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THM

12

FLIGHT CONTROLS

12.1 - FLIGHT CONTROL OPERATING PRINCIPLE 3
12.1.1. GENERAL 3
12.1.2. FLIGHT CONTROL BASIC DEFINITIONS 3

12.2 - GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FLIGHT CONTROLS 5
12.2.1. FLIGHT CONTROL BLOCK DIAGRAM 5
12.2.2. MAIN AND TAIL ROTOR CONTROLS 6

12.3 - CYCLIC PITCH CONTROL 7
12.3.1. CYCLIC PITCH OPERATION 7
12.3.2. CYCLIC PITCH-MAJOR COMPONENTS 9

12.4 - COLLECTIVE PITCH CONTROL 10
12.4.1. COLLECTIVE PITCH CONTROL OPERATION 10
12.4.2. COLLECTIVE PITCH MAJOR COMPONENTS 11

12.5 - TAIL ROTOR CONTROL 12
12.5.1. TAIL ROTOR CONTROL OPERATION 12
12.5.2. TAIL ROTOR CONTROL MAJOR COMPONENTS 13

12.6 - CONTROL CHANNEL FEATURES 14
12.6.1. 12 HZ VIBRATIONS : COMPENSATION OF THE FORWARD SERVO UNIT LINKAGE 14

Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER ; il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite
d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER ; no part of it shall be reproduced or
transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. © EUROCOPTER 1998. 11.1

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FLIGHT CONTROL BASIC DEFINITIONS • Rigging Plane • Swashplate tilt axes Plane perpendicular to the rotor shaft. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. X XX’ . The collective pitch lever (1) controls the main rotor lift 4 (FN) by simultaneously changing the pitch of all the blades. which itself remains on the rigging plane (Pure fore-&-aft control).Moving the cyclic stick to the left or right causes the swashplate to tilt along the YY’ axis.1. 12. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . The yaw pedals (3) control the tail rotor thrust (TY) and thus the aircraft heading.Fore-&-aft tilt axis B Y ' β F W D A O Aircraft longitudinal centerline YY’ .FLIGHT CONTROL OPERATING PRINCIPLE 12. GENERAL The flight controls modify the main and tail rotor blade pitch angles.THM 12. © EUROCOPTER 1998. . When the Virtual axes XX’ and YY’ about which the swashplate swashplate is on the rigging plane there is no cyclic pitch tilts when a fore-and-aft or lateral control input is applied.1.Moving the cyclic stick forward or aft causes the swashplate to tilt along the XX’ axis. airspeed and heading. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.1.3 .Servo unit mounting points Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . variation. . 11. Remember that FN includes two components : a vertical lift vector (S) and a horizontal airspeed vector (V) the direction and magnitude of which are controlled by the cyclic pitch stick (2) which controls the rotor disk tilt angle by means of cyclic variations in blade pitch.2.Lateral tilt axis Y X ' C A-B-C .1 . which itself remains on the rigging plane (Pure lateral control). allowing the pilot to control the aircraft in flight by modifying its altitude.

Specific rotor blade position for checking the incidence variations.A lateral control input tilts the swashplate along YY' : cated on the XX’ and YY’ tilt axes.) • Blade reference Azimuth When the pitch-change rod mounting points (A) are lo. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. X RH azimuth Z Y 100° 15' Forward azimuth : 30° 10° 15' A A β α W γ Aircraft longitudinal centerline FWD Swashplate AFT azimuth W ' A A 190° 15' X ' Y ' LH azimuth 280° 15' Z ' Since the Aircraft is a 4-blade helicopter.With a red line on non-rotating swashplate. the blades RD are positioned on the reference azimuths. no part of it shall be reproduced or 11. . THM 12.1. • Blades 1 and 3 sustain equal and opposite incidence tioned on their reference azimuths. variations .With 4 blues lines on rotating swashplate. between pitch-change rods When a blue line coincides with the red line.A fore-&-aft control input tilts the swashplate along XX’ : • The incidence of blades 2 and 4 is unaffected.2. Red line Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . the pitch. : Angle between OW (blade centerline) and pitch- • The incidence of blades 1 and 3 is unaffected. • Blades 2 and 4 sustain equal and opposite incidence variations. between forward servo units and LH servo unit . aligning one blade on its reference azimuth is sufficient to ensure that all four blades are so aligned.4 transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. The reference azimuths are identified : . FLIGHT CONTROL BASIC DEFINITIONS (Cont. © EUROCOPTER 1998. the blades are posi. change rod mounting point A on swashplate : Angle between the tilt axis and the aircraft centerline :Azimuthal offset. WA change rod mounting points are located on the XX’ and FOR Blue line YY’ tilt axes. .

