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CMC: A Model Computer Science Curriculum

for K-12 Schools

3rd Edition, Released June 2013

Technical Report: TR-CSE-2013-52
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai

Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved

CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools

CMC: A Model Computer Science Curriculum
for K-12 Schools
3rd Edition June, 2013

Sridhar Iyer*, Farida Khan, Sahana Murthy#,
Vijayalakshmi Chitta, Malathy Baru and Usha Vishwanathan

Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Interdisciplinary Programme on Educational Technology
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

*Contact email:

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CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools

Computer Science Curriculum, 2013, 3rd Edition

This document prescribes a curriculum (called CMC) for K-12 Computer Science in schools. While
CMC is written in the context of schools in India, it can be also used by schools in other countries.
Textbooks based on CMC are being used by more than a hundred schools in India, as of March 2013.

Schools in India have been offering Computers as a subject to their students for the last 10 years or so.
While the syllabi for 9th – 12th grades are defined by various examination Boards, there is no formal
curriculum for 1st – 8th grades. The NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training)
specifies the computer literacy competencies and skills to be developed at Primary, Middle and
Secondary levels. However these specifications are broad, leading to variations in their interpretation
across textbooks and schools. Hence there is a need for a detailed specification for computer
curriculum. CMC, described in this document, fills this gap.

This document provides: (i) the rationale, underlying philosophy, and key features of CMC, (ii) details of
topics and specific learning objectives to be addressed in each grade, (iii) recommendations for
teaching-learning strategies, and (iv) one instance of how CMC was implemented through textbooks.

The first edition of CMC was released in March 2007. The second edition was released in April 2010.
This document is the third edition, released in June 2013. A brief history of the development of CMC
and related materials is as follows:
• 2006-2007 – This activity started in June 2006 at IIT Bombay. A survey of existing computer
science curricula and textbooks in India led to identifying the need for a detailed curriculum
specification. As a result, the 1st edition of CMC was developed, and released in March 2007.
The draft of 1st edition was reviewed by a team of academic experts, mentioned in Annexure D.
• 2007-2008 – Teacher Handbooks based on 1st edition of CMC were created by a collaborative
effort involving contributors from geographically different places. A pilot study on using the
handbooks was conducted by the authors, at a school - Sri Sri Ravishankar Vidya Mandir
(SSRVM), in Mumbai. The key insight was that having only teacher handbooks are not sufficient
and there is a need to develop textbooks based on CMC.
• 2008-2009 – Textbooks for grades 1-4, titled Computer Masti, were written based on the 1st
edition of CMC and released under Creative Commons License. Pilot studies were conducted
by the authors, not only to teach using these books but also for teacher training in various
schools. The key insight was the need to have periodic teacher training programs.
• 2009-2010 – Textbook authoring for higher grades continued. Discussions with more pedagogy
experts, mentioned in Annexure D, led to the development of the 2nd edition of CMC, which was

Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 3 to take up large scale teacher training and implementation in schools. The number of schools adopting these books crossed a InOpen . It may be downloaded from www. These books may be freely . This (Click on Research  Technical Reports. The number of downloads of the books crossed ten thousand. Document ID: TR-CSE-2013-52). the 3rd edition of CMC. was released in June 2013. non- commercial use (as per Creative Commons License specified). for individual. was incubated at SINE-IIT Bombay. • 2012-2013: Results from field implementations led to the development of the 3rd edition of CMC. A company. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 4 . • 2010-2012: Textbook authoring for grades 1-8 was completed. from across a hundred countries. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools released in April 2010. from Alternate link: www.cse.cse.iitb. Alternate link: www.

