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Seminar Report On

Superconductivity & It’s Applications

Session 2018 - 2019

A Seminar Report

Submitted to

Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (M. H.)
In partial fulfillment of awarding the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

Supervised by Submitted by
Prof. Pawar P.B. Nale Ganesh Dattu
Roll no -24
Exam seat no -

Department of Electrical Engineering
S. B. Patil College of Engineering, Indapur

S. B. Patil College of Engineering, Indapur
Department of Electrical Engineering

Session 2018 -2019

This is to certify that the seminar entitled

Superconductivity & It’s Applications

Submitted by

Nale Ganesh Dattu, Roll no-(24)

is a bonafide work carried out by students under the supervision of
Prof. Pawar.P.B. and it is submitted towards the partial fulfillment
of the requirement of Bachelor of Engineering in Department of
Electrical Engineering

Prof. Pawar P.B. Prof. Deokar T.V. Prof. Karpe S.R.
Guide Coordinator HOD
Dept. of Electrical Engg. Dept. of Electrical Engg. Dept. of Electrical Engg.

Dr. P.D. Nemade
S.B.Patil College of Engineering, Indapur

Date of submission :-

S. B. Patil College of Engineering, Indapur
Department of Electrical Engineering

Session 2018 - 2019


This is to certify that seminar works entitled
“Superconductivity & It’s Applications ”
Is successfully completed by

Nale Ganesh Dattu, Roll no-(24)
Department of Electrical Engineering

Prof. Pawar P.B. Prof. Deokar T.V. Prof. Karpe S.R.
Guide Coordinator HOD
Dept. of Electrical Engg. Dept. of Electrical Engg. Dept. of Electrical Engg.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am greatly indebted forever to my guide Prof. ideas. his enthusiasm for exploring new areas. His infectious cheerfulness. I sincerely thank Dr. I hope to keep in touch with his amazing mentor and friend. without whose patience.D.B. P. our family members and friends.R. valuable advice and confidence in me. S. Patil College of Engineering. Behind the freedom he gave. Nemade. Pawar P. He gave me complete freedom to pursue all my interests and also provided so many exciting directions to explore. there is his strong belief that the best work is done.Patil College of Engineering. what helped me a lot was his passionate approach to research. In addition to his technical powers. Indapur for their continuous encouragement and active interest in my progress that they gave throughout the work. attitude of dealing with challenges. Name of Candidate. our parent. Nale Ganesh Dattu ( Roll no -24 ) . Principal. Indapur for his continuous encouragement. Finally.B. his intrepidity in attacking important hard problems. His openness to my decisions and confidence in my abilities made me reach much higher goals than I could have imagined. Proud to be his student. Karpe S. S. and support this seminar work might never have been completed. support. Head of Electrical Engineering Department.B. and patience with random door-knocks would dissolve the worst of the stress. and Prof. encouragement. His advice of simultaneously working on a variety of problems ensured that work never became boring. and his emphasis on bold imagination and creativity. most constructive suggestions.

Superconductors and superconducting materials are metals. sound. vehicle. Even near absolute zero. . High-performance smart grid. electric motors. or other energy forms. maglev trains and magnetic devices. The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as temperature is lowered. power storage devices. a real sample of a normal conductor shows some resistance. ceramics. ABSTRACT Superconductivity was discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8. and hence release no heat. electric power transmission. 1911 in Leiden. organic materials. transformers. In ordinary conductors. this decrease is limited by impurities and other defects. Superconducting materials can transport electrons with no resistance. Superconductors are used to make digital circuits. such as copper or silver. Super conductor is the material having almost zero resistivity and behaves as diamagnetic below the super conducting transition temperature. or heavily doped semiconductors that conduct electricity without resistance.

1.3.3. Electrical resistivity 1 1.1. Superconducting cables 4 1. LITERATURE SURVEY 9 2.4.5. Zero electrical DC resistance 13 3. Literature Survey 9 3.1. HTS Cable Configurations 6 1.1.8. Conductivity 1 1.11. Classification of superconductor 2 1. Critical Temperature for Superconductors 12 3.1.4. Superconductor material 1 1.10. Superconducting phase transition 14 .1.6. Elementary properties of superconductors 4 1. Type I Superconductors 3 1. High-Voltage Dielectric Issues in a Cryogenic Environment 8 2. CONSTRUCTION & WORKING 11 3.2.2. Fault-current limiters 6 1.4.3.INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Introduction 1 1. Type II Superconductors 3 1. Definition of superconductivity 1 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A ABSTRACT B TABLES OF CONTENTS C LIST OF FIGURES D 1.2. Superconducting Transformer Components 7 Superconductivity 11 3. Superconductivity 1 1.

