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# Cr

uci
al

CAT’
18
Concept
s;Rat
ios

-
Chapter Topic Page
No. No.
1. Ratio & Mixtures 1
2. Partnership 18
3. Mixtures and Alligation 24
4. Ratio Online Assignment 01 35

## 5. Ratio Online Assignment 02 45

1. Ratio & Mixtures
1.1 Ratio
A ratio is the relation between two quantities
of the same kind. This relation indicates how
many times one quantity is equal to the
other; or in other words, ratio is a number,
which expresses one quantity as a fraction of
the other.
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E.g. Ratio of Rs. 12 to Rs. 13 is or 12 : 13.
13
The numbers forming the ratio are called
terms. The numerator, “12”, in this case, is
known as the antecedent and the
denominator, “13”, in this case, is known as
the consequent.

## Let us say that Rs 1000 is divided between A

and B in the ratio 3: 2. It means that the
amount received by A is 3/2 times the
by B is 2/3 times the amount received by A.

1
1.2 Important Properties

b is written as:
ora : b
a
b

## is called fractional form.

a
b
a : b is called linear form.
 While finding the ratio between two
quantities, a andb, the units of both the
quantities should be ensured to be the
same.

## E.g. The ratio between 5 cm and 30 mm is 5/3

or 5 : 3 since 30 mm = 3 cm

##  Ratio does not have any unit. It is a

mere number.
 Since a ratio between two numbers is
measured as a fraction, the ratio would
stay unaltered even if both the

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antecedent and the consequent are
multiplied by the same number ( 0).
The ratio obtained on account of
multiplying both the antecedent and
the consequent by the same number is
known as an equivalent ratio.
 If two different ratios, a : b and c : d are
expressed in different units, then the
two are compounded to obtain a
combined ratio.
Compounding of a : b and c : d yields
ac
.
bd

## E.g. A takes 3 days to complete a job,

working 5 hours a day. B takes 5 days to
complete the same job, working 4 hours a
day. What is the ratio of the time taken by A
and B.

## Here two different units, no of days and no of

hours are used. The ratio of days worked is 3

3
: 5 and the ratio of the number of working
hours per day is 5 : 4. Compounding these
two
The ratio of the time taken by A and B is
3  5 15
= =3:4
5 4 20
a c e
 If = = , then each of these ratios
b d f
ace
is equal to
bd  f

= (Invertendo)
a c b d
 If = , then
b d a c

= (Alterendo)
a c a b
 If = , then
b d c d
a b cd
(Componendo)
a c
 If = , then =
b d b d
a b cd
(Dividendo)
a c
 If = , then =
b d b d
a c a b cd
 If = , then = ,
b d a b cd
(Componendodividendo)

1.3 Proportion

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Definition:
If the ratio of two terms is equal to the ratio
of two other terms, then these four terms are
said to be in proportion.

## i.e. If a : b = c : d, we read the above equality

as “a is to b as c is to d” and say that a, b, c, d
are in proportion.
The principal property of proportion is if a : b
= c : d, then
Proof: a:b= a
and c : d =
c
b d

if a : b = c : d, then
a c
=
b d
By cross multiplication, we get ad = bc.
In other words, the product of the means (b,
c) is equal to the product of the extremes (a,
d)

Continued Proportion:
Four numbers a, b, c and d are said to be in
proportion

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ifa : b = c : d.
If on the other hand, a : b = b : c = c : d, then
the four numbers are said to be in continued
proportion.

Important Results
 Let us take the first two ratios a:b = b:c.
Here b is called the mean proportional
and is equal to the square root of the
product of a and c
b2 = a cb = ac

## etc., then a, b, c, d are in

a b c
 If = =
b c d
geometric progression.
= k, then, c = dk; b = ck
a b c
Let = =
b c d
and a = bk
Since c = dk, b = dk k = dk2 and a = bk
= dk2k = dk3, implying they are in
geometric progression.
 If the three ratios, a : b, b : c, c : d are
known, we can find a : d by

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multiplying these three ratios
a a b c
=  
d b c d
 If a, b, c and d are four terms and the
ratios a : b, b : c, c : d are known, then
one can find the ratio a : b : c : d

Illustration: If a : b = 1 : 2; b : c = 3 : 4; c : d = 5
: 6, then the combined ratio a : b : c : d can be
found out as follows:

## Express the ratios a : b and b : c as

equivalent ratios where the value of b is the
same in both the ratios - by equating the
value of b in both the ratios to the L.C.M. of
the value of b in the two ratios.
a : b = 3 : 6 and b : c = 6 : 8 (LCM of 2 and 3 is
6).
a : b : c = 3 : 6 : 8.
 a : b : c = 3 : 6 : 8; c : d = 5 : 6

 a : b : c = 15 : 30 : 40; c : d = 40 : 48

7
(L.C.M. of 8 and 5, the value of c is 40)
a : b : c : d = 15 : 30 : 40 : 48.

1.4 Variation

## Direct Variation (Proportion):

If two magnitudes aandb are related in such
a way that for any increase or decrease in a,
b will also increase or decrease and vice
versa, then the two magnitudes are in direct
variation or direct proportion to each other.
Suppose that the price of coffee is Rs 200
per kg. Then the cost of 5 kg of coffee will be
Rs 1000. i.e. as the quantity of coffee
increases, the total cost of the coffee
purchased also increases.
Similarly, if the salary of an executive for a
month is Rs 21,000, then the salary of the
executive for 10 days will be Rs 7,000.
In other words, the ratio of a andb is a
constant. Take an example to understand the
concept of direct variation.

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Ex 1. A Precious stone weighing 35 grams
worth Rs 12,250 is accidentally dropped and
gets broken into two pieces having weights
in the ratio of 2 : 5. If the price varies as the
square of the weight then find the loss
incurred.

## Sol. The question states price is directly

related with the square of the weight i.e.
pq2
 p = kq2.
Putting the value as given in the question
12250 = k(35)2 12250 = k1225 k = 10.
Now the equation can be rewritten as p =
10q2.
Now their weights become 35  2/7 = 10 gm&
25 gm. Their values can be calculated in the
same manner.
The value of the smaller piece is p = 10 
(10)2 = 1000 and the value of the bigger piece
isp = 10  (25)2 = 6250.
The sum of these values = 1000 + 6250 =

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7250. The decrease in the value is 12250 –
7250 = 5000.

## If two magnitudes “a” and “b” are related in

such a way that for any increase (or
decrease) in “a”, quantity “b” decreases (or
increases) in the same ratio, then these two
magnitudes are said to vary inversely to each
other and the proportion in that case is called
inverse proportion or inverse variation.
Suppose, 8 men can do a piece of work in 10
days, and then we know that 16 such men
can do the same piece of work in 5 days.
Similarly, if 8 men can do the work in 10 days,
then 4 men will take 20 days to complete the
same work.

## Note: Number of days and number of

workers are inversely proportional to each
other. Similarly, speed and time are inversely

10
proportional and productivity and time taken
to complete a job are also inversely
proportional.

## Ex 1. The ratio between two numbers is 3 : 5

and their sum is 640. The numbers are:

## Sol. The ratio is 3 : 5 and the sum is 640. If

the sum is 3 + 5 = 8, then the numbers would
3 and 5.
Therefore, if the sum is 640, the numbers are
3
/8 640 = 240 and 5/8 640 = 400.

## Ex. 2. In a certain examination, the number of

students who passed was 4 times the
number of those who failed. If there
had been 35 fewer candidates and 9 more
had failed, the numbers would have been in
the ratio of 2 : 1. Find the total number of
candidates.

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Sol. Let the total number of candidates = 5x
(because you have to break it in the ratio of 4
and 1). Therefore, the number of those who
passed = 4x and the number of those who
failed = x. If the number of students had been
35 fewer = 5x – 35, And 9 more had failed = x
+ 9, then

## The number of those who passed = 5x – 35 –

(x + 9) = (4x – 44) (4x – 44) : (x + 9) = 2 : 1

##  4x – 44 = 2x + 18 2x = 62  5x = 155 are

the total number of students in the class.

## Ex. 3. A family divides its monthly income of

Rs 7000 in the following way. Food : Shelter ::
4 : 5; and Shelter : Savings :: 10 : 7. How
much does the family spend on each of these
activities in a month?

## Sol. Food : Shelter :: 8 : 10 and Shelter :

Savings :: 10 : 7.

## Therefore, Food : Shelter : Savings :: 8 : 10 : 7

12
Therefore, Food = 8
 7000 = 280  8 = 2240.
25

Shelter = 10
 7000 = 2800
25

Savings = 7
 7000 = 1960
25

## Ex. 4. A man sets aside 1/15th of his annual

income for taxes, 2/25th for insurance, 15/64th
of the remainder for clothes and education,
75
/98th of the remainder for food and sundries
and saves the remaining, which is Rs1150.
What is his annual income?

## Sol. He spends 1 th of his annual income

15
for tax and 2
for insurance. Therefore, the
25
remainder after tax and insurance =
1 2 75  5  6
1    = = 64
 15 25 75 75
After this, apply the same approach that you
have learnt in fractions i.e. he is spending
15
/64 of the remainder means he is saving 1 –
15
/64
49/64 of the remainder. Then he spends 75/98

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of the remainder, means he saves 1 – 75/98 =
23
/98 of the remainder.
In total he is saving 49/6423/98 of 64/75 of his
income, which is given to be Rs 1150.
150
Therefore, his salary = 1150  = Rs 7500.
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## Ex. 5. Three partners Ram, Shiv and Giri

divide their profit of Rs 1.7 lakhs in the
following ratio: 2 times Ram’s share = 7
times Shiv’s share = 6 times Giri’s share. How
much did each partner get?

## Sol. Note that in a problem of this kind, the

ratios given are not direct ratios. It would be
incorrect if one considers the ratio in which
the profits are divided to be 2 : 7 : 6. The
correct approach is to find that number
which will be equal to twice the share of “a”,
7 times the share of ‘b” and “6” times the
share of “c”. That number will be nothing but
the L.C.M of 2, 7 and 6 which is 42. Then,
divide the LCM of their shares by their
42 42
respective shares. i.e. =
Ram' s share Shiv' s share

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42
= Therefore, Ram : Shiv : Giri = 21 :
Giri' s share .
6:7
21
Hence, Ram’s profit =  170,000 = 105,000.
34

6
Shiv’s profit = 170,000 = 30,000 and
34
7
Giri’s profit =  170,000 = 35,000.
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## Ex. 6. Find two numbers “a” and “b” such that

their mean proportional is 15 and the third
proportional to “a” and “b” is 405.

## Sol. Case I.When 15 is the mean

proportional of “a” and “b”, a, 15, b are in
continued proportion.
Therefore, ab = 15
ab = 225 or a =
225
.
b

## Case II. Since 405 is their third proportional,

a, b and 405 are in continued proportion.
Therefore, 405  a = b2.
Solving for “a” and “b” in case I and case II,

15
= b2
225
we get 405 
b
 405  225 = b3
 27  15 152 =b3
b = 45.
Therefore, a =
225
= 5.
45

## Ex .7. The expenses at the IIM hostel are

partly fixed and partly variable. The charge
per head works out to Rs 100 when there are
60 students and Rs 90 per head when the
number of students is 80. Find the charge
per head when there are 100 students.

## Sol. Let the fixed component be F, a

constant, and V be the variable component
Therefore when there are 60 students F +
60V = 6000and when there are 80 students,
F + 80V = 7200
20V = 1200 and V = 60, which is the variable
component and the fixed component is Rs
2,400.
Therefore, the total cost when there are 100
students = 2400 + 100 × 60 = 8400
And the per student cost = Rs 84.

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Ex 8. The monthly incomes of two persons
are in the ratio of 4 : 5 and their monthly
expenditures are in the ratio of 7 : 9. If each
saves Rs. 50 a month, then what are their
monthly incomes?

## Sol. Let the incomes of the two persons be 4

I and 5I respectively. Let the expenditure of
the two persons
be 7E and 9E respectively.
∴4I – 7 E = 50 and 5I – 9E = 50
⇒ 20 I – 35E = 250
20I – 36E = 200 ⇒ E = 50 and I = 100
∴Monthly incomes of the two persons are Rs
400 and Rs 500 respectively.

## Ex 9. A bag contains 50 paise, 25 paise and

10 paise coins in the proportion of 3: 4 : 5.
The total value of these coins is Rs. 12. Find
the number of 25 paise coins.

## Sol. Ratio of no of 50 p, 25 p and 10 p coins =

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3 : 4 : 5. Ratio of value 50 p , 25 p and 10 p
coins
= 3 × 50 : 4 × 25 : 5 × 10 = 150 : 100 : 50 = 3 :
2:1
2
 Value of 25 p coins = × 12 = 4 Rs.
6
In 4 Rs. no of 25 p coins = 4 × 4 = 16.

## Ex. 10. The ratio of the first and second-class

fares between the two stations is 3 : 1 and
the number of passengers traveling by first
and second-class is 1 : 30. If Rs 2200 is
collected as fare, what is the amount
collected from first class passengers?

## Sol. Ratio of the amounts collected from 1st

and 2nd class = (3 1): (1 30) =1: 10.
Amount collected from 1st class
passengers = 1  2200 = 200.
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2. Partnership

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2.1 Partnership
Partnership is an association of two or more
persons who put in money together in order
to carry on a certain business. Partnership is
of two types.

## (i) Simple Partnership: When all the

partners start the business at the same point
of time i.e. their capitals remain in the
business for the same duration of time is
called simple partnership. In this kind of
partnership the profit is simply distributed in
the ratio of their capitals.

## (ii) Compound Partnership: When the

capitals of the partners are invested in the
business for the different time periods the
partnership is known as compound. In this
kind the profit sharing ratio is calculated by
multiplying the capital invested with the unit
of time (mostly months).

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2.2 Solved Examples

## Ex. 1. X and Y are partners in a business. X

invests Rs 300 for 12 months and Y invested
Rs 600 for 6 months. If they gain a profit of
Rs 700 at the end of one year, what is X’s
share?

## Y’s total capital = 600  6 = 3600.

Profit sharing ratio = 3600 : 3600
 1 : 1.
The profit is given to be Rs 700
The share of X and Y each = 700  ½ = Rs
350.

## Ex.2. A, B and C hired a ground for Rs

12000. A used this ground for 8 cows for 3
weeks, B used it for 6 cows for 8 weeks and C
used it for 18 cows for 4 weeks. What

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amount of rent should C pay?

## Sol. A’s total use = 8  3 = 24. B’s total

use = 6  8 = 48.
C’s total use = 18  4 = 72.
Their expenditure ratio = 24 : 48 : 72  1 : 2 :
3.
 C should pay 3/6 of the rent
i.e. 12000  3/6 = Rs 6000.

## Ex.3. Ram invested Rs 8000 for the whole

year in a business. Sham joins after 4
months. How much he should invest so that
the profits are distributed in the ratio of 2 : 1?

## Sol. Ram’s total capital = 8000  12 =

96000.
Let us take the capital of Sham = S, he
invested this capital after 4 months means it
remains in the business for 8 months.
Their profit sharing ratio = 2 : 1.
So the equation will be 96000 2

8S 1

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 16 S = 96000  S = 6000.
So the capital of Sham is Rs 6000.

## Ex.4. A and B invest Rs 3000 and Rs 4000

out of the profit as a remuneration for
running the business and the rest of the
profit is divided in the ratio of their capitals. If
in a particular year A’s total share amounts
to Rs 3900, what is the total share of B?

## Sol. Their profit sharing ratio is 3 : 4.

But A would have received 100  12 = Rs
 The share of profit that A received = 3900
– 1200 = Rs 2700.
If A receives Rs 3 as profit, B will receive Rs 4
Rs 2700 4/3 = Rs 3600.

## Ex.5. A, B and C invest Rs 400, 500 and 600

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in a business respectively. A gets one-fourth
of the profits as remuneration for managing
the business. The rest of the profits are
distributed by A, B and C in the ratio of their
investments. If in a particular year, A gets Rs
10 less than B and C together, what was the
total profit for that year?

