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1.

PURPOSE OF THE REPORT IS TO
 PRESENT AND EXPLAIN:
 OBJECTIVES
 METHODS
 FINDINGS

2. INTRODUCTION OF THE PAPER: ORDERING INFORMATION

1. General statements about the field of research to provide readers with a setting for
the problem to be reported
2. More specific statements about the aspects of the problem already studied by other
researchers.
3. Statements that indicate the need for more investigation.
4. Very specific statements giving purpose/objectives of the study.
5. Optional statements that give a value or justification for carrying out the study.

3. INTRODUCTION OF THE PAPER: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1. Give the reader background information to understand your study.
2. Assures your readers you are familiar with researches done in your field
3. Establishes your study as one link in a chain of research that is developing and
enlarging.

4. INTRODUCTION OF THE PAPER: ORDERING THE REVIEW OF
LITERATURE

 Citations group by approach.
 Distant to close (time)
 Chronologically
5. INTRODUCTION OF THE PAPER: FINAL PART

1. Mention an area that is not treated in the previous literature, but ti is
important from the point of view of your research.
2. Announce the purpose of your research
3. Indicates possible benefits or applications of your work.

6. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

• Describes the steps followed in conducting the study and the materials used at each
step.
• Overview of the experiment (design)
• Population/sample
• Location

• Restrictions/limited conditions • Sampling techniques • Procedures* (chronologically) • Materials* • Variables • Statistical treatment • * Always included 7. A review of the most important findings. DISCUSSION 1. Recommendations for future research and practical applications. 4. Explanations or speculations. – Statements that present the most important findings. (ordered from specific to general) 10. A reference to the main purpose or hypothesis of the study. 3. Limitations of the study that restrict the extent to which the findings can be generalized 5. 9. and whether they agree with the findings of other researchers. ABSTRACT • Background (present tense) • Purpose (past tense/present perfect) • Method (past tense) • Results (past tense) • Conclusion (present tense. questionnaires and tests • Computer models • Mathematical models 8. – Statements that comment on the results. RESULTS • Three basic elements of information: – A statement that locates the figures/tables of results. MATERIALS • Laboratory equipment • Field equipment • Human or animal subjects • Natural substances • Fabricated materials • Surveys. Implications of the study (generalizations from the results). tentative verbs or modals . 7. whether or not they support the original hypothesis. 6. 2.