.
9 If l, m, n are three lines such that l || m and n l, then prove that n m
10 AB and CD are the bisectors of the two alternate interior angles formed by the intersection of
a transversal t with parallel lines l and m (shown in the figure). Show that AB||CD.
11 In ΔABC, if ∠A – ∠B = 15°, ∠B – ∠C = 30°, find ∠A, ∠B and ∠C.
12. A triangle ABC is right angled at A. L is a point on BC such that AL BC. Prove that ∠BAL =
∠ACB.
13. In a triangle ABC, ∠B = 45°, ∠C = 55° and bisector of ∠A meets BC at a point D. Find
∠ADB and ∠ADC
14 In the figure, find the value of x.

15 In the figure, two straight lines AB and CD intersect each other at O. If ∠COE = 70°, find
the values of a, b and c.

16 In the figure, AB||CD and CD||EF. Also EAAB. If ∠BEF = 40°, then find x, y, z.

17 Bisectors of angles B and C of a triangle ABC intersect each other at the point O. Prove that
∠BOC = 90° + 1/2 ∠A.
18 In the figure, PQ||RS and T is any point as shown in the figure, then show that
∠PQT + ∠QTS + ∠RST = 360°.

19 Prove that if two lines intersect, then vertically opposite angles are equal.
20 In the figure, AB, CD and EF are three lines concurrent at O. Find the value of x.

Projects:

1.Study the application of parallel lines and their uses in architecture & engineering

Practicals
1. Geometrical verification of EXTERIOR ANGLE PROPERTY OF A TRIANGLE
2. To find by paper folding :
(i) the mid-point of a line segment
(ii) the perpendicular bisector of a line segment
(iii) the bisector of an angle
(iv) the perpendicular to a line from a point given outside it
(v) the perpendicular to a line at a point given on the line
(vi) the median of a triangle
Power Point Presentations

LINES AND ANGLES

Web Links:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qJv0ayLJ6M
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVEF-89M6sM
CHAPTER: 7
TRIANGLES

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Understand the concept of congruent triangles.


2. Understand different criteria for congruence of triangles like ASA ,SAS ,AAS ,SSS&RHS
3. Learn the properties of different types of triangles.
4. Understand theorem of inequality of a triangle.
5. Apply the knowledge of congruent triangles in day to day life situations

CONCEPT MAP

.~.~.~RPU VUE2.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1.If in quadrilateral ABCD ,AC=ADand AB bisects A. Show that
C

2. AD and BC are equal perpendiculars to a line segment AB (See the given figure). Show that CD
bisects AB.
3.ABC is a right angled triangle in which ∠ A = 90º and AB = AC. Find ∠ B and ∠ C.

4. Show that in a right angled triangle, the hypotenuse is the longest side.

5.ABC is a triangle in which B  2C , D is a point on BC such that AD bisects  BAC


andAB=CD.Prove that  BAC=720..

LEVEL-2
1. ΔABC and ΔDBC are two isosceles triangles on the same base BC and vertices A and D are on the
same side of BC (see the given figure). If AD is extended to intersect BC at P, show that
(i) ΔABD ΔACD
(ii) ΔABP ΔACP
(iii) AP bisects ∠A as well as ∠D.

2. Line l is the bisector of an angle ∠A and B is any point on l. BP and BQ are perpendiculars from B
to the arms of ∠A (see the given figure). Show that:

(i) ΔAPB ΔAQB


(ii) BP = BQ or B is equidistant from the arms of ∠A.
3.AD is an altitude of an isosceles triangles ABC in which AB = AC. Show that
(i) AD bisects BC (ii) AD bisects ∠A.
4. ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. Drawn AP BC to show that ∠B = ∠C.
5.In an isosceles triangle ABC, with AB = AC, the bisectors of ∠B and ∠C intersect each other
at O. Join A to O. Show that: OB = OC (ii) AO bisects ∠A.

LEVEL -3
1.AB is a line segment and P is its mid-point. D and E are points on the same side of AB such that
∠BAD = ∠ABE and ∠EPA = ∠DPB (See the given figure). Show that
(i) ΔDAP ΔEBP
(ii) AD = BE

2.In right triangle ABC, right angled at C, M is the mid-point of hypotenuse AB. C is joined to M and
produced to a point D such that DM = CM. Point D is joined to point B (see the given figure). Show
that:

(i) ΔAMC ΔBMD


(ii) ∠DBC is a right angle.
(iii) ΔDBC ΔACB
(iv) CM = (1/2)AB

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.A tecaher asks students to draw a triangle with sides 3cm,5cm and 8cm.Is it possible to draw a
triangle with the given measurements. What qualities are developed among the students?
2.If sides of two triangles are respectively 2cm,2.5cm.3cm and 3cm, 2cm 2.5cm.Are the triangles
congruent? State the criteria. what value does this develop in students/
3.ABC is a park in the shape of a triangle Students are asked to maintain the park If the park is
divided into two parts such that AB=AC and AD  BC. Is ar(ABC)=ar(ACD)why? what value
does this develop in students.

Error Analysis and Remediation


SLNO COMMON ERRORS REMEDIATION
1. If two triangles are congruent by AAS Correction- difference between included side
congruence criteria then the student uses and non- included side should be specified
ASA criteria
2. If two triangles are congruent by SAS Correction- difference between included angle
congruence criteria then the student uses and non- included angle should be made
ASS criteria clearer and that there is no ASS criteria

3. If all three angles of one triangle are equal Correction – It must be made clear that there is
to the angles other triangle then the no AAA criteria
triangles are congruent by AAA
4. while using RHS congruence the student Correction- It must be made clear that angle
identifies the wrong side as the opposite to 900is the hypotenuse
hypotenuse

5. To prove two triangles are congruent Correction


.Students give the proof as given below: .AB=AC(reason)
AB=A C A  B=  C(reason)
 B= C BD=DC(reason)
ABD ACD (reason)
proved
B C

Question Bank
1. In the figure, AB = AD and BC = DC. If ∠BAC = 30°, the measure of ∠OAD is :

(a) 60° (b) 45° (c) 30° (d) 40°


2. In the figure, if AD = BC and AD is parallel to BC
then: (a) AB = AD (b) AB = DC (c) BC = CD (d) none of these

3. Which of the following is not a criterion for congruence of triangles?


(a) SAS (b) ASA (c) SSA (d) SSS
4. In ΔABC and ΔPQR, if AB = QR, BC = PR and CA = PQ, then
(a) ΔABC ΔPQR (b) ΔCBA ΔPRQ
(c) ΔBAC ΔRPQ (d) ΔPQR ΔBCA
5. In ΔABC, BC = AB and ∠B = 80º. Then ∠A is equal to :
(a) 80° (b) 40° (c) 50° (d) 100°
6. In ΔPQR, ∠R = ∠P and QR = 4 cm and PR = 5 cm. Then the length of PQ is :
(a) 4 cm (b) 5 cm (c) 2 cm (d) 2.5 cm
7. D is a point on the side BC of a ΔABC such that AD bisects ∠BAC. Then :
(a) BD = CD (b) BA > BD (c) BD > BA (d) CD > CA
8.Read the two statements and choose the correct option :
Statement P: All equilateral triangles are isosceles triangles.
Statement Q: All scalene triangles are isosceles triangles.
(a) P is true but Q is false
(b) P is false but Q is true
(c) Both P and Q are true
(d) Both P and Q are false
9. The measures of the angles of an isosceles triangle in which each of the base angles is four times
the vertical angle are :
(a) 80°, 80°, 20° (b) 120°, 30°, 30° (c) 70°, 70°, 40° (d) none of these.
10. In triangles ABC and DEF, AB = DE, BC = EF and ∠A = ∠D. Are the triangles congruent? If yes,
by which congruency rule ?
(a) yes, by SAS (b) no (c) yes, by SSS (d) yes, by RHS
11. Is it possible to construct a triangle with lengths of its sides as 8 cm, 9 cm, and 2 cm,? Give
reason for your answer.
12. In an equilateral triangle ABC, if AD is a median, then prove that ∠ADC = 90°.
13.In ΔABC, side AB is produced to D so that BD = BC. If ∠ABC = 60° and ∠A = 70°, then :

14 In ΔABC, ∠B = 45°, ∠C = 65° and the bisector of ∠BAC meets BC at P. The relation between
the sides AP, BP and AB is

(a) AB > AP > BP (b) AB > BP > AP (c) AB > BP > AP (d) none of these
ANS 1)c 2)b 3)c 4)b 5)c 6)a 7)b 8)a 9)b 10)b 11)yes 13)b 14)c

Projects

1. Verify SAS congruence criteria by paper folding activity


2. Verify SSS congruence criteria by paper folding activity
3. Verify ASA congruence criteria by paper folding activity
4. Verify RHS congruence criteria by paper folding activity
5. Prepare PPT on congruence criteria of triangles

Practicals

1. Study the properties of an isosceles triangle by paper folding.


2.Activity :Medians of a triangle are concurrent

Median of a triangle is a line segment joining vertex to the mid point of opposite side.
There are three medians in a triangle. All medians intersect at a common point called
centroid. The centroid always lie in the interior of triangle.
Activity Aim :To verify medians of a triangle concur at a point called centroid which always lie in the
interior of the triangle by paper folding.
Material required: Coloured paper , pair of scissors , ruler , stapler.

Procedure : Take a coloured paper and draw any triangle ABC. Cut the triangle

To get the mid point og BC , fold along BC ,such that , B coincides with C .

Unfold and mark the mid-point of BC as M

Form a crease joining AM.


Similarly get medians BN and CP by paper folding. What do you observe?
The centroid divides each median in the ratio 2:1

Observations:

1. All the medians intersect at a common point called centroid.


2. In all types of triangles , centroid is located in the interior of triangle.

Result : It is verified that the medians of a triangle concur at a point called centroid which always lie
in the interior of triangle.

3.Triangle Inequality
Activity
Take broom sticks of different lengths.(Say, 4cm, 7cm and 13cm)Can you make a triangle using these
sticks?Now, try to find a relation between the largest side and the sum of the remaining two.Repeat
this by taking few more sets of broom sticks.
What do you notice?
Based on your observations, write a conjecture about the relationship between the sum of the
measures of the two sides of a triangle and the measure of the largest side of the triangle. Provide a
reason for your conjecture.
Power Point Presentations:

Proving Triangles
Congruent

Web Links:http://www.icoachmath.com
CHAPTER: 12
HERON’S FORMULA

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. To recall the concepts of area and perimeter.


2. To identify the formula suitable for a given situation.
3. To calculate the area of a triangle when its base and altitude are given.
4. To calculate the area of a right triangle when its base and altitude are given.
5. To understand Heron‘s formula.
6. To acquire skill in applying Heron‘s formula.
7. To identify the formula for area of equilateral triangle as a special case of Heron‘s
formula.
8. To apply formulae for area of triangles to find area of quadrilaterals.

CONCEPT MAP

HERON'S FORMULA.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1. An isosceles triangle has perimeter 30 cm and each of the equal sides is 12 cm. Find the area of
the triangle.
2. The sides of a triangle are 5cm, 12cm and 13cm. Find its area
3. The sides of a triangle are 40cm, 24cm and 32cm. Find its area
4. The unequal side of an isosceles triangle is 6cm and its perimeter is 24 cm. Find its area.
5. The adjacent sides of a parallelogram ABCD are 34cm and 20cm. The diagonal AC = 42cm.
Find
the area of ABCD.
6. A field is in the shape of a trapezium whose parallel sides are 25 m and 10 m. The non- parallel
sides are 14 m and 13 m. Find the area of the field.
7. Manisha has a garden in the shape of a rhombus. The perimeter of the garden is 40m and
one of its diagonal is 16m. Find the area of the garden.
8. The perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 60m. Find its area.
LEVEL-2
1.A rhombus shaped field has green grass for 18 cows to graze. If each side of the rhombus is
30 m and its longer diagonal is 48 m, how much area of grass field will each cow be getting?
2.A park, in the shape of a quadrilateral ABCD, has ∠C = 90°, AB = 9 m, BC = 12 m,
CD = 5 m and AD = 8 m. How much area does it occupy?
3.Find the area of a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 3 cm, BC = 4 cm, CD = 4 cm,
DA = 5 cm and AC = 5 cm.
4. A kite in the shape of a square with a diagonal 32 cm and an isosceles triangles of base 8 cm
and sides 6 cm each is to be made of three different shades as shown in the given figure. How

much paper of each shade has been used in it


5.A floral design on a floor is made up of 16 tiles which are triangular, the sides of the
triangle being 9 cm, 28 cm and 35 cm (see the given figure). Find the cost of polishing the tiles at
the rate of 50p per cm2.

6.An umbrella is made by stitching 10 triangular pieces of cloth of two different colours
(see the given figure), each piece measuring 20 cm, 50 cm and 50 cm. How much
cloth of each colour is required for the umbrella?

7.If each side of a triangle is doubled, then find the ratio of the area of the new triangle to that of
the original one.
8.The sides of a triangle are 7cm , 13cm and 12cm. Find the length of the altitude to the side of
length 12cm.
9. If the area of an equilateral triangle is 36√3cm2 , find its perimeter.
10. A triangle and a parallelogram have the same base and the same area. If the sides of the
triangle are 26cm , 28cm ,and 30cm , and the parallelogram stands on the base 28cm,
find the height of the parallelogram.
11.Find the area of a triangle two sides of which are 18 cm and 10 cm and the perimeter is 42 cm.
12. Sides of a triangle are in the ratio of 12: 17: 25 and its perimeter is 540 cm. Find its area.

LEVEL -3
1. A field is in the shape of a trapezium. Its parallel sides are 25m and 10m and the
non parallel sides are 14m and 13m. Find its area
2. The perimeter of a triangle is 50cm. One side of the triangle is 4cm longer than the smaller side
and the third side is 6cm less than twice the smaller side. Find the area of the triangle.
A
3. In the given figure, find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD
1 9cm
7c
m D

12c
4. A rhombus sheet has a perimeter of 40m and one diagonal is 12mB. It is to be Cpaintedm
2
on both sides@ Rs. 5 per m . Find the cost of painting.
5. In a rectangular field 50m x 30m a triangular park of sides 14m , 15m and 13m isconstructed. Find
the area of the remaining field.
6. In fig, ABC is an equilateral triangle of side 10cm and ∆DBC is right angled at D.If BD = 6cm, find
the area of the shaded portion A

DD

Bb Cc

7. The sum of the lengths of the diagonals of a square is32 √2cm. Find its perimeter.
8. The area of a regular hexagon is 24√3 cm2. Find its perimeter.
9. The diagonal of a square is ( a + b ) . Find the diagonal of a square, whose area is twice the
area of the first one.

Non - routine problems.

1.A triangular park has sides 120 m, 80 m and 50 m. A gardener has to put a fence all around it and
also plant grass inside. How much area does he need to plant? Find the cost of fencing it with barbed
wire at the rate of Rs 20 per metre leaving a space 3 m wide for a gate on one side.

2. In the figure, ABC has sides AB = 7.5 cm, AC = 6.5 cm and BC = 7 cm. On base BC a
parallelogram DBCE of same area as that of ABC is constructed. Find the height DF of
the parallelogram.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS

1.In an eco-club activity a teacher divides a rhombus shaped field of side 100m and diagonal 160 m
among two students of his class to grow some plants. Find the area each of the two will get. Which
value doesit develop among students.

2. In an equilateral triangle shaped traffic signal board marked with ―DRIVE SLOW‖ on it is
displayed on road side. If the side of the board measures 20 cm, find its area. Which value doesit
develop among students.

3. If a cloth seller sells triangular shaped clothes of sides 18 units, 24 units,30 units and 16 units, 22
units, 26 units to the customer at the same price. Which is the better deal for thecustomer? If the
shopkeeper says that the first clothe is beneficial then which value is depicted by him?

Error Analysis and Remediation

SL NO COMMON ERRORS CORRECT ANSWER & REMEDIAL


MEASURE
If a = 25, b = 21 , c = 28, abc 74
1 S=a+b+c= S= = = 37
2 2
25 + 21 + 28 = 74 ‘S’ is half of the perimeter
For example if Total area = 252 + 203
2 Area of fig 1 = 252sq. units = 252 + 203 sq. units
Area of fig 2 = 203 sq. units
Total area = 252 + 203
= 45 5 sq units

Question Bank
1. Find the area of the triangle having sides 13 cm, 14 cm, and 15 cm.
2. Find the area of an equilateral triangle of side 2 cm
3. If the perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 60 m, find its area.
4. The sides of a triangle are in the ratio 3: 4: 5. If the perimeter of the triangle is 84 cm,
then find its sides.
5. If the area of an equilateral triangle is 273cm2, then find its area .
6. Find the area of an isosceles triangle whose perimeter is 11cm and base is 5 cm.
7. The perimeter of a right triangle is 450 cm. If its sides are in the ratio 13: 12: 5, find the
area of the triangle.
8. The base and corresponding altitude of a parallelogram are 10 cm and 3.5 cm respectively.
Find the area of the parallelogram.
9. Find the area of a triangle with base 4 cm and altitude 6 cm
10. Find the area of an isosceles triangle whose perimeter is 11cm and base is 5 cm.
11. The perimeter of a right triangle is 450 cm. If its sides are in the ratio 13: 12: 5,
find the area of the triangle.
12.The base and corresponding altitude of a parallelogram are 10 cm and 3.5 cm respectively.
Find the area of the parallelogram.
13.Check whether the following statement is true or false.
In a triangle the sides are given as 11 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm. The length of the altitude is 10.25
cm corresponding to the side having length 12 cm.
14. If the side of a rhombus is 10 cm and one diagonal is 16 cm, then find the area of the
rhombus.
15.Find the area of a regular hexagon of side 5cm.
16. Find the area of a triangle with sides 5 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm.
17. The area of a triangle is 30 cm2. Find the base if the altitude exceeds the base by 7 cm.
18.The area of an isosceles triangle is 60 cm2 and the length of each one of its equal sides is 13
cm. Find its base.
19.Find the cost of leveling the ground in the form of a triangle having the sides 51 m, 37 m
and 20 m at the rate of Rs 3 per m2.
20.In a triangle the sides are given as 11 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm. Find the length of altitude
corresponding to the side 11 cm.
13 In the figure, find the area of the shaded region

14 Two sides of a triangle are 50 cm and 78 cm. Its perimeter is 240 cm. Find the altitude on the side
of length 50 cm from the opposite vertex.
15 A triangle has sides 35 cm, 54 cm and 61 cm long. Find its area. Also, find the smallest
of its altitude.
16 The sides of a triangular field are 41 m, 40 m and 9 m. Find the number of rose beds that can be
prepared in the field, if each rose bed, on an average needs 900 cm2 space.
17 A rhombus shaped sheet with perimeter 40 cm and one diagonal 12 cm is painted on both sides at
the rate of Rs 5 per cm2. Find the cost of painting.
18 Two sides of a triangular field are 85 m and 154 m and its perimeter is 324 m. Find
the area of the field.
19 The ratio of the equal side to the base of an isosceles triangle is 3 : 2. If the perimeter of the
triangle is 32 cm, find its area.
20 The lengths of the two sides of a right triangle containing the right angle differ by 2 cm.
If the area of the triangle is 24 cm2, find the perimeter of the triangle.
21 Calculate the area of the triangle whose sides are 18 cm, 24 cm and 30 cm in length.
Also, find the length of the altitude corresponding to the smallest side.
22 A field in the form of a parallelogram has sides 60 m and 40 m and one of its diagonals
is 80 m long. Find the area of the parallelogram.
23 A triangular park has sides 120 m, 80 m and 50 m. A gardener has to put a fence all around it and
also plant grass inside. How much area does he need to plant? Find the cost of fencing it with
barbed wire at the rate of Rs 20 per meter leaving a space 3 m wide for a gate on one side.
24 In the figure, find the area of the quadrilateral PQRS

25 Find the area of the quadrilateral shown in the figure.


Projects
1. study the various aspects of Heron‘s formula.
a. Biography of Heron.
b. Statement of the formula.
c. Proof or verification of the formula that can be given by paper cutting and pasting.
d. Applications of the formula.

Practicals
1. To show that area of a triangle = ½ bh , by paper cutting and pasting
2. Draw three right triangles ABC , PQR and XYZ on 1 cm graph paper
Measure each side of the triangles and record the lengths :
I. AB = ____________ cm, BC = ____________ cm, AC = ____________ cm.
II. PQ = ____________ cm, QR = ____________ cm, PR = ____________ cm.
III. XY = ____________ cm, YZ = ____________ cm, XZ = ____________ cm.
Now, find the area of each triangle by
(i) Using the formula : Area of a triangle = 12 × base × altitude
(ii) Using Heron‘s formula.
Check, in each case, whether the areas found by these two methods are equal or not.

Power Point Presentations

WELCOME

TO

PLANE FIGURES

Web Links:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=4t2D2JEbaTg
https://www.khanacademy.org/.../
Resources –Chapter wise
TERM -II
CHAPTER: 4

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Identify the forms of a linear equations in two variables.
2. Understand the meaning of solution of a linear equation in two variables
3. Understand the number of solution of a linear equation in two variables
4. Learn the method of finding the number of solutions of linear equation.
5. Learn how to draw the graph of linear equations in two variables
6. Learn how to represent geometrically the solution of ax+b=0 in
(i) one variable
(ii) two variable
7. Identify the equations of X-axis and Y-axis & the lines parallelto them.

CONCEPT MAP

Linear equations.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1. Write the equation in the form
2. What is the equation of X-axis ?
3. Every point on the graph of a linear equation in two variables represents a ………… of the
linear equation
4. How many linear equations in and can be satisfied by
5. Express in terms of , given that . Check whether the point ( is on
the given line.
6. Write the coordinates of any two points which lie on the line . How many such
points exist.
7. Find the solution of the linear equation which represents a point on X-axis
8. Find three solutions of the equation
9. Show that the points A(1,2), B( and C(0, lie on the graph of the linear
equation
10. Observe the graph and answer the following questions.
(i) Write the co-ordinates of points B and C
(ii) Find one more solution of line passing through A and B
(iii) Write equations of X-axis and Y-axis
11. . The cost of a shirt of a particular brand is Rs. 1000. Write a linear equation, when the cost
of number of shirts is Rs.
12. Solve for :

13. Draw the graphs of the equations – and on the same coordinate
axes.
a. Also find the point of intersection of the two lines from the graphs.