## Sol. After giving one-fourth of the total

profit amount to A for managing the
business, the rest three-fourth of total profit
is divided among A, B and C in the ratio of
their investments. The share of A, B and C in
the profit will be in the ratio of 4 : 5 : 6.

## Three fourth of the total profits = 4x + 5x + 6x

= 15x.
 Total profit = 15x 4/3 = 20x.
Total share of A = 4x + 20x/4 = 9x. (i)
Share of B and C = 5x + 6x = 11x. (ii)
The difference in (i) and (ii) above is given to

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be Rs 10(5x + 6x) – 9x = 10  2x = 10 x =5.

## Ex.6. A began business with Rs. 6000 and

was joined afterwards by B with Rs. 8000. At
the end of the year B got one-fourth of the
total profit. When did B join?
3 1
Sol. Profit ratio of A and B = :  3 : 1 , If B
4 4
joins after x months, then
(600012): (8000)  (12 – x) = 3 : 1  x = 9.

## In mixture problems, substances with

different characteristics are combined, and it
is necessary to determine the characteristics
of the resulting mixture.

## In doing mixture problems, we can make use

of the Alligation Rule. Alligation means

24
“Linking”. The rule states, that “When
different quantities of different ingredients
are mixed together to produce a mixture of a
mean value, the ratio of their quantities is
inversely proportional to the differences in
their cost from the mean value.”

## Ex. 1. If 6 pounds of nuts that cost \$1.20 per

pound are mixed with 2 pounds of nuts that
cost \$1.60 per pound, what is the cost per
pound of the mixture?
Sol. The total cost of the 8 pounds of nuts
Is 6(\$ 1.20) + 2(\$ 1.60) = \$ 10.40.
The cost per pound is \$ 10.40 / 8 = \$ 1.30.

## Ex.2. How many liters of a solution that is 15

percent salt must be added to 5 liters of a
solution that is 8 percent salt so that the
resulting solution is 10 percent salt?

## Sol. Let n represent the number of liters of

the 15 % solution. The amount of salt in the
15 % solution [0.15n] plus the amount of salt

25
in the 8 % solution [(0.08)(5)] must be equal
to the amount of salt in the 10 % mixture
[0.10 (n + 5)].
Therefore, 15n + 0.08(5) = 0. 10(n + 5)  15n
+ 40 = l0n + 50
5n = 10 n = 2 liters.
Two liters of the 15% salt solution must be
added to the 8% solution to obtain 10%
solution. This question was solved with the
help of equations. Now let us solve this
question by alligation rule
15% 8%

10%

2 : 5

## There are already 5 litres of 8 % solution, this

means 2 litres of 15 % solution should be

## Ex.3. In a zoo there are goats and parrots. If

their heads are counted, there are 90 while

26
their legs are 224. Find the number of
parrots.

## Sol. As the total heads are 90 means these

are 90 in number. If all of them are goats
then the total number of legs would be 90 
4 = 360. If all of them are parrots then the
total number of legs are 90  2 = 180.

## Now apply alligation as the mean number of

legs is given to be 224.
360 180

224

44 : 136
11 : 34

## Ex.4. Two vessels contain milk and water in

the ratio of 3 : 1 and 5 : 3 respectively. Find
the ratio in which these are to be mixed to
get a new mixture in which the ratio of milk
to water is 2 : 1.

27
Sol. In such questions, you should simply
take one component out of the two given i.e.
milk and water and then take its mean value
and find the ratio.
Let us take milk. Milk is 3/4th in the first
vessel and 5/8th in the second vessel and the
average milk needed is 2/3rd.

3/4 5/8

2/3

1/24 : 1/12
1 : 2

##  Ratio is 1 : 2 and this is the answer. If 1

litre is taken from the first vessel 2 litres
should be taken from the second vessel.

## Ex.5. A tank has a mixture of milk and water

in the ratio of 3 : 1. What proportion of the
mixture should be withdrawn and replaced
with water so that the resulting mixture has
equal proportions of milk and water?
Sol. Water is initially 1/4th of the total and
what you are mixing in it is the water. Water

28
has how much water in it (seems odd). But
true, water has 100 % water in it (in
percentage) or 1 time of water (in fractions).
So the rule of alligation will be applied as ,

1/4 1

1/2

1/2 : 1/4
2 : 1

## Now as they are to mixed in the ratio of 2 : 1.

It is also known that the proportion of water
is actually by replacing the mixture, this
means 1 out of a total of 3 (1 + 2) should be
replaced i.e. 1/3rd of the total should be
replaced. You can also solve the same
question by the following equation method.

## Let the total quantity of the mixture be 4

litres and the quantity of the mixture that is
being replaced from the existing mixture be x,

29
Then “x” will have
3 1
x of milk and x of water.
4 4
The amount of milk that will get replaced by
water, for every “x” unit of the mixture will
x and not “x”
3
therefore be
4
3 3
Therefore, (3 - x ) : (1 + x ) will be in the
4 4
ratio of 1 : 1
3 3
Therefore, 3 - x =1+ x
4 4
Solving for “x”, we get x =
4
litres
3
Hence, the proportion that needs to replaced
4
1
= 3=
4 3

## Ex.6. A dishonest milkman professes to sell

his milk at cost price but he mixes it with
water and thereby gains 25%. The percentage
of water in the mixture is:

## Sol. Let C.P. of 1 litre milk be Re. 1

Then, S.P. of 1 litre of mixture = Re. 1, Gain =
25%.