8. Superconducting cables 5 Figure 3: Superconducting Transformer 8 Figure 4: Critical Temperature for Superconductors 12 Figure 5 Superconducting phase transition 14 Figure 6: Meissner effect 16 Figure 7: Magnet levitating above a superconductor cooled by liquid nitrogen 20 . Advantages 21 4. 3.. Meissner effect 16 3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 21 4.1. Applications 23 6. High-temperature superconductivity 19 3.6.9. Critical temperature of a superconducting element range 20 4. APPLICATIONS 23 5. Conclusion 24 7. Disadvantages 22 5. London theory 18 3.7. London moment 18 3. CONCLUSION 24 6.1. REFERENCES 25 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Types I and II Superconductors 2 Figure 2:.1.2.5.

Electrical. a real sample of a normal conductor shows some resistance.2. or organic superconductors (carbon nanotubes).1. Introduction :- 1. alloys (such as niobium-titanium. Superconductor material: . Even near absolute zero.Superconductor material classes include chemical elements (e. Ionic. this decrease is limited by impurities and other defects.2. Definition of superconductivity:.1. Conductivity: . The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as temperature is lowered. 1911 in Leiden.g. and niobium nitride).The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as temperature is lowered. a real sample of a normal conductor shows some resistance. such as copper or silver. such as copper or silver. Ex. the complete ejection of magnetic field lines from the interior of the superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting state. It is characterized by the Meissner effect. Superconductivity:- It was discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8.Electrical conductivity a measure of a material's ability to conduct an electric current. 1. 1. this decrease is limited by impurities and other defects. ceramics (magnesium dioxide). Electrical resistivity: . called superconductors.1. the resistance drops abruptly to zero when the material is cooled SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 1 . superconductivity is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. germanium-niobium. The occurrence of the Meissner effect indicates that superconductivity cannot be understood simply as the idealization of perfect conductivity in classical physics.Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials. Even near absolute zero. In ordinary conductors. 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1. when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. In ordinary conductors.1. In a superconductor. mercury or lead). SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS CHAPTER .3.1.4. Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines.1. 1. Hydraulic & Thermal conductivity.

quality and high- reliability electric power. which mainly result in voltage dips. utilities have considered approaches that would provide different options or levels of premium power for those customers who require something more than what the bulk power system can provide. and super conduction at higher temperatures than this facilitates many experiments and applications that are less practical at lower temperatures. As commercial and industrial customers become more and more reliant on high. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS below its critical temperature. it was discovered that some cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials have a critical temperature above 90 K (−183 °C). An electric current flowing through a loop of superconducting wire can persist indefinitely with no power source In 1986. harmonics.3. Insufficient power quality can be caused by failures and switching operations in the network. Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K.1 Types I and II Superconductors SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 2 . 1. Classification of superconductor:- Fig-1.[2] Such a high transition temperature is theoretically impossible for a conventional superconductor. and phase imbalance. and transients and network disturbances from loads that mainly result in flicker (fast voltage variations). interruptions. leading the materials to be termed high-temperature superconductors.

silver. Besides being mechanically harder than Type I superconductors.4. maintaining the superconducting state to higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The superconductivity exists only below their critical temperatures and below a critical magnetic field strength. they exhibit much higher critical magnetic fields. the Type I superconductors have been of limited practical usefulness because the critical magnetic fields are so small and the superconducting state disappears suddenly at that temperature. Type II Superconductors:- Superconductors made from alloys are called Type II superconductors. and a critical magnetic field above which superconductivity ceases. The identifying characteristics are zero electrical resistivity below a critical temperature. This is SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 3 . Type I Superconductors :- The 27 pure metals listed in the table below are called Type I superconductors. a number of alloys were found which exhibited superconductivity. zero internal magnetic field (Meissner effect). they are called Type II superconductors. They are called Type I superconductors.5. Type I superconductors are well described by the BCS theory. the best conductors at room temperature (gold. 1. Remarkably. so their behavior correlates well with the BCS Theory. The superconductivity in Type I superconductors is modeled well by the BCS theory which relies upon electron pairs coupled by lattice vibration interactions. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS There are thirty pure metals which exhibit zero resistivity at low temperatures and have the property of excluding magnetic fields from the interior of the superconductor (Meissner effect). Type II superconductors such as niobium-titanium (NbTi) are used in the construction of high field superconducting magnets. While instructive for understanding superconductivity. Type I superconductors are sometimes called "soft" superconductors while the Type II are "hard". Type-II superconductors usually exist in a mixed state of normal and superconducting regions. They were found to have much higher critical fields and therefore could carry much higher current densities while remaining in the superconducting state. The variations on barium-copper-oxide ceramics which achieved the superconducting state at much higher temperatures are often just referred to as high temperature superconductors and form a class of their own. Starting in 1930 with lead-bismuth alloys. 1. and copper) do not become superconducting at all. They have the smallest lattice vibrations.