LEVEL-2
1. At which point the graph of the linear equation cuts the X-axis ?
2. Write a linear equation one of whose solution is
3. If (2,0) is a solution of the linear equation then find the value of
4. Write two solutions of the equation
5. Find the value of if line represented by the equation passes through the point
( .
6. If is a solution of the linear equation then find the value of
7. Solve the equations , and represent the solution(s) on the Cartesian plane.
8. Give the equation of two lines passing through (2, 10). How many more such lines are
there, and why?
9. The autorickshaw fare in a city is charged @ Rs. 10 and for the subsequent distance it is
Rs. 4 per km. Taking the distance covered as km and the total fare for km as Rs.
i) Write a linear equation connecting the distance and the fare.
(ii) Draw the graph of the above equation and from the graph, find the distance travelled
when the fare paid is Rs.60.
10. For what value of the linear equation has equal values of and for its
solution
11. A part of monthly expenses of a family on milk is fixed which is Rs.500 and the remaining
varies with the quantity of milk taken extra at the rate of Rs.20 per litre. Taking the
quantity of milk required extra as litres and the total expenditure on milk is Rs. , write a
linear equation for this information and draw its graph.
12. Draw the graph of the linear equation
13. Water is flowing into a water tank at the rate of 10 cubic cm per second. If the volume of
water collected in t seconds is V cubic cm, write the linear equation to represent the above
statement.
(i) Draw the graph of the linear equation.
(ii) From the graph, find the volume of water collected in the tank after 4
seconds.
14. The ratio of girls and boys in a class is 1:3. Set up an equation between the students of a
class and boys and then draw its graph. Also, find the number of boys in a class of 20
students from the graph.
15. Draw the graph of the linear equation and shade the triangle
formed between the line and Y-axis.
LEVEL -3
1. Let vary directly as . If when then the linear equation is …………………
2. Write a linear equation, where the point of the form ( lies
3. Is the point (0,3) lies on the line
4. If +1 and is a solution of the equation , then find the
value of
5. The cost of a pen is 5 times the cost of a pencil. Write the linear equation for the above
statement
6. The auto fares in a city are as follows. For the first kilometer, the fare is Rs 12 and the
subsequent distance covered as kilometre and the total fare as Rs. . Write a linear
equation.
7. Find the co-ordinates of the points where the graph of the equation intersects
X-axis and Y-axis.
8. When 5 times the larger of two numbers is divided by the smaller, the quotient and the
remainder are2 and 9, respectively. Form a linear equation in two variables for the above and
give its two solutions
9. Determine the point on the graph of the linear equation , whose ordinate is 1
times its abscissa.
10. Draw a triangle whose sides are represented by and in the Cartesian
system. Also, find the co-ordinates of its vertices.
11. Write the linear equation in two variables to represent the following statement:
12. ―Cost of five trousers exceeds the cost eight shirts by Rs.150.‖ If the cost of one shirt is
Rs.240 find the cost of one trouser.
13. The linear equation that converts Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C) is given by the relation
i. If the temperature is 860 F, what is the temperature in Celsius?
ii. If the temperature is 350 C, what is the temperature in Fahrenheit?
iii. If the temperature is 00 C, what is the temperature in Fahrenheit?
iv. If the temperature is 00 F, what is the temperature in Celsius?
14. Draw the graph of the equation Also find the area of the triangle formed by the line and the
co- ordinate axes.
15. Ravish tells his daughter Aarushi, ―Seven years ago, I was seven times as old as you were
then. Also, three years from now , I shall be three times as old as you will be ―. If present
ages of Aarushi and Ravish are and years respectively, represent this situation
algebraically as well as graphically.
16. The following observed values of and are thought to satisfy a linear equation. Write the
linear equation
x 6 -6
y -2 6

Draw the graph using the values of , as given I the above table.At what points
thegraph of the linear equation ?
(i) cuts the X-axis (ii) cuts the Yaxis

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1. A school is celebrating ― Plantation Week‖ programme. If students of class X planted 50 more
trees than the students of class IX.
(a) Establish it in linear equation form.
(b) Mention the values created among the students.
2. A city welfare society has organised ― An Eye Camp‖ under prominent eye surgeons in which 100
persons visited the camp. If 70 persons belong to senior citizens above the age of 65 years.
(a) Formulate the word problem in a linear equation in two variables.
(b) Which values are being promoted by the welfare society?
3. On a rainy day, water from the roof was flowing in the underground water tank at the rate of
40cm3/sec. If the volume of water collected in x sec is y cu cm, represent this as a linear equation
and find the volume of water collected in 10 sec. (a) Which environmental value was promoted by
this activity.
4. A man hired an auto for 5 km. The fare was Rs. 10 for first km and Rs. 3 for every subsequent km.
He was Paying Rs. 50, the auto driver said that it is not correct amount.
(a) Calculate the correct amount
(b) Which value is promoted by the auto driver?
5. On her birthday, Sonia distributed chocolates in an orphanage. She gave 5 chocolates to each child
and 20 chocolates to adults. Taking number of children as x and total chocolates distributed as y.
6. In a village, primary school enrolment of girls has doubled this year as compared to last year.
Consider This year‘s enrolment as y previous year‘s enrolment as x.
(i) Form a linear equation for this information
(ii) Draw a graph of linear equation
(iii) If previous year‘s enrolment was 35, then find this years enrolment
(iv) Which value is depicted here?
7. Monthly income of Annu is Rs. 100 more than 1 times the monthly income of her husband . Write
a
linear equation in two variables for this situation and draw a graph for it. What value is indicated
from this question.
ERROR ANALYSIS

Sl . ERRORS REMEDIATION
No

1 Identifying the values of a, b, c from ax+by+c=0 Practice more examples by using both +ve and –ve
2x – 3y =6 a=2, b=3, c=6 coefficients in different problems
a=2, b=-3, c=-6
2 Making more solutions Help them to start with any suitable value for the
x+y=5 substitution of any variable and solve for the other
x=? then y=? variable
3 Plotting points on graph Give the basic knowledge of co- ordinate geometry
and plotting points by horizontal and vertical
movement

4 Drawing graph Give more practice

5 Converting word problems into linear equations in two Make them to understand the meaning and the
variables situation of the problem given and identify the
variables to make the equations

QUESTION BANK
1. For the equation x – 2y = 4, check which of the following is a solution.
(a) (0, 2) (b) (2, 0) (c) (4, 0) (d) (1, 1)

2. The equation which represents a line which is parallel to x-axis at a distance of 3 cm from the
origin is
(a) x = 3 and x = – 3 (b) y = 3 and y = – 3 (c) x = 3 only (d) y = – 3 only

3. Which of the following is a solution of the equation –5x + 2y = 14?


(a) x = 5; y = 1 (b) x = 0; y = – 7 (c) x = –2; y = 2 (d) x = 1; y = – 3
4. The equation x = – 4 represents the line which :
(a) is parallel to x-axis (b) passes through origin (c) is parallel to y-axis
(d) is perpendicular to y-axis
5.Equation of the line y = 0 represents :
(a) y-axis (b) x-axis (c) both x-axis and y-axis (d) origin
6.Which of the following lines passes through (1, 2) ?
(a) x + y = 3 (b) x – y = 1 (c) x = 2 (d) x = 1
7. Which of the following is not a solution of the equation 2x + y = 7?
(a) (1, 5) (b) (3, 1) (c) (1, 3) (d) (0, 7)
8. Age of x exceeds age of y by 7 years. This statement can be expressed as linear equation as :
(a) x + y + 7 = 0 (b) x – y + 7 = 0 (c) x – y – 7 = 0 (d) x + y – 7 = 0
9.If (2, 0) is a solution of linear equation 2x + 3y = k, then the value of k is
(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 2
10. x = 5, y = 2 is a solution of the linear equation :
(a) x + 2y = 7 (b) 5x + 2y = 7 (c) x + y = 7 (d) 5x + y = 7
11.If point (3, 0) lies on the graph of the equation x + 3y = k, then the value of k is
(a) 6 b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 5
12. The equation of x-axis is
(a) x + y = 0 (b) x – y = 0 (c) y = 0 (d) x = 0
13. (–3, –2) is a point, which belongs to the graph of the equation
(a) y = x + 1 (b) 2x = 3y + 1 (c) 3x = 2y (d) x = y

14. The graph of the equation ax + by + c = 0 may be of the form

15. Which of the following is not a linear equation ?


(a) ax + by + c = 0 (b) 0x + 0y + c = 0 (c) 0x + by + c = 0 (d) ax + 0y + c = 0
16. Find the point at which the equation 3x – 2y = 6 meets the x-axes.
17. Find the coordinates of the points where the line 2x – y = 3 meets both the axes.
18. Find four solutions of 2x – y = 4.
19. Give two solutions of the equation x + 3y = 8.
20. After 5 years, the age of father will be two times the age of son. Write a linear equation in two
variables to represent this statement.
21. Express y in terms of x from the equation 3x + 2y= 8 and check whether the point (4, –2) lies
on the line.
Projects
1. Prepare a short note on the Cartesian system.
2. Take any three linear equations and draw their graphs.
3. Make any 5 word problems and convert them into linear equations .

Practicals
1. Graph of a linear equation in two variables
2. Count the number of points ( ( where are +ve integers) in the region
bounded by X and Y axes and the line
3. Find the area of the triangle formed by the given lines and the axes from the graph
Power Point Presentations

LINEAR
EQUATION IN
TWO
VARIABLES

Web Links:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7oPrrsuhTA
CHAPTER: 8
QUADRILATERALS

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Identify the different types of Quadrilaterals
2. Understand and apply the angle sum property of quadrilaterals
3. Learn the properties of Parallelogram.
4. Understand and apply the theorem ― Diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent
triangles‖
5. Learn the conditions for a quadrilateral to be a parallelogram
6. Understand and apply the Mid-Point Theorem and its converse in different situations.

CONCEPT MAP

.~.~.~.~Quadrilaterals.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES

LEVEL-1
1. In the given figure ABCD is a parallelogram. If ∠A = 650,then find the value of (∠B + ∠D ).

1. In the following figure, ABCD and AEFG are two paralleograms. If ∠C = 450, determine ∠F.

2. PQRS is a square. PR and SQ intersect at O. State the measure of ∠POQ


3. In figure PQRS is a parallelogram in which a pair of opposite angles is given. Find the value
of x.

4. Angles of a quadrilateral are in the ratio 3:4:4:7. Find the greatest angle of the quadrilateral
5. Given a trapezium ABCD, in which AB‖‖CD and AD = BC. If ∠D = 700, then find the
measure of ∠C.
6. ABCD is a rhombus such that ∠ACB = 400, then find ∠ADB.
7. The quadrilateral ABCD, AO and BO are the bisectors of ∠A and ∠B, respectively. Prove
that
i. ∠AOB = (∠C+∠D).

8. D, E and F are respectively the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, and CA of a ABC. Prove that
by joining these mid-points D, E and F, the ABC is divided into four congruent triangles.
9. (a) Prove that the sum of the four angles of a quadrilateral is 3600.
i. (b) In parallelogram ABCD, ∠D = 1050. Find ∠A, ∠B and ∠C.

10. In figure AB‖‖DE, AB = DE, AC‖‖DF and AC= DF. Prove that BC‖‖EF and BC = EF
11. In a parallelogram ABCD, AB = 10 cm and AD = 6 cm. The bisectors of ∠A meets DC in E.
AE and BC produced meet at F. Find the length of CF.
LEVEL-2
1. Two angles of a quadrilateral are 500 and 800 and other two angles are in the ratio 8:15, then
find measures of the remaining two angles.
2. ABCD is a trapezium, in which ABDC and ∠A = ∠B = 450 . Then find ∠C and ∠D of a
trapezium
3. If an angle of a parallelogram is two-third of its adjacent angle, then find the smallest angle of
the parallelogram
4. In the given figure ABCD is a rhombus, then find the value of x.

LEVEL -3
1. In the given figure, ABCD is a parallelogram and E is the mid-point of side BC, DE and AB,
when produces meet at F. prove that AF = 2 AB

2. Points P and Q have been taken on opposite sides AB and CD, respectively of a
parallelogram ABCD such that AP = CQ. Show that AC and PQ bisect each other.
3. The angle between two altitudes of a parallelogram through the vertex of an obtuse angle of
the parallelogram is 600 . Find the angles of the parallelogram.
4. In the following figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. Find the measure of the angles x and y.

5. A square is inscribed in an isosceles right angled triangle, so that the square and the triangle
have one angle common. Show that the vertex of the square opposite the vertex of the
common angle bisects the hypotenuse.
6. E and F respectively the mid-points of the non-parallel sides AD and BC of a trapezium
ABCD. Prove that EF‖‖AB and EF = (AB + CD).
7. ABCD is a rhombus and AB is produced to E and F such that AE = AB = BF. Prove that EG
and FG are perpendicular to each other.
8. P, Q, R and S respectively the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA of a quadrilateral
ABCD in which AC = BD and AC BD. Prove that PQRS is a square.
9. P is the mid-point of the side CD of a parallelogram ABCD. A line through C parallel to PA
intersects AB at Q and DA produced at R. Prove that DA = AR and CQ = QR

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1.Four students of your class of different faith Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and Christian bond a human chain
like a quadrilateral of sides 12 m, 5 m, 17 m, 15 m and angle between the sides 12 m and 5 m is 900.
(a) Evaluate the area formed.
(b) What assumption is arrived from this activity ?
2. A resident welfare society has developed a land having quadrilateral shape of sides 12 m, 5 m, 11
m , 15 m and diagonal 13 m divide the land into two parts along diagonal, in one part they developed
Gardening and in another they developed classical musical institute.
(a) Find the areas of both parts of land.
(b) What conclusion you will draw through this activity ?
3. A religious place is in the shape of a quadrilateral of area 150 sq. cm out of which a right
triangular Park of sides 5 m, 6 m is developed inside it for charitable dispensary purpose.
(a) Evaluate the area of charitable dispensary.
(b) What conclusion will be derived from this activity ?
4. There is a visit in a school by Directorate of Education. Girls are asked to prepare Rangoli in
triangular Shape . Dimensions of ABC are 26 cm, 28 cm, 25 cm. Garland is to be placed along the
side of PQR Which is formed by joining mid-points of sides of ABC.
(i) Find the length of the garland
(ii) Which values are depicted here ?
5. A class teacher gave to students coloured papers in shape of quadrilateral.
She asked them to make a parallelogram from it using paper folding.
(i) How can a parallelogram be formed by using paper folding ?
(ii) Prove that it is a parallelogram.
(iii) Which values are depicted here?
ERROR ANALYSIS

Sl.No. ERRORS REMEDIATION


1 Properties of parallelogram Verify the properties by using different
examples

Opposite angles are equal so that x =

X= - =
2 Congruence rules Give the basic ideas of congruence of
triangles with examples

By ASA
By AAS

3 Theorem ―Diagonal divides a Draw the figure and give the tips to use ASA
parallelogram into two congruent to prove the theorem by using the definition
triangles‖ of them parallelogram
4 Mid-Point theorem Give clear explanation to the proof of it
And prove it in a simple way
5 Converse of mid-point theorem Give clear explanation to the proof of it
And prove it in a simple way
6 Applications of properties in Give more examples practice it in simple
different problems methods

QUESTION BANK

1. A diagonal of a rectangle is inclined to one side of the rectangle at 25º. The acute angle
between the diagonals is
(A) 55º (B) 50º (C) 40º (D) 25º
2. The quadrilateral formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a quadrilateralPQRS, taken in
order, is a rhombus, if
(A) PQRS is a rhombus (B) PQRS is a parallelogram
(C)Diagonals of PQRS are perpendicular (D) Diagonals of PQRS are equal.
3. If bisectors of ∠A and ∠B of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect each other at P, of ∠B and ∠C at Q,of
∠C and ∠D at R and of ∠D and ∠A at S, then PQRS is a
(A)Rectangle (B) rhombus (C)parallelogram
(D) quadrilateral whose opposite angles are supplementary
4. D and E are the mid-points of the sides AB and AC of ΔABC and O is any point on side BC. O
Isjoined to A. If P and Q are the mid-points of OB and OC respectively, then DEQP is
(A) a square (B) a rectangle (C) a rhombus (D) a parallelogram
5. The figure formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a quadrilateral ABCD, taken I norder, is
a square only if,
(A) ABCD is a rhombus (B) diagonals of ABCD are equal
(C) diagonals of ABCDare equal and perpendicular (D) diagonals of ABCD are perpendicular
6. E and F are points on diagonal AC of a parallelogram ABCD such that AE = CF. Showthat BFDE
is a parallelogram.
7. In a parallelogram ABCD, E and F are the mid-points of sides AB and CD respectively .Show that
the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.
8. Opposite angles of a quadrilateral ABCD are equal. If AB = 4 cm, determine CD.
9 .ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || DC and ∠ A = ∠ B = 45º. Find angles C and D of the
trapezium.
10 . In a triangle ABC,D,E and F are respectively the mid points of BC,CA and AB if the lengths of
side AB,BC and CA are 7cm,8cm and 9cm respectively.Find the perimeter of triangle DEF.
11 P and Q are points on opposite sides AD and BC of a parallelogram ABCD such that PQ passes
through the point of intersection of its diagonals AC and BD. Show that PQ is bisected at O.
12. ABCD is a rhombus in which altitude from D to side AB bisects AB. Find the angles of the
rhombus
13 .Prove that the quadrilateral formed by the bisectors of the angles of a parallelogram is arectangle.
14 The angle between two altitudes of a parallelogram through the vertex of an obtuse
angle of the parallelogram is 60º. Find the angles of the parallelogram.

15. P is the mid-point of side BC of a parallelogram ABCD such that ∠BAP = ∠DAP. Prove that AD
= 2CD.
16.ABCD is a rectangle in which diagonal BD bisects ∠B. Show that ABCD is asquare.
17.D, E and F are respectively the mid-points of the sides AB, BC and CA of atriangle ABC. Prove
that by joining these mid-points D, E and F, the triangles ABCis divided into four congruent triangles.
18. Prove that the line joining the mid-points of the diagonals of a trapezium is parallelto the parallel
sides of the trapezium.
19. P is the mid-point of the side CD of a parallelogram ABCD. A line through Cparallel to PA
intersects AB at Q and DA produced at R. Prove that DA = AR andCQ = QR.
20. ABC is a triangle right angled at C. A line through the mid-point M of hypotenuse AB
and parallel to BC intersects AC at D. Show that
(i) D is the mid-point of AC
(ii) MD AC
(iii) CM = MA =1/2 AB

21. In fig ABCDis a a parallelogram, E and F are the mid-points of sides AB and CD respectively.
Show that the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.

22. In the given figure ABCD is a parallelogram and P and Q are points on the diagonal BD and
DP = BQ, prove that APCQ is a parallelogram.
Projects
1. Visit a historical place . Count and note the number of quadrilaterals, rectangles, squares,
parallelograms and rhombus shaped stones in the building.
2. Show that the sum of the four angles of a quadrilateral is 3600 by cutting and pasting on a chart
paper.
3. Make a chart to show the shapes of different types of quadrilaterals and their properties

Practicals:
1. Verify the mid-point theorem.
2. Constructing parallelogram by folding the quadrilateral shaped paper.
3. Verify that a diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles.
3. Verify the sides property of a parallelogram.
4. Verify the angle sum property of a quadrilateral.

Power Point Presentations:

Web Links:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul2iRvvaspo
CHAPTER: 9
AREAS OF PARALLEOGRAMS AND
TRIANGLES

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Understand that area of parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels
are
equal in area.
2. Understand that area of triangles on the same base and between the same parallels are equal
in area.
3.Understand that median of a triangle divides into two triangles of equal area.
4. Understand that a parallelogram and a triangle on the same base and between the same
parallels are equal in area.

CONCEPT MAP

.~PARALLELOGRAM VUE.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1 .Which of the following figures lie on the same base and between the same parallels.
In such a case, write the common base and the two parallels.

2.In the given figure, PQRS and ABRS are parallelograms and X is any point on side BR. Show that
(i) ar (PQRS) = ar (ABRS)
(ii) ar (AXS) =(1/2) ar (PQRS)

3.Parallelogram ABCD and rectangle ABEF are on the same base AB and have equal areas. Show
that
the perimeter of the parallelogram is greater than that of the rectangle.
4.P and Q are any two points lying on the sides DC and AD respectively of a parallelogram ABCD.
Show that ar (APB) = ar (BQC).

ANS 1)fig1,3,4

LEVEL-2
1.D and E are the points on the sides AB and AC respectively of triangle ABC such that DE ||BC.If
area
of ΔDBC = 15 cm2, then find area ΔEBC .
2. BD is one of the diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD. AM and CN are the perpendiculars from
A and C respectively on BD. Show that ar(ABCD) =1/2BD (AM + CN).
3.In the figure, ABCD and EFGD are two parallegorams and G is the mid-point of CD. Check
whether area of ΔPDC is equal to half of area EFGD.of PS.
4.Show that the median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of equal areas
4. If the mid-points of the sides of a quadrilateral are joined in order, prove that the area of the
parallelogram so formed will be half of that of the given quadrilateral.
5. Show that the area of a rhombus is half the product of the lengths of its diagonals.
ANS;1)15cm2

LEVEL -3
1.In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. Points P and Q on BC trisect BC. Show that
ar (APQ = ar (DPQ) =1/6ar (ABCD).

2.XY is a line parallel to side BC of a ΔABC. If BE || AC and CF || AB meet XY at E and F


respectively, show that ar (ΔABE) = ar (ΔACF).

3.The medians BE and CF of a triangle ABC intersect at G. Prove that the area of
ΔGBC = area of the quadrilateral AFGE.
4.Diagonals of a parallelogram ABCD intersect at point O. Through O, a line is drawn to intersect
AD at P and BC at Q. Show that PQ divides theparallelogram into two parts of equal area.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1.A farmer buys a piece of land which is shaped like a parallelogram of area 130sqm.He divided
the area into two equal parts .on one he planted trees and on the other vegetables .Evaluate the
area of each part .what value is depicted by the farmer?
2.A civic society wants to make first aid mini hospital over a semi circular piece of land of radius
7m.Evaluate the area of the semi circle.what value is promoted by the society.
3.A farmer has two pieces of land in a parallelogram shape standing on the same base .He plants
saplings and medicinal plants in the two pieces.Are the two pieces equal in area?what value is
depicted by the farmer?
ERROR ANALYSIS
SLNO COMMON ERRORS REMEDIATION
1. Figures having same area considered Only congruent figures have equal areas
congruent Help the student to prepare congruent figures
and to calculate areas of congruence figures.
Give more drill& practice

2. Parallelograms with same base and Help the students to make two-dimensional
between same parallels –selection of model with different dimensions and
parallelograms generalize the result. Give more practice by
connecting the ideas with daily life situations.

3. Triangles with same base and between Help the students to make two-dimensional
same parallels –selection of triangles. model with different dimensions and
generalize the result. Give more practice by
connecting the ideas with daily life situations.

ANS;1)65m,conservation of nature 2)77sqmconservation of nature 3)yesconservation of


nature

QUESTION BANK

1.If sum of two parallel sides of a trapezium is 15 cm and its area is 30 cm2, then find the height of
the trapezium.
2.The area of a rhombus is 20 cm2. If one of its diagonals is 5 cm, then find the other diagonal .
3.The sum of the lengths of bases of a trapezium is 13.5 cm and its area is 54 cm2.Find the
altitude of the trapezium
4.Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 24 cm and 18 cm. If the distance between the longer
sides is 12 cm, then find the distance between the shorter sides
5. Which of the following figures lies on the same base and between the same parallels

6.. If ABCD is a parallelogram, then which of thefollowing is true ?