30
C.P. of 1 litre mixture = Re.   1 
100 4
 125  5
By the rule of alligation, we have:

## C.P. of 1 litre of milk C.P. of 1 litre of water

0
Rs. 1

Mean
Price
Re. 4
5

4 1
5 5

4 1
Ratio of milk to water = : = 4: 1.
5 5
Hence, percentage of water in the mixture
=  100 %  20%
1
5 

## Ex.7. A jar full of whisky contains 40%

alcohol. A part of this whisky is replaced by
another containing 19% alcohol and now the

31
percentage of alcohol was found to be 26%.
The quantity of whisky replaced is:

## Sol. By the rule of alligation, we have:

Strength of 1st jar Strength of 2nd jar
40 19
% %
Mean
Strength
7 26%
14

## So, ratio of 1st and 2nd quantities = 7 : 14 = 1 :

2
2. Required quantity replaced =
3

## Ex.8. How many kilogram of sugar costing

Rs. 9 per kg must be mixed with 27 kg of
sugar costing Rs. 7 per kg so that there may
be a gain of 10% by selling the mixture at Rs.
9.24 per kg?

## Sol. S.P. of 1 kg of mixture = Rs. 9.24, Gain

32
10%. m C.P. of 1 kg of mixture = Rs.
 100 
  9.24 =
 110 
Rs. 8.40
By the rule of allegation, we have:

## C.P. of 1kg sugar Cost of 1kg sugar of

of 1st kind 2nd kind

Rs. 9 Rs. 7

Mean
Price
Rs. 8.40

1.4 0.6

##  Ratio of quantities of 1st and 2nd kind = 14 :

6 = 7 : 3.
Let x kg of sugar of 1st be mixed with 27 kg of
2nd kind.
Then, 7 : 3 = x : 27

33
7  27 
 x =   = 63kg.
 3 

## One characteristic case in mixtures is

repeated dilution of a mixture with one of the
ingredients, by removing, say n litres of the
mixture and replacing it with n litres of one of
the ingredients. Say there are m litres of
water initially. We now remove n litres of the
water and replace it by n litres of wine. This
operation is done t times. Then
t

## Quantityof water left in the vessel = m1  

n
 m
Where m = total quantity
n = quantity drawn every time
t = no. of times

## Ex.9. In a vessel, there are 80 litres of water.

8 litres of water are withdrawn and replaced
with milk, then 8 litres of mixture are
withdrawn and replaced with milk. What is
the quantity of water left in the mixture?

34
Sol. Quantity of water left in the vessel =
80(1 – 8/80)2.
80 × 9/10 × 9/10= 64.8 litres

## Ex. 10. A container contains 40 litres of milk.

From this container 4 litres of milk was taken
out and replaced by water. This process was
repeated further two times. How much milk
is now contained by the container?

## Sol. Amount of milk left after 3 operations =

  4  
3

401    litres
  40  
 9 9 9
  40     =29.16 litres.
 10 10 10 

## 1. Which number should be added to

each of the numbers 7, 16 and 34 so
that the sums would be in continued
proportion?

35
1. 2 2. 1 3.3 4. 4

## 2. Find a number such that when it is

subtracted from each of 19, 26, 35 and
50, the remainders would be in
proportion.

1. 5 2. 2 3.4 4. 6

## 3. On a map, the distance between A and

B is 3 inch. The actual distance
between these two is900 km. What is
the actual distance from C to B, which
are 4 inch apart on the map?

1. 1200 km 2. 1250 km
3. 1600 km 4. 1400 km

## 4. The time “t” to go over a fixed distance

is in inverse proportion to the average
speed “v” of the vehicle. When the
average speed of the vehicle is 48
km/hr it takes 6 hours to go over a
certain distance. Find the time required

36
to cover the same distance at an
average speed of 72 km/hr.

1. 3 hrs 2. 4 ½ hrs
3. 4 hrs 4. 5 hrs

## 5. The mass of a piece of metal and its

volume are in direct proportion to each
other. The mass of a piece of metal
having volume of 250 cm3 is 1,950 gm.
Find the volume of another piece of the
same metal whose mass is 4,680 gm.

## 1. 370 cm3 2. 600 cm3

3. 500 cm3 4. 720 cm3

## 6. The distance through which a heavy

body falls down from rest varies
directly as the square of time for which
it is falling. In 5 seconds an object
covers a distance of 78.4 metres more
than the distance covered by it in 3
sec. Find the distance through which it
will fall in 10 sec.

37
1. 640 m 2. 800 m
3. 180m 4. 490 m

## 7. The volume of a sphere and the cube of

its diameter are in direct proportion.
Two solid spheres of diameters 3 cm
and 4 cm were melted together and
cast into a hollow sphere of diameter 6
cm. Find the thickness of the outer
cover of the sphere.

1. ½ cm 2. 1/3 cm
3. ¼ cm 4. 1 cm

## 8. The ratio of the first and second-class

fares between the two stations is 4 : 1
and the number of passengers
traveling by first and second-class is 1 :
40. If Rs. 1,100 is collected as fare,
what is the amount collected from first
class passengers?

1. Rs 100 2. Rs 200

38
3. Rs 150 4. Rs 200

## 9. 280 coins consists of 1 rupee, 50 paise

and 25 paise coins, their values being
in the ratio of 20 : 8 : 5. Find the
number of coins of each type.