10 Superconducting cables:- Growth in electric power demand quadrupled in the United States and Europe from the end of World War II to 1965. However. The 1973 oil embargo heightened concerns for secure energy sources and secure power distribution systems. For instance. including superconducting power cables. However. NY. plus the advent of practical LTSs stimulated the development of underground power cables capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts of electrical power. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors in 1986 sparked renewed interest in many applications of superconductivity. and thus possesses certain distinguishing properties which are largely independent of microscopic details. the need for high-power cables evaporated as did funding for the various superconducting cable programs. On the other hand. the material costs for HTS-based cables are significantly higher than LTS-based cables and the HTS materials are more difficult to make in a form suitable for power cables. HTS cables have significantly lower refrigeration SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 4 . and the rise of the environmental movement resulted in new restrictions on power generation and transmission. Refrigeration requirements for the LTS materials in these cables demanded the high power levels to achieve efficient operation. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS sometimes called a vortex state. and critical current density at which superconductivity is destroyed. critical field. all superconductors have exactly zero resistivity to low applied currents when there is no magnetic field present or if the applied field does not exceed a critical value. 1. The existence of these "universal" properties implies that superconductivity is a thermodynamic phase. Today. in 1986. because vortices of superconducting currents surround filaments or cores of normal material. Elementary properties of superconductors:- Most of the physical properties of superconductors vary from material to material. In combination. there is a class of properties that are independent of the underlying material. This. and the former Soviet Union. and for the foreseeable future. 1. One of these programs included high-voltage tests of a 200-m-long ac line at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. these factors led to several major programs on superconducting power cables in the United States. Long Island. as oil prices dropped and the growth rate of the electric power grid decreased.6. such as the heat capacity and the critical temperature. Europe.

HTS cables are more efficient than a conventional cable. radiated stray electromagnetic fields. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS needs. Different cable architectures have important effects in terms of efficiency.2 Superconducting cables 1. These cables (and transmission lines) are designed to operate at a fixed voltage and the rms current changes to accommodate power delivery needs.11 HTS Cable Configurations:- A number of HTS cable designs have been developed to take advantage of the benefits of superconductivity. Further. there are two principal classes of HTS ac power cables under development. Besides having lower losses. while minimizing the additional capital and operating costs that result from the material and refrigeration requirements. This characteristic allows superconducting cables to carry several times as much power in a given envelope (duct) than a conventional cable. Fig-1. One ac cable design is SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 5 . and the lower cost of the refrigerator partially offsets the higher cable cost. Most power cables are underground and are installed in special ducts for protection and maintenance. and reactive power requirements. At present. if one treats the energy required to maintain a superconducting cable at its operating temperature as a loss term. superconductors can carry more current than conventional conductors of the same cross section.

are subjected to larger and larger fault currents. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS based on a single conductor. The result is a reduction of the effective system impedance and generally greater power flow. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 6 . an increase of the internal impedance of each element would help. In principle. all components. thus. however. the number of power stations. and interconnections on the existing system increase. it has a lower inductance. Of course it is not reasonable to replace the older network elements to deal with higher fault currents. thereby limiting the short-circuit current to a reasonable value. and very little radiated electromagnetic fields. All components of the network must be designed to withstand the mechanical and thermal loads of such high currents. For higher voltages. Liquid nitrogen coolant may contact both layers. as the power system expands. Since the voltage is fixed. even if they are of very short duration. Ideally. other means of limiting the short-circuit currents are needed. It is commonly referred to as a cold dielectric design. This is not desirable. a higher current carrying capacity. other grid components. it also allows larger fault currents. where the switching arc provides that function. with HTS wires stranded The second cable design employs two concentric layers of HTS wire separated by a cold dielectric. Compared to the warm dielectric design. existing and new. Electric utilities would like to implement a protection system capable of operation at transmission voltages. Today the electric utilities’ ability to control fault currents is limited to relatively low-voltage systems.12 Fault-current limiters:- Faults in transmission and distribution networks cause short-circuit currents that typically reach 10 to 20 times the rated current. Both the cold and warm dielectric designs can be implemented in three-phase systems. reduced ac losses. Thus. this FCL would operate passively and would return to its normal operational mode immediately after the fault clears. because fluctuating loads would cause greater feedback and the stability of the grid might decrease. 1. providing both cooling and dielectric insulation between the center conductor layer and the outer shield layer. however. As electrification expands. It would have a small internal resistance during normal operation but develop a high impedance within a very short time when a fault occurs. the utilities typically operate with special switchgear and design all components to withstand the fault current in the time before the circuit is opened.

For example. such as the iron core. Though there are no resistive losses in the superconducting coils. and the high-voltage bushings. The losses in a conventional transformer are roughly half in the iron core (hysteresis) and half in the conductor. such as the HTS coils. However. The structure and the insulation may be an integrated structure. Others. The primary and secondary windings of the HTS transformerconsistof:1)superconducting wires or tapes and usually a co wound normal conductor for high surge currents. Conventional bushings capable of sealing against vacuum can bemuse opened trade the transformer tank wallet ambient temperature. Since the HTS transformer is smaller. This will have a significant effect on refrigeration requirements during overload (see the discussion on losses below). but modified leads to the cooled HTS windings are required to handle the cryogenic conditions and are optimized to minimize heat leak to the cold mass. the iron core is smaller and its losses are reduced. are unique to the HTS transformer. Detailed analyses looking at the various tradeoffs are required to determine the optimum coil geometry. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS 1. the thermal insulation systems. and 3) high-voltage insulation. there are. there is a lower leakage reactance due to the higher magnetic fields within the HTS windings. and the conductors that make the transition from a memento operating temperature. The HTS windings can be designed to function under overload condition so that at least two times design current can be carried without transitioning to the normal state. ac losses that must be removed by a cryogenic refrigerator. are comparable to those of a conventional transformer. 2) a support structure. this avoids the serious lifetime degradation observed in conventional transformers where temperature increases during even brief overloads cause damage to insulation. the refrigerator. however. There are other impacts of the use of superconductors. the structural tank. the iron core must be thermally isolated from the coils and the cryogenic refrigeration system so that none of its hysteresis losses appear as a cryogenic load. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 7 . However.13 Superconducting Transformer Components:- A schematic of an HTS transformer indicating the various components is Some components.

3 Superconducting Transformer 1. those with low out gassing properties.This produces as oil single-phase coil set and is used in the 5 10 MVA WES/SP/ORNL HTS transformers. The phase sets for this was to wind HTS tapes on a supporting glass epoxy (G10/FR4) structure. is eliminated from consideration. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 8 . The cryogens the mselves. The choice of polymers is limited to those that can tolerate the high thermal shrinkages experienced under cryogenic conditions and. in the case of vacuum operation. can operate as the dielectric standoff. but issues with bubble formation and surface flashover must be addressed. These conditions limit the selection of dielectric materials. one is confronted with the requirement to operate in a cryogenic and depending upon design.14 High-Voltage Dielectric Issues in a Cryogenic Environment:- In addition to the standard dielectric issues that occur in all transformers. the dielectric material of choice in conventional transformers. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS Fig-1. Local dielectric standoff was provided in the windings using Nom ex and/or Kapton insulation. vacuum environment. steady progress has been made in developing viable high-voltage insulation systems for cryogenic . such as LN. Oil. The coils were finally vacuum impregnated with low-viscosity epoxy to assure there were no voids that would produce high local electric fields. While these issues may seem daunting.

Since the voltage is fixed. [2] M. The LTS designs operated at 10 K. N. accomplished with the cooperative funding of EPRI and DOE. as the power system expands. Nassi. Ladie. even if they are of very short duration. They are much less complex. whereas the HTS cables can operate near the normal boiling point of liquid nitrogen.1 Literature Survey:- J. The system SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 9 . have lower capital costs. other grid components. about 77 K. however. P. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS CHAPTER . This program was initiated to prove all of the technologies necessary for commercial production of HTS cables and to verify designs for cable and accessory components in a prototype installation. are subjected to larger and larger fault currents. all components. and interconnections on the existing system increase. the number of power stations. Thus. and are easier and less expensive to maintain than the multistage refrigerators needed for the LTS cables. Kelley. these are designed Qualification results of a 50 m–115 kV warm dielectric cable system N initial step toward making available HTS cable systems for the utility industry was a laboratory demonstration of a 11 5 kV I 2000 A ac cable system by Pirelli Cable Corporation. Lue et al. The result is a reduction of the effective system impedance and generally greater power flow. it also allows larger fault currents. [1] J.Willis.2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.O. Most cooling schemes for HTS cables use a simple refrigerator for liquid nitrogen in a closed cycle loop. Superconducting transmission cables is discussed in the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) in 1986-1988 rekindled interest in superconducting power transmission cables. All components of the network must be designed to withstand the mechanical and thermal loads of such high currents. is discussed in the Fault current tests of a 5-m HTS cable Faults in transmission and distribution networks cause short-circuit currents that typically reach 10 to 20 times the rated current. The major difference between the HTS cables and the earlier low-temperature superconductivity (LTS) cables is the operating temperature. As electrification expands. are more reliable. W. existing and new.

To study the principle behavior of such a transformer. & H. [5] SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 10 . the authors as a first step designed.. can be maintained. The feed must often be classified according to particle size and fed as a monolayer in dry industrial processes. Deflection-type separators may be very selective when equilibrium conditions s between magnetic forces and Com- petting forces. e.Schmidt these are Development of high-temperature superconducting transformers for railway applications we describe the high- temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer project run by Siemens.5 kV/1. This unit already has the full ratings of a commercial transformer in many respects. Forces which are constant across the separation channel. After this was successfully tested. power range. call for strong no uniform fields to be separated. 2-limb core with horizontal orientation. Schlosser. [3] W. for instance mass forces. nominal voltage. V. 5. constructed and tested a nominal single-phase transformer 100 kVA. 25 kV/1. paramagnetic. Moreover. The project started in October 1996 and ended in September 2001.datory. [4] R. 50 Hz. Hassenzahl. Strict specifications are required when the magnetic proper.4 kV. The aim of the project was to show the future prospects for superconducting railway transformers.ties of the particles to be separated differ only mode. e. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS included 50 m prototype cable fabricated using industrial equipment with techniques suited for the manufacture of long-length commercial systems.1 kV. a multiple pass may often be man.rarely. two secondary windings and an impedance of 25% at nominal current.g. Further innovative features are transposed conductor and a closed cooling cycle with sub-cooled nitrogen. 50 Hz.g. analyses the Superconducting magnetic energy storage weakly magnetic particles. we started the design and construction of a single-phase transformer 1 MVA.