2. © EUROCOPTER 1998. 11.5 . FLIGHT CONTROL BLOCK DIAGRAM LH channel RH channel Forward channel UPPER BELLCRANKS MIXING UNIT Forward channel INTERMEDIATE BELLCRANK RH channel LH channel PHASING UNIT COLLECTIVE YAW COUPLING AUTOPILOT AUXILIARY SERVOCONTROLS LOWER BELLCRANK Fore & Aft Lateral Collective Yaw Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FLIGHT CONTROLS 12.THM 12. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .2 .1. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.

Tail Servo unit Main Servo units Upper Bellcranks Phasing Unit Mixing Unit Collective/Yaw Intermediate Roll Damper coupling bellcrank Collective Pitch Damper Pitch Lever Cyclic Pitch Stick Yaw Damper Yaw Autopilot Pedal Unit Servocontrols Yaw Trim Roll Trim Collective Trim Pitch Trim THM .2. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite Pitch change rod Do not unscrew all-end beyond the point where the red safety groove becomes visible. © EUROCOPTER 1998. All flight Swashplates control connecting balls are double-locked. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . MAIN AND TAIL ROTOR CONTROLS NOTE : Ball-end screwed onto pitch-change links have opposite-pitch threads for easy length adjustment d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.2.6 12. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .11. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.

THM 12.Moving the cyclic stick forward or aft causes the phas. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . . 8 -Lower bellcranks pivots on the collective thereby moving both the 9 -Copilot’s collective pitch lever bellcrank. blade incidence variations) are nearly proportional to the cyclic stick movements. The mixing unit is a system of bellcranks specially articu- lated in order to the cyclic control and the collective control 8 to operate the output linkage independently.e.3 . Swashplate movements (i. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. CYCLIC PITCH OPERATION From the cyclic pitch sticks (4-10) two separate control channels (fore-&-aft and lateral) drive the phasing unit via the autopilot hydraulic unit which. the same amount. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . © EUROCOPTER 1998. LH servo unit Forward ing unit and the swashplate to tilt along the fore-&-aft tilt servo unit axis XX’. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. from a control link- age standpoint. 11. which remains pitch and roll bellcranks by 10 -Copilot’s cyclic pitch stick stationary.3.Moving the cyclic stick to the left or right causes the RH servo unit phasing unit and the swashplate to tilt along the lateral tilt axis YY’.1.CYCLIC PITCH CONTROL 12.7 . Swashplates . Cyclic Stick Input Collective Lever Input 3 2 9 1 10 1 -Cyclic stick torque shaft 2 -Fore-&-aft lever Mixing 3 -Lateral bellcrank unit shaft 4 -Pilot’s cyclic pitch stick Mixing 5 -Pilot’s collective pitch lever unit shaft 6 -Intermediate bellcrank The mixing unit shaft and 7 -Upper bellcranks The pitch or roll bellcrank collective bellcrank rotate. 7 Mixing unit 6 Lateral (roll-axis) control channel Fore-&-aft (pitch-axis) control channel Phasing unit 4 5 Autopilot hydraulic unit MIXING UNIT OPERATION Control channel movements are produced in response to inputs on the cyclic stick and the collective lever. may be considered as a simple demultiplying bellcrank.

© EUROCOPTER 1998. RH channel. THM 12. The control loads are not evenly LH lateral distributed on the swashplate. For control link- age reasons (the swashplate is not located directly above X 1 B ' the phasing unit) the actual control layout on the aircraft B ' is not exactly as described here. driven by the cyclic pitch control. CYCLIC PITCH OPERATION (Cont. 1 2 0 ° C C X ' Note that since the phasing unit is located in the servo X ' unit input linkage it sustains only light control loads. however. no part of it shall be reproduced or 11.b. At the phasing unit output. the three PHASING UNIT C ' X 1 ' E rods (a. but is designated by the relevant servo unit posi. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .C are on the tilt axis XX’ and YY’. These three equidistant points cannot Y Y ' Y Y ' A define two perpendicular tilt axes at right angles. if the phasing unit is driven by the lateral rod and the fore-&-aft rod at two points (A’ and E) lo- cated 90° apart and defining two perpendicular axis X1 X B B 1 2 0 ° X1' and Y1 Y1'. where X the swashplate bending stresses moments are high SWASHPLATE enough to require symmetrical load distribution : i. it will tilt about these axis. This is an essential requirement (refer to basic he.3. The swashplate cannot by itself to tilt about the XX’ and YY’ axis. On light helicopters the bending stresses A O on the swashplates are low and the solution is simple : C RH lateral the servo unit mounting points (A-B-C) are situated on C X ' the XX’ and YY’ axis. causing the A 1 2 0 ° Y O Y ' Y ' swashplate to tilt in the same way about the XX’ and YY’ Y A axis.b. The role of the phasing unit placed in the swashplate C input linkage is to force the swashplate to tilt about the X ' XX’ and YY’ axis.c) are driven with a composite movement that X 1 ' Lateral rod reproduces on the swashplate the same motion as on the phasing unit : the phasing unit output linkage can no Fore-&-aft longer be referred to as the fore-&-aft or lateral chan- nels. the X B servo unit input points (A-B-C) must be equally spaced B 1 2 0 ° A O 1 2 0 ° at 120° intervals. must X B be made to tilt along two perpendicular axis (XX’ and B YY’). This is not the case on heavier aircraft.1.) WHY A PHASING UNIT ? SWASHPLATE X The swashplate. X 1 This is the principle of the phasing unit. The principle of the system is simple : if the swashplate is connected by three equally spaced rods (a. C 1 2 0 ° ever. The phasing unit causes the swashplate to tilt about the tion : Forward channel. A O Y Y ' Y Y ' licopter theory).B. SWASHPLATE X In particular. . X ' Fore-&-aft portant since these loads are light. O At the phasing unit input the fore-&-aft and lateral control E C ' action is «pure». The servo unit input points A. LH channel XX' and YY' axis Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.8 transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.c) to a second plate (the phasing unit). any movement of the phasing unit will be exactly reproduced by the swashplate.e. how. but this aspect is unim. but the basic idea is the A ' O A ' Y Y ' Y Y ' same. X ' The servo units are mounted at 120° intervals to ensure a correct spread of the bending loads.

11. hydraulic unit bellcrank output) 5 -Fore-&-aft cyclic rod 12 .A.RH servo unit rod 3 -Mixing unit 10 .THM 12. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .A. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. 18 19 1 Fore-&-aft and lateral balancing weights 2 17 Fore-&-aft torque shaft Fore-&-aft rod 16 3 FWD 15 Lateral rod Fore-&-aft 4 bellcrank 14 Lateral torque 13 5 shaft Lateral bellcrank 12 6 PHASING UNIT To LH servo unit 7 To RH servo unit To forward servo unit 8 11 Universal joint 9 Phasing unit Fore & aft Phasing Lateral cyclic rod unit mount cyclic rod 10 1 -Forward servo unit bellcrank 8 .Yaw bellcrank 6 -Collective rod 13 .Lower bellcranks 17 .RH servo unit rod 7 -Lateral cyclic rod 14 . © EUROCOPTER 1998. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.P. CYCLIC PITCH-MAJOR COMPONENTS Pilot's cyclic stick stops Overtravel Overtravel clearance clearance Stop The cyclic stick does not reach its travel limit stops : the flight control travel is limited by internal stops in the autopilot hydraulic unit cylinders.9 .Forward servo unit rod (intermediate 4 -Mixing unit shaft lever 11 .3.Flight control bay 16 .2. output (collective) rod 15 .P.Yaw rod 19 .Collective/yaw coupling 18 .Intermediate bellcrank 2 -LH servo unit bellcrank 9 .LH servo unit rod Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .

4. for a discussion 4 -Summing bellcranks of the mixing unit operation. THM 12. rotate by the same amount.1. position : the blade incidence angle changes by the same draulic unit.3. . hydraulic unit 5 6 1 -Lower collective pitch bellcrank 2 -Pilot’s collective pitch lever 3 -Intermediate relay NOTE : Refer to § 12.4 .P. amount on all the blade regardless of their azimuthal Motion is transmitted by the summing bellcranks (4) which position. © EUROCOPTER 1998. 5 -Copilot’s collective pitch lever 6 -Torque shaft Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .10 transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.COLLECTIVE PITCH CONTROL 12. RH servo unit Swashplate FWD servo unit LH servo- control RH servo unit channel FWD servo unit channel 4 Mixing unit LH servo unit channel Collective pitch channel 3 2 1 A. driving the three swashplate control channels . no part of it shall be reproduced or 11. COLLECTIVE PITCH CONTROL OPERATION From the collective pitch levers (2-5) a control channel The swashplate moves up or down parallel to its initial drives the mixing unit shaft lever via the autopilot hy.1.

Lower collective pitch bellcrank NOTE : Refer to § 12. 1 .Copilot’s collective pitch lever mounted in the flight control bay. Friction lock. 5 .Trim actuator rod Stops 11 .THM 12. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. locking handle tionary stop (7) when the collective pitch setting reaches 18°30'. Any further increase in the pitch setting results in an increasing load on the collective pitch lever due to extension of the spring to warn the pilot that he is ex. Fixed upper friction jaw 18°30 Residual friction 1 adjusting screw Weight and stop bracket 2 Friction lining Collective pitch torque tube Mobile lower friction jaw 3 Spring-loaded 4 stop lever 11 5 Spring Stationary stop 10 9 Fulcrum 8 6 7 Balancing weight (counteracts the tendency of the collective lever to shift its position).Protective boot 6 .2.Spring-loaded stop lever 7 .Balancing weight 9 . Balance Weights SPRING-LOADED STOP Friction The balancing weight (8) comes into contact with the sta. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.3.2 for the rods and bellcranks 4 .4. © EUROCOPTER 1998. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . 11.Pilot’s collective pitch lever 2 .Stationary stop 8 . COLLECTIVE PITCH MAJOR COMPONENTS ( 1 ) Collective Pitch Levers.Trim actuator 11 10 .Collective pitch bellcrank The lever does not reach its stops : the collective pitch control travel is limited by internal stops in the Clearance Clearance autopilot hydraulic unit Collective pitch rod Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .Collective pitch rod to autopilot unit 3 .11 . Universal joint ceeding the maximum permissible pitch value.

A Point D is stationary. transmitting the pedal motion to the tail servo unit. THM 12. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. The collective le- ver action rotates the shaft and bellcrank For any given yaw pedal position. the coupling bellcrank (1). This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . and vice-versa. COLLECTIVE / YAW COUPLING Collective / yaw coupling bellcrank PEDAL INPUT WITH COLLECTIVE LEVER STATIONARY Autopilot hydraulic unit Bellcrank shaft driven by 2 1 collective pitch lever Pilot’s yaw pedal unit B C A Point C is stationary : lever (2) pivots about point C.a control function that provides aircraft direction con. The yaw lever (2). the tail rotor blade output rod that is proportional to the col- incidence increase.12 transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .5. no part of it shall be reproduced or 11. pivots about point C (point A de- when the collective pitch varies. lective lever action.an automatic "anti-torque" function that cancels the reaction torque due to the main rotor.TAIL ROTOR CONTROL 12. Pulileys trol on the yaw axis Control cables The tail rotor blade incidence varies with the collective pitch setting. Copilot’s pedal unit COLLECTIVE LEVER INPUT WITH PEDALS STATIONARY 1 2 Heading Control Function C Blade incidence variation are obtained by means of the B yaw pedals. and which varies Spring-loaded rod with the collective pitch setting : . scribes a circular arc around point D) transmitting a control movement to the D When the collective pitch increases.1.5 . Main rotor reaction torque variations are compensated at all times by a mechanical coupling be- tween the collective pitch channel and the yaw channel. pulled by bellcrank causes a linear variation in the tail rotor blade incidence (1). TAIL ROTOR CONTROL OPERATION The tail rotor controls modify the tail rotor blade incidence Tail rotor control system angle to ensure two basic functions : . © EUROCOPTER 1998. .