## 1. 80, 100, 90 2. 80, 90, 100

3. 100, 100, 80 4. 100, 80, 100

10. A locomotive
engine without any wagon attached to
it can run at the maximum speed of
120 km/hr. Its speed is diminished by a
quantity, which varies directly as the
square root of the number of wagons
attached to it. When 16 wagons are
attached, its maximum speed is 64
km/hr. Find the greatest number of
wagons the engine can carry.

1. 74 2. 73 3. 72 4. 75

## 11. If limestone and gypsum are

mixed in the ratio of 5 : 1, then the

39
cement is termed as Ordinary Portland
Cement (OPC) and if the same is in the
ratio of 7 : 1, then the cement is termed
as Portland Poslana Cement (PPC). In
a ton of OPC cement, how many kg of
limestone need to be added to make it
PPC cement?

1. 500 kg 2. 200 kg
3. 333.33 kg 4. 166.67 kg

## 12. What proportion of a mixture

containing alcohol and water in the
proportion of 7:5 should be removed
and equivalent quantity of water added
so that the resulting mixture has both
the liquids in equal proportion?

## 13. A merchant was selling his goods at

20% profit. When he allowed a discount
of 5 paise per rupee on sale, his sale

40
improved in the ratio of 8 : 5. His new
profit / old profit ratio is

1. 28 : 25 2. 22 : 25
3. 30 : 26 4. 38 : 25

## 14. Two liquids are mixed in the ratio of 5:

7 and sold at a profit of 25% at Rs 10 a
liter. If the first liquid costs Rs 3 more
than the second one, what was the
cost price of both the liquids?

## 1. 9.25: 6.25 2. 11: 8

3. 9.75: 6.75 4. 10.5: 7.5

Q Key Explanation
No.
1. 1 Let the number to be added = x.
7 + x/16 + x = 16 + x/34 + x
x = 2.
2. 1 Let the number to be subtracted = x.
19 – x /26 – x =35 – x/50 – x

41
x = 5.
3. 1 3 inch is the same as 900 km.
1 inch = 300 km.
Hence 4 inch = 4  300 = 1,200 km.
4. 3 T 1  T  k .  6  k
V V 48
k = 48  6.
Now T = (48  6)/72 = 4 hrs.
5. 2 MV
M = kV. 1950 = k. 250
K = 195/25.
As V = M/k
 V = 4680  25/ 195 = 600 cm3.
6. 4 DT2
D = kT2
 k(5)2 – k(3)2 = 78.4
 16k = 78. 4
k = 4.9
D = 4.9(10)2 = 490 m.
7. 1 VD3.
Total volume of these 2 spheres = (3)
3
+ (4)3
= 27 + 64 = 91.
Volume of the larger sphere =
(6)3=216
Volume of the inner sphere = 216 –
91 = 125.
Hence radius of this sphere = (125)1/3

42
= 5.
Total thickness = 6 – 5 =1 cm.
Hence thickness of outer cover = ½ =
0.5 cm.
8 1 Ratio of the amounts collected from
1st and 2nd class = (4  1): (1  40) =1
: 10.
Amount collected from 1st class
passengers = 1  1100 = 100.
11
9. 4 Value of rupee coins = Rs 20 i.e. 20
coins.
Value of 50 p coins = Rs 8 i.e. 16
coins.
Value of 25 p coins = Rs 5 i.e. 20
coins.
Ratio of coins = 20 : 16 : 20  5 : 4
: 5.
 Number of rupee coins =5/14 
280 =100.
Number of 50 P coins = 4/14  280 =
80 and
Number of 25 P coins = 5/14  280 =
100.
10. 2 Max speed = 120 Km/hr.
When 16 wagons are attached,
maximum speed = 64 km/hr.
120 – 64  16  56  k 16  k  14.

43
Greatest number of wagons the
engine can carry will be 120 = 14 w
 w  73.46.
Because anything above this value
will stop the train.
11. 3 1 Ton = 1000 Kg.
Let x kg of limestone be added to
make PPC from OPC.
5000 7
(  x ) /(1000  x )  .
6 8
x = 333.33 kg.
12. 2 Both the liquids in equal proportion.
proportion is ½. Apply the relation:
n
Amount of A left  R
 1
Amount of A originally present  M 
Present ratio = 7 : 5.
 R =1/7.
1
 1/ 2  R
 1  
7 / 12  1
13. 1 Let the CP be Re. 1, profit will be Rs.
0.20 and SP will be 1.20.
Now the new selling price is (1.20 
95)/100 = 1.14.
Now his sale has become 8/5 times
of the original i.e. 1.14  8/5 = 1.824.
Now the new cost price will be 8/5
times of the original CP because he
is selling more quantity.

44
100  8/5 = Rs 160.
His new profit is 1.824 – 160 =
0.224.
Ratio of new profit to old profit =
0.224 : 0.200
 224 : 200  28 : 25.
14. 3 Ratio = 5 : 7. SP = 10.
Profit = 25%.
CP = 8.
Let the 1st liquid costs x – 3
cost of 2nd liquid = x.
Hence x – 8
: 8 – (x – 3)= 7 : 5 x = 9.75.
Cost of 2nd liquid = 6.75.

## 1. The cost of diamond varies directly as

the square of its weight. Once, this
diamond broke into four pieces with
weights in the ratio 1:2:3: 4. When the
pieces were sold, the merchant got Rs.
70,000 less. Find the original price of
the diamond.

## 1. Rs. 1.4 lakh 2. Rs. 2 lakh

45
3. Rs. 1 lakh 4. Rs. 2.1 lakh

## 2. A student gets an aggregate of 60%

marks in five subjects in the ratio 10 : 9
: 8 : 7 : 6. If the passing marks are 50%
of the maximum marks and each
subject has the same maximum marks,
in how many subjects did he pass the
examination?