(a) ar (DABD) = ar (DBCD)
(b) ar (DABD) = ar (DABC)
(c) ar (DABC) = ar (DACD)
(d) all are true
7.. In the figure, DE || BC. Then, which of the following relations is true.

(a) ar (DACD) = ar (DBOC)


(b) ar (DACD) = ar (DABE)
(c) ar (DACD) = ar (DBDE)
(d) ar (DACD) = ar (DCDE
8.The mid point of the sides of a triangle ABC along with any one of the vertices as the fourth
point makes a parallelogram find area .
9.ABCD is a parallelogram and X is the mid-pointof AB. If ar (AXCD) = 24 cm2, then
ar(ABC)= 24 cm2. It is true ?
10. ABC and BDE are two equilateral triangles such that D is mid-point of BC. Show that
ar (BDE) =1/4 ar (ABC).
11 If the mid-points of the sides of a quadrilateral are joined in order, prove that the area of the
parallelogram so formed will be half of that of the given quadrilateral.
12. Triangles ABC and DBC are on the same base BCwith vertices A and D on opposite sides of
BC such that ar (ABC) = ar (DBC). Show that BC bisects AD.
13 .XY is a line parallel to side BC of a ΔABC. If BE || AC and CF || AB meet XY at E and F
respectively, show that ar (ΔABE) = ar (ΔACF)..
14 . ABCD and PQRS and ABRS are parallelograms and X is any point on side BR. Show that : (i)
area PQRS = area ABRS (ii) area AXS =1/2area PQRS.
ANS;1)4cm 2)8cm 3)8cm 4)9cm 5)d 6)d 7)a 8)1/2arABC
Projects
1.Verify all the properties of parallelogram.
2.Verify -The diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area.
3.Prepare a PPT on the above topic.

Practicals
1.To show that the area of a triangle is half the product of its base and the height using papercutting
2.To verify the following by activity method:
A parallelogram and a rectangle standing on the same base and between the same parallels are
equal in area.
3.To verify by activity method that the parallelograms standing on the same base and between the
same parallels are equal in area.
4.To verify by activity method that the triangles on the same base and between the same
parallels are equal in area.

Power Point Presentations

Area of Parallelograms

Section 8.5

Web Links:
https://www.math Goodies.com
www.worldofmath.com
CHAPTER: 10
CIRCLES

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Recall and review the definition and basic terms related to Circle.
2. Revise statements of basic theorems on Circles.
3. To appreciate the theorems
a. Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre.
b.If the angles subtended by the chords of a circle at the centre are equal, then the chords
are equal.
c. The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.
d.The line drawn through the centre of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the
chord
e. There is one and only one circle passing through three given non-collinear points
f. Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the centre (or
centres).
g.Chords equidistant from the centre of a circle are equal in length.
h.The angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any
point on the remaining part of the circle.
i. Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
j. If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angles at two other points lying on the
same side of the line containing the line segment, the four points lie on a circle (i.e. they
are concyclic).
k.The sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180º.
3. If the sum of a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is 180º, the quadrilateral is cyclic.
4. Apply Knowledge gained on the topic ‗Circles‘ to solve problems.

CONCEPT MAP

CIRCLES.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
1. In the figure, if ∠ACB = 50°, then what is the measure of ∠OAB ? [ Ans: 100°]

2. Can we have a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD such that ∠A = 90°, ∠B = 70°, ∠C = 95° and ∠D =
105° ?
3. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and ∠ABC = 55°, then what is ∠ADC ? [ Ans:
55°]

4. In the figure, if AB is the diameter of the circle,then find the value of x. [ Ans: 50°]
5. In the figure, quadrilateral PQRS is cyclic. If ∠P= 80°, then what is the value of ∠R ? [ Ans:
100o]

LEVEL-2
1. In the given figure, O is the centre of the circle. If OA = 5 cm and OC = 3 cm, then find the
length of AB . [ Ans: 8 cm]

2. Two concentric circles with centre O have A, B, C and D as points of intersection with a line l
as shown in the figure. If AD =12 cm and BC = 8 cm, find the length of AB and CD.
[ Ans: AB=CD= 2cm]

3. In the figure, ΔABC is equilateral. Find ∠BDC and ∠BEC [ 600, 1200]

4. A circle with centre O and diameter COB is given. If AB and CD are parallel, then show that
Chord AC = Chord BD.
5. In figure, AOB is a diameter of a circle and C, D and E are any three points on the semi-
circle. Find the value of ∠ACD + ∠BED

LEVEL -3
1. A chord of a circle is equal to the radius of the circle. Find the angle subtended by the chord
at a point on the minor arc and also at a point on the major arc. [ Ans: 300, 1500]
2. If two non- parallel sides of a trapezium are equal, prove that it is cyclic.
3. Prove that a cyclic parallelogram is a rectangle.
4. Show that two circles cannot intersect at more than two points.
5. In the given figure, OD is perpendicular to the chord AB of a circle whose centre is O. If BC
is a diameter, show that CA = 2OD.

Non-routine questions:

1. AB and CD are two equal chords of a circle. M and N are their mid-points respectively.
Prove that MN makes equal angles with AB and CD.
2. A chord AB of a circle (O, r) is produced to P so that BP = 2 AB. Prove that OP2 = OA2 +
6AB2.
3. If the perpendicular bisector of a chord AB of a circle PXAQBY intersects the circle at P and
Q, prove that arc PXA = arc PYB.
4. Prove that the sum of the angles formed in the four segments exterior to a cyclic quadrilateral
by the sides is equal to six right angles.
5. Prove that any angle subtended by a minor arc on the alternate segment is acute and any angle
subtended by a major arc in the alternate segment is obtuse.
6. Prove that in any two chords of a circle are drawn, then the arc which is nearer to the centre
is larger.
7. Prove that the mid-point of the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equidistant from its
vertices.
8. AB and AC are two chords of a circle of radius r such that AB = 2AC. If p and q are the
distances of AB and AC from the centre. Prove that 4q2 = p2 + 3r2.
9. Two congruent circles intersect each other at the points A and B. Through A, any line
segment PAQ is drawn so that P and Q lie on the two circles . Prove that BP = BQ.
10. Bisectors of angles A, B and C of triangle ABC intersect its circumference at D, E and F
respectively. Prove that the angles of triangle DEF are 90 – ½A, 90 – ½B and 90 – ½C.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
1. Three STD booths situated at A, B and C in the figure are operated by handicapped
persons.These three booths are equidistant from each other.

(i) Find ∠BAC and ∠ BOC


(ii) Do you think that employment provided to handicapped persons is important for the
development of the society ? [ Ans : 600, 1200, Yes]
2. An amusement fair was organized in a circular park for children of slum clusters. Free food
was supplied to them at 4 stalls situated at A, B, C and Das shown in the figure.

(i) Find the angle between the line joining stalls C, D and C, B.
(ii) Are such activities helpful to the society ? What are the other social uses for which
such campaigns are required ?[ Ans ; 1000, 800, Yes, old age home, orphanage etc.]
3. During a practical activity, in Maths Lab, students were using circular Geo Board, the angle
subtended by an arc at the centre is (2a+50)0. Gayatri calculated ∠BAC as (a + 25)0.

(i) Is her findings correct ? Justify it .


(ii) Find ∠BAC if a = 300.
(iii) What value is depicted here ?
4. The Indian Hockey Federation organized a friendly hockey match between India and Pakistan
in a circular ground. The sale procedure of this match shall be donated to orphanage. A
rectangular turf is spread on the ground as shown in the figure.

(i) Find the radius of the stadium.


(ii) Which social value is depicted here ?
(iii) How does the donation to the charitable organization help in the development of the
society?
ERROR ANALYSIS
Sl. ERRORS REMEDIATIONS
No
1 Drawing incorrect figures while solving Train the child to draw and practice different
Problems related to equal chords, types of chords and how to subtend angles in an
subtended angles etc arc.

2 Not able to distinguish between the terms Explain the difference by drawing suitable
‗inscribed‘ and ‗circumscribed‘ figures

3 Giving proofs of the theorems without Drill and practice the theorems and discourage
providing figure and constructions. rote learning of theorems.
4 Taking wrongly the angle subtended at Practice truth of the theorem by drawing more
the centre as half of the angle subtended diagrams
on the remaining part of the arc .
5 ‗In a cyclic quadrilateral, the sum of the Explain clearly the difference between a pair of
opposite angles is 1800‘. This fact is opposite angles and a pair of adjacent angles of a
wrongly taken as ‗ sum of the adjacent quadrilateral.
angles is 1800.
QUESTION BANK
1. A circular park of radius 20 m is situated in a village. Three girls Rita, Sita and Gita are
sitting at equal distance on its boundary each having a toy telephone in their hands to talk to
each other. Find the length of the string of each phone
2. If two circles intersect at two points, prove that their centers lies on the perpendicular
bisector of the common chord.
3. In the given figure, if O is the centre of circle, determine ∠APB.
4. In the given figure, A, B, C and D are points on the circle such that ∠ ACB=400 and ∠DAB=
600, then find the measure of ∠DBA

5. Find the length of a chord of a circle which is at a distance of 4 cm from the centre of the
circle with radius 5 cm.
6. Prove that if chords of congruent circles subtend equal angles at their centres, then they are
equal.
7. Prove that the line segment joining the mid-points of two equal chords of a circle makes equal
angles on its same side with the chords.
8. In the given figure, O is the centre of the circle. Find the values of x, y, z.

9. If two intersecting chords of a circle make equal angles with the diameter passing through
their point of intersection, then prove that the chords are equal.
10. In the given figure, O is the centre of the circle. Find ∠BAO, ∠AOB, ∠BOD,∠ODB,
if ∠AOC = 1300 and ∠OCD = 300.

11. In the figure, if O is the centre of the circle and ∠AOC=1100, find ∠CBD

12. In the given figure, ∆ABC is the inscribed in a circle, with centre O, such that AB = AC and
∠BEC = 1000. Find the values of x and y.
13. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral whose diagonals AC and BD intersect at the point E. If
∠ DBC = 700 and ∠BAC =300, then find ∠BCD. Further, if AB = BC, find ∠ECD.
14. In the given figure ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in which AB ‖‖ DC. If ∠ BAD =1050,
find (i) ∠BCD (ii) ∠ADC (iii) ∠ABC

15. If two circles intersect at two points, prove that their centres lie on the perpendicular bisector
of the common chord.

Projects

Angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle


Objective : To verify that the angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is twice the angle
subtended bythe same arc at any other point on the remaining part of the circle, using the method of
paper cutting,pasting and folding.
Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, a pair of scissors, gluestick, colour
pencils, geometry box, etc.
Procedure :
1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius with centre O.

2. Mark two points A andB on the boundary of the circle to get arc AB. Colour the minor arc
AB green.

3. Take any point P on the remaining part of the circle. Join OA, OB, PA and PB.
4. Make two replicas of ∠APB using tracing paper. Shade the angles using different colours

5. Paste the two replicas of ∠APB adjacent to each other on ∠AOB as shown in the figure

Observations :
1. In figure 2, ∠AOB is the angle subtended by arc AB at the centre and ∠APB is the angle
subtended by arcAB on the remaining part of the circle.
2. In figure 3, each angle is a replica of ∠APB.
3. In figure 4, we see that the two replicas of ∠APB completely cover the angle AOB.
So, ∠AOB = 2∠APB
Practicals
1. Angles in the same segment of a circle
Objective : To verify that the angles in the same segment of a circle are equal, using the method
of paper cutting, pasting and folding.
Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, a pair of scissors, gluestick, colour
pencils, geometry box, etc.
Procedure :
1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius. Draw a chord AB of the
circle.

2. Take any three points P, Q and R on the major arc AB of the circle. Join A to P, B to P, A to
Q, B to Q, A to R and B to R.

3. On a tracing paper, trace each of the angles APB, AQB and ARB. Shade the traced copies
using different colours.
4. Place the three cut outs one over the other such that the vertices P, Q and R coincide and PA,
QA and RA fall along the same direction.

Observations :
1. In figure 2, ∠APB, ∠AQB and ∠ARB are the angles in the same major segment AB.
2. In figure 4, we see that ∠APB, ∠AQB and ∠ARB coincide. So, ∠APB = ∠AQB = ∠ARB
Conclusion : From the above activity, it is verified that the angles in the same segment of a
circle are equal.
Repeat the above activity by taking three circles of different radii.

2.Angle Property of Cyclic Quadrilateral

Objective :To verify using the method of paper cutting, pasting and folding that
(a) the sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180°
(b) in a cyclic quadrilateral the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.
Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, colour pencils, a pair of
scissors, gluestick, geometry box, etc.
Procedure :
1 On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius.
2 Mark four points P, Q, R, S on the circumference of the circle. Join P to Q, Q to R, R to
S and S to P.

(Fig.1)
3 Colour the quadrilateral PQRS as shown in the figure and cut it into four parts such that
each part contains one angle, ie, ∠P, ∠Q, ∠R and ∠S.
(Fig.2)

4 On a white sheet of paper, paste ∠P and ∠R adjacent to each other. Similarly, paste ∠Q
and ∠S adjacent to each other.

(Fig.3)
5 Repeat step 1. Extend PQ to PT to form an exterior angle RQT. Shade ∠RQT.

(Fig.4)
6 Trace ∠PSR on a tracing paper and colour it.

(Fig.5)
7 Paste the traced copy of ∠PSR on ∠RQT such that S falls at Q and SP falls along QT.

(Fig.6)
Observations :
1. In figure 2, ∠P, ∠Q, ∠R and ∠S are the four angles of the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS.
2. In figure 3(a), we see that ∠R and ∠P form a straight angle and in figure 3(b), ∠Q and ∠S form a
straightangle. So, ∠P + ∠R = 180° and ∠Q + ∠S = 180°.
Hence, the sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180°.
3. In figure 5, ∠PSR is the angle opposite to the exterior angle RQT.
4. In figure 6, we see that ∠PSR completely covers ∠TQR.
Hence, in a cyclic quadrilateral the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.
Conclusion :
From the above activity, it is verified that
(a) The sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180°.
(b) In a cyclic quadrilateral, the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.
MORE ACTIVITIES:
1. To verify that angle in a semicircle is a right angle
2. To verify that the angle in a major segment is acute.
3. To verify that the angle in a minor segment is obtuse.
4. To verify that one and only one circle can pass through 3 non- collinear points.
5. To verify that equal chords are equidistant from the centre.

Power Point Presentations

Circle

Web Links:
http://in.ixl.com/math/class-ix
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/math-worksheets.html#Geometry
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/geometry-help.html#Circles
http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/circle-theorems.html
http://www.mathcaptain.com/geometry/circle.html#
http://www.mathopenref.com/circle.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rriyMs3Fh_M
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12E3WmAxUGQ
https://librarykvpattom.wordpress.com/category/downloads/
CHAPTER: 11
CONSTRUCTIONS

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Acquire the knowledge of basic requisites like perpendicular bisector,angle bisector and
angles of different measures.
2. Develop skill to construct a triangle with given conditions.
3. Learn the technique of constructing triangles of different types like when
i) when the sum of two sides is given
ii) when the difference of two sides is given.
iii) when the perimeter of the triangle is given.

CONCEPT MAP

.~construction vue.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL-1
0
1. Construct an angle of 90 at the initial point of a given ray and justify the construction
2.Construct an angle of 450 at the initial point of a given ray and justify the construction.
3. Construct the angles of the following measurements:(i) 30° (ii)150
4.. Construct a square of side 3.6 cm.

LEVEL-2
1. Construct a triangle ABC, in which ∠B = 60°, ∠ C = 45° and AB + BC + CA = 11 cm.
2. Construct a triangle ABC in which BC = 7cm, ∠B = 75° and AB + AC = 13 cm.
3. Construct a triangle ABC in which BC = 8cm, ∠B = 45° and AB – AC = 3.5 cm.
4.Construct a triangle PQR in which QR = 6cm, ∠Q = 60° and PR – PQ = 2cm.
5. Construct a triangle XYZ in which ∠Y = 30°, ∠Z = 90° and XY + YZ + ZX = 11 cm.
6.Construct a right triangle whose base is 12cm and sum of its hypotenuse and otherside is 18 cm.

LEVEL -3
1. Construct a ABC in which ∠B = 30° and∠C = 90° and the perimeter of the triangle is11 cm.
2. Construct a triangle ABC such thatAB = BC = 6 cm and median AD = 4 cm.
3. Construct a triangle PQR with base PQ = 8.4 cm,∠P = 45° and PR – QR = 2.8 cm
4. Construct a triangle PQR in which PQ = 5 cm,∠P = 60° and PR + RQ = 9 cm.
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
1.A retired woman officer wants to make a child care centre near her house of right triangular shape
in which one side is 13.5cm and the sum of other two sides is 15.5cm.construct the triangle .what
ideas are promoted here.
2.An animal lover lady wishes to make a room for street dogs of triangular shape,in which
BC=40.5cm,  B=450 ,AB-AC=20.5cm.Construct the triangle.what value is depicted here?
3.A club wants to make a tent of triangular shape of sides 11m,15m,21m to save poor people during
winter season. Construct the triangle what ideas are promoted by the club.

ERROR ANALYSIS

SLNO COMMON ERRORS REMEDIATION


1. Construction of angles like Give more practice for construction of angles
ithout using protractor like and clubbing them to
get .
2. Construction of a triangle when sum of Practice them to identify the type of the
two angles are given. triangle given after drawing a rough figure.

QUESTION BANK

1. Construct an equilateral triangle if its altitude is 4 cm. Give justification of your construction.
2. Construct a triangle ABC in which ∠A = 45°, ∠B = 120° and AB + BC + AC = 10.4 cm.
3. Construct a right triangle in which one side is 3.5 cm and sum of other side and hypotenuse is5.5
cm.
4.. Construct an equilateral triangle, given its one side 5 cm.
5. ∠Y = 90°, ∠Z = 30° and perimeter is 13 cm.
6. Construct a right triangle whose base is 6 cm andthe difference of its hypotenuse and the
other side is 8 cm.
7. ∠B = 60°, ∠C = 45°and AB + BC + CA = 10 cm8. Construct a
triangle PQR in which PQ = 5 cm,∠P = 60° and PR + RQ = 9 cm.
8. Construct a right triangle whose base is 12 cm and sum of its hypotenuse and other side is 18 cm.
9.. Construct a triangle PQR with base PQ = 8.4 cm,∠P = 45° and PR – QR = 2.8 cm.
10. Construct a triangle ABC in which ∠B = 60°,∠C = 45° and the perimeter of the triangle is11 cm.
11. Construct a right angled triangle PQR right angled at Q where base QR is 4 cm and the sum
of otherside and hypotenuse is 8 cm.
12. With the help of ruler and compass, draw an angle of 75° and bisect it. Write its steps of
construction also.
13. Construct a triangle PQR in which ∠Q = 60°, ∠R = 30° and its perimeter is 12.5 cm
14. Construct a triangle ABC in which BC = 5 cm ∠B = 45° and AB – AC = 2.8 cm.
15. ∠B = 30° and AB – AC = 3 cm.
16. ∠B = 60°
17. Construct a triangle ABC, given that perimeter is 12.5 cm, ∠B = 60° and ∠C = 75°.
18. Construct a rhombus whose diagonals are 4 cmand 6 cm in lengths.
19. Construct a triangle ABC such that AB = BC = 6 cm and median AD = 4 cm.
20. Construct a triangle with perimeter 10 cm and base angles 60° and 45°.
21. Construct a triangle ABC in which BC = 7.5 cm, ∠B = 45° and AC – AB = 2.5 cm
22. ∠B = 30° and∠C = 90° and the perimeter of the triangle is11 cm.

PROJECTS AND PRACTICALS


Projects
1.Prepare a geometrical design using the construction of triangles, one is given below.

2.Construct a right angled triangle PQR right angled at Q where base QR is 4 cm and the sum of
other side and hypotenuse is 8 cm.
3.With the help of ruler and compass, draw an angle of 75° and bisect it. Write its steps of
construction
4. Construct a right triangle whose base is 12 cm and sum of its hypotenuse and other side is 18 cm.
Practicals
1. Make a triangle whose perimeter and two base angles are given. (Use paper folding)
2. Find the centre of a circle using a 30°–60°–90° set square.
3. Using ruler and compass only, find the centre of a circle.
4. A part of a circle (an arc) is given. Using ruler and compasses, find the centre of the circle
whose part is the given arc.
5. By paper folding locate the centroid,orthocentre ,incentre ,circumcentre of a triangle.
6. Verify Angle sum property of a triangle

Power Point Presentations

Background- Euclid
Euclidian Geometry was
developed by a Roman citizen
namGeometric Construction
Euclid.
Euclid lived from approx. 330 to
260bc and wrote a 13 volume
book called Elements which
illustrated all the concepts used
in Geometric Construction

SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER - 11: CONSTRUCTIONS

STEPS TO VIEW THE SOLUTIONSUSING ROBOCOMPASS

 Robocompass is a free online software


 The solutions to the text books questions can be viewed online only
 Hence the computer has to be connected to internet to view the solutions. An internet
connection with good speed is required for the same
 Individual link is given against each question of all the chapters of geometric
construction inclasses VI to XNCERT Text book

 Click the link against the question to view the solution

CLICK TO OPEN USER GUIDE TO


USER GUIDE PPT VIEW SOLUTIONS.pptx

CLICK TO OPEN
USER GUIDE IN PDF USER GUIDE TO VIEW SOLUTIONS.pdf
WEB LINKS TO THE SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER - 11:
CONSTRUCTIONS

S.No EXERCISE Question LINK FOR THE SOLUTION


1 www.robocompass.com/share?id=skv3546ssgfs
11.1 1
2 www.robocompass.com/share?id=sl3gq79no6eb
11.1 2
3 www.robocompass.com/share?id=t86v57j8pzck
11.1 3 (i)
4 www.robocompass.com/share?id=1iyhr0m3uz78i
11.1 3 (ii)
5 www.robocompass.com/share?id=qhq1xicxsndw
11.1 3 (iii)
6 www.robocompass.com/share?id=to7uyd6a5auw
11.1 4 (i)
7 www.robocompass.com/share?id=1ibbi0x7c9zdv
11.1 4(ii)
8 www.robocompass.com/share?id=ubrevhhi4hmb
11.1 4(iii)
9 www.robocompass.com/share?id=qe1lf3n21rvo
11.1 5
10 www.robocompass.com/share?id=1ibbj70i8qk3c
11.2 1
11 www.robocompass.com/share?id=qdyajc0n4svq
11.2 2
12 www.robocompass.com/share?id=u87znn53me5x
11.2 3
13 www.robocompass.com/share?id=1ji27lyfg7inn
11.2 4
14 www.robocompass.com/share?id=tru41s48m721
11.2 5
ADVANTAGES OF ROBOCOMPASS

 The animations are exactly as we do using a physical


straightedge,compass and protractor
 The construction can be viewed any number of times
 A particular step of construction can be viewed to get a better
understanding
 Colourful presentation of arcs and lines will increase interest
among the learner
 Interesting projects can be given to the students

RESTRICTIONS IN ROBOCOMPASS

 Robocompass is free online software. Hence internet connection is required to view


the files designed using Robocompass
 The present edition of Robocompass does not support some Mathematics Symbols
like: , , etc.
 Usually perpendicular bisectors will be denoted by dotted lines. Robocompass does
not support construction of dotted lines.
 Labelling a vertex as A‘, B‘, A1, B1 is not possible using Robocompass
 All these restrictions may be removed in the updated versions of Robocompass
MORE INFORMATION ABOUT ROBOCOMPASS

RESOURCE PARTICULARS
S.NO. LINK TO OPEN THE RESOURCE

1 ROBOCOMPASS HANDOUT

2 ROBOCOMPASS COMMANDS

3 GETTING STARTED WITH www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JstFmEXl6U


ROBOCOMPASS YOUTUBE
VIDEO (INTERNET REQURIED)

Web Links:
www.mathsisfun.com
CHAPTER: 13
SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES


1. Learn to find curved surface area and total surface area of cube, cuboid, right circular cylinder,
right circular cone, sphere and hemisphere.
2. Learn to find Volume of right circular cylinder, right circular cone, sphere and hemisphere
3. Learn the formulae and units of area and volume of different solids.
4. Recognize the need of finding the surface area and volume of solids after reading word problems.
5. Differentiate between Curved Surface Area from Total Surface Area
6. Can identify the kind of area required according to the problem.
7. Apply the knowledge gained in Surface area and Volume in solving problems.

