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18
Concept
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Table Of Contents
Chapter Topic Page
No. No.
1. Ratio & Mixtures 1
2. Partnership 18
3. Mixtures and Alligation 24
4. Ratio Online Assignment 01 35
1
1.2 Important Properties
2
antecedent and the consequent are
multiplied by the same number ( 0).
The ratio obtained on account of
multiplying both the antecedent and
the consequent by the same number is
known as an equivalent ratio.
If two different ratios, a : b and c : d are
expressed in different units, then the
two are compounded to obtain a
combined ratio.
Compounding of a : b and c : d yields
ac
.
bd
3
: 5 and the ratio of the number of working
hours per day is 5 : 4. Compounding these
two
The ratio of the time taken by A and B is
3 5 15
= =3:4
5 4 20
a c e
If = = , then each of these ratios
b d f
ace
is equal to
bd f
= (Invertendo)
a c b d
If = , then
b d a c
= (Alterendo)
a c a b
If = , then
b d c d
a b cd
(Componendo)
a c
If = , then =
b d b d
a b cd
(Dividendo)
a c
If = , then =
b d b d
a c a b cd
If = , then = ,
b d a b cd
(Componendodividendo)
1.3 Proportion
4
Definition:
If the ratio of two terms is equal to the ratio
of two other terms, then these four terms are
said to be in proportion.
if a : b = c : d, then
a c
=
b d
By cross multiplication, we get ad = bc.
In other words, the product of the means (b,
c) is equal to the product of the extremes (a,
d)
Continued Proportion:
Four numbers a, b, c and d are said to be in
proportion
5
ifa : b = c : d.
If on the other hand, a : b = b : c = c : d, then
the four numbers are said to be in continued
proportion.
Important Results
Let us take the first two ratios a:b = b:c.
Here b is called the mean proportional
and is equal to the square root of the
product of a and c
b2 = a cb = ac
6
multiplying these three ratios
a a b c
=
d b c d
If a, b, c and d are four terms and the
ratios a : b, b : c, c : d are known, then
one can find the ratio a : b : c : d
Illustration: If a : b = 1 : 2; b : c = 3 : 4; c : d = 5
: 6, then the combined ratio a : b : c : d can be
found out as follows:
a : b : c = 15 : 30 : 40; c : d = 40 : 48
7
(L.C.M. of 8 and 5, the value of c is 40)
a : b : c : d = 15 : 30 : 40 : 48.
1.4 Variation
8
Ex 1. A Precious stone weighing 35 grams
worth Rs 12,250 is accidentally dropped and
gets broken into two pieces having weights
in the ratio of 2 : 5. If the price varies as the
square of the weight then find the loss
incurred.
9
7250. The decrease in the value is 12250 –
7250 = 5000.
10
proportional and productivity and time taken
to complete a job are also inversely
proportional.
11
Sol. Let the total number of candidates = 5x
(because you have to break it in the ratio of 4
and 1). Therefore, the number of those who
passed = 4x and the number of those who
failed = x. If the number of students had been
35 fewer = 5x – 35, And 9 more had failed = x
+ 9, then
12
Therefore, Food = 8
7000 = 280 8 = 2240.
25
Shelter = 10
7000 = 2800
25
Savings = 7
7000 = 1960
25
13
of the remainder, means he saves 1 – 75/98 =
23
/98 of the remainder.
In total he is saving 49/6423/98 of 64/75 of his
income, which is given to be Rs 1150.
150
Therefore, his salary = 1150 = Rs 7500.
23
14
42
= Therefore, Ram : Shiv : Giri = 21 :
Giri' s share .
6:7
21
Hence, Ram’s profit = 170,000 = 105,000.
34
6
Shiv’s profit = 170,000 = 30,000 and
34
7
Giri’s profit = 170,000 = 35,000.
34
15
= b2
225
we get 405
b
405 225 = b3
27 15 152 =b3
b = 45.
Therefore, a =
225
= 5.