The fact that the resistance is zero has been demonstrated by sustaining currents in superconducting lead rings for many years with no measurable reduction. but superconducting rings had exhibited a decay constant of over a billion years! One of the properties of a superconductor is that it will exclude magnetic fields.4 K Tin 3. and Robert Schrieffer in what is commonly called the BCS theory.1 K.7 K Mercury 4.3 K La-Ba-Cu-oxide 17.2 Lead 7.3 CONSTRUCTION & WORKING 3. An induced current in an ordinary metal ring would decay rapidly from the dissipation of ordinary resistance. Leon Cooper. Material Tc Gallium 1. Kammerlingh Onnes in 1911 was followed by the observation of other metals which exhibit zero resistivity below a certain critical temperature.2 K Niobium 9.9 K Y-Ba-Cu-oxide 92 K Tl-Ba-Cu-oxide 125 K SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 11 .1K Aluminum 1. A new era in the study of superconductivity began in 1986 with the discovery of high critical temperature superconductors. it loses all electric resistance. a phenomenon called the Meissner effect. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS CHAPTER .2 K Indium 3. The disappearance of electrical resistivity was modeled in terms of electron pairing in the crystal lattice by John Bardeen.1 Superconductivity:- If mercury is cooled below 4. This discovery of superconductivity by H.

2 Critical Temperature for Superconductors:- The critical temperature for superconductors is the temperature at which the electrical resistivity of a metal drops to zero. Several materials exhibit superconducting phase transitions at low temperatures. The transition is so sudden and complete that it appears to be a transition to a different phase of matter. The highest critical temperature was about 23 K until the discovery in 1986 of some high temperature superconductors. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS 3. Materials with critical temperatures in the range 120 K have received a great deal of attention because they can be maintained in the superconducting state with liquid nitrogen (77 K).1 Critical Temperature for Superconductors SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 12 . Fig-3. this superconducting phase is described by the BCS theory.

an electric current may be visualized as a fluid of electrons moving across a heavy ionic lattice.000 years. The Cooper pair fluid is thus a superfluid. the electronic fluid cannot be resolved into individual electrons. Due to quantum mechanics. The resistance of the sample is given by Ohm's law as R = V / I. including all known high-temperature superconductors.3 Zero electrical DC resistance:- massive and slim cables are rated for 12. If the voltage is zero. Theoretical estimates for the lifetime of a persistent current can exceed the estimated lifetime of the universe. As a result. given by kT. which may be caused by the electric current. the fluid will not be scattered by the lattice. Experiments have demonstrated that currents in superconducting coils can persist for years without any measurable degradation. Experimental evidence points to a current lifetime of at least 100. Therefore. it consists of bound pairs of electrons known as Cooper pairs. Superconductors are also able to maintain a current with no applied voltage whatsoever. In a normal conductor. the energy carried by the current is constantly being dissipated.500 A. This is the phenomenon of electrical resistance. a property exploited in superconducting electromagnets such as those found in MRI machines. where k is Boltzmann's constant and T is the temperature. bottom: superconductor-based cables for the LHC The simplest method to measure the electrical resistance of a sample of some material is to place it in an electrical circuit in series with a current source I and measure the resulting voltage V across the sample. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS 3. This pairing is caused by an attractive force between electrons from the exchange of phonons. Top: conventional cables for LEP. this means that the resistance is zero. which is essentially the vibrational kinetic energy of the lattice ions. and during each collision some of the energy carried by the current is absorbed by the lattice and converted into heat. In a conventional superconductor. The electrons are constantly colliding with the ions in the lattice. if ΔE is larger than the thermal energy of the lattice. the energy spectrum of this Cooper pair fluid possesses an energy gap. meaning it can flow without energy dissipation. meaning there is a minimum amount of energy ΔE that must be supplied in order to excite the fluid. This is due SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 13 . In a class of superconductors known as type II superconductors. Instead. depending on the wire geometry and the temperature. The situation is different in a superconductor. an extremely small amount of resistivity appears at temperatures not too far below the nominal superconducting transition when an electric current is applied in conjunction with a strong magnetic field.