This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .Pilot’s yaw pedals provided to control the wheel braking transmitters.Protective boot als. On the pilot’s pedal unit pivoting two pedals (2) are 4 .2.Bellcranks 1 0 . 11.Braking transmitter mounting bracket Each pedal unit includes a 5-position adjustment provi. 6 . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. a spring-loaded rod automatically returns the tail rotor blades back to a preset incidence setting. 7 .5. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.Adjustable stops 9 . ( 2 ) Cable Tension Adjusters Safety pin Turnbuckle Return springs Front cable Rear cable Intermediate coupling Piston rod Piston The turnbuckles are fitted with intermediate couplings that allow the tail boom to be removed (e. for air transport) without modifying the cable adjustment.Torque tube 8 .g.13 . The flight 7 control travel is limited by internal stops in the autopi- lot hydraulic unit.Brake pedal sion to locate the pedals in a comfortable position for the 3 .Pedal adjustment lever pilot.THM 12. 2 . TAIL ROTOR CONTROL MAJOR COMPONENTS ( 1 ) Pedal units 1 . Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .Copilot’s yaw pedals The copilot’s pedal unit is also provided with brake ped.Braking transmitter bracket 2 1 3 Clearance 4 5 7 10 8 9 8 The pedals do not reach the travel stops. 6 ( 3 ) Spring-Loaded Rod In the event of a control cable failure. 5 . © EUROCOPTER 1998.

servo unit. a 12 Hz vibration phenomenon In order to prevent the relative motion of the servo unit may occur in certain cyclic and collective control con. THE 12 HZ VIBRATIONS CREATE A RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN THE INPUT ROD AND THE FORWARD SERVO UNIT LEVER. These vibrations cause low-amplitude fore. MAIN ROTOR Forward 0 Negligible vibrations servo unit 12Hz 12Hz Input rod MGB motion MGB AMPLIFICATION Bellcrank Servo unit motion Flexible mounting plate Spurious output from forward servo unit Anchoring point (no control input) THE COMPENSATOR COUPLES THE INPUT ROD WITH THE FORE-&-AFT OSCILLATING MOTION OF THE MGB TO ELIMINATE ANY UNDESIRABLE SERVO UNIT INPUT.6. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . the forward servo compensating system couples the input rod with the MGB unit moves along with the MGB. .6 . THE RESULTING UNDESIRABLE SERVO UNIT OUTPUT ACTION AMPLIFIES THE 12 HZ VIBRATIONS. The MGB oscillating motion is transmitted via the THE COMPENSATOR ELIMINATES THE RELATIVE "12 Hz rod" the compensator and the bellcrank to MOTION BETWEEN THE INPUT ROD AND THE SERVO the input rod. which then moves together with the UNIT. THM 12. at 12 Hz that would amplify the vibratory phenomenon a &-aft oscillation of the MGB. while the input rod is not motion affected by these vibrations.14 transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. and the input rod from generating spurious control inputs figurations. WITHOUT THE COMPENSATOR.1. Transmission deck 0 Input rod Input rod Compensator 12Hz rod MGB Compensator MGB 12Hz rod Anchoring point Bellcrank (no control input) Flexible mounting plate Anchoring point (no control input) Bellcrank Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . 12 HZ VIBRATIONS : COMPENSATION OF THE FORWARD SERVO UNIT LINKAGE When taxiing at zero lift. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. © EUROCOPTER 1998. However. no part of it shall be reproduced or 11.CONTROL CHANNEL FEATURES 12. THIS SYSTEM THUS ELIMINATES SPURIOUS INPUT SIGNALS TO THE FORWARD SERVO UNIT AND PREVENTS AMPLIFICATION OF THE VIBRATIONS.