45
16
Ex 8. The monthly incomes of two persons
are in the ratio of 4 : 5 and their monthly
expenditures are in the ratio of 7 : 9. If each
saves Rs. 50 a month, then what are their
monthly incomes?
17
3 : 4 : 5. Ratio of value 50 p , 25 p and 10 p
coins
= 3 × 50 : 4 × 25 : 5 × 10 = 150 : 100 : 50 = 3 :
2:1
2
Value of 25 p coins = × 12 = 4 Rs.
6
In 4 Rs. no of 25 p coins = 4 × 4 = 16.
2. Partnership
18
2.1 Partnership
Partnership is an association of two or more
persons who put in money together in order
to carry on a certain business. Partnership is
of two types.
19
2.2 Solved Examples
20
amount of rent should C pay?
21
16 S = 96000 S = 6000.
So the capital of Sham is Rs 6000.
22
in a business respectively. A gets onefourth
of the profits as remuneration for managing
the business. The rest of the profits are
distributed by A, B and C in the ratio of their
investments. If in a particular year, A gets Rs
10 less than B and C together, what was the
total profit for that year?
23
be Rs 10(5x + 6x) – 9x = 10 2x = 10 x =5.
24
“Linking”. The rule states, that “When
different quantities of different ingredients
are mixed together to produce a mixture of a
mean value, the ratio of their quantities is
inversely proportional to the differences in
their cost from the mean value.”
25
in the 8 % solution [(0.08)(5)] must be equal
to the amount of salt in the 10 % mixture
[0.10 (n + 5)].
Therefore, 15n + 0.08(5) = 0. 10(n + 5) 15n
+ 40 = l0n + 50
5n = 10 n = 2 liters.
Two liters of the 15% salt solution must be
added to the 8% solution to obtain 10%
solution. This question was solved with the
help of equations. Now let us solve this
question by alligation rule
15% 8%
10%
2 : 5
26
their legs are 224. Find the number of
parrots.
224
44 : 136
11 : 34
27
Sol. In such questions, you should simply
take one component out of the two given i.e.
milk and water and then take its mean value
and find the ratio.
Let us take milk. Milk is 3/4th in the first
vessel and 5/8th in the second vessel and the
average milk needed is 2/3rd.
3/4 5/8
2/3
1/24 : 1/12
1 : 2
28
has how much water in it (seems odd). But
true, water has 100 % water in it (in
percentage) or 1 time of water (in fractions).
So the rule of alligation will be applied as ,
1/4 1
1/2
1/2 : 1/4
2 : 1
29
Then “x” will have
3 1
x of milk and x of water.
4 4
The amount of milk that will get replaced by
water, for every “x” unit of the mixture will
x and not “x”
3
therefore be
4
3 3
Therefore, (3  x ) : (1 + x ) will be in the
4 4
ratio of 1 : 1
3 3
Therefore, 3  x =1+ x
4 4
Solving for “x”, we get x =
4
litres
3
Hence, the proportion that needs to replaced
4
1
= 3=
4 3
30
C.P. of 1 litre mixture = Re. 1
100 4
125 5
By the rule of alligation, we have:
0
Rs. 1
Mean
Price
Re. 4
5
4 1
5 5
4 1
Ratio of milk to water = : = 4: 1.
5 5
Hence, percentage of water in the mixture
= 100 % 20%
1
5
31
percentage of alcohol was found to be 26%.
The quantity of whisky replaced is:
32
10%. m C.P. of 1 kg of mixture = Rs.
100
9.24 =
110
Rs. 8.40
By the rule of allegation, we have:
Rs. 9 Rs. 7
Mean
Price
Rs. 8.40
1.4 0.6
33
7 27
x = = 63kg.
3
34
Sol. Quantity of water left in the vessel =
80(1 – 8/80)2.
80 × 9/10 × 9/10= 64.8 litres
401 litres
40
9 9 9
40 =29.16 litres.