1. 2 2. 3 3.4 4.5

## 3. Two men, sitting on the dining table.

breads. A third man passing by
requested them to share their food in
return for money. The three of them
shared the breads equally and the third
traveller paid the other two a total of Rs
24. Find the difference between the
amounts received by first two men?

1. Rs. 18 2. Rs. 12
3. Rs. 16 4. Rs. 15

46
4. On a certain day, the ratio of the
passenger in the Business class and
the Economy class travelling by Plane
is 1:3. The ratio of the fares collected
Economy class passengers is 30:1. If
the total amount collected from all the
passengers is Rs 1,320. Find the
amount collected from the Economy
class passengers.

1. Rs 240 2. Rs 360
3. Rs 480 4. Rs 120
5. By mistake, instead of dividing Rs 564
among three persons P, Q and R in the
ratio 1/3:1/4:1/5, it was divided in the
ratio 3:4:5. Who gains the most and how
much?

1. P, Rs. 99 2. Q, Rs. 30
3. R, Rs. 72 4. R, Rs. 91

## 6. In a house, there are dogs, cats and

parrot in the ratio 3:7:5. If the number
of cats was more than the number of

47
dogs by a multiple of both 9 and 7,
what is the minimum of pets in the
house?

## 7. Two casks of 48 and 42 litres are filled

with mixtures of wine and water, the
proportions in the two casks being
respectively 13:7 and 18:17 If the
contents of the two casks be mixed,
and 20 litres of water added to the
whole. What will be the proportion of
wine to water respectively in the result?

1. 13:12 2. 12:13
3. 21:31 4. 31:21

## 8. In an alloy, zinc and copper are in the

ratio 1:2. In the second alloy the same
elements are in the ratio 2:3. In what
ratio should two alloys be mixed to
form a new alloy in ratio 5:8?

## 1. 3:10 2. 5:6 3.5:7 4.3:7

48
9. A butler stole wine from a butt of
sherry, which contained 40 % of spirit.
He replaced what he had stolen by
wine containing only 16 % spirit. The
butt was then of 24 % strength only.
How much of the butt did he steal?

## 10. 729 ml. of a mixture contains

milk and water in the ratio 7: 2. How
much more water is to be added to get
a new mixture containing milk and
water in the ratio 7: 3 ?

1. 65 ml 2. 81 ml
3. 90 ml 4. 100 ml

## 11. A, B, C enter into partnership, each

investing Rs 10,000. After six months,
A left the partnership. At the end of the
year, a total profit of Rs 30,000 was
recorded. Who got the maximum
share?

49
1. A 2. B
3. C 4. B & C both

## 11. Surendra, Rajendra and

Mahindra invested some amount in a
business in the ratio of 5 : 7 : 6
respectively. In the next year, they
increased their investments by 26%,
20% and 15% respectively. The profit
earned during the second year should
be distributed in what ratio among
Surendra, Rajendra and Mahindra?

1. 31 : 27 : 21 2. 21 : 28 : 23
3. 26 : 20 : 15 4. Can’t say

## 12. A mixture consists of 15 parts

of coffee, purchased at Rs 2.10 per kg
and 1 part of chicory, purchased at 98
paise per kg. If it is sold at Rs 2.25 per
kg, what profit would be made on the
sale of 5 quintals?

## 1. Rs. 120 2. Rs. 110

50
3. Rs. 125 4. Rs. 140

## 14. A dishonest milkman fills up his

bucket, which is only 4/5th full of milk,
with water. He again removes 5 litres
of this mixture from the bucket and
adds an equal quantity of water. If milk
is now 60 % of the mixture, what is the
capacity of the bucket in litres?

## 1. 25 litres 2.18 litres

3. 35 litres 4. 20 litres

## 15. Vessel A and B contain 4 litres and 6

litres of two different samples of acid.
If the contents of two vessels are
mixed, the result is 35 % acid
concentration. If one litre each from A
and B are mixed, the result is 36 % acid
concentration. Find the amount of pure
acid in A and B.

## 1. 1.64 lt, 1.76 lt 2. 1.64 lt, 1.86 lt

3. 1.58lt, 1.86 lt 4. 1.2lt, 1.8 lt

51
16. X and Y began a business, with X as
the capital provider to the tune of Rs
24lacs and Y as the manager. They
have a pact to share the profits in the
ratio 3:1 in favour of X upto a profit of
Rs 2lacs. All profits in excess of Rs. 2
Lacs have to be shared equally by X
and Y. If the profit is Rs 6 lacs, what is
Y’s share in it?

1. Rs 1,50,000 2. Rs 2,00,000
3. Rs 2,50,000 4. Rs 2,75,000

## 17. A and B enter into a partnership for a

year. A contributes Rs. 1,500 and B Rs.
2,000. After 4 months they admit C,
who contributes Rs. 2,250. If B
withdraws his contribution after 9
months, how would they share a profit
of Rs. 900 at the end of the year?