CONCEPT MAP

SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME.vue


THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL- 1
1. If the length of the diagonal of a cube is 6 √3 cm, find the edge of the cube. [6 cm.]
2. Five cubes each of edge 1 cm are joined face to face. Find the surface area of the cuboid thus
formed . [Ans : 22 cm2 ]
3. The dimensions of a box are 1m, 80 cm and 50 cm. Find the area of its four walls . [Ans: 18000
cm2]
4. The radius and height of a cylindrical box, without lid, are r and h respectively. What is the total
outer surface area of the box ? [Ans: πr (2h + r)]
5. The curved surface area of a cylinder is 4400 cm2 and the circumference of its base is 110 cm
Find the height of the cylinder [Ans: 40 cm]
6. Diameter of the base of a cone is 10.5 cm and its slant height is 10 cm.
find its curved surface area. [ Ans: 165 cm2]
7. Curvedsurface area of a cone is 308cm2 and its slant height is 14 cm. Find (i) radius of the base
and (ii) total surface area of the cone. [Ans: 7 cm.]
8. Surface area of a sphere is 154 cm2. Find its radius. [3.5 cm.]
9. A matchbox measures 4 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.5 cm. What will be the volume of a packet
containing 12 such boxes. [180 cm3]
10. Find the cost of digging a cuboidal pit 8 m long, 6 m broad and 3m deep at the rate of Rs 30 per
m3 [ Ans: Rs 4320]
11. If the volume of a cube is 512 cm3, then find length of its edge [ Ans: 512 cm]
12. The pillars of a temple are in the shape of a cylinder. If each pillar has base radius 20 cm and
height 10 cm, find the volume of concrete required to build 7 such pillars [ Ans: 88000 cm3]
13. Find the volume of a right circular cone with radius 6 cm and height 14 cm [528 cm3]
14. A solid spherical ball of diameter 4.2 cm is completely immersed in water. How much
water is displaced? [ Ans: 38.8 cm3]
15. Find the volume, curved surface area and total surface area of a solid hemisphere of
diameter 7 cm. [ Ans : 89.8 cm3, 77 cm2, 115.5 cm2]

LEVEL-2
1. The dimensions of a cuboid are in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5 and its total surface area is 3384 cm2. Find the
dimensions of the solid. [Ans :18 cm, 24 cm and 30 cm]
2. The length, breadth and height of a room are 5 m, 4 m and 3 m respectively. Find the cost of
painting the walls of the room and the ceiling at the rate of Rs 50 per m2 [Ans: 74 m2]
3. The diameter of a roller, 120 cm long is 84 cm. It takes 500 complete revolutions to level a
playground. Find the cost of leveling it at the rate of Rs 25 per sq metre. [Ans: Rs 39,600]
4. The inner diameter of a circular well is 10 m. It is 12 m deep. Find the cost of plastering the
curved surface at the rate of Rs 60 per m2. (Use π = 3.14 approx) [ Ans: Rs 22,608]
5. The height of a conical tent is 7 m and the radius of its base is 24 m. What lengths of
cloth of width 100 cm is needed to make the tent? [ Ans: 1885.7 m]
6. A corn cob, shaped like cone has the radius of the base as 2.1 cm and height as 20 cm.
If each 1 sq cm of the surface of cob carries an average of 4 grains, find how many grains you
would find in the entire cob? [ Ans: 531]
7. The side of a cube is 8 cm. If it is cut into smaller cubes of side 2 cm, then find the number of
such cubes. [ Ans: 64]
8. The diameter of a garden roller is 1.4m and it is 2m long. How much area will it level in 5
revolutions ? [ Ans ; 44 m2]
9. A hollow cylinder pipe has inner circumference 44 dm and outer 45 dm. Find the cost of painting
it from both sides at Rs 10 per m2 if its length is 3.5m. [ Rs 62.30]
10. The external and internal diameters of a hollow hemispherical vessel are 12 cm and 10 cm
respectively. The cost of painting is Rs 2 per cm2. Find the cost of painting the vessel all over. [
Ans:Rs 835.26]

LEVEL -3
1. A rectangular sheet of paper 44cm ×18 cm is rolled along its length and a cylinder is formed.
Find the volume of the cylinder. ( use π= 22/7) [ Ans: 2772 cm2]
2. A reservoir is is in the form of a cuboid .Its length is 20 m. If 18 kl of water is used from the
reservoir, the water level goes down by 15 cm. Find the width of the reservoir. [ Ans: 6m]
3. Sumit has built a cubical water tank with lid for his house, with each outer edge 1.5 m long. He
gets the outer surface of the tank excluding the base covered with square tiles of side 25 cm. Find
how much he would spend for the tiles, if the cost of tiles is Rs 360 per dozen [Ans:Rs 5400]
4. The height of a conical tent is 7 m and the radius of its base is 24 m. What lengths of of width 100
cm is needed to make the tent? [ Ans: 1885.7 m]
5. A school provides milk to the students daily in cylindrical glasses of diameter 7 cm. If the glass
is filled with milk upto a height of 12 cm, find how many litres of milk is needed to serve 1600
students.[Use π = 22/7]
6. How many metres of cloth 5 m wide will be required to make a conical tent if the radius
of the base and height are 3.5 m and 12 m respectively
7. Find (i) the lateral or curved surface area of a closed cylindrical petrol storage tank that is 4.2 m
in diameter and 4.5 m high. (ii) how much steel was actually used, if 1/12 of the steel actually
used was wasted in making the tank [ Ans: 95.04 m2]
8. The volume of a sphere is equal to two-thirds of the volume of a cylinder whose height and
diameter are equal to the diameter of the sphere. Is this statement true ? Justify your answer.
9. Water in a rectangular reservoir having base 80 m × 60 m is 6.5 m deep. In what time can the
water be emptied by a pipe of which the cross section is a square of side 20 cm, if the water runs
through the pipe at the rate of 15 km/h? [ Ans: 52 hours]

NON-ROUTINE QUESTIONS:

1. The diameter of a solid metallic right circular cylinder is equal to its height. After cutting out the
largest possible solid sphere S from the cylinder, the remaining material is recast into the form of
a solid sphere S1. What is the ratio of the radii of the sphere S to that of S1 ?
[ Ans: 21/3 : 1]
2. A right circular cylinder and a right circular cone have equal volumes but the lateral surface area
of the right circular cone is 15/8 times the lateral surface area of the right circular cylinder. What
is the ratio of radius to height of the cylinder ? [ Ans : 9: 4]
3. Three equal cubes are placed adjacently in a row. Find the ratio of Total Surface Area of the new
cuboid to that of the sum of the surface area of the three cubes. [ Ans : 7:9]
4. A cuboid is cut into two cubes of equal volume. Find the ratio of the Total Surface Area of the
given cube to that of the cuboid. [ Ans: 3:2]
5. If h, S and V are thee height, Curved Surface Area and Volume of a cone respectively, then find
the value of 3πVh3 – s2h2 + 9v2 [ Ans : 0 ]

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1. 50 students of class IX planned their visit to an old age home and to spend the whole day with the
inmates. Each one prepared a cylindrical flower base using card board to gift the inmates. The
radius of the cylinder is 4.2 cm and the height is 11.2 cm.
(i) What is the amount spent for purchasing the cardboard at the rate of Rs 20 per 100m2?
(ii) Which value is depicted by the students ?
[Ans: Rs 351120, social value/cooperation/ caring for old people]
2. In a flood hit area, the volunteers of NSS erected a conical tent made of tarpaulin. The vertical
height of the conical tent is 4 m and the base diameter is 6m. If the width of the tarpaulin is 1.5m,
then
(i) Find the length of the tarpaulin used, assuming that 10 % extra material is required for
stitching margins and wastage in cutting ( Take π = 3.14)
(ii) Which value is depicted by the volunteers?
[ Ans : 34.54 cm, social values/ helpfulness]
3. Patients in a hospital are given soup daily in a cylindrical bowl of diameter 7 cm. On a particular
day, the girls of St. Mary‘s School decided to cook the soup for the patients. They fill the bowl
with the soup to a height of 5 cm, then
(i) How much soup is to be cooked for 300 patients?
(ii) Which mathematical concept is used to solve this problem?
(iii) Which value is depicted by the girls?
[ Ans : 55.750 litres, Mensuration(volume of cylinder), social cohesion and happiness]
4. There are 100 students in a blind school. Mr. and Mrs. Sharma wished to serve them milk. They
have two options for serving the milk.
Option A: A hemispherical bowl with radius 10.5 cm made up of eco-friendly material.
Option B: A cylindrical glass with base radius 3.5 cm and height 5 cm made up of plastic.
(i) How many litres of milk is required, if option A is taken ?
(ii) Find the quantity of milk if option B is taken.
(iii) If Mr & Mrs Sharma opted for option A, which value is shown by them ?
[242 liters, environmental value and social value].
5. Find the value of the largest sphere carved out from a cube of side 14 cm.
The above question was given in the class to test the understanding of the students. One of the
students was not able to understand the largest sphere, so he copied the answer from his friend
and showed it to his teacher.
(i) Has he done the right thing?
(ii) Which value the student is lacking?
(iii) Solve the above question.
ERROR ANALYSIS:

Sl. No ERRORS REMEDIATION


1 Taking the height of a cone as its Explain clearly the difference between the height (h) and
slant height while solving problems slant height (l) with the help of a model of a cone and
related to curved surface area of a drill the numerical sums using the relation √
cone.

2 Choosing wrong formula Encourage the habit of reading the question many times
( ie, TSA = 2(lb + bh + hl) for and understand the region whose area is determined.
solving problems related to cost of Situations from daily life can also be related.
white washing the 4 walls of a room
3 Making mistake in applying formula Making use of suitable models, explain that
for the surface area of a solid TSA of a solid hemisphere = 2πr2 +π r2 = 3πr2
hemisphere and hollow hemisphere. TSA of a hollow hemisphere = 2πr2 + 2π r2 = 4πr2
4 Error in applying correct units of In the beginning of the lesson, recapitulate the basic units
surface area and volume and also in of measurement of area and volume and also the table of
the conversion of units. conversion of units
eg: 1 hectare = 10000m2
1 litre = 1000 cm2
1 m3 = 1 kl

QUESTION BANK
1. The length of a cinema hall is 20 m and its width is 16 m. The sum of the areas of its floor and
flat roof is equal to the surface area of its four walls. Find the volume and height of the hall.
2. The length, breadth and height of a rectangular box are as 1 : 2 : 3. Find the volume of the box,
when its surface area is 1078 sq m.
3. The volumes of two spheres are in the ratio of 64 : 27. Find their radii if the sum of their radii is
21 cm.
4. A solid cube of side 12 cm is cut into eight solid cubes of equal volumes. What will be the side of
the new cube ? Also, find the ratio between their surface areas.
5. A hemispherical shaped container has curved surface area of 2772 cm2. Find the capacity
of container.
6. If the diameter of a sphere and the side of a cube are equal, then what is the the ratio of
volume of the cube to that of the sphere ?
7. The radii of two cylinders are in the ratio of 2 : 3 and their heights are in the ratio of 5 : 3. Find
the ratio of their volumes.
8. The ratio of radii of two right circular cylinders is 1 : 3 and the heights are in the ratio
2 : 3. Find the ratio of their volumes
9. A rectangular metallic sheet has dimensions 48 cm × 36 cm. From each of its corners, a square of
side 8 cm is cut off and an open box is made from the remaining sheet, find the volume of the
box.
10. Find the volume of the largest right circular cone that can be cut out from a cube whose edge is
14 cm
11. A bag of grain contains 2.8 m3 of grain. How many bags of grain are needed to fill a right
circular cylindrical drum of radius 4.2 m and height 5 m ?
12. A well with 10 m inside diameter is dug 14 m deep. Earth taken out of it is spread all around it to
a width of 5 m to form an embankment. Find the height of the embankment
13. The dimensions of a rectangular box are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 4 and difference between the cost of
covering it with sheet of paper at the rate of Rs. 4 and Rs. 4.50 per m2 is Rs. 416. Find the
dimensions of the box.
14. The inner diameter of a cylindrical wooden pipe is 24 cm and its external diameter is 28 cm. The
length of the pipe is 35 cm. Find the mass of the pipe, if 1 cm3 of wood has a mass of 0.6 g.
15. The height of a right circular cylinder is 15 cm. Its curved surface area is 660 cm2. Find the
radius of its base.
16. The circumference of the base of a cylindrical vessel is 132 cm and its height is 25 cm.
How many litres of water it can hold ?
17. The floor of a rectangular hall has a perimeter of 250 m and its length and breadth are in the ratio
of 13 : 12. If the cost of painting the four walls and ceiling at the rate of Rs. 5 per m2 is Rs.
27000, find the height of the hall.
18. Find the volume of a sphere whose surface area is 154 cm2. Also, find the cost of polishing
its surface @ Rs. 5 per cm2.
19. The radius and height of a right circular cone are in the ratio of 5:12 and its volume is 2512
cm3. Find the slant height and radius of base of cone. (Take π = 3.14)
20. Find the area of the metal sheet required to make two closed hollow cones each of height 24 cm
and slant height 25 cm.
21. A hemispherical dome of a stupa needs to be painted. If the circumference of the base of the
dome is 17.6 m, find the cost of painting it, given that the cost of painting is Rs. 100 per sq.
metre. ( use π = 22/7)
22. A woman has a piece of canvas whose area is 551 sq. m. She uses it to have a conical tent made,
with a base radius of 7 m. Assuming that all the stitching margins and the wastage incurred while
cuttings, amounts to approximately 1 sq. m, find the volume of the tent that can be made with it.
23. The surface area of a sphere of radius 5 cm is five times the curved surface area of a cone of
radius 4 cm. Find the height of the cone.
24. Ten cylindrical pillars of a building have to be painted. If the diameter of each pillar is
50 cm and height 3.5 m, find the total area (in m2) to be painted and the cost of painting 10
pillars at the rate of Rs. 20 per m2. ( use π = 22/7)
25. A wall of length 10 m was to be built across an open ground. The height of the wall is 9 m and
thickness of the wall is 36 cm. If this wall is to be built up with bricks whose dimensions are 36
cm ×15 cm ×9 cm, how many bricks would be required to build three fourth of this wall ?
Projects

SURFACE AREA OF A CONE

Objective : To form cube, cuboids using flat cut outs and to obtain formulae for their
total surface areas.
Materials Required : Some thick sheets of graph paper with dimensions 30 cm × 20 cm,
sellotape, geometry box, a pair of scissors, etc
Procedure:
1. Draw a circle of radius 7 cm and from it cut out a quadrant of the circle as shown in
the figure.
2. Fold the quadrant (sector) of the circle so that the ends of the arc meet. It gives a
hollow cone without base as shown in the figure
3. Place the cone obtained above over a white sheet of paper and draw the outline of its
base. The outline is a circle. Cut out the circle and using cellotape, paste it at the base
of the hollow cone to get a closed conical shape.
Observations :
1. The length of the arc of the quadrant (sector) of the circle is equal to the
circumference of the
base (circle) of the cone.
2 . The area of the quadrant (sector) of the circle is equal to the curved surface area
of the cone.
Computation of Surface Area:
The length of arc AB = Circumference of the base of the cone
⇒ = 2πr, where r is the base radius of the cone.
⇒ r =7/4= 1.75 cm
The area of the sector (quadrant) = 2
= π × 7/4 × 7 cm2= π × 1.75 × 7 cm2
The curved surface area of the cone = π × 1.75 × 7 cm2
= π × radius of the base × slant height
Also, the area of the base of the cone = area of the circle with radius 1.75 cm
= π × (1.75)2 cm2
= π × (base radius)2
Thus, total surface area of the cone = curved surface area + area of the base
= π × 1.75 × 7 cm2 + π × (1.75)2 cm2.
If r be the base radius and l be the slant of a cone, then
The Total Surface Area of the Cone = π rl + πr2
Conclusion :

The total surface area of a cone of base radius r and slant height l = (πrl + πr2)
= πr(l + r)

Practicals

CUBES AND CUBOIDS


Objective : To form cube, cuboids using flat cut outs and to obtain formulae for their total surface areas.
Materials Required : Some thick sheets of graph paper with dimensions 30 cm × 20 cm, cello tape,
geometry box, a pair of scissors, etc
Project Overview : The world around us is made up of geometric shapes. Some of the objects have
shapes like cube, cuboid, cylinder, cone, sphere and pyramid. These are called solids or 3-dimensional
shapes. It is easy to make a solid shape from a piece of card by first drawing a net of the faces of the solid.
The net is made up of different plane shapes (rectangles, squares, triangles, circles). When the net is cut
out and the faces of the net folded along the edges, then a solid is formed.
Procedure :
1. On a graph paper, draw a net of a cube of edge 4 cm as shown in the figure.

2. Cut out the net and fold it along the edges to get a box (cube) of edge 4 cm as shown in the figure.

3. On a graph paper, draw a net of a cuboid of dimensions 5 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm as shown in the


figure

4. Cut out the net and fold it along the edges to get a box (cuboid) as shown in the figure.
Observations :
1. The cubical box has six square faces. The length of the side of each square is 4 cm.
2. The cuboid has six rectangular faces.
Two faces are of dimensions 5 cm × 3 cm
Two faces are of dimensions 3 cm × 2 cm
And two faces are of dimensions 5 cm × 2 cm.

Computation :
For Cube [Figs. 1 and 2]
The area of ABMN = 42 cm2
∴ The area of all the faces = (6 × 42) cm2
Thus, the total surface area of the cube = (6 × 42) cm2
If a be the length of one edge of any cube, then the area of its one face = a2
∴ The area of 6 faces = 6a2
∴ The total surface area of a cube of edge a = 6a2
For Cuboid [Figs. 3 and 4]
The area of CFKN = 5 × 3 cm2.
∴ The area of CFKN and GHIJ = 2 × (5 × 3) cm2
Similarly, the area of LMNK and CDEF = 2 × (3 × 2) cm2
And, the area of ABCN and FGJK = 2 × (2 × 5) cm2
Thus, the total surface area of the cuboid = area of CFKN and GHIJ + area of LMNK and
CDEF + area of ABCN and FGJK = [2 × (5 × 3) + 2 × (3 × 2) + 2 × (2 × 5)] cm2
= 2[(5 × 3) + (3 × 2) + (2 × 5)] cm2

CONCLUSION:
Thus, if l, b and h be the length, breadth and height of any cuboid, then
the total surface area of the cuboid = 2(lb + bh + hl).

MORE ACTIVITIES:
1. To make a model of a cylinder by cutting and pasting activity and to obtain the formula for
curved surface area and total surface area.
2. To find the formula for the volume of a right circular cone by transforming a solid model of a
cylinder into a cuboid by dividing it into 8 sectorial sections.
3. To find the lateral surface area of a cone by paper cutting method.
4. To demonstrate the fact : If a cylinder and a cone have the same base radius and equal height,
then the volume of the cone is 1/3 of the volr.ume of the cylinder
Power Point Presentations

SURFACE AREAS AND


VOLUMES

OF

SOLIDS

Web Links:
http://in.ixl.com/math/class-ix
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/math-worksheets.html#Geometry
http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/solid-geometry.html
http://www.icoachmath.com/topics/circular_cone_volume.html
http://www.icoachmath.com/topics/cylinder_right_volume.html
http://www.mathcaptain.com/geometry/volumes.html#
http://www.helpingwithmath.com/by_subject/geometry/geo_volume.htm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwPiA0COi8k
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZACAU4SGyM
http://schools.aglasem.com/1743
CHAPTER: 14
STATISTICS
EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Familiarize the meaning of the term Statistics and the need of collection of data, survey and
Statistical analysis.
2. Develop the skill of representing data graphically as Bar Graph, Histogram of uniform width,
Histogram of varying width, Frequency Polygon.
3. Learn to find the measures of Central Tendency- Mean, Median and Mode and apply the
knowledge for solving related problems.
4. Develop skill to apply in various daily life situations.

CONCEPT MAP

.~STATISTICS.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL- 1
1. The following marks were obtained by the students in a test.
81, 72, 90, 90, 86, 85, 92, 70, 71, 83, 89, 95, 85, 79, 62. What is the range?
2. Find the mean of first 10 whole numbers
3. Find the mean, median and mode of following series.
5, 23, 22, 22, 24, 27, 27, 25, 23, 22, 26, 32
4. The following observations have been arranged in ascending order. If the median of the data is
63, find the value of x.
29, 32, 48, 50, x, x+2, 72, 78, 84, 95
5. If the mean of the following distribution is 6, then find the value of p.
x: 2 4 6 10 p+5
f: 3 2 3 1 2

LEVEL- 2
1. The marks obtained by 40 students of calss IX in an examination are given below :
18, 8, 12, 6, 8, 16, 12, 5, 23, 2, 16, 23, 2, 10, 20,12, 9, 7, 6, 5, 3, 5, 13, 21, 13, 15, 20, 24, 1, 7,
21,16, 13, 18, 23, 7, 3, 18, 17, 16.
Present the data in the form of a frequency distribution table of the same class size, one such class
being 15–20. (where 20 is not included.)
2. The mean of 25 observations is 36. If the mean of the first 13 observation is 32 and that of last 13
observations is 39, find the 13th observation.
3. Given below are the seats won by different political parties in the polling outcome of a state
assembly elections

POLITICAL SEATS WON


PARTY
A 75
B 55
C 34
D 29
E 10
F 37

(i) Draw a bar graph to represent the polling results.