10 10 10
35
1. 2 2. 1 3.3 4. 4
1. 5 2. 2 3.4 4. 6
1. 1200 km 2. 1250 km
3. 1600 km 4. 1400 km
36
to cover the same distance at an
average speed of 72 km/hr.
1. 3 hrs 2. 4 ½ hrs
3. 4 hrs 4. 5 hrs
37
1. 640 m 2. 800 m
3. 180m 4. 490 m
1. ½ cm 2. 1/3 cm
3. ¼ cm 4. 1 cm
1. Rs 100 2. Rs 200
38
3. Rs 150 4. Rs 200
10. A locomotive
engine without any wagon attached to
it can run at the maximum speed of
120 km/hr. Its speed is diminished by a
quantity, which varies directly as the
square root of the number of wagons
attached to it. When 16 wagons are
attached, its maximum speed is 64
km/hr. Find the greatest number of
wagons the engine can carry.
1. 74 2. 73 3. 72 4. 75
39
cement is termed as Ordinary Portland
Cement (OPC) and if the same is in the
ratio of 7 : 1, then the cement is termed
as Portland Poslana Cement (PPC). In
a ton of OPC cement, how many kg of
limestone need to be added to make it
PPC cement?
1. 500 kg 2. 200 kg
3. 333.33 kg 4. 166.67 kg
40
improved in the ratio of 8 : 5. His new
profit / old profit ratio is
1. 28 : 25 2. 22 : 25
3. 30 : 26 4. 38 : 25
Q Key Explanation
No.
1. 1 Let the number to be added = x.
7 + x/16 + x = 16 + x/34 + x
x = 2.
2. 1 Let the number to be subtracted = x.
19 – x /26 – x =35 – x/50 – x
41
x = 5.
3. 1 3 inch is the same as 900 km.
1 inch = 300 km.
Hence 4 inch = 4 300 = 1,200 km.
4. 3 T 1 T k . 6 k
V V 48
k = 48 6.
Now T = (48 6)/72 = 4 hrs.
5. 2 MV
M = kV. 1950 = k. 250
K = 195/25.
As V = M/k
V = 4680 25/ 195 = 600 cm3.
6. 4 DT2
D = kT2
k(5)2 – k(3)2 = 78.4
16k = 78. 4
k = 4.9
D = 4.9(10)2 = 490 m.
7. 1 VD3.
Total volume of these 2 spheres = (3)
3
+ (4)3
= 27 + 64 = 91.
Volume of the larger sphere =
(6)3=216
Volume of the inner sphere = 216 –
91 = 125.
Hence radius of this sphere = (125)1/3
42
= 5.
Total thickness = 6 – 5 =1 cm.
Hence thickness of outer cover = ½ =
0.5 cm.
8 1 Ratio of the amounts collected from
1st and 2nd class = (4 1): (1 40) =1
: 10.
Amount collected from 1st class
passengers = 1 1100 = 100.
11
9. 4 Value of rupee coins = Rs 20 i.e. 20
coins.
Value of 50 p coins = Rs 8 i.e. 16
coins.
Value of 25 p coins = Rs 5 i.e. 20
coins.
Ratio of coins = 20 : 16 : 20 5 : 4
: 5.
Number of rupee coins =5/14
280 =100.
Number of 50 P coins = 4/14 280 =
80 and
Number of 25 P coins = 5/14 280 =
100.
10. 2 Max speed = 120 Km/hr.
When 16 wagons are attached,
maximum speed = 64 km/hr.
120 – 64 16 56 k 16 k 14.
43
Greatest number of wagons the
engine can carry will be 120 = 14 w
w 73.46.
So the answer is 73.
Because anything above this value
will stop the train.
11. 3 1 Ton = 1000 Kg.
Let x kg of limestone be added to
make PPC from OPC.
5000 7
( x ) /(1000 x ) .
6 8
x = 333.33 kg.
12. 2 Both the liquids in equal proportion.
proportion is ½. Apply the relation:
n
Amount of A left R
1
Amount of A originally present M
Present ratio = 7 : 5.
R =1/7.