Conventional superconductors usually have critical temperatures ranging from around 20 K to less than 1 K. and the resistivity vanishes. for example. the vortices are stationary. has a critical temperature of 4. The resistance due to this effect is tiny compared with that of non-superconducting materials. these vortices can become frozen into a disordered but stationary phase known as a "vortex glass". which dissipates some of the energy carried by the current. If the current is sufficiently small. the characteristics of superconductivity appear when the temperature T is lowered below a critical temperature Tc. Solid mercury. the resistance of the material becomes truly zero. The value of this critical temperature varies from material to material. 3. However.2 K. but must be taken into account in sensitive experiments.2 Superconducting phase transition Behavior of heat capacity (CV. the highest critical temperature found for a conventional superconductor is 39 K for magnesium diboride (MgB2). SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS to the motion of magnetic vortices in the electronic superfluid. Below this vortex glass transition temperature.4 Superconducting phase transition:- Fig-3. as the temperature decreases far enough below the nominal superconducting transition. blue) and resistivity (ρ. although this material displays enough exotic properties SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 14 . As of 2009. green) at the superconducting phase transition In superconducting materials.

The onset of superconductivity is accompanied by abrupt changes in various physical properties. However in the presence of an external magnetic field there is latent heat. one of the first cup rate superconductors to be discovered. but it does not explain superconductivity in the newer superconductors that have a very high critical temperature. because the superconducting phase has lower entropy below the critical temperature than the normal phase. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS that there is some doubt about classifying it as a "conventional" superconductor. the electronic heat capacity is proportional to the temperature in the normal (non-superconducting) regime. The order of the superconducting phase transition was long a matter of debate. and mercury-based cup rates have been found with critical temperatures in excess of 130 K. has a critical temperature of 92 K. It has been experimentally demonstrated that. At the superconducting transition. Cup rates superconductors can have much higher critical temperatures: YBa2Cu3O7. This is because the Gibbs free energy of the superconducting phase increases quadratic ally with the magnetic field while the free energy of the normal phase is roughly independent of the magnetic field. Experiments indicate that the transition is second-order. If the material super conducts in the absence of a field. meaning there is no latent heat. For example. a higher temperature and a stronger magnetic field lead to a smaller fraction of the electrons in the superconducting band and consequently a longer London penetration depth of external magnetic fields and currents. More generally. Electron pairing due to phonon exchanges explains superconductivity in conventional superconductors. At low temperatures. This exponential behavior is one of the pieces of evidence for the existence of the energy gap. as a SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 15 . which is the hallmark of a phase transition. Similarly. it varies instead as e−α/T for some constant. then the superconducting phase free energy is lower than that of the normal phase and so for some finite value of the magnetic field (proportional to the square root of the difference of the free energies at zero magnetic field) the two free energies will be equal and a phase transition to the normal phase will occur. α. The penetration depth becomes infinite at the phase transition. superconducting materials cease to superconductor when an external magnetic field is applied which is greater than the critical magnetic field. at a fixed temperature below the critical temperature. The explanation for these high critical temperatures remains unknown. it suffers a discontinuous jump and thereafter ceases to be linear.

characterized by a parameter λ. 3. Calculations in the 1970s suggested that it may actually be weakly first order due to the effect of long-range fluctuations in the electromagnetic field. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS consequence.3 Meissner effect When a superconductor is placed in a weak external magnetic field H. the magnetic field is ejected. in which the vortex lines of the superconductor play a major role. In the 1980s it was shown theoretically with the help of a disorder field theory. decaying exponentially to zero within the bulk of the material. and cooled below its transition temperature. For most superconductors. The results were strongly supported by Monte Carlo computer simulations..e. the resulting phase transition leads to a decrease in the temperature of the superconducting material. latent heat) within the type I regime. The Meissner effect is a defining characteristic of superconductivity. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 16 . the London penetration depth is on the order of 100 nm. The Meissner effect does not cause the field to be completely ejected but instead the field penetrates the superconductor but only to a very small distance. called the London penetration depth.5 Meissner effect:- Fig-3. when the magnetic field is increased beyond the critical field. and that the two regions are separated by a tri critical point. that the transition is of second order within the type II regime and of first order (i.

sometimes called flux ones because the flux carried by these vortices is quantized. except niobium and SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 17 . raising the applied field past a critical value Hc1 leads to a mixed state (also known as the vortex state) in which an increasing amount of magnetic flux penetrates the material. which we would not expect based on Lenz's law. when a changing magnetic field is applied to a conductor. superconductivity is abruptly destroyed when the strength of the applied field rises above a critical value Hc. The Meissner state breaks down when the applied magnetic field is too large. it will induce an electric current in the conductor that creates an opposing magnetic field. predicts that the magnetic field in a superconductor decays exponentially from whatever value it possesses at the surface. but there remains no resistance to the flow of electric current as long as the current is not too large. we would observe the abrupt expulsion of the internal magnetic field. one may obtain an intermediate state[9] consisting of a baroque pattern[10] of regions of normal material carrying a magnetic field mixed with regions of superconducting material containing no field. and the resulting magnetic field exactly cancels the applied field. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS The Meissner effect is sometimes confused with the kind of diamagnetism one would expect in a perfect electrical conductor: according to Lenz's law. The Meissner effect is distinct from this—it is the spontaneous expulsion which occurs during transition to superconductivity. which is known as the London equation. At second critical field strength Hc2. Depending on the geometry of the sample. containing a constant internal magnetic field. In Type I superconductors. In Type II superconductors. This equation. an arbitrarily large current can be induced. superconductivity is destroyed. When the material is cooled below the critical temperature. In a perfect conductor. The Meissner effect was given a phenomenological explanation by the brothers Fritz and Heinz London. Suppose we have a material in its normal state. A superconductor with little or no magnetic field within it is said to be in the Meissner state. who showed that the electromagnetic free energy in a superconductor is minimized provided where H is the magnetic field and λ is the London penetration depth. Superconductors can be divided into two classes according to how this breakdown occurs. Most pure elemental superconductors. The mixed state is actually caused by vortices in the electronic superfluid.