(ii) Which political party won the maximum number of seats ?
4. If the mean of the following data is 20.2, find the value of p.
x 10 15 20 25 30
f 6 8 p 10 6

5. The mean height of 6 girls is 148 cm. If the individual heights of five of them are 142 cm,
154cm, 146 cm, 145 cm and 150 cm, then find the height of the sixth girl. [ Ans: 151
cm]
LEVEL -3
1. The heights of 50 students, measured to the centimetres, have been found to be asfollows:
135, 162, 73, 151, 176, 165, 162, 145, 171, 172,
157, 161, 172, 158, 163, 175, 148, 173, 163, 159,
160, 162, 172, 175, 176, 168, 167, 170, 172, 173,
165, 151, 149, 169, 173, 138, 156, 148, 159, 166,
176, 151, 139, 146, 164, 173, 141, 142, 150, 159.
Represent the data given above by a grouped frequency distribution table, taking class intervals
as 160 – 165, 165 – 170 etc.
2. The water tax bill of 30 houses in a locality are given below:
144,184,130,195,132,134,196,114,212,174,188,210,202,145,175,
154,174,178,166,146,135,115,120,114,140,188,176,166,210,208.
Construct a frequency distribution table with class size 10.
3. Find the mean salary of 20 workers of a factory from the table.

4. Draw a histogram and a frequency polygon from the following data :

Class Frequency
21-25 21
26-30 22
31-35 50
36-40 110
41-45 87
46-50 51
51-55 18
56-60 23

5. The runs scored by two teams A and B in 7 overs in a cricket match are given.
Represent the data of both the teams on the same graph by frequency polygon.
Non-routine questions

1. The following table gives the distribution of students of two sections according to the marks
obtained by them.
Section A Section B
Marks Frequency Marks Frequency
0-10 3 0-10 5
10-20 9 10-20 19
20-30 17 20-30 15
30-40 12 30-40 10
40-50 9 40-50 1

2. The frequency distribution has been represented graphically as follows:


Marks 0 - 20 20 – 40 40 – 60 60 – 100
No. of Students 10 15 20 25

Do you think this representation is correct and why? If not correct draw the correct histogram by
modifying the table.
3. A class consists of 50 students out of which 30 are girls. The mean of marks scored by girls in a
test is 73 (out of 100) ,and that of boys is 71. Determine the mean score of the whole class.
[ Ans:72.2]
4. The mean of 25 observations is 36. Out of these if the mean of first 13 observations is 32 and
that of last 13 observations is 40. Then find the 13th observation. [ Ans: 36]
5. The mean of 16 items was found to be 30. On rechecking, it was found that two items were
wrongly taken as 22 and 18 instead of 32 and 28 respectively. Find the correct mean.
[Ans: 31.25]

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1. 25 plants were planted in each 25 schools during Van Mahotsava, such as
16 20 23 10 6
10 12 7 9 15
15 22 11 13 21
17 9 4 10 12
20 15 18 18 22
(i) Prepare a frequency distribution table of the above data using class intervals 0 – 5 etc.
(ii) Which value is represented by this activity ?
2. The following bar graph represents the budget allocation by government of NCT of Delhi under
Ladli scheme. ( horizontal axis shows rupees in million)

This scheme started in January 2008. Read the above bar graph and answer the following
questions:
(i) In which year the budget is minimum?
(ii) In which year the budget is maximum?
(iii) Which value is depicted from the above data?

3. The enrolment of a school during six consecutive years are as follows:

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


Enrolment 1620 2060 2540 3250 3500 3710
(i) Find the mean of the enrollment of the school for this period.
(ii) Draw a bar graph of the above data.
(iii) Which value is represented by this data ?
[ 2780, awareness of people towards education]
4. The following table shows the interest paid by India ( in thousand crore rupees) on external debts
during the period 1998-99 to 2002-03

Year 1998- 1999- 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03


99 2000
Interest( in thousand crore 70 84 98 106 120
rupees)

(i) Draw a histogram for the above data


(ii) What conclusion will derive from above data ? (Ans : Try to become more self-
dependent)

5. The following data represents the case of whooping cough in India during the following years.

Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10


Cases 470 50 30 60 26
(i) Draw frequency polygon of the above data.
(ii) Which value is represented by this data ?
ERROR ANALYSIS
Sl. No ERRORS REMEDIATION
1 Mistake in identifying the class in Specify the rule that, in a class interval 10 – 20, 20- 30, 30
which a particular observation is – 40 etc, an observation 20 is to be included in the class 20
included . – 30 but not in 10 – 20.
2 Mistake in identifying Class mark Make the children thorough with the basic terms in
and class intervals statistics like class interval, frequency, class mark, class
size etc.
3 Errors in the choice of axes for Sufficient explanation and individual attention in the class
plotting class intervals and room are required in such cases.- Represent along the x-
frequencies for the construction of axis the class boundaries and along the y-axis the class
histogram and frequency curve frequencies using a suitable scale.
4 Wrong construction of histograms in It is to be stressed that in a histogram the areas of the
the case of frequency distribution rectangles are proportional to the corresponding
with unequal class width. frequencies. So in the case of unequal class intervals,
frequency of each class interval is to be adjusted as

5 Wrong calculation of median in two Arrange the observations in either ascending or descending
different cases of odd and even order of magnitude and then use correct formula for median
number of observations in each case.
If no. of observations is odd, say n = 13, then the median
=( ) = 7th observation, but median
should not be wrongly taken as 7.

QUESTION BANK

1. Find the mode of the observations 17, 23, 25, 18, 17, 23, 19, 23, 17, 26, 23. If 4 is subtracted
from each observation, what will be the mode of the new observations.
2. A cricketer has a mean score of 58 runs in nine innings. Find out how many runs are to be scored
in the tenth innings to raise his mean score to 61.
3. Find the Mean, Median, Mode of the following data:
41, 39, 48, 52, 41, 48, 36, 41, 37, 35
4. The distance (in km.) covered by 30 cars in 2 hrs. are given below.
125, 107, 120, 90, 84, 100, 56, 140, 93, 149, 73, 68, 88, 135, 115,
120, 90, 120, 136, 144, 104, 135, 60, 79, 83, 100, 76, 91, 89, 120.
Form a frequency distribution table (with tally marks), one of the intervals being 100-120. (120
not included)
5. Draw a histogram and frequency polygon for the following data :

6. The mean of 5 observations was calculated as 145, but it was later on detected that one
observation was misread as 45 in place of 25. Find the correct mean of the observations.
7. The following observations have been arranged in ascending order. If the median of the data is
63, find the value of x. 29, 32, 48, 50, x, x+2, 72, 78, 84, 95.
8. Find the mode of the following data : 1, 3, 5, 7, 3, 5, 4, 7, 2, 6, 7, 12, 10, 11, 3, 7, 8 6, 7, 7, 4, 2,
11, 7, 15
9. Find the mode of the following data : 9, 5, 7, 9, 8, 6, 9, 7, 8, 9, 6, 5, 4, 8, 9, 4, 9. If the two
observations with value 5 are both replaced by 8, what is the new mode ?
10. In a city, the weekly observations made on cost of living index are given in the table below :

Draw a histogram and a frequency polygon for the above data on the same graph paper.
11. The mean of 20 observations is 50. If the observation 50 is replaced by 140, what will be the new
mean of the observations
12. The mean age of 10 students of a class is 15 years, A student of age 14 years leaves the classand
in his place age of their teacher is counted. This increased the mean age of group to 16years. Find
the age of the teacher.
13. Given below is the frequency distribution of salary (in Rs) of 100 workers in a factory :

Answer the following questions.


How many workers : (i) have salary below Rs. 3000
(ii) have salary between Rs. 3000 and Rs. 5000.
(iii) From Rs. 1000 to Rs. 5000
14. In a city the weekly observations made in a study on the cost of living index are given in the
following table :
15. The runs scored by two teams A and B on the first 74 balls in a cricket match are given below.

Construct the frequency polygon for both teams on the same graph.
Projects
1.COLLECTION AND TABULATION OF DATA(STATISTIVAL SURVEY)
Objective : Survey of the family members of students in a class.
Project Overview : A survey of the family members of class IX students of St. Mary‘s Public School
was conducted in the month of July 2014. The aim of the survey was to find out the types of students with
regard to the number of family members in their families. Such survey has not been conducted so far in
this school. The school is situated in an industrial area. Large factories are situated near the school. Some
government offices are also situated near the school. Most of the students live in the flats provided to their
parents by the factory authorities. This survey is expected to give us a picture of optimum level of tution
fees, transport facility, items to be sold in the school canteen, extra coaching classes and other such things
connected to the school curriculum. Such surveys may be helpful in getting an overall view of the type of
facilities required at such schools.
Procedure :
The data of the survey was collected by directly asking each student of the class with the help of the class
teacher Mr. Raghavendra . The students were asked to raise their hands according to the number of family
members in their family. Following categories were considered as the members of the family.
(i) Actual relatives living in their house.
(ii) Other members like paying guests, servants etc.
(iii) Brothers, sisters and other relatives who lived in their house during vacation.
Data obtained were recorded as below.
No.of 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Members
No.of 2 4 7 16 21 12 3 1
Families
Calculation of Mean:
No.of members No. of
in the family Families fx
(x) (f)
2 2 4
3 4 12
4 7 28
5 16 80
6 21 124
7 12 84
8 3 24
9 1 9
Total 66 367


Mean = ∑
= = 5.56 ≈ 6
Bar diagram to represent the above data:

Observations :
From the bar graph, we observed that
(i) 21 families have 6 members.
(ii) Only 1 family has 9 members.
(iii) No family has more than 9 members.
Also, average members in a family = 6
Practicals
TABULATION OF DATA
Objective : (i) Collection, tabulation of data obtained by an activity.
(ii) Representing the information diagrammatically.
Materials Required : Chart paper 50 cm × 50 cm, Geometry box, Meter ruler, 10 counters of
diameter 2 cm approx, graph sheets.
Procedure :
1. On chart paper, draw horizontal and vertical lines to give squares of 5 cm × 5 cm.
Using sketch pen, write numbers from 1 to 100 as shown in figure 1.

2. Make a table as shown in Table 1.

3. Place the chart paper on the floor.


4. Take all the ten counters and drop them simultaneously on the chart paper from a height
of 50 cm (approx) above the centre of chart (approx).
5. Read the numbers written in the squares on the chart over which the counters fall and
mark them in the ―Tally Marks‖ column of the table. Keep the following rules :
(i) If a counter falls on the boundary of two squares such that more than half of it lies in one
square and lessthan half in the other, record the number which has the bigger portion of the
counter. For example, in figure 1 the counter marked I in the diagram should be taken as on
the number 87, while the counter H should be taken as on the number 79.
(ii) If a counter falls almost half on two squares, do not record it and drop the counter again. For
example, the counter marked J in figure 1.
(iii) If a counter falls on the boundary of more than two squares, reject it and drop it again.
For example, counters marked A, B and C.
(iv)If a counter falls outside the chart reject it and drop it again
6. Repeat the process ten times.
7. Complete the frequency table.
8. Draw a histogram to represent the data obtained, in table 1 (see figure 2.)

9. Mark the mid-point of the respective tops of the rectangles in the histogram and join them
using a ruler. To complete the polygon, join the mid-points of two classes (called
imaginary classes) one at each end. See figure 2.
10. Find the class mark of each class in Table 1. On a graph sheet, represent class marks on
the x-axis and frequencies on the y-axis. Plot the corresponding points and complete the
polygon (see figure 3).

(Here we take class 0–10 to denote ―greater than 0 and less than or equal to 10‖, 10 – 20 to denote
―greater than 10 and less than or equal to 20‖ and so on).
Observations :
1. In figure 2 the rectangle in the histogram are of equal width since the class size is 10 for all the
classes.
2. If both a histogram and frequency polygon are to be drawn representing the same data, we use
diagram as shown in figure 2.
3. If only the frequency polygon is to be drawn, we need not draw a histogram and directly draw a
Frequency polygon as shown in figure 3.

Power Point Presentations

STATISTICS

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean,Median and Mode


for Ungrouped Data

Web Links:
http://in.ixl.com/math/class-ix
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/math-worksheets.html#Statistics
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/statistics.html
http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/index.html
http://www.mathcaptain.com/statistics/central-tendency.html#
http://www.mathcaptain.com/statistics/histogram.html#close_iframe
http://www.cbseguess.com/papers/sample_papers/ix/2015/mathematics.php
http://www.kvkathmandu.net/admin/downloads/182678599945_mathmatics_theme_1_&_2_%28class-
ix%29_-_english.pdf
http://schools.aglasem.com/1690
http://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/cbse-class-9-important-questions-preparation-tips-mathematics-
1405495695-1
CHAPTER: 15
PROBABILITY
EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
i) Distinguish between experimental probability and theoretical probability
ii) Generalize the concept of uncertainty, probable, chances and doubt.
iii) Come out with reasoning ability to identify experiments related to probability
iv) Define probability
v) Understand the definition and applies it in daily life situations.

CONCEPT MAP

New Map.vue
THREE LEVELS OF GRADED EXERCICES
LEVEL- 1
1. In a cricket match, a batswoman hits a boundary 6 times out of 30 balls she plays. Find the
probability that she did not hit a boundary
2. A and B are the only two outcomes of an event. If P(A ) = 0.72, then find P ( B )
3 Adie is rolled 25 times and the outcomes are recorded as under.

Outcomes Frequency
1 9
2 4
3 5
4 6
5 1
6 0

It is thrown once again. Find the probability of getting


a) an even number
b ) a multiple of 3
c ) a prime number.

4. 1500 families with 2 children were selected randomly, and the following data were recorded:

Number of girls in a family 2 1 0

Number of families 475 814 211

Compute the probability of a family, chosen at random, having

(i) 2 girls (ii) 1 girl (iii) No girl

Also check whether the sum of these probabilities is 1.

5. Three coins are tossed simultaneously 200 times with the following frequencies of different
outcomes:

Outcome 3 heads 2 heads 1 head No head

Frequency 23 72 77 28

If the three coins are simultaneously tossed again, compute the probability of 2 heads coming up.

6. To know the opinion of the students about the subject statistics, a survey of 200 students was
conducted. The data is recorded in the following table.
Opinion Number of students

like 135

dislike 65

Find the probability that a student chosen at random

(i) likes statistics, (ii) does not like it7.


Blood group Number of students

A 9

B 6

AB 3

O 12

Total 30
The above frequency distribution table represents the blood groups of 30 students of a class.
Use this table to determine the probability that a student of this class, selected at random,
has blood group AB.

8. On a day the number of vehicles passing through a place is given below. Find the probability
that it is not a four wheeler.

Vehicle Frequency

Two - wheeler 57

Three - wheeler 33

Four - wheeler 30

9. In a group of 70 persons, there are 15 boys, 20 girls and rest women. Determine the probability
that a person selected is a woman.
10. In a box , there are 9 red , 8 white and 3 black balls. One ball is taken out at random.
determine the probability that it is
a) white
b) not red.
LEVEL- 2
1. The distance (in km) of 40 engineers from their residence to their place of work were found as
follows.

5 3 10 20 25 11 13 7 12 31

19 10 12 17 18 11 32 17 16 2

7 9 7 8 3 5 12 15 18 3

12 14 2 9 6 15 15 7 6 12

What is the empirical probability that an engineer lives:


(i) less than 7 km from her place of work?
(ii) more than or equal to 7 km from her place of work?
2. Eleven bags of wheat flour, each marked 5 kg, actually contained the following weights of flour
(inkg): 4.97 5.05 5.08 5.03 5.00 5.06 5.08 4.98 5.04 5.07 5.00
Find the probability that any of these bags chosen at random contains more than 5 kg of flour.
3. An organization selected 2400 families at random and surveyed them to determine a
relationship between income level and the number of vehicles in a family. The information
gathered is listed in the table below:

Monthly income Vehicles per family


(in Rs)
0 1 2 Above 2

Less than 7000 10 160 25 0

7000 − 10000 0 305 27 2

10000 − 13000 1 535 29 1

13000 − 16000 2 469 59 25

16000 or more 1 579 82 88

Suppose a family is chosen, find the probability that the family chosen is

(i) earning Rs 10000 − 13000 per month and owning exactly 2 vehicles.
(ii) earning Rs 16000 or more per month and owning exactly 1 vehicle.
4. In a particular section of Class IX, 40 students were asked about the months of their birth and the
following graph was prepared for the data so obtained:

Find the probability that a student of the class was born in August.

LEVEL -31.
Concentration of SO2 (in ppm) Number of days (frequency )

0.00 − 0.04 4

0.04 − 0.08 9

0.08 − 0.12 9

0.12 − 0.16 2

0.16 − 0.20 4

0.20 − 0.24 2

Total 30

The above frequency distribution table represents the concentration of sulphur dioxide in
the air in parts per million of a certain city for 30 days. Using this table, find the
probability of the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the interval 0.12 − 0.16 on any of
these days.

2. Adie was rolled 100 times and the number of times 6 came up was recorded. If the
probability of getting 6 is 2/5 , then how many times did 6 come up?
3. A bag contains 190 coins , of which fifty are ₹2 coins forty ₹1 coin and rest ₹5
coins. One coin is selected at random. Find the probability that it is a ₹ coin.
4. Cards with numbers 2 to 101 are mixed well. Then one card is taken out. Find the probability that the
number on the card is
a) a number less than 14 b) a perfect square.
5. Two dice were rolled 400 times. Each time, the sum of the two numbers was noted and is given as
under. Find the probability of getting a sum
i) 5
ii) more than 10
iii) between 5 and 10
Sum Frequency
2 14
3 2
4 32
5 45
6 62
7 65
8 60
9 43
10 36
11 18
12 5

Non routine problems

1. A bag contains cards numbered from 1 to 100. A card is drawn at random


from the bag. Find the probability that the :
(a) card bears a number which is a multiple of 5.
(b) card bears a number which is greater than or equal to 80.

2. When three coins are tossed simultaneously, find the probability of getting
at least two tails.

VALUE BASED QUESTIONS


1 On the occasion of independence day , out of 1500 students, 1470 students took part in the
celebration.
a) Evaluate the probability.
b) What value is indicated in their action ?
2. On the occasion of October 2, Gandhiji‘s birth day, a social welfare organization distributed
clothes to the orphans. If 40 orphans received clothes out of 50,
a) Evaluate the probability.
b) Which value is indicated in the action ?
3. In a village , out of 1000 persons only 600 are literate.
a) Find the probability that a person selected is a literate.
b) Which value can be observed in it ?
ERROR ANALYSIS

SL NO COMMON ERRORS CORRECT ANSWER & REMEDIAL MEASURE


When a die is rolled, p( a number , ANS --- 2/6= 1/3
1 which is not composite ) = 3/6 = 1/2 Favorable outcomes are 3&6
Remind the fact that 1 is neither prime nor composite

correct
2 Writing the possible outcomes when ( HH , HT ,TH , TT )
a coin is tossed one by one or two Take care of the order of occurrence )
coins are tossed together.
Incorrect
( HH , HT , TT )
3 Using negative values and a number Re- teach the concept by writing all possible events
greater than one for probability. and adding their probabilities to get one as the total
probability, which is the probability of the sample
space and the maximum value of the probability.
Probability is always a fraction of number of
favorable outcomes to that of total outcomes and it
never takes a negative value.

QUESTION BANK
1 A survey of 600 men, showed that only 85 of them know English. Out of them one man is
selected at random. Find the probability that the selected man does not know English
2 In an experiment, a coin is tossed 500 times. If the head turns up 280 times, then
find the probability of getting a tail
3 12 packets of salt, each marked 2 kg, actually contained the following weights (in kg) of salt :
1.980, 2.000, 2.025, 1.850, 1.990, 2.040, 1.950, 2.050, 2.060, 1.980, 2.030, 1.970
Out of these packets, one packet is chosen at random. Find the probability that the chosen
Packet contains less than 2 kg of salt
4 An organization selected 200 families and surveyed them to determine the number of girls in
the family as follows. Find the probability of a family having 1 girl

5 20 students of a class were tested to find their pulse rate. The following figures were obtained
for the number of beats per minute :70, 60, 72, 80, 74, 81, 69, 72, 75, 77, 79, 71, 69, 75, 73,
68, 75, 79, 82, 80. If a student is selected at random, find the probability that his heart beat per
minute is less than 70
6 A machine generated these 10 codes :{0A1, AAA, ABC, 2B1, 3B7, BB2, 1AC, 111, 222, 333}.
A code is drawn at random to allot an employee. Find the probability that the code has at least
two digits
7 Can the experimental probability of an event be a negative number? If not, why?
8 Can the experimental probability of an event be greater than1? If not, why?
9 Can the experimental probability of an event be zero? If not, why?
10 Two coins are tossed simultaneously. List all possible outcomes.
11 A dice is tossed 100 times and the outcomes are recorded as below :
12 Find the probability of getting (a) The number 6 (b) Even number less than 6
13 The percentage of marks obtained by a student in monthly unit test are given below

Find the probability that the student gets :


(i) more than 70% marks (ii) less than 70% marks (iii) more than 90% marks.

14 In a One Day International, a batsman played 40 balls. The runs score are as follows :

Find the probability that the batsman will score :


(i) 6 runs. (ii) a four or a six run. (iii) 0 or 4 or 6 runs.
15 A bag contains tickets which are numbered from 1 to 100. Find the probability that a ticket
number picked up at random
(i) is a multiple of 7 (ii) is not a multiple of 7
16 100 cards marked from 2 to 101 are placed in a box and mixed thoroughly. One card is
drawn at random from the box. Find the probability that number on the card is
(i) an even number (ii) a number which is a perfect square
(iii) a prime number less than 20
17 It is known that a box of 550 bulbs contains 22 defective bulbs. One bulb is taken out at
random from the box. Find the probability of getting :
(i) defective bulb (ii) good bulb
18 A bag contains cards numbered from 1 to 25. A card is drawn at random from the bag. Find
the probability that the selected card bears number which is a multiple of 2 or 3.
Find the probability of occurrence of each of these events.
19. The following data shows the blood groups of 40 students of a class.

A student is selected at random from the class.


Find the probability that the student :
(i) has blood group A(ii) has blood group O(iii) does not have blood group AB.
Projects
Find out the historical facts about Probability and do find some applications of it in the field of
 i) Sports – be it basketball or football and coin is tossed and both teams have 50/50 chances of
winning it, a basketball player takes a free throw judging his past performance it can be determined if
he will make it or not.
 Board Games – a game spinner with four sections, there is a 25% chance of it landing in red, since
one of the 4 sections is red. Similarly the odds of rolling one die and getting an even number there is
a 50% chance since three of the six numbers on a die are even.
 Life Expectancy – this is based on the number of years the same groups of people have lived in the
past. ―These ages are used as guidelines by entities such as financial advisers to help clients prepare
for their retirement years.‖
 Weather – when planning an outdoor activity, people generally check the probability of rain.
Meteorologists also predict the weather based on the patterns of the previous year, temperatures and
natural disasters are also predicted on probability and nothing is ever stated as a surety but a
possibility and an approximation.
Practicals
1. Observe experimentally the difference between Experimental and Theoretical
Probability by tossing a coin 50 times
2. This is an experiment to find out if you can see into the future. You need to work in pairs and
you need one coin.One of you is the tosser and recorder and the other is the guesser.
i)The guesser predicts whether the coin will land head up or tail up. The tosser then tosses the
coin. When this experiment is repeated 100 times, about how many times do you expect the
guesser to predict the actual outcome.
ii)Now perform the experiment described at least 100 times and record each result as right or
wrong as appropriate. Use an observation sheet in the form of a tally chart.
iii)Compare what you expected to happen with what did happen, using appropriate diagrams as
illustrations. Comment on the likelihood of the guesser being able to predict which way the
coinwill land.
iv)State how could you make your results more reliable.
v)Suggest other experiments that you could perform to test whether someone can see into the
future.

Power Point Presentations

Prepared by:-
Prasanna

Web Links:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=QR_gpNR14rQ
www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_MA097cPjE
PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT(PSA)

WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY

The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and
often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized
process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and
well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Ill-defined problems are those that do not
have clear goals, solution paths, or expected solution. Well-defined problems have specific goals, clearly
defined solution paths, and clear expected solutions. These problems also allow for more initial planning
than ill-defined problems. Being able to solve problems sometimes involves dealing with pragmatics
(logic) and semantics (interpretation of the problem). The ability to understand what the goal of the
problem is and what rules could be applied represents the key to solving the problem. Sometimes the
problem requires some abstract thinking and coming up with a creative solution.
Psychology Behind Problem Solving

In psychology, problem solving refers to a state of desire for reaching a definite 'goal' from a
present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it, or needs
more complex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the
goal. In psychology, problem solving is the concluding part of a larger process that also includes problem
finding and problem shaping.

Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as a higher-
order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental
skills. Problem solving has two major domains: mathematical problem solving and personal problem
solving where, in the second, some difficulty or barrier is encountered. Further problem solving occurs
when moving from a given state to a desired goal state is needed for either living organisms or
an artificial intelligence system.

While problem solving accompanies the very beginning of human evolution and especially the history of
mathematics, the nature of human problem solving processes and methods has been studied
by psychologists over the past hundred years. Methods of studying problem solving
include introspection, behaviorism, simulation, computer modeling, and experiment. Social psychologists
have recently distinguished between independent and interdependent problem-solving.
PSA MODEL QUESTION PAPER FOR CLASS IX
1. Maximum four digit no. completely divided by 18 is
a. 9990 b. 9984 c. 9992 d. None of these
9 17 28 33
2. Which one is least in , , ,
13 26 39 52
9 17 28 33
a. b. c. d.
13 26 39 52
x 15
3. If  , then the value of x is
16 8
a.700 b. 900 c.400 d.600
4. If 12 cows eat 756 kg of grass in 7 days. How much
grass will be eaten by 15 cows in 10 days ?
a.1500kg b.1200kg c.1350kg d.1400kg
5. Today is Sunday, after 54 days it will be :
a.Thursday b.Friday c. Saturday d.Sunday
6. Two angles of a triangle are complementary. The third
angle is :
a. 360 b. 600 c. 450 d.900
7. H. C. F. OF 960 , 1020 & 1200 is
a. 30 b. 60 c. 80 d. None of these
8. Sum of prime numbers between 60 to 80 is
a. 351 b. 278 c. 284 d. None of these
9. If the diagonal of a square is doubled, then its area will be
a.Four Times b.Three Times c. Same d. None of These
10. Equivalent discount of two successive discount of 30%
and 20% is
a. 50 % b. 10% c. 44% d. 56 %
11. Average of first five prime numbers is
a.5.5 b.5.6 c. 4.5 d. 6.5
12. If the sum of three consecutive numbers is 15 then the
sum of their squares is
a. 225 b. 125 c.77 d. 87
13. If 2a = 3b = 4c then a : b : c is
a. 6 : 4 : 3 b.8 : 6 : 3 c.2 : 3 : 4 d. 4 : 3 : 2
14. One‘s place no. in square root of 15876 is
a. 8 b. 6 c. 4 d. 2
15. If ratio of cost price and selling price of an article is 10:11
then loss % is
a.20% b.25% c. 40% d.60%
16. If radius of a circle increased by 100% then its area
increased by
a.200% b. 400% c. 10000% d.300%
17. Find missing no. 178 , 169 , 150 , 121 , ?, 33
a.78 b. 80 c. 82 d. 84
18. The value of 7/11 – 5/11 - 3/11 is equals to :
a) -1/11 c)5/11
b) 1/11 d) -5/11
19. The probability of getting even no.after throwing a dice is :
a) 1/2 c) 2/1
b) 2 d)1
20. The supplementary angle of 1130 is :
a) -670 c) -570
0
b) 67 d)570
21. The complementary of 35 is :
a) 900 c) 1800
0
b) 150 d)550
22. The value of 1/0 is :
a) 0 c) 00
b) 1 d)none of these
23. The ratio of 40 hours to 30 hours is :
a) 30:4 c) 3:4
b) 3:40 d) none of these
24. The value of 3.25/0.5 x 0.5/3.25 is :
a) 3.25 c) 1
b) 0.5 d) 0
25. The measure of each angle in a square is :
a) 90 c) 60
b) 180 d) 120
26. Highest common factor of 12 and 48 is:
a) 6 c) 4
b) 2 d)12
27. The cost of 3 pens is Rs 105. So the cost of 10 such pens would be :
a) 135 Rs c) 350 Rs
b) 250 Rs d) 235 Rs
28. The value of for (x-1)(x+1) =0 is:
a) 1 c)√ -1
b) -1 d)none of these
29. 2y + 5/2 = 37/2 then the value of y is :
a) 9 c) 6
b) 8 d) 3/2
30. If p & q are integers and p/q is a rational number then the value of q will not be :
a) 1 c) p
b) 0 d) none of these
31. If a & b are supplementary angles and a = 45 . So the relation between a & b is :
a) a b c) a < b
b) a > b d) a = b
32. 2 + 3 - ( 2 + 4 )  7 + 6 = ?
a. - 1 c. 1
b. – 31 d.None of these
33. If an isosceles triangle if one angle is 700 then the value of other two angle is :
a) 500 c)800
0
b) 55 d)600
34. If the cost price of pen is Rs 90 and it is sold for 10% loss then its selling price is :
a) 9 c) 100
b) 81 d) 99
35. The value of 24-(24 +4 - 4/4) +2 is :
a) 5 c) both a & b
b) -1 d) none of these
3
36. If l volume of a cube is 1331cm then its side is :
a) 12cm c) 11cm
b) 13cm d)31cm
37. The smallest composite number is :
a) 1 c) 3
b) 2 d)4
38. The sum of first five prime number is :
a) 11 c) 30
b) 28 d) None of these
39. If two numbers are 100 & 56 then the product of their HCF and LCM is :
a) 100 c) 5600
b) 56 d) None of these
40. The number of faces in a cube is :
a) 1 c) 6
b) 2 d) 10
2
41. The value of (-3√2) is :
a) 18 c) -18
b) -6 d)6
42. (11 , 19) are a:
a) Prime number c) composite number
b) Twin prime number d) none of these
2 1 3
43. 16  5  12  ?
3 3 5
2 3 2
a. 9 b. 10 c. 11 d. None of these
3 5 5
(73)3  (53)3
44.  ?
73  73  73  53  53  53
a.126 b.216 c.162 d. -126
18  72 105
45.  ?
48  315
a. 81 b. 729 c. 9 d. 1.732
 8 
46 3 +  (8  5)  {(4  2)  (2  )} = ?
 13 
13 68 17 13
a. b. c. d.
17 13 13 68
3 3 1
47. 2 of  + =?
4 4 4
3 5 8 9
a. b. c. d.
2 2 3 4
5
48. If 15  3.88 then ?
3
a. 1.293 b.1.2934 c. 1.29 d. 1.295
49. Sum of prime numbers between 60 to 80 is
a. 351 b. 278 c. 284 d. None of these

50. 248  52  144  ?


a.14 b. 16 c.18 d. 24
1.49 14.9  0.51 5.1
51. ?
14.9  5.1
a.0.20 b. 20.00 c.2.00 d.22.00
1
52. If x  7  4 3 then x  ?
x
a. 3 3 b. 8 3 c.14 + 8 3 d. 14
53. If the sum of three consecutive numbers is 15 then the
sum of their squares is
a. 225 b. 125 c.77 d. 87
54. One‘s place no. in square root of 15876 is
a. 8 b. 6 c. 4 d. 2
55. If ratio of cost price and selling price of an article is 10:11
then loss % is
a.20% b.25% c. 40% d.60%
56. If radius of a circle increased by 100% then its area
increased by
a.200% b. 400% c. 10000% d.300%
57. In binary number system 16 is written as
a.10000 b. 11000 c.10101 d.11100
58. Find missing no. 178 , 169 , 150 , 121 , ?, 33
a.78 b. 80 c. 82 d. 84
59. If 50 % of (x-y) = 30% of (x+y) then y is what % of x
a.20% b.25% c. 40% d.30%
3
60. The Value of is:
1
3
2
3
3
4
1 49 17 27
a. 1 b. c. d.
17 51 18 29
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

Open Text Based Assessment (OTBA)

Role of Teachers

 Teachers are expected to provide a bridge between the theory and practice. The Text/Case studies are
designed to promote active participation of students requiring them to engage in active learning process
through discussion, analysis, self-reflection and critical thinking.
 The teachers are expected to assign the text material received from the CBSE to the students in groups
so that they can read, and understand it through discussions, view it from different perspectives,
brainstorm main ideas in class or even do further research outside the class. The main objective of
introducing this element is to provide opportunities to students to apply theoretical concepts to a real
life scenario by encouraging active and group learning in the Class.
 The teachers should guide students and provide feedback at regular intervals about their performance
during the completion of assigned activities. Since real-life cases or situations are complex and open to
different opinions, teachers must be prepared for innovative and open answers from students.

Assessment of Text Material / Case-Studies :

Depending on the text material/case study supplied to students, the answers will be assessed on a set of
assessment rubrics showing the extent of which students were able to do the following:
(i) Understand and apply the concepts to the situational problems.
(ii) Suggest and bring out appropriate solutions/s to the problem/situation.
(iii) Come up with innovative opinions/suggestions.
(iv) Deep analysis based on a wide range of perspectives
What are schools expected to do?

The text/case-studies/supplied to schools should be thoroughly read, discussed and analysed by the
teachers. If possible, the teachers of Sahodaya Complex can get together for a brainstorming session
working on the following:
 Objectives of the Text material/Case-study
 Concepts involved
 Application of concepts to situation
 Description and further explanation of the case/problem
 Higher Order thinking skills involved
 Analysis with different perspectives
 Assessment techniques? The case studies with leading questions should then be assigned to students in
groups who would discuss at their level.
 The teachers should guide them with further leading questions.
The concerned teachers are expected to read, discuss and analyze them with regard to:
 their objectives and outcomes
 concepts involved and their application
 description, further explanation and further exploration of the case/ problem/ situation involved.
 higher order thinking skills involved, and
 analysis from different perspectives
They should assign this text material to their students in groups for further understanding, analysis and
discussion. It is reiterated here that the main objective of introducing OTBA is to relieve the students
from the burden of mugging up of content and provide opportunities in acquiring skills of information
processing, comprehension, analysis and inference. The teachers should guide them, provide feedback
and encourage open responses in solving situations. The Text also gives some questions as samples.
The teachers should develop more such questions which are based on the given text but require answers
through application of concepts, further extrapolation, comparison and inference

Open Text based Assessment (OTBA) for Class IX


 It will be applicable to all the main subjects.
 This will be a part of Summative Assessment II
 These Schools will be supplied with textual material in few months before the commencement of
Summative Assessment II.
 A textual material may be in the form of an article, a case study, a diagram, a concept/ mind map,
a picture or a cartoon, problem/situation based on the concepts taught to be students during
second term.
 It will be to the extent of 15-20 percent in all the main subjects and may also include the Value
Based Questions
 The textual material will be related to chosen concepts taken from the syllabi
 The Open Text based Assessment (OTBA) will have questions of higher order thinking skills and
some of which may be subjective, creative and open ended.
 The textual material supplied earlier will be printed again as part of the question paper and thus
will be available while answering the questions.
 The textual material will be related to chosen concepts taken from the syllabi.
 The Open Text based Assessment (OTBA) will have questions of higher order thinking skills and
some of which may be subjective, creative and open ended.
 The textual material supplied earlier will be printed again as part of the question paper and thus
will be available while answering the questions.

 OTBA MODEL QUESTION PAPER


SAMPLE PAPERS
TERM-1
MODEL QUESTION PAPER-1

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT – I
CLASS: IX
MAXIMUM MARKS: 90
SUBJECT: MATHEMATICS
TOTAL TIME: 3 hours
General instructions:-
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) The question paper consists of 31 questions divided into four sections – A, B, C and D.
(iii) Section A contains 4 questions of 1 mark each, which are multiple choice questions.
Section B contains 6 questions of 2 marks each. Section C contains 10 questions of
3 marks each and Section D contains 11 questions of 4 marks each.
(iv) Use of calculators is not permitted.

Section A
Question numbers 1 to 4 carry 1 mark each.
1. Which is the largest rational number:?
2
2. What are the zeroes of the polynomial x -5
3. The sides of a triangle are 18cm, 12cm, and 24cm. Then find its area.
4. If an angle is the complement of of right angle, then find its measure.

Section B
Question numbers 5 to 10 carry 2 marks each.
1
4. If x=3+2 6 , find the value of x + .
x
5. Factorise the polynomial: 8x ─27.
3

6. Find the value of ‗a‘ for which (x─1) is a factor of the polynomial a x ─4ax+4a─1.
2 3

7. In the following figure,

A B C D
if AC=BD, show that AB=CD. State the Euclid‘s axiom used for the same.
8. What is the distance of the point (─3,4) from X-axis?
10. In the given figure if then find the value of
Section C

Question numbers 11 to 20 carry 3 marks each.


√ √
11.If = a+√35b,find the value of a and b.
√ √
12.Find the zeroes of the polynomial 3x2─7x─6.
13. If a = 9-4√4 find the value of a2+1/a2
14 Factorise: x3─8y3─36xy─216.
15. AD is an altitude of an isosceles triangle ABC in which AB=AC. Show that AD bisects BC.
16. Find the area of a triangle whose perimeter is 180 cm and two of its sides are 80 cm and
18cm. Also find the altitude of the triangle corresponding to the shortest side.
17. ABC is a triangle, in which∠B = 2 ∠C. D is a point on side BC such that AD bisects ∠BAC
and AB = CD. Prove that ∠BAC = 720
18. Prove that every line has one and only one mid-point
19. If the bisector of the vertical angle of a triangle bisects the base of the triangle, then prove
that the triangle is isosceles.
20. P is a point equidistant from two lines and m is intersecting at A. Show that the line AP
bisects the angle between them.

Section D

Question numbers 21 to 31 carry 4 marks each:


21. Represent 6 on number line.
22. If x2─3x+2 is a factor of x4─ax2+b then find the values of ‗a‘ and ‗b‘.
23. Factorise: 2x3+9x2+10x+3.
24. If p(x)=x3─ax2+bx+3 leaves a remainder ─19 when divided by (x+2) and a remainder 17
when divided by (x─2), prove that a+b=6.
25. Simplify (81/16)-3/4 [{ 25/9}-3/2 ÷{5/2}-3]
26. Give the definition of point, line and plane as given by Euclid.
27. Which points are as mirror images of the points (─3, 4), (4, ─5), (2, 3), (0, 4) in
(i) X-axis
(ii) Y-axis
28. A field is in the shape of a quadrilateral ABCD with ∠C = 900, AB = 9 cm BC = 12 cm,
CD = 5 cm and AD = 8 cm. Find the area of the field

29. In triangle PQR, PS is the angle bisector of angle P and PT is perpendicular to QR.
Show that ∠ ∠ ∠
30. In the given figure show that ∠A + ∠B + ∠C +∠D + ∠E + ∠F = 3600
31.Three bus stops situated at A, B and C in the figure are operated aby handicapped person.
These three bus stops are equidistant from each other. OC is the bisector of ∠ .
(i) Find∠
(ii) Identify the value depicted by providing employment to handicapped person
BLUEPRINT(QUESTION SA1-1)

UNIT/TOPIC 1 MARK 2 MARK 3 MARK 4 MARK TOTAL


NUMBER SYSTEM 1(1) 1(2) 2(6) 2(8) 6(17)
ALGEBRA: 1 (1) 2(4) 2(6) 3(12) 8(23)
POLYNOMIALS
GEOMETRY: 1(1) 2(4) 5(15) 4(16) 12(36)
EUCLIDS GEOMETRY
LINES AND ANGLES
TRIANGLES
CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY - 1(2) - 1(4) 2(6)
MENSURATION 1(1) - 1(3) 1(4) 3(8)
TOTAL 4(4) 6(12) 10(30) 11(44) 31(90)
MODEL QUESTION PAPER-2

Summative Assessment - 1
Subject : Mathematics Class IX
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 90
General instructions:-
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) The question paper consists of 31 questions divided into four sections – A, B, C and D.
(iii) Section A contains 4 questions of 1 mark each, which are multiple choice questions.
Section B contains 6 questions of 2 marks each. Section C contains 10 questions of
3 marks each and Section D contains 11 questions of 4 marks each.
(iv) Use of calculators is not permitted.
SECTION A
1. Find the value of ‗a‘, for which x – 1 is a factor of the polynomial
a2x3 – 4ax + 4a – 12.
2. In the following figure, find the measure of ∠DBC

E D
8x
6x 4x
3. State Playfair‘s axiom . A B C
4. Simplify (25)1/3 x (5)1/3
SECTION B
3 1
5. If = a + b√3, then find the values of a and b.
3 1
6. Find the value of k , for which the polynomial x3 – 3x2 + 3x + k has 3 as one of its zeroes
7. Factorise 8x3 – ( 2x – y )3
8. Find the remainder, when 3x3 - 6x2 + 3x – 7/9 is divided by 3x – 4
9. Sides of a triangle are in the ratio of 12: 17: 25 and its perimeter is 540 cm.
Find its area.
10. In the given figure, if AC = BD , then show that AB = CD.

. .B . .
C D
A
SECTION C
11. Simplify 8 242 - 5 50 + 3 98
12. Represent 7.6 on number line
13. Factorise x + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 – 8
3

14. A kite in the shape of a square with a diagonal 32 cm and an isosceles triangles of base 8 cm and
sides 6 cm each is to be made of three different shades as shown in the given figure. How much
paper of each shade has been used in it?

15. In which quadrant or on which axis do the following points lie?


I ) ( -4 , 0 ) ii ) ( 2 , 3 ) iii ) ( -5 , -8 )

16. In fig , if ∆ABC is equilateral and ∆BDC is isosceles right angled, then find
∠ABD
A

B C

D
17. In the given figure, if PQ PS, PQ || SR, ∠SQR = 28º and ∠QRT = 65º, then
find the values of x and y.

18. AB is a line segment and P is its mid-point. D and E are points on


the same side of AB such that ∠BAD = ∠ABE and ∠EPA = ∠DPB (See the
given figure). Show that
(i) ΔDAP ΔEBP (ii) AD = BE
19. Plot the points P ( 1 , 0 ) , Q ( 4, 0 ) and S ( 1 , 3 ). Find the coordinates of
the point R such that PQRS is a square.

20. Evaluate 993

SECTION D

52 52
21. -
52 52

1
22. If a = 2 + 3 , then find the value of a -
a

23. Factorise x3 + 13x2 + 32x + 20

24. Prove that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 1800

25. Two sides AB and BC and median AM of one triangle ABC are respectively
equal to sides PQ and QR and median PN of ΔPQR (see the given figure).
Show that
(i) ΔABM ΔPQN (ii) ΔABC ΔPQR

26. In fig, AB = AC, D is a point in the interior of ∆ABC, such that ∠DBC ∠DCB

Prove that AD bisects ∠BAC of ∆ABC. A

B C
27. In the given figure, If AB || CD, EF CD and ∠GED = 126º, find ∠AGE,
∠GEF and ∠FGE.

28. Do as directed
i) Evaluate 123 - 153 + 33
ii) Factorise 8x3 – 125y3
29. If a + b + c = 9 and ab + bc + ca = 40 , then find the value of a2 + b2 +c2

30. In the given figure, ∠X = 62º, ∠XYZ = 54º. If YO and ZO are the bisectors of
∠XYZ and ∠XZY respectively of ΔXYZ, find ∠OZY and ∠YOZ.

31. In the given figure, PR > PQ and PS bisects ∠QPR. Prove that ∠PSR >∠PSQ.
BLUEPRINT-QUESTION(SA1)-2

Topic / Unit VSA SA(1) S A (II ) LA Total

Number system 1(1) 1(2) 2(6) 2 (8) 6 ( 17 )

Algebra 1(1) 3(6) 2(6) 3 ( 12 ) 9 ( 25 )

Geometry 2(2) 1(2) 3(9) 6 ( 24 ) 12 (37 )

Mensuration * 1(2) 1 ( 3) * 2(5)


Coordinate
* 2(6) 2(6)
Geometry

Total 4(4) 6 ( 12 ) 10 ( 30 ) 11 ( 44 ) 31 ( 90 )

Note : Number of question (s ) is outside


brackets and marks inside the brackets
SAMPLEPAPERS
TERM-II
MODEL QUESTION PAPER-1

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT II

MATHEMATICS
CLASS- IX
Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum Marks : 90
General instructions:-
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) The question paper consists of 31 questions divided into four sections – A, B, C and D.
(iii) Section A contains 4 questions of 1 mark each, which are multiple choice questions.
Section B contains 6 questions of 2 marks each. Section C contains 10 questions of
3 marks each and Section D contains 11 questions of 4 marks each.
(iv) Use of calculators is not permitted.

SECTION A
[Question numbers 1 to 4 carry 1 mark each. For each of the question numbers 1 to 4, four
alternative choices have been provided, for which only one is correct. Select the correct choice.]