......................................................................................1 REALIZING THE KEY FEATURES OF CMC CURRICULUM ...........................................CURRICULUM DETAILS .......... 18 3.............................2 LEARNING VIA REAL-WORLD CONTEXT ................................ 22 3.................................................................... 18 3.........................................1 THEMES AND TOPICS ............1 INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING .....................1 ICSE Board .............3.................................................................................2 UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY OF CMC .............................................. 29 6 CONCLUSION .................................. 27 5................................................................... 24 4 TEACHING -LEARNING STRATEGY ...................................................... 26 4...............5 Scalability..................................................................................................................................................................... 9 2...............................................3................................. 28 5...................4 Spiral curriculum ................... 18 3..........................................................................................................................1 Thinking process skills ........... 30 Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 5 .......3................................................. 30 7 REFERENCES ..............................................................................................3 COLLABORATIVE LEARNING......... 26 4..3...... 15 2................................................................................. 16 2..................................................................................... 16 3 CMC SYLLABUS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9 2.........................................2 CBSE Board ............................................................................................................3 TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CM TEXTBOOKS ........................................ 25 4........... 14 2........................................ 7 1.......................................... 14 2...........................3 Thematic integration ..................4 PROCESS OF CMC CURRICULUM DESIGN ...........................3..........................................................................................................................................................1 EXISTING CURRICULA AND TEXTBOOK OPTIONS...................................................................... 13 2.............................................2 THEMES AND TOPICS IN CM TEXTBOOKS ........................3............................................................................................................2 Computer literacy integrated with fundamental concepts and thinking skills ..................................................................................................3 KEY FEATURES OF CMC ................................................................................................................................................................... 27 5...... 26 5 AN IMPLEMENTION OF THE CMC CURRICULUM ........................................................................................... CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION ....................3.... 25 4.........2 GRADE-WISE VIEW OF THE CURRICULUM .................3 HOW CMC PREPARES STUDENTS FOR GRADES 9-12 FOR VARIOUS BOARDS ...............................................4 PLAYFULNESS .............................. 8 2 FOUNDATIONS OF THE CMC CURRICULUM ........1 SCOPE OF THIS CURRICULUM .... 22 3................ 13 2....... 12 2.......................................

................................................... SOCIAL ASPECTS – SAFETY AND ETHICS ... 60 ANNEXURE D: CONTRIBUTORS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............... 36 THEME V......................................................................... 38 B(II): LIST OF FOSS APPLICATIONS INCLUDED IN CM.................................................................... 32 THEME I: FAMILIARITY WITH COMPUTERS .. 32 THEME II..................................... 66 Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 6 ......................................................................... 38 B(I): SUGGESTED WEEK-WISE SCHEDULE FOR TEACHING WITH CM TEXTBOOKS ......................................... COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ................................................................................................................................................ 59 ANNEXURE C: SURVEY OF EXISTING TEXTBOOKS ..................................................................... CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools ANNEXURE A: TOPICS COVERED FOR EACH GRADE FOR EACH THEME AND SUB-THEME .................................. 35 THEME IV: COMPUTER PROGRAMMING................................... 57 B(VI): HOW CM PREPARES STUDENTS FOR FOUNDATIONS OF IT ELECTIVE IN CBSE GRADE 9......................................................................................................................................................... 37 ANNEXURE B: COMPUTER MASTI (CM) TEXTBOOKS .................. 33 THEME III: THINKING PROCESS SKILLS ...... 46 B(III): SPECIFIC TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES IN EACH CM LEVEL......................... 47 B(V): HOW CM PREPARES STUDENTS FOR COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ELECTIVE IN ICSE GRADE 9 .....................................................................................................................................

Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 7 . Currently the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 [NCF 2005] defined by NCERT forms the basis for the CBSE Board syllabus [CBSE Board]. Unlike other subjects where there is a prescribed textbook and syllabus. Their natural curiosity leads them to explore these “interesting toys”. The ICSE Board has defined syllabus only for 9th to 12th grades [ICSE Board]. Hence it is desirable for schools to introduce learning about computers as part of the curriculum itself. Moreover. Also. incorrect usage. However the emphasis within topics is open to interpretation and there is wide variation in the treatment of a given topic across books. Indian schools have already been offering Computers as a subject to their students for the last 10 years or so. for the lower grades. The curriculum needs to be adