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The Sequence analysis of Conglomerate reservoirs using decomposed

modes of well logs
Zhaohui Xu, Bo Zhang, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Alabama

General Geology information The petrophysics analysis Application
The area of interest is located in Dongying Depression, We have the 9 conventional wells logs (compared to the advanced image and mineral We choose GR log to illustrate the decomposition procedure and decompose the GR
Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China (Figure 1). The target logs) for most of the wells in the oil filed (Figure 4). The first panel includes GR, SP, and into three models (Figure 5). Model one reflects the low frequency components in the
zone is the fourth member of the Shahejie formation. The CAL logs. The second panel is the core samples. The third panel include two microlog logs, and it represents large scale sedimentary cycle. Model two have a very good match
Shahejie formation was deposited in Paleogene period, logs. The fifth panel is the resistivity logs. The sixth pane include neutron porosity, with the lithology changes, the high value corresponds to shale, medium value for sand,
and it is controlled by the Chenjiazhuang uplift in the density, and acoustics log. The caliper log can be used as an indictor for thick shale and lowest value for conglomerate. Model three and its envelope can be used as an
north and the Qingtuozi uplift in the east (Figure 2). The formation. It is very difficult to use GR log to differentiate the conglomerate and sand indicator for the grain size.
reservoir deposition environment is fan delta.
Original Model Model Model
The main rock type of studied formation include CAL(cm) CNL(%)
GR(API)
curve dep
(m)
Core
Lithology
GR IMF1
one
GR IMF2
two
GR IMF 3
three

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20 35 ML1(ohm.m) LLS(ohm.m) 45 -15
120 300 180 280 -50 50 -50 50

granule conglomerate and gravelly sand (Figure 3). The

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0.2 20 0.2 200
SP(mV) Depth DEN(g/cm3)
110 140 Lithology 1.85 2.85
(m) ML2(ohm.m) LLD(ohm.m)
other rock types include pebble and cobble conglomerate, GR(API) 0.2 20 0.2 200
AC(us/m) -50 50

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80 300 500 150
GR(API) dep GR IMF1 GR IMF2 GR IMF 3
Lithology -50 50
(m)

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and sand. The formation also developed a small amount 120 300 180 280 -50 50
50 -50

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of fine sand and shale. The objective of this study is to

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differentiate different rock types using conventional well

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logs and then determine the deposition sequence.

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2240

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2260
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(vertical scale 1:100)

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(vertical scale 1:500)

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Figure 5. Decomposition models of GR log based on VMD
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According to the features of decomposed modes of GR, we classified the zone into
Figure 4. Well logs with shale base line overlaid on the GR log 4 Parasequences, 13 formations.
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a) 0.6 b) 0.6
50 -50 50 -50 Stratigraphic unit 20 -20 20 -20
GR
(API) GR IMF1 dep LLD IMF1 LLD ENV2 LLD ENV3 LLD(ohm.m)
-50 50 -50 50 Lithology -20 20 -20 20
(m)
120 300
GR IMF2 GR IMF 3 120 300
Group Formation Long term Short term 0.5 50
LLD IMF2 LLD IMF3 0.5 50

0.4 0.4 cycle cycle

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-50 50 -50 50 -20 20 -20 20
Frequency,%

Frequency,%

sand
Oil Gas Uplift Bulge Slope
0.2 0.2
I-0-1

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Structural belt Depression
0 0 Gravelly sand ES4I-0
I-0-2

1 10 100 0.2 2.0 20.0 I-0-3
Figure 1. The location of Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China Deep Resistivity, ohm.m microlog, ohm.m

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c) d)
I-1-1
0.6 0.6
Granule I-1-2
Conglomerate ES4I-1

0.4 0.4

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I-1-3
Frequency,%

Frequency,%

I-1-4

0.2 0.2
Pebble and Cobble
I-2-1

Conglomerate

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I-2-2

0 0
ES4I-2
40 60 80 100 120 140 1.85 2.05 2.25 2.45 2.65 2.85 I-2-3
Acoustic, us/ft Density, g/cm3

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Figure 4. The statistical analysis for (a) deep resistivity, (b) microlog, (c) acoustic, and (d) density logs I-2-4

I-3-1

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ES4I-3

I-3-2

Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD)

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Fig 2. Major structure features of the study area
Figure 6. Decomposition models of GR log based on VMD
orthoconglomerate VMD decomposes an input signal into a number of modes that have specific sparsity

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properties. Each intrinsic mode function (IMF) has a localized frequency component,
which represents certain hidden information. VMD is achieved by solving the following Conclusions
Conglomerate optimization problem: • The VMD is a useful tool in decomposing the well logs into different modes. We can
2
  
    jk t 

j
min   t    t    uk  t    e  assign each mode with different role in the sequence and reservoir analysis.
uk , k    t  2
 k

• The large scale model reveals the stratigraphy sequence cycles, and the medium and
s. t .  u t   s t 
k
small scale models are suitable for lithology classification
Paraconglomerate k
Gravelly Sand
Where 𝑢𝑘 and 𝜔𝑘 are modes and their center frequencies, respectively. 𝑆 𝑡 is the • The future study will combine the decomposed modes from different well logs to
Fig 3. The representative core samples
signal to be decomposed. 𝛿 𝑡 is the Dirac function. analysis the sequence and characterize the reservoirs.