the London moment. This experiment measured the magnetic fields of four superconducting gyroscopes to determine their spin axes. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS carbon nanotubes. It was put forward by the brothers Fritz and Heinz London in 1935. 3. This was critical to the experiment since it is one of the few ways to accurately determine the spin axis of an otherwise featureless sphere. are Type I. was put to good use in Gravity Probe B. There are two London equations:- The first equation follows from Newton's second law for superconducting electrons. one can obtain the dependence of the magnetic field inside the superconductor on the distance to the surface. a spinning superconductor generates a magnetic field. wherein a material exponentially expels all internal magnetic fields as it crosses the superconducting threshold. while almost all impure and compound superconductors are Type II.7 London theory:- The first phenomenological theory of superconductivity was London theory. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 18 . The effect. shortly after the discovery that magnetic fields are expelled from superconductors. precisely aligned with the spin axis.6 London moment:- Conversely. 3. By using the London equation. A major triumph of the equations of this theory is their ability to explain the Meissner effect.

which had a transition temperature of 35 K (Nobel Prize in Physics. an iron-based family of high-temperature superconductors was discovered. the highest temperature superconductor was a ceramic material consisting of mercury.e. (77 K. of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. physicists had believed that BCS theory forbade superconductivity at temperatures above about 30 K. barium. Many other cup rate superconductors have since been discovered. -273 C) to liquid nitrogen temp. The latter experiment (138 K) still awaits experimental confirmation. Hideo Hosono. their electrical resistance drops with a jump down to zero. This temperature jump is particularly significant. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 19 . SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS 3. This can be important commercially because liquid nitrogen can be produced relatively cheaply. replacing the lanthanum in LaO1−xFxFeAs with samarium leads to superconductors that work at 55 K. an oxypnictide that super conducts below 26 K. replacing liquid helium. and the theory of superconductivity in these materials is one of the major outstanding challenges of theoretical condensed matter physics. It was soon found that replacing the lanthanum with yttrium (i. There are currently two main hypotheses – the resonating-valence-bond theory.. In that year. The temperature at which electrical resistance is zero is called the critical temperature. copper and oxygen (HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ) with Tc = 133–138 K. calcium. In February 2008. avoiding some of the problems (such as so-called "solid air" plugs) which arise when liquid helium is used in piping.8 High-temperature superconductivity:- Until 1986. and spin fluctuation which has the most support in the research community. Since about 1993. even on- site. The second hypothesis proposed that electron pairing in high-temperature superconductors is mediated by short-range spin waves known as paramagnets. since it allows liquid nitrogen as a refrigerant. and colleagues found lanthanum oxygen fluorine iron arsenide (LaO1-xFxFeAs). 1987). Ranging from near abs. Superconductivity is a phenomenon observed in several metals and ceramic materials cooled to temp. -196 C). making YBCO) raised the critical temperature to 92 K. Bednorz and Müller discovered superconductivity in a lanthanum-based cup rate proves kite material. however. zero (0 K.

SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 20 .15 C Fig-3.- Sr.4 Magnet levitating above a superconductor cooled by liquid nitrogen.15 3 Niobium tin ( nb3al ) 7.9 Critical temperature of a super conducting element is in the range of 0k to 9.5 4 Niobium titanium (nbti) 10 Kelvin = -272.40 2 Mercury(hg) 4. Element Critical no temperature (kelvin) 1 Indium(in) 3. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS 3.5k.