1
1/ 2 R
1
7 / 12 1
13. 1 Let the CP be Re. 1, profit will be Rs.
0.20 and SP will be 1.20.
Now the new selling price is (1.20
95)/100 = 1.14.
Now his sale has become 8/5 times
of the original i.e. 1.14 8/5 = 1.824.
Now the new cost price will be 8/5
times of the original CP because he
is selling more quantity.
44
100 8/5 = Rs 160.
His new profit is 1.824 – 160 =
0.224.
Ratio of new profit to old profit =
0.224 : 0.200
224 : 200 28 : 25.
14. 3 Ratio = 5 : 7. SP = 10.
Profit = 25%.
CP = 8.
Let the 1st liquid costs x – 3
cost of 2nd liquid = x.
Hence x – 8
: 8 – (x – 3)= 7 : 5 x = 9.75.
Cost of 2nd liquid = 6.75.
45
3. Rs. 1 lakh 4. Rs. 2.1 lakh
1. 2 2. 3 3.4 4.5
1. Rs. 18 2. Rs. 12
3. Rs. 16 4. Rs. 15
46
4. On a certain day, the ratio of the
passenger in the Business class and
the Economy class travelling by Plane
is 1:3. The ratio of the fares collected
from each Business class and
Economy class passengers is 30:1. If
the total amount collected from all the
passengers is Rs 1,320. Find the
amount collected from the Economy
class passengers.
1. Rs 240 2. Rs 360
3. Rs 480 4. Rs 120
5. By mistake, instead of dividing Rs 564
among three persons P, Q and R in the
ratio 1/3:1/4:1/5, it was divided in the
ratio 3:4:5. Who gains the most and how
much?
1. P, Rs. 99 2. Q, Rs. 30
3. R, Rs. 72 4. R, Rs. 91
47
dogs by a multiple of both 9 and 7,
what is the minimum of pets in the
house?
1. 13:12 2. 12:13
3. 21:31 4. 31:21
48
9. A butler stole wine from a butt of
sherry, which contained 40 % of spirit.
He replaced what he had stolen by
wine containing only 16 % spirit. The
butt was then of 24 % strength only.
How much of the butt did he steal?
1. 65 ml 2. 81 ml
3. 90 ml 4. 100 ml
49
1. A 2. B
3. C 4. B & C both
1. 31 : 27 : 21 2. 21 : 28 : 23
3. 26 : 20 : 15 4. Can’t say
50
3. Rs. 125 4. Rs. 140
51
16. X and Y began a business, with X as
the capital provider to the tune of Rs
24lacs and Y as the manager. They
have a pact to share the profits in the
ratio 3:1 in favour of X upto a profit of
Rs 2lacs. All profits in excess of Rs. 2
Lacs have to be shared equally by X
and Y. If the profit is Rs 6 lacs, what is
Y’s share in it?
1. Rs 1,50,000 2. Rs 2,00,000
3. Rs 2,50,000 4. Rs 2,75,000
52
Answer key & Explanations
Q Key Explanations
No.
1. 3 Let the original weight of the diamond
be 10x.
Hence, its original price will be
k(100x2) . . . where k is a constant.
The weights of the pieces after
breaking are x, 2x, 3x and 4x.
Therefore, their prices will be kx2,
4kx2, 9kx2 and 16kx2.
So the total price of the pieces = (1 +
4 + 9 + 16) kx2 = 30kx2.
Hence, the difference in the price of
the original diamond and its pieces =
100kx2  30kx2 = 70kx2 = 70000.
Hence, kx2 = 1000 and the original
price = 100kx2 = 100 × 1000 = 100000
= Rs. 1 lakh.
2. 3 Let his marks be 100, 90, 80, 70 and
60 in the five subjects. Hence, totally
he has scored 400 marks. The
constitutes only 60% of the total
marks. Hence, total marks =
400
667, which incidentally is the
0.6
53
maximum marks in all 5 subjects.
Since the total marks in each subject
is the same, hence maximum marks
667
in each subject will be 133.