1. If point (3, 0) lies on the graph of the equation 2x+ 3y = k, then find the value of ‗k‘
2. In a quadrilateral three angles are in the ratio 3 : 3 : 1 and one of the angles is 800,
then determine the other three angles.
3. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and ∠CBE = 550 , ∠DEA = 600
Then find the measure of ∠ADB

4. A box has 390 bulbs. Out of this 26 are defective. A bulb is chosen at random. What is the
probability of the bulb chosen, not being defective ?
SECTION B
[Question numbers 5 to 10 carry 2 marks each.]
5. Find two different solutions for the linear equation 3x +5y = 15 and check whether (2, 3)
is the solution.
6. The auto fares in a city are as follows. For the first kilometer the fare is Rs. 12 and the
subsequent distance is Rs. 7 per km. Taking the distance covered as x km and the total fare as
Rs. y, write a linear equation
.
7. In Fig 2, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. AE is drawn parallel to CD and BA is produced up to
F. If ∠ ABC = 920 and ∠FAE = 300 . Determine ∠BCD

8. In a parallelogram, show that the angle bisectors of two adjacent angles intersect at right
angle.
9. Find the mean of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 14. If 5 is added to each observation, what will be the new
mean.
10. A die is thrown 500 times, the frequency of outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are noted in the
following frequency distribution table :

Outcome 1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency 90 70 75 95 88 82

Find the probability of getting


(i) a prime number (jj) a perfect square
SECTION C
Question numbers 11 to 20 carry 3 marks each.
11. Express the linear equation 2 = 3x in the form ax+by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b
and c. Also give the geometrical representation of above equation in two variables.
12. ABCD is a parallelogram. X and Y are mid points of BC and CD.
Prove that ar(AXY) = ar(ABCD)
13 ABCD is a rectangle in which diagonal AC bisects ∠ A as well as ∠ C .
Show that (i) ABCD is a square. (ii) Diagonal BD bisects ∠ B as well as ∠ D .
14. Show that the median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of equal areas.
15. Construct a DABC in which BC = 4.5 cm, ∠ B = 450 and AB – AC = 2.5 cm.
Justify the construction.
16. Three cubes, each of side 8 cm, are joined together side by side. Find the total surface area
of the resulting cuboid.
17. The ratio between curved surface area and total surface area of a right circular cylinder is
2 : 3. Find ratio between height and radius of cylinder.
18. In a Mathematics test given to 15 students, the following marks out of 100 are recorded :
41, 39, 48, 52, 46, 62, 54, 40, 96, 52, 98, 40, 42, 52, 60 Find the median and mode of
this data.
19. Find missing frequency p for the following distribution whose mean is 15.
x: 5 10 15 20 25
f: 6 P 6 10 5
.
20. A survey found that ages of 250 workers in a factory is distributed as follows:
Ages(in years) 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60 and above
NumberOf workers 50 35 95 55 15

If a person is selected at random, find probability that the person is:


(i) 40 years or more (ii) having age from 30 to 39 years (iii) under 60 but over 39 years.

SECTION D
Question numbers 21 to 31 carry 4 marks each.

21. The bus fare in a city is as follows.


For the first stage the fare is Rs. 7 and for each additional stage it is Rs. 2 per stage.
Taking the number of stages as 'x' and the total fare as Rs. y. Write a linear equation for this
information and draw its graph.
22. Draw the graph of 2x+3y = 5 and determine from the graph whether x = 7, y = - 3
and x = 6, y = - 1 are solutions of the given equation.
23. P is a point in the interior of a parallelogram ABCD. Show that
(i) ar (APB) + ar (PCD) = ½ ar (ABCD)
(ii) ar (APD) + ar (PBC) = ar (APB) + ar(PCD)
24. Prove that angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double the angle
subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
25. ABCD is a rectangle. P, Q, R and S are mid points of the sides AB, BC, CD and
DA respectively. Show that quadrilateral PQRS is a rhombus.
26. In given fig., PQ is the diameter of the circle. If ∠PQR = 650, ∠RPS = 250 and ∠QPT = 600
then find the measure of (i) ∠QPR (ii) ∠PRS (iii) ∠PSR (iv) ∠PQT.

27. A military tent is in the form of a right circular cone of vertical height 9 m, the diameter of
the base being 10.5m. If 18 soldiers can sleep in it, find the average cubic meters of air
space available to each soldier.
28. A dome of a building is in the form of a hemisphere. From inside, it was white-washed at
the cost of Rs. 49, 89, 600. If the cost of white-washing is Rs. 200 per square metre, find
the inside surface area of the dome and volume of the air inside the dome

29. Following a lecture on waste management, the school has decided to keep 2 dustbins in each
class, one for biodegradable and other one for non – bio degradable waste.

r = 35 cm h = 50cm l =b = 30 cm ; h= 50 cm
(a) Which bin has more capacity?
(b) By using these bins which values does the school want to instill amongst the
students?
30. Construct a ΔABC in which ∠ B = 600, ∠C = 450 and the perimeter of ΔABC is 11 cm.
31. The following table gives the daily wages of 70 workers.

Wages in rupees No Of Workers


0-50 3
50-100 18
100-150 22
150-200 14
200-250 13

. Construct a histogram for the above distribution.

BLUEPRINT(QUESTIONPAPER SA2-1)

TOPIC/UNIT VSA (1) SA-I (2) SA –II (3) LA (4) TOTAL


ALGEBRA 1(1) 4(2) 3(1) 8(2) 16(6)
GEOMETRY 2(2) 4(2) 12(4) 16(4) 34(12)
MENSURATION 1(1) - 6(2) 12(3) 19(6)
STATISTICS & 4(2) 9(3) 8(2) 21(7)
PROBABILITY
TOTAL 4 (4) 6 (12) 30(10) 44(11) 90(31)
MODEL QUESTION PAPER-2

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT- II
Maximum Marks :90 CLASS IX Time : 3 Hours
General instructions:-
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) The question paper consists of 31 questions divided into four sections – A, B, C and D.
(iii) Section A contains 4 questions of 1 mark each, which are multiple choice questions.
Section B contains 6 questions of 2 marks each. Section C contains 10 questions of
3 marks each and Section D contains 11 questions of 4 marks each.
(iv) Use of calculators is not permitted.

SECTION A
1. A straight line passing through the points (0,2) and (2,0) has equation
A .

2. In the figure ABCD is a rhombus then x =


B 35 x D

C
3. The radius of the given circle with centre O is 5 cm. If OP = 3 cm, then what is
the length of chord XY
X P Y

4. The LSA of a Cube of volume 27cm3 is

SECTION B

5. For what value of m, the linear equation 3x- my = 5 has equal values of (x, y) for its solution.

6. Check x = 5 and y = 2 is a solution of the linear equation 2x + 5y = 20

Or
Frame two equation of the form ax + by + c = 0 which passes through the point (-3, 2).

7. Two chords AB and CD are at a distance of 4cm from the centre. Is AB = CD, state True or
False and justify your answer
D C
8. If AOB is diameter and ∠ADC = 1200, find ∠CAB 120 0

A O B
9. Two Opposite angle of a parallelogram are (3x-2) and (50-x) respectively, find all the angles of
the parallelogram.

10. The following observations are arranged in ascending order and the median of the observations is
20. Find x.
10, 13, 15, x + 1, x+ 5, 30, 32, 36.

SECTION C
11. Write a linear equation in two variables to represent the following statement.
Four times cost of a table is equal to seven times the cost of the chair.
Hence find the cost of one chair and one table.

12. If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal show that it is a rectangle.

13. In the figure ABC and ABD are two triangles on the same base AB
If line segment CD is bisected by AB at O show thatar (ΔABC) = ar(ΔABD)
C

B
A O

D
.
14. O is the centre of the circle BC = OB. Prove that x = 3y.
A
B
x y
O C

15. In the figure ∠OAB = 300 AND ∠OCB = 570 find∠BOC and ∠AOC.

300
A B
570

C
16. The diameter of a road roller is 140cm and its length is 2.2m. IT takes 400 complete revolutions
to move over to level a stretch of a road 2.2m wide find the surface area of stretch of road leveled
in m2. (Take π = )

17. The radius and height of a cone are in the ratio 3:4. If its volume is 301.44 cm3. Find the radius
of the cone. ( Take π = 3.14)

18. A godownmeasures 30m x 20m x 8mfind the maximum number of wooden crates each measuring
1.2m x 0.8m x 0.5m can be stored in the godown.

19. Find the mean of the following distribution


X 5 8 11 13 17 22 25
f 3 6 14 8 9 7 3

20. A die is thrown 200 times and outcomes 1,2,3,4,5,6 have frequencies as below :

Out come 1 2 3 4 5 6
Frequency 40 38 43 29 28 22

Find the probability of the following


a. Getting 6 b. Getting an even number c. Getting a number less than
3.

SECTION D

21. Draw the graph of the linear equation . Also find the coordinates of the points were
the graph cuts the x-axis and y- axis.

22. Prove that parallelograms on the same base between the same parallels are equal in area.

23. Construct a ΔABC in which BC = 8cm ∠B = 450 and AB – AC =3.5cm.


A B
24. P is a point in the interior of a parallelogram ABCD.
(i) Prove that ar(ΔPCD) = ar(ABCD)
P
(ii) ar(ΔAPD) + ar(ΔPBC) = ar(ΔAPB) + ar(ΔPCD)
D C
25. E is the midpoint of a median AD of ΔABC and BE is produced to meet AC at F. A
6cm
Show that AF = AC. 6cm
26 O is the centre of the circle of radius 5cm. ΔABC is inscribed in the circle B C
5cm
such that AB = AC = 6CM. Find the length of BC, O
27. Prove that the Quadrilateral formed by the bisectors of a cyclic quadrilateral is also cyclic

. 28. In a village, primary school enrolment of girls has doubled this year as compared to last
year. Consider this year‘s enrolment as y, previous year‘s enrolment as x.
(i) Form a linear equation for this information
(ii) Draw a graph of linear equation
(iii) If previous year‘s enrolment was 35, then find this years enrolment
(iv) Which value is depicted here?

29. A hemispherical dome is constructed on a building at the rate of Rs.18 per m2 of the outer
curved surface area. If the total cost of construction of the dome is Rs. 1386. Find the volume
of space occupied by the dome ( Take π= )
30. A cuboidal container open at the top has length 50cm, breadth 40cm and height 30cm.. It is
made from a sheet of tin. Find the cost of the tin sheet required for making 10 such
containers if the cost of the tin sheet is Rs.20 per square meter.
31 Construct a histogram and a frequency polygon for the following data
30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 – 59
12 16 20 8 10 4

BLUEPRINT(QUESTIONPAPER SA2-II)
Sl.
Topic VSA SA1 SA2 LA Total
No.
Linear Equations
1 1(1) 2(4) 1(3) 2(8) 6(16)
In two variables

2 Quadrilaterals 1(1) 1(2) 1(3) 1(4) 4(10)

3 Area of parallelograms and triangles 1(3) 2(8) 3(11)

4 Circles 1(1) 2(4) 2(6) 2(8) 7(19)

5 Constructions 1(4) 1(4)

6 Surface Areas and Volumes 1(1) 3(9) 2(8) 6(18)

7 Statistics 1(2) 1(3) 1(4) 3(9)

8 Probability 1(3) 1(3)

Total 4(4) 6(12) 10(30) 11(44) 31(90)


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

A WORD TO THE TEACHERS

The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that
can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. More
specifically, formative assessments:
 help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work
 help faculty recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately
Formative assessments are generally low stakes, which means that they have low or no point value.
Examples of formative assessments include asking students to:
 draw a concept map in class to represent their understanding of a topic
 submit one or two sentences identifying the main point of a lecture
 turn in a research proposal for early feedback

Formative assessment is typically contrasted with summative assessment. The former supports
teachers and students in decision-making during educational and learning processes, while the latter
occurs at the end of a learning unit and determines if the content being taught was retained. Formative
assessment is not distinguished by the format of assessment, but by how the information is used. The
same test may act as either formative or summative. However, some methods of assessment are better
suited to one or the other purpose.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS -CHAPTERWISE

1. NUMBERSYSTEM:

State whether each of the following statements is true or false.


√ +1 is a rational number between 2 and 3
2.The square of an irrational number is always rational.
3.Every integer is a whole number.
4. The decimal representation of a rational number is always terminating.
5. There exists a number such that is irrational and is rational
6.Write the rational number 1.̅̅̅̅̅in the form where are integers having no common
factors (other than 1) and
7.Insert 5 rational numbers between and

8.Simplify: (a) (b)


√ √

5. If √ then prove that


2. POLYNOMIALS

1.On factorising x2 + 8x + 15, we get :

(a) (x + 3) (x – 5) (b) (x – 3) (x + 5) (c) (x + 3) (x + 5) (d) (x – 3) (x – 5)


2.The coefficient of x0 in 5x2 – 7x – 3 is :

(a) 1 (b) 5 (c) 0 (d) – 3


3.The value of x3 + y3 + 9xy – 27, if x = 3 – y is :

(a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 0 (d) cannot be determined

4. Find the remainder when 4x3 – 3x2 + 2x – 4 is divided by x + 2.

5.Give an example of a polynomial which is :

(i) monomial of degree 1 (ii) binomial of degree 20

6. Factorise : a3(b – c)3 + b3(c – a)3 + c3(a – b)3.


7.Using factor theorem, factorise the polynomial : x4 + 3x3 + 2x2– 3x – 3.
8.Find the values of a and b so that (x + 1) and (x – 1) are factors of x4 + ax3 – 3x2 + 2x + b.

3.COORDINATE GEOMETRY

MCQ
1. The perpendicular bisector of a line segment AB passes through the origin. If the co-
ordinates of A are (–2, 0), the co-ordinates of B are :
(a) (0, 2) (b) (2, 0) (c) (0, –2) (d) (–2, 0)
2.The point (0, 10) lies on :
(a) +ve x-axis (b) –ve x-axis (c) +ve y-axis (d) –ve y-axis
3. Which of the following points lies on the y-axis ?
(a) (2, 0) (b) (0, – 4) (c) (5, – 1) (d) (– 4, 0)
4.A point both of whose co-ordinates are negative will lie in :
(a) I quadrant (b) II quadrant (c) III quadrant (d) IV quadrant
5.Points (1, –1), (2, –2), (4, –5), (–3, –4):
(a) lie in II quadrant (b) lie in III quadrant
(c) lie in IV quadrant (d) do not lie in the same quadrant

Short answer type


1. The perpendicular distance of a point from the x-axis is 6 and that from y-axis is 2. What
may be the co-ordinates of the point?
2. Plot the following points on a graph paper.
(i) A 5, 0) (ii) B (2, 3) (iii) C (8, -1) (iv) D ( 3, – 4)
3. Plot the points (–2, 0) and (3, –4) in the coordinate plane and draw the line through them.
4.Plot the points A (3, 0), B (3, 3) and C (0, 3) in a cartesian plane. Join OA, AB, BC and
CO. Name the figure so formed and write one of its property.
5. On the co-ordinate axes, draw a triangle PQR whose vertices are P(1, – 6), Q (7, 4)
and R (–4, 4).
Long answer type
1. Observe the figure and answer the following
(a) coordinates of B
(b) point identified by the coordinates (–2, –3)
(c) abscissa of point D
(d) ordinate of point H
(e) points with the same abscissa
(f) points with the same ordinate

2. Plot the points A (6, 6), B (4, 4), C (–1, –1) in the cartesian plane and show that the points
are collinear.
3. Plot the points A (1,0), B (4, 0), s (1, 3) in the cartesian plane . Find the coordinates of R so
that PQRS is a square

4. INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID’S GEOMETRY


1. Write true or false.
1. The things which are three times of the same thing are equal to one another.
2. ― For every line and for every point P not lying on , there exists a unique line m passing
through P and parallel to ‖ is known as Play fair‘s axiom.
3. Euclidean geometry is valid only for curved surfaces.
2. In figure, line is parallel to line . Prove that a line which is perpendicular to line at A is also
perpendicular to the line at B.

3.In figure C is the mid-point of the line segment AB.

D and E are mid-points of the line segments AC and BC respectively.


Prove that (i) AB =4 AD (ii) AB = 4 BE
4. In figure X and Y are the mid-points of AB and BC respectively.

a. If AB = BC, prove that BX = By


b. If BX = BY, prove that AB = BC

5.LINES AND ANGLES:


MCQ
1. One-third of an angle is equal to its supplement. The measure of this angle is :
(a) 45° (b) 60° (c) 75° (d) 135°
2. If two interior angles on the same side of a transversal intersecting two parallel
lines are in the ratio 2 : 3, then the greater of the two angles is :
(a) 54° (b) 108° (c) 120° (d) 136°
3. If all the three sides of a triangle are produced, then the sum of three exterior
angles so formed is equal to :
(a) 180° (b) 360° (c) 540° (d) 270°
4. 50% of an angle is the supplement of 110°. The value of the angle is :
(a) 35° (b) 125° (c) 109° (d) 140°
5.The sum of the bisectors of the angles of a linear pair is always :
(a) less than 90° (b) greater than 90°
(c) equal to 90° (d) none of these

Assignment

1. Two supplementary angles are in the ratio 2: 7. Find the angles


2. The difference of two complementary angles is 500. Find the angles
3.Find the size of each of the angles marked with letters in the diagram below:
4 . The diagram shows a triangle on top of a trapezium. Find the size of each of the
angles marked with letters in the diagram below

ORAL
1. If two supplementary angles are equal , then what is its measure?
2. What is the complement of 620?
3. What is the sum of the three exterior angles of a triangle?
4. Define a linear pair?
5. Do every pair of supplementary angles form linear pair?

6. TRIANGLES:
MCQ
1. In a ΔABC, if ∠A = 45° and ∠C = 60°, then the shortest side of the triangle is :
(a) AB (b) AC (c) BC (d) none of these
2. Which of the following is not a criterion for congruence of triangles ?
(a)SAS (b) ASA (c) SSA (d) SSS

3. In a ΔABC, the measure of each base angle is 55°. If AB = 5 cm, then the length of side AC is equal to
:
(a) 10 cm (b) 8 cm (c) 5 cm (d) 2.5 cm
SHORT ANSWER

4. Is it possible to construct a triangle with lengths of its sides as 8 cm, 9 cm, and 2 cm,? Give reason for
your answer.
5. In a ΔDEF, if ∠D = 30°, ∠E = 60°, then which side of the triangle is longest and which side is
shortest?
6. In the figure, D is the mid-point of base BC, DE and DF are perpendiculars to AB and AC respectively

such that DE = DF. Prove that ∠B = ∠C.

7. In the figure, AB = AC and ∠1 = ∠2. Prove that ∠PBC = ∠PCB.

8. In the figure, two lines AB and CD intersect each other at O such that BC || DA and BC = DA. Show
that O is the mid-point of both the line segments AB and CD.ABCO

7. HERON’S FORMULA:
MCQ
1. The length of the side of a rhombus is 30 cm and one of its diagonals is 48 cm
long. Area of the rhombus is :
(a) 432 cm2 (b) 864 cm2 (c) 300 cm2 (d) 216 cm2
2. If each side of an equilateral triangle is halved, then the ratio of the area of newtriangle to the area of
the original triangle is :
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 4 (c) 4 : 1 (d) 2 : 1

3.The sides of a triangle are in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5. If the perimeter of the triangle is 84 cm, then area of
the triangle is :
(a) 294 cm2 (b) 290 cm2 (c) 274 cm2 (d) 252 cm2

Short answer type questions

1. An isosceles right triangle has area 32cm2. Find its hypotenuse.


2. Find the rea of a triangle of sides 18cm , 24cm and 30cm.
3. Find the area of a quadrilateral PQRS in which PQ = 6cm , QR = 8cm, PS = 10cm and PR = 10cm
4.The sides of a triangular plot are in the ratio of 3 : 5 : 7 and its perimeter is 300 m. Find its area.

ORAL QUESTIONS

1. What is a scalene triangle?


2. What is the name of a triangle with two equal sides?
3. What is meant by semi perimeter?
4. How do we use Heron‘s formula for finding area of a quadrilateral?
5. State Heron‘s formula.

LONG ANSWER TYPE

1. An isosceles triangle has a perimeter 30cm and each of its equal sides is 12cm . Find its area
2. The perimeter of a rhombus is 40cm . If one of its diagonals is 16cm , find its Area.
3.Sides of a triangle are in the ratio of 12 : 17 : 25 and its perimeter is 540cm.Find its area.
4. Two parallel sides of a trapezium are 60cm and 77cm and the other sides are 25cm and 26cm. Find
the area of the trapezium
5. A triangle and a parallelogram have the same base and the same area. If the sides of the triangle are
26 cm, 28 cm and 30 cm, and the parallelogram stands on the base 28 cm, find the height of the
parallelogram.

8.LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES:


1. Write true or false
a. The points (5,0), ( ,0) and (0,6) lie on the
b. Every point on the graph of a linear equation in two variables does not represent a solution of the
linear equation.
c. The ordinate of every point on the axis is 0.
d. The equation represents a line parallel to axis.
2. Write the equation in the form and indicate the values of a, b and c
3. Find the value of k if ( is a solution of(c)
4. Find the solution of the equation and represent them geometrically on
(a) Number line (b) Cartesian plane
5. Draw the graph of the equation . At what points do the line meets the x-axis andy-axis
6. ― The cost of 5 tables exceeds the cost of 3 chairs by Rs.150. Write the linear equation in two variables
to represent this statement. Also find the cost of one table if cost of one chair is Rs.250.
9. QUDRILATERALS:

1. Prove that line segment joining the mid-points of diagonals of a trapezium is parallel to each of
the parallel sides and is equal to half the difference of these sides.
2. (a) Show that the bisectors of the angles of a parallelogram form a rectangle.
(a) In figure AX and CY are respectively the bisectors of the opposite angles A and C of a
parallelogram ABCD. Show that AX CY

3. ABCD is an isosceles trapezium whose parallel sides AD and BC measures 10 cm 25 cm and if


AB=DC =15 cm. Find the area of the trapezium.
B 25 cm C
15 cm 15 cm
A D
10 cm
4. A park is in the shape of a quadrilateral ABCD having right angled at C, AB = 9 m, BC = 12 m,
CD = 5 m and AD = 8 m. How much area the quadrilateral region occupy ?
5. In the adjoining figure ,AD and BE are medians of a triangle ABC and BE‖DF, where F is any
point on EC. Prove that CF = AC.

6. ABCD is a rhombus and AB is produced to E and F such that AE = AB = BF. Prove that ED and
FC are perpendicular to each other.
7. ABCD is a parallelogram and E is the mid-point of side BC. DE and AB on producing meet at F.
Prove that AF = 2 AB.

8. In the figure,ABCD is a trapezium in which AB‖DC. P and Q are the mid-points of AD and BC
respectively. DQ and AB when produced meet at E. prove that

(a) DQ = QE
(b) AR = CR
(c) PR‖AB

10. AREA OF PARALLELOGRAM:


1.Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 24 cm and 18 cm. If the distance between the longersides is
12 cm, then the distance between the shorter sides is :
(a) 18 cm (b) 16 cm (c) 9 cm (d) none of these
2.ABC is an isosceles triangle with each equal side 5 cm, perimeter 18 cm and height AD = 7 cm. Then,
the area of the triangle ABC
(a) 30 cm2 (b) 28 cm2 (c) 14 cm2 (d) 36 cm2
3.In the figure, the area of parallelogram ABCD is :
(a) AB × BM (b) BC × BN (c) DC × DL (d) AD × DL
4.In the figure, LM =3/4QR , LM || QR and distance
between LM and QR is 3 cm. If length of QR = 6 cm, find the area of LQRM.