The electric power grid is among the greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 21 . A superconducting power system occupies less real estate and is buried in the ground. Such frequencies are very difficult to achieve with semiconductor-based circuitry. However. MRI machines are superior to x-ray technology in producing a diagnosis." underlying the significance of MRI. the north American blackout of 2003. or MRI. is very useful for improving the efficiency and reliability of cell phones.1 Advantages:- 1. Transforming the Electricity Grid: . Improving Wide-Band Telecommunication: . MRI scanners.One of the first large-scale applications of superconductivity is in medical diagnosis. Superconductor technology provides loss-less wires and cables and improves the reliability and efficiency of the power grid. Aiding Medical Diagnosis:. and by implication superconductors. "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging. Plans are underway to replace by 2030 the present power grid with a superconducting power grid.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 4. Demand. The machine eventually produces an image. however. or RSFQ. uses powerful superconducting magnets to produce large and uniform magnetic fields inside the patient's body. affected over 50 million persons and caused about $6 billion in economic loss.Wide-band telecommunications technology. Magnetic resonance imaging. is about to overwhelm it. integrated circuit receiver. 3. It operates with the aid of a 4- kelvin cry cooler. which lasted about four days. For example. pick up how these magnetic fields are reflected by organs in the body. quite different from present day grid lines. which operates best at gigahertz frequencies. Paul Leuterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield were awarded the 2003 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine. they have been easily achieved by Hyeres’s superconductor-based receiver. 2. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS CHAPTER . using a technology called rapid single flux quantum. This technology is showing up in many cell phone receiver transmitter towers. which contain liquid helium refrigeration system. to medicine.

Loss of power is less than other storage method. Keeping them below that temperature involves a lot of expensive cryogenic technology. Superconducting materials superconductor only when kept below a given temperature called the transition temperature. Very high power is available almost instantaneously.2 Disadvantages:- 1. 6. 5. 7. 4. For presently known practical superconductors. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS 4. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 22 . Zero resistance. the temperature is much below 77 Kelvin. Zero loss in electrical systems. superconductors still do not show up in most everyday electronics. Scientists are working on designing superconductors that can operate at room temperature. AC current will not work effectively with superconductors. the temperature of liquid nitrogen. 2. Thus.

However. transformers. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS CHAPTER .g.g. the most sensitive magnetometers known. power storage devices 6) Electric motors (e. They can also be used for magnetic separation. where weakly magnetic particles are extracted from a background of less or non- magnetic particles. mass spectrometers. 2) Superconductors have been used to make digital circuits based on rapid single flux quantum technology and RF and microwave filters for mobile phone base stations. SQUIDs are used in scanning SQUID microscopes and magneto encephalography. as in v ac trains or maglev trains) 7) Magnetic levitation devices 8) Superconducting magnetic refrigeration. They are used in MRI/NMR machines. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 23 . transformers) will be more difficult to develop than those that rely upon direct current. superconductivity is sensitive to moving magnetic fields so applications that use alternating current (e.5 APPLICATIONS 1) Superconducting magnets are some of the most powerful electromagnets known. and the beam-steering magnets used in particle accelerators. 3) Superconductors are used to build Josephson junctions which are the building blocks of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices). 4) High-performance smart grid 5) Electric power transmission. as in the pigment industries. for vehicle propulsion.

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS CHAPTER . Keeping them below that temperature involves a lot of expensive cryogenic technology.6 CONCLUSION For presently known practical superconductors. the temperature of liquid nitrogen. power & transportation. Scientists are working on designing superconductors that can operate at room temperature. the temperature is much below 77 kelvin. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 24 . Such an invention can truly revolutionize the modern world of electronics. Further R&D is in progress to synthesize new materials which might attain superconductivity at even room temperatures.

Superconductor. ―Design & development of a 15 kV.. Hassenzahl. 1785–1788. 11. 10–14. IEEE. vol. 2001. Aug. 9. David J. Corsato. Ladie.‖ IEEE Trans. Appl. Rev. pp. Lue et al. A. Superconduct. 11. Mar. 878–890. Mar. vol. June 2003. vol. ―Superconducting transmission cables. P. 1089–1098. Appl. Superconduct.‖ IEEE Trans. 2001. Elect.. SBPCOE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAGE 25 . V. 2000. Schlosser. 10. Meinert. H. Nassi. O. and D. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY & IT’S APPLICATIONS References 1. ―Superconducting magnetic energy storage.‖ Proc. ―Fault current tests of a 5-m HTS cable. Leghissa.‖ IEEE Power Eng.. Insulation. Mar. Schmidt. pp. 6. Dialect. R. pp.‖ IEEE Trans. CRC Press. 8. Coletta. E. 1983. Dec. 2. 71. NUCLEAR PHYSICS. 10. Sept. ‖IEEE Trans. and M. Appl. 4. 2000. ―Potential of cryogenic liquids for future power equipment insulation in the medium high voltage range. Müller (1986). W. 2355–2358. Willis. 2325–2330. Appl. P. vol. pp. 7. von Dollen. 2002. Bednorz and K. J. pp. M. ―Qualification results of a 50 m–115 kV warm dielectric cable system. SQUIDS. vol. G. 20 kA HTS fault current limiter. "Possible high Tc superconductivity in the Ba−La−Cu−O system". pp. J.. Callaway (1990).‖ IEEE Trans. 5.. "On the remarkable structure of the superconducting intermediate state". vol. N. Gerhold. Superconductor. 13. M. 20. J. John C. pp. E. W. 3.. ―Development of high- temperature superconducting transformers for railway applications. 832–835. Gallop.. Leung et al. the Josephson Effects and Superconducting Electronics. G. vol. 9. Kelley. J.