5
Out of this 50% is the passing marks.
In order words, to pass in a subject he
needs to score 66.5 marks. We can
see that onlh in one subject he scored
less than this, viz 60. Hence, he
passed in 4 subjects.
3. 2 As the two men had a total of 12
breads. The first and the second man
must have given 3 breads and 1 bread
to the third man. Hence, the ratio of
their share must be 3:1. Now third
person paid Rs. 24 for 4 breads. So
cost of one bread is Rs 6. Hence the
first and the second man get Rs.18
and Rs. 6 respectively. The 1st man
gets Rs. 12 more than the second.
4. 4 Let the number of passengers
travelling by Business class and
Economy class be x and 3x
respectively. Lets the fares collected
from each of the Business class and
Economy class passengers be 30y
and y respectively.
54
Hence x(30y)+3x(y) = 30xy+3xy =
33xy=1320
xy =40. Total amount collected from
the Economy class =3xy=3×40= Rs
120
5. 4 Ratio 1/3:1/4:1/5 is equivalent to
20:15:12. So in this case, P, Q and R
would have got Rs 240, Rs 180 and
Rs 144 respectively. But actually the
money was divided in the ratio 3:4:5
and shares of P, Q and R in this case
was 141, 188 and 235 respectively.
So R got Rs. 91 more than the actual
value.
6. 1 Let the number of dogs, cats and
parrot be 3k,7k,5k.Then 7k – 3k = 63p
So k=63p/4.Min. Value of p for which
k is natural number is 4 thus k = 63.
55
48 42 264
44 lites and quantity of
44 31 5
water =
48 42 186 286
20 31 20
44 31 5 5
264 286
∴ required ratio = : 12 : 13
5 5
8.
56
729 162 liters.
2
9
Let x be the quantity of water added.
162 x 3 x = 81 liters.
729 x 10
11. 4 We know, Total investment = Amount
invested x number of months
Ratio of shares of A, B and C
= Ratio of their investments
= 10000 × 6 : 10000 × 12 : 10000 × 12
=1:2:2
Clearly, B and C got the maximum
2
share = 30000 Rs 12000
5
Hence, option 4 is the correct answer.
12. 2 5K + 26% of 5K : 7K + 20% of 7K : 6K +
630 840 690
15% of 6K K: K: K
100 100 100
63: 84 : 69
21:28:23
13. 2 CP of the mixture = (15 2.10) (1 0.98)
15 1
= 2.03/ kg. SP = 2.25/ kg.
Profit per kg = Rs 0.22.
Hence profit for 5 quintals
i.e. 500 kg = 500 0.22 = Rs 110.
14. 4 Let the capacity of bucket be x liters.
4 th is milk i.e. 1 th is water.
5 5
57
5 liters of mixture is removed and
replaced by water. Milk is 60 % of
3
mixture i.e. .
5
So ratio of milk : water = 3 : 2.
4
x 5
5 = 3.
1
x 5 5
2
5
Solving this, we get x = 20 liters.
15. 2 Contents in vessel A and B = 4 liters
and 6 liters.
Let amount of pure acid in A be x
liters and amount of pure acid in B be
y liters.
2 equations can be formed as
x y
x y 35
and 4 6 36
4 6 100 1 1 100
x + y = 3.5 and x y 0.72 .
4 6
Solving these 2 equations, we get x =
1.64 liters andy = 1.86 liters.
16. 3 Out of the total profits of Rs 6,00,000,
the first 2,00,000 are to be distributed
in the ratio of 3 : 1.
Out of this the share of Y is 1/4th i.e.
200,000 ¼ = Rs 50,000.
For the remaining Rs 400,000, it is to
58
be distributed equally the share of Y
will be 400,000 ½ = Rs 200,000.
The total share of Y thus becomes
50,000 + 200,000 = Rs 250,000.
17. 1 Their profit ratio will be
A 1500 12 B 2000 9 C
2250 8
Ratio is 1 : 1 : 1.
Each person’s share is 900/3 = Rs
300.
59