5.The area of a parallelogram ABCD is 40 sq. cm. If X be the mid point of AD, find area of ΔAXB.
6..Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AD || CD intersect each other at O. Prove that
ar (ΔAOD) = ar (ΔBOC).
11.CIRCLES:

1. In the given figure, O is the centre of the circle. If OA = 5 cm and OC = 3 cm,


then find the length of AB .
2. If one side of a cyclic quadrilateral is produced, then the exterior angle is
equal to its ---
3. In given fig, AB//DC. If ∟A= 500, then what is the measure of ∟ABC is : (1)

4. How many circles can pass through two given points?

5. . In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and ∠AOC = 130°.


Then find∠ADC

.
6. Show that diameter of a circle is the greatest chord.
7. Prove that a cyclic parallelogram is a rectangle.

8. P is the centre of the circle. Prove that ∠XPZ = 2 [∠XYZ + ∠XZY].


9. Prove that - Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre.
OR
In the figure ∟ABC = 69 and ∟ACB= 310, then find ∟BDC.
0

10. Prove that : The angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle
subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle
OR
A circular park of radius 20m is situated in a colony. Three boys Ankur, Syed and
David are sitting at equal distance on its boundary each having a toy telephone in
his hands to talk each other. Find the length of the string of each phone.

2.CONSTRUCTIONS

1.The construction of a triangle ABC in which AB = 4 cm, ∠A = 60° is not possible when
difference of BC and AC is equal to :
(a) 3.5 cm (b) 4.5 cm (c) 3 cm (d) 2.5 cm
2.Draw a line segement AB and by ruler and compass, obtain a line segment of length ¾ ofAB.
3..Draw an obtuse angle. Bisect it. Measure each of the angles obtained.
4.. Construct a triangle ABC in which BC = 7 cm, ∠B = 75° and AB + AC = 13 cm.
5.Construct a triangle ABC in which AB = 5.8 cm BC + CA = 8.4 cm and ∠B = 60°.
6.Construct a ΔABC in which ∠B = 30° and ∠C = 90° and the perimeter of the triangle is 11 cm.
7.Construct a triangle ABC such that AB = BC = 6 cm and median AD = 4 cm.
13.SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES:

1. A cuboid has an edge of length 6 cm The combined length of all of its edges
is equal to
(a) 36 cm (b) 60 cm (c) 72 cm (d) 48 cm
2. In a cylinder, if radius is halved and height is doubled, the volume will be :
(a) same (b) doubled (c) halved (d) four times
3. The length of the longest pole that can be put in a room of dimensions
10 m × 10 m × 5m. is : (a) 15 m b) 16 m (c) 10 m (d) 12 m
4. Height of a cone is 12 cm and its base diameter is 10 cm. Its slant height is :
(a) 12.5 cm (b) 13 cm (b) 15 cm (d) 17 cm
5. Find the volume of a conical tin having radius of the base as 30 cm and its slant
height as 50 cm.
6.A godown measures 30m ×25m× 8m, Find the maximum number of wooden
crates each measuring 2m × 1.25m × 0.4m that can be stored in the godown?
7. Find the amount of water displaced by a solid spherical ball of diameter 28 cm.

8. A rectangular sheet of paper 66 cm × 20 cm is rolled along its length to form


a cylinder. Find the radius and volume of the cylinder
9. An open cylindrical vessel has base diameter 14 cm and height 21 cm. Find the cost of tin plating its
inner surface area at the rate of Rs 3 per 10 cm2
OR

A hemispherical dome of a building needs to bepainted. If the circumference of the base of the domeis
17.6 m, find the cost of painting it, given the costof
painting is Rs 5 per 100 cm2
10.Rain water which falls on a flat rectangular surface of length 6 m and breadth 4 m is transferred into a
cylindrical vessel of internal radius 20 cm.What will be the height of water in the cylindrical vessel,if the
rainfall is 1 cm?
(OR)
A patient in a hospital is given soup daily in a cylindrical bowl of diameter 7 cm. If the bowl is filled with
soup to a height of 4 cm, how much soup the hospital has to prepare daily to serve 250 patients?)

14.STATISTICS

1. Find the range of the data : 25.7, 16.3, 2.8, 21.7, 24.3, 22.7, 24.9
2. In the class intervals 10-20, 20-30, in which class the number 20 is included ?
3. What is the class mark of the class 90-120 ?
4. Find the mode of the data 15, 14, 19, 20, 14, 15, 16, 14,15, 18, 14, 19, 15, 17, 15.

5. The mean of 10, 12, 18, 13, x and 17 is 15. Find the value of x

6. Find the median of the following data : 15, 35, 18, 27, 19, 23, 29, 20, 28

7. For what value of x the mode of the following data is 15 ?


15, 16, 17, 13, 17, 16, 15, x + 10, 14, 17, 16, 15
.
8. The marks obtained by 40 students of calss IX in an examination are given below :
18, 8, 12, 6, 8, 16, 12, 5, 23, 2, 16, 23, 2, 10, 20,12, 9, 7, 6, 5, 3, 5,
13, 21, 13, 15, 20, 24, 1, 7, 21,16, 13, 18, 23, 7, 3, 18, 17, 16.
Present the data in the form of a frequency distribution table of the same class size, one
such class being 15–20. (where 20 is not included.)
9. Find the mean of the following distribution :
x 4 6 9 10 15
f 5 10 10 7 8
10. The following is the distribution of weights (in kg) of 50 persons
Weights(in kg) Number Of Persons
50-55 12
55-60 10
60-65 9
65-70 7
70-75 5
75-80 7
Draw a histogram for the above data.
15. PROBABILITY:
ORAL:
1 What is meant by a random experiment?
2 List the possible outcomes when a coin is tossed
3 Is the experimental probability of an event the same as its theoretical probability
4 What is the maximum value of probability?
5 Can -3 be the probability of an event ?
ASSIGNMENT:
1 The weekly pocket expenses of students are given in the following table :

Find the probability that the weekly pocket money of a student is :


(a) Rs 159 (b) more than Rs 159 (c) less than Rs 159
2. 1500 families with 2 children were selected randomly, and the following data were recorded

Number of girls in a family 2 1 0


Number of families 475 814 211
Compute the probability of a family, chosen at random, having
(i) 2 girls (ii) 1 girl (iii) No girl. Also check whether the sum of these probabilities is 1.
3. The following frequency distribution table gives the weights of 38 students of a class.

Weight in Kg Number of Students


30-35 10
35-40 5
40-45 15
45-50 5
50-55 1
55-60 2
TOTAL 38

Find the probability that the weight of a student is


(i) more than or equal to 45 kg.(ii) less than 30 kg.(iii) more than or equal to 30 kg but less than 60kg
4. The records of a weather station shows that out of the 250 consecutive days, its weather forecast
were correct 175 times.
(i) What is the probability that on a given day it was correct?
(ii) What is the probability that it was not correct on a given day?
5. In a survey of 200 people, it was found that 142 read newspapers daily and rest
read newspapers occasionally. Find the probability that a person chosen at
random : (i) reads newspaper daily. (ii) reads newspaper occasionally

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TIPS AND TECHNIQUES TO SCORE BETTER

Strategies to achieve 100% quality result in Mathematics

 Early identification of students as bright average and slow learners in Maths.


 Categorize the students in to learning groups.
 Provide frequently asked questions from previous year‘s question papers from CBSE to the slow
learners.
 Slip tests for different concepts needs to be introduced for slow learners.
 They must be encouraged to practice a few problems each day.
 Parents of slow learners may be guided to supervise their wards during their study hours at home.
 During remedial classes, choose frequently asked questions that carry more weightage and
explain them again. Guide students to solve them on their own.
 List our questions to achieve minimum level of learning and give sufficient number of questions
based on them. Conduct class tests frequently.
 List out common questions and give practice.
 Provide at least three question papers for practice.
 Conduct question wise analysis and find out which questions are not attempted by most of the
students.
 Give clarity to difficult concepts.
 Repeat the concepts areas where most of the students make mistakes.
 List out important formulae and theorem. Prepare a ready reckoner.
 Give a question paper for practice at home. After two days, take a test on the same question
paper. This will make the students learn a few more concepts and help them gain confidence in
answering questions.
 Encourage peer learning.
 Give 90% questions from the prescribed text books as they are.
 Guide bright learners to help the slow learners.
 Provide concept wise HOTS and questions to the bright students.
 High achievers must be guided to identify the mistakes they commit in the school level
examinations.
 Help them identify the common mistakes and rectify them.
 Plan structured revision for SA2 after SA 1.
 Conduct study camps for slow learners
 Adoption of slow learners for day to day observation and follow up.
 Ensure evaluation at par with board evaluation.
 Explain the difficulties faced by the students with their parents and seek their cooperation and
guidance.
 Arrangement of need based time table for board exams.
 Ensure attendance of slow learners during the revision.

Teacher as a facilitator

 Positive attitude towards weak students.


 Provide individual assistance to slow learners.
 Reasonable remarks on written work of weak students.
 Keep enough patience to listen weak students.
 Prepare a structured plan for revision and improvement of performance.
 Maintain proper rapport between teacher and students.
Reasons ForLow scoring

 Question papers attended incomplete.


 Long answers for fewer marks and vice versa.
 Slow/poor writing.
 Lack of comprehension of fundamental concepts.
 Lack of interest and concentration.
 No supporting figures and diagrams
 No systematic representation.
 Lack of daily practice.
 Low memory retention and grasping ability.
 Low motivational level.
 Procrastination of works related to Maths.
 Unhealthy friendships.
 Easy going attitude.
 Poor social economic and educational back ground of parents

Some guidelines that help in identifying gifted students:

 Extensive vocabulary
 Difficulty with written expression
 Ability to understand complex ideas
 Easily frustrated
 Wide area of interest
 Highly sensitive
 Creative
 Stubborn and opinionated
 Specific areas of strength
 Highly developed sense of humour
 Curious and inquisitive

Objectives

i) Develop higher order and creative thinking abilities.


ii) Provide diverse learning experiences
iii) Develop students‘ gifts and talents.
How are the students selected?
Giftedness in a student is commonly characterized by an advanced pace of learning, quality of
thinking or capability for remarkably high standards of performance compared with students of the
same age.
Common Symptoms of Gifted Children
 Learn quickly and readily.
 Recall facts and basic concepts easily but may become frustrated.
and bored if learning pace is too slow
 Have a broad general knowledge.
 Think quickly with advanced understanding.
 Make sense of patterns and relationships
 Reason analytically and critically in complex ways.
 Use advanced vocabulary and express ideas clearly and fluently
 Leaders - take responsibility for self and others
 Curious about how and why things work
 Put unrelated ideas together in new and different ways.
 Strong imagination
 Show a capacity to be independent and self-sufficient
 Kids who ‗bubble up‘ - keen to learn are creative

Other programs

Debating
Chess Club
Science Fair
Leadership camps
Literacy Olympads
Maths/Science/Technology Competitions

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TIPS AND TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

TEACHING TIPS- AN EYE OPENER TO THE TEACHERS

 Keep a positive attitude.


 Make sure the child understands the assignment.
 Explore math in your day to day routines.
 Explain math as a way to solve problems.
 Get the kids talking.
 Make math fun.Computers make useful tools.
 Parents and teachers should maintain communication.

DOING WITH FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT:

Questioning Strategies:

The art of teaching is based on effective questioning strategies. Asking good questions is an informative
process that needs development, refinement, and practice. Teaching through questioning is interactive and
engages students by providing them with opportunities to share their thinking. The classroom should be a
community of collaborative learners whose voices and ideas are valued. In order to obtain more
information from students during classroom discourse, we need to develop an open-ended questioning
technique and use a more inquiring form of response, encouraging students to defend or explain both
correct and incorrect responses. Here is an example of closed and open questioning for the same situation:
Closed—What unit should be used to measure this room? (limiting), Open—How could we measure the
length of this room? What choices of units do we have? Why would some units seem more appropriate
than others? (probing—encourages students to think about several related ideas) Good questioning
involves responding to students in a manner that helps them think and lets you see what they are
thinking.

Response techniques

Response techniques involve:

 Waiting: Time is a critical component. An immediate judgment of a response stops any further

pondering or reflection on the part of the students.

 Requesting a rationale for answers and or solutions: Students will ultimately accept this procedure as

an expected norm.

 Eliciting alternative ideas and approaches

 Posing questions and tasks that elicit, engage, and challenge each student's thinking;

 Asking students to justify their ideas orally and in writing: Questioning The questions posed in

mathematics classrooms are often low order, recall type questions that result inlow levels of
intellectual quality. To shift to a higher level of thinking, questions that foster deeper knowledge and

access deeper understandings are required.

Levels of Questioning

 Category 1: Questions focus on helping students work together to make sense of mathematics. "Do
you agree? Disagree?" "Does anyone have the same answer but a different way to explain it?"
Category 2: Contains questions that help students rely more on themselves to determine whether
something is mathematically correct. "Does that make sense?" "What model shows that?"
Category 3: Questions seek to help students learn to reason mathematically. "Does that always
work?" "How could we prove that?"
Category 4:Questions focus on helping students learn to conjecture, invent, and solve problems.
"What would happen if...?" "What would happen if not...?" "What pattern do you see?"
 Category 5:Questions relate to helping students connect mathematics, its ideas, and its applications.
"Have we solved a problem that is similar to this one?" "How does this relate to ...?" Through
modeling of investigative questioning, the teacher should help students learn to conjecture, invent,
and solve problems.

QAR: Question Answer Relationships

The QAR strategy was designed to enable students to understand where basic mathematical concepts
apply to the real world and how they connect to more sophisticated mathematical concepts. This strategy
begins with "Right There Questions" which are based on information that is right there in the problem.
"Think and Search Questions" require students to identify relationships among the givens and the
unknowns and require students to perform calculations using them. "Author and You Questions" provide
an extension of basic concepts used in "Think and Search." The three types of questions all require
students to become aware of the different kinds of information provided in the story problem that they can
use to answer the different kinds of questions. Finally, students learn to answer "On Your Own
Questions." They are taught how to identify prior knowledge or additional information needed to solve
the problem.

SOME IMPORTANT TIPS

i) What can a teacher do in the mathematics classroom with a student who has difficulty with
reading mathematics problems?
The task for the teacher in the mathematics classroom is to teach the student to read the particular text
under consideration. Provide an orientation Students who have difficulty with reading find it hard to
establish a context for a particular text, predict its grammatical structure, predict the meaning of the text
and anticipate words that are likely to occur within it. To assist these students, the teacher can provide an
orientation to the text before they read the problem. The aim of the orientation is to make the students
aware of: 1. the story in which the problem is embedded, 2. the context of the problem, 3. unusual
language, likely to cause difficulties for the students, 4. mathematical words in the text of the problem.
'This is a problem about a girl who goes on a canoe trip on the Murray River' is a possible orientation to
this problem, providing a context to it and enabling students to access unusual words that might be a
stumbling block. It is important that teachers do not read out the problem for the students, that they do not
simplify the language of the problem or present an orientation that provides too much guidance to solve
the problem.

ii) What can a teacher do in the mathematics classroom with a student who has difficulty with
comprehending mathematics problems?

Focus on language features Students need to be familiar with a range of mathematical texts and
understand the language, features and grammar of these texts. For example, knowing that what needs to
be worked out often appears as a question at the end of the problem may assist students to read and
understand the problem. Discuss cloze passages while being of limited benefit when attempted
individually, Cloze passages can be used for a guided discussion, in which students identify how different
words change the meaning of a problem. To be able to maintain meaning while reading a text, a student
needs to be able to read over 90% of it, therefore blanking out more than 10% of the words in a Cloze
passage turns it into an illegible text for many students. This means that in a problem such as the one
quoted above, no more than three words should be blanked out. Generally, the blanked out words should
be prepositions and conjunctions, rather than nouns, as they have a greater effect on the meaning of the
text.

iii) What can a teacher do in the mathematics classroom with a student who has difficulty with
transforming mathematics problems?

Focus on solving problems: Teachers can build the ability of students to transform mathematical texts
into mathematical processes by creating classrooms where learning to read mathematics problems occurs
frequently and where solving problems is the focus of mathematics lessons.

Teach students to represent problems: Through discussion, a class could identify that some effective
ways of representing the above problem would be to act it out, to draw a table or to draw a series of
pictures. Different groups of students could solve the problem using one of these representations and
present their solutions to the class, for discussion.

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ANNEXURES-Embedded Files:
LIST OF ANNEXURES CHAPTERWISE:

ANNEXURE1: NUMBER SYSTEM


Software Linked/embedded Documents

1 VUE 1. Introduction to Number system


2. Notes on Natural Numbers, Whole Numbers and Integers
3. Definition of Rational Numbers
4. Definition of Irrational Numbers
5. Decimal Expansion of Rational Numbers
6. Decimal Expansion of Irrational Numbers
7. Definition of Real Numbers
8. Rational Numbers on number line
9. Irrational Numbers on number line
10. Rationalization
11. Operations on Real Numbers
12. Laws of Exponents

2 PPT Number System


3 Videos Representing an irrational nuber on the number line

ANNEXURE 2 : POLYNOMIAL
SLNO SOFTWARE Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1.Polynomial –definition
2.Zeroes of a polynomial
3.Kinds –constant
4.Linear
5.Quadratic
6.Cubic
7.Remainder Theorem
8. Factor Theorem
9.summary
2 PPT 1.Ppt on polynomial and factoring
2.Ppt on polynomial

ANNEXURE 3 : COORDINATE GEOMETRY


SL.NO SOFTWARE Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1. Cartesian system
2. coordinates of origin
3.Descarte
4. points in a coordinate system
5. Plotting points
2 PPT 1.COORDINATE GEOMETRY ( IX ) ppt
ANNEXURE 4 :- LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
Si No. Software Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1. Introduction of Linear Equations in Two
variables
2. Linear equations in one variable
3. Linear equations in two variables
4. Solution of linear equation in one variable
5. Solution of linear equations in two variables
6. Graph of linear equations in two variables
7. Conversion of linear equation in the standard form
8. Equation of X-axis and Y-axis
9. Equation of lines parallel to X-axis and
Y-axis.
10. Geometrical representation of solution
(i) on number line
(ii) on Cartesian plane
2 PPT 1.Linear Equations in two variables
3 Videos 1.Linear Equations in Two Variables

ANNEXURE 5:- INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID‘ GEOMETRY


Si No. Software Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1. Introduction to Geometry
2. Euclid‘ Axioms
3. Sriyantra
4. Euclid‘s definitions
5. Euclid‘s postulates
6. Undefined terms
7. Equivalent version of Euclid‘s 5th postulate
1.Introduction To Euclid‘ Geometry
2 PPT 1. Introduction
3. Videos 2.Euclids elements
3.Euclides five Postulates
4. Euclides 5th postulate

ANNEXURE 6: LINES AND ANGLES


SL.NO SOFTW Linked/embedded Documents
ARE
1. VUE 1 Introduction
2 Basic terms
3 Angles
4 pairs of angles
5 Intersecting lines
6 Parallel lines
7 Properties
8 Conditions
9 Vertically opposite angles
10 Angle sum property of atriangle
11 Summary
2 PPT 1.Lines and Angles
ANNEXURE : 7 TRIANGLES
SLNO SOFTWARE Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1.Congruence
2.ASACongruence criteria
3.SASCongruence criteria
4.properties of triangles-TRIANGLE INEQUALITY
5.MORE CRITERIA
6.SSS Congruence criteria
7.AAS Congruence criteria
8.RHSCongruence criteria
9.summary
2 PPT 1.congruence of triangles

ANNEXURE 8: QUADRILATERALS
Sl. No. Soft ware Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1. Introduction to Quadrilaterals
2. Angle sum property of Quadrilaterals
3. Types of Quadrilaterals
(a) Parallelogram
(b) Rectangle
© Rhombus
(d) Square
(e) Trapezium
(f) Kite
4. Mid- Point Theorem
5. Converse of Mid-Point Theorem
6. Another condition for a quadrilateral to be aparallelogram

2. PPT 1.Quadrilaterals

ANNEXURE : 9 AREAS OF PARALLELOGRAMS AND TRIANGLES


SLNO SOFTWARE Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1.Area-definition
2.Area of parallelogram=base x height
3.Area of triangle=1/2 base x height
4.Proof of theorem-Area of parallelograms on the same base and between
the same parallel are equal in area.
5.Proof of theorem-triangles on the same base and between the same
parallels are equal in area
6.Median of a triangle divides into two triangles of equal area
7.summary
2 PPT 1.Area of parallelogram
ANNEXURE10: CIRCLES
Sl. No Software Linked/embedded Documents
1. VUE 1. Definition
2. Centre & radius
3. Chords
4. Arcs
5. Segment
6. Cyclic Quadrilateral
7. Perpendicular from centre to a chord
8. Angie subtended by arc of a circle
9. Theorems on Chords, Arcs & Cyclic Quadrilateral
2. PPT 1.Circle
3. Visuals 1.Angles-subtended-by-Arc-of-a-Circle
2.Properties-of-Chords-of-a-Circle

ANNEXURE 11 :CONSTRUCTIONS
Sl.No software Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1. Construction meaning
2. Construction of bisector
3. Construction of perpendicular bisector
4. Construction of triangle when sum of sides is given
5. Construction of triangle when difference of sides is given
6. Construction of triangle when perimeter of sides and base angles are given
2 PPT 1.ppt on construction of triangles

ANNEXURE 12 HERON‘S FORMULA


SL.NO SOFTWARE Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1 Heron
2 Heron‘s formula
3 Example
4 Area of equilateral triangle
5 Application of Heron‘s formula
2 PPT 1.Heron‘s formula
ANNEXURE13: SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME
Sl. No Software Linked/embedded Documents
. VUE 1. Cuboid-image
2. Cube - image
3. Right circular cylinder- image
4. Right circular cone- image
5. Sphere-image
6. Hemi-sphere-image
7. Lateral surface area of cuboid-note
8. Total surface area of cuboid.doc
9. Lateral surface area of cube-note
10. Total surface area of cube.doc
11. Curved surface Area of cylinder.doc
12. Total surface area of cylinder.doc
13. Curved surface Area of cone.doc
14. Total surface area of cone.doc
15. Volume of a cone- you tube link
16. Volume of a sphere-you tube link
17. Surface area of hemi sphere-note
2. PPT 1.Surface Area of Solids
3. Videos 1.Surface Area of Cuboid & Cube
2.Volume of a Cone_ Experiment 2
3. Volume of a Sphere_experiment 2
4.Volume of a cuboid

ANNEXURE14: STATISTICS
Sl. No Software Linked/embedded Documents
1. VUE 1. Statistics-definition-Note
2. Data-note
3. Measures of Central Tendency-note
4. Mean-note
5. Median-image
6. Mode-Note
7. Presentation of Data.doc
8. Frequency Distribution-note
9. Grouped Frequency Distribution.doc
10. Ungrouped Frequency Distribution.doc
11. Bar graph.doc
12. Histogram.doc
13. Frequency Polygon.doc.
2. PPT 1. PPT 1_Statistics.pptx
2. PPT 1_Statistics.pptx
ANNEXURE 15: PROBABILITY
SL.NO SOFTWARE Linked/embedded Documents
1 VUE 1 Introduction
2 What is probability?
3 Terminology
4 Random experiment
5 Probability of an event

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