## 1. Rs.300 to each person

2. Rs 200, Rs 300, Rs 400
3. Rs 250, Rs 250, Rs 400
4. Rs 100, Rs 300, Rs 500

52

Q Key Explanations
No.
1. 3 Let the original weight of the diamond
be 10x.
Hence, its original price will be
k(100x2) . . . where k is a constant.
The weights of the pieces after
breaking are x, 2x, 3x and 4x.
Therefore, their prices will be kx2,
4kx2, 9kx2 and 16kx2.
So the total price of the pieces = (1 +
4 + 9 + 16) kx2 = 30kx2.
Hence, the difference in the price of
the original diamond and its pieces =
100kx2 - 30kx2 = 70kx2 = 70000.
Hence, kx2 = 1000 and the original
price = 100kx2 = 100 × 1000 = 100000
= Rs. 1 lakh.
2. 3 Let his marks be 100, 90, 80, 70 and
60 in the five subjects. Hence, totally
he has scored 400 marks. The
constitutes only 60% of the total
marks. Hence, total marks =
400
 667, which incidentally is the
0.6

53
maximum marks in all 5 subjects.
Since the total marks in each subject
is the same, hence maximum marks
 667 
in each subject will be    133.
 5 
Out of this 50% is the passing marks.
In order words, to pass in a subject he
needs to score 66.5 marks. We can
see that onlh in one subject he scored
less than this, viz 60. Hence, he
passed in 4 subjects.
3. 2 As the two men had a total of 12
breads. The first and the second man
to the third man. Hence, the ratio of
their share must be 3:1. Now third
person paid Rs. 24 for 4 breads. So
cost of one bread is Rs 6. Hence the
first and the second man get Rs.18
and Rs. 6 respectively. The 1st man
gets Rs. 12 more than the second.
4. 4 Let the number of passengers
Economy class be x and 3x
respectively. Lets the fares collected
from each of the Business class and
Economy class passengers be 30y
and y respectively.

54
Hence x(30y)+3x(y) = 30xy+3xy =
33xy=1320
xy =40. Total amount collected from
the Economy class =3xy=3×40= Rs
120
5. 4 Ratio 1/3:1/4:1/5 is equivalent to
20:15:12. So in this case, P, Q and R
would have got Rs 240, Rs 180 and
Rs 144 respectively. But actually the
money was divided in the ratio 3:4:5
and shares of P, Q and R in this case
was 141, 188 and 235 respectively.
So R got Rs. 91 more than the actual
value.
6. 1 Let the number of dogs, cats and
parrot be 3k,7k,5k.Then 7k – 3k = 63p
So k=63p/4.Min. Value of p for which
k is natural number is 4 thus k = 63.

## So No. of pets = 15k = 15 × 63 = 945.

7. 2 Ratio of wine to water, when 20 litres
of water are not added =
 13  48 18  42   7  48 17  42 
  :  
 20 35   20 35 
 264 : 186  44 : 31.
Now, after adding 20 lites of water,
Quantity of wine =

55
48  42 264
 44  lites and quantity of
44  31 5
water =
 48  42  186 286
20    31   20 
 44  31  5 5
264 286
∴ required ratio = :  12 : 13
5 5
8.

## 9. 1 Ratio between wine containing 16%

spirit and wine containing 40% spirit,
which resulted in wine containing
24% spirit, is
40 – 24 : 24 – 16
 16 : 8
2 : 1
 He stole 2/3 of the butt.
10. 2 Quantity of milk in the mixture
= 7  729  567 liters.
9
Hence quantity of water =

56
 729  162 liters.
2
9
Let x be the quantity of water added.
 162  x  3  x = 81 liters.
729  x 10
11. 4 We know, Total investment = Amount
invested x number of months
Ratio of shares of A, B and C
= Ratio of their investments
= 10000 × 6 : 10000 × 12 : 10000 × 12
=1:2:2
Clearly, B and C got the maximum
 2
share =  30000    Rs 12000
 5
Hence, option 4 is the correct answer.
12. 2 5K + 26% of 5K : 7K + 20% of 7K : 6K +
630 840 690
15% of 6K  K: K: K
100 100 100
 63: 84 : 69
 21:28:23
13. 2 CP of the mixture = (15  2.10)  (1  0.98)
15  1
= 2.03/ kg. SP = 2.25/ kg.
 Profit per kg = Rs 0.22.
Hence profit for 5 quintals
i.e. 500 kg = 500  0.22 = Rs 110.
14. 4 Let the capacity of bucket be x liters.
4 th is milk i.e. 1 th is water.
5 5

57
5 liters of mixture is removed and
replaced by water. Milk is 60 % of
3
mixture i.e. .
5
So ratio of milk : water = 3 : 2.
4
x  5 
 5 = 3.
1
x  5   5
2
5
Solving this, we get x = 20 liters.
15. 2 Contents in vessel A and B = 4 liters
and 6 liters.
Let amount of pure acid in A be x
liters and amount of pure acid in B be
y liters.
2 equations can be formed as
x y

x  y 35
 and 4 6  36
4  6 100 1  1 100
x + y = 3.5 and x  y  0.72 .
4 6
Solving these 2 equations, we get x =
1.64 liters andy = 1.86 liters.
16. 3 Out of the total profits of Rs 6,00,000,
the first 2,00,000 are to be distributed
in the ratio of 3 : 1.
Out of this the share of Y is 1/4th i.e.
200,000  ¼ = Rs 50,000.
For the remaining Rs 400,000, it is to

58
be distributed equally the share of Y
will be 400,000  ½ = Rs 200,000.
The total share of Y thus becomes
50,000 + 200,000 = Rs 250,000.
17. 1 Their profit ratio will be
A 1500  12 B 2000  9 C
2250  8
Ratio is 1 : 1 : 1.
 Each person’s share is 900/3 = Rs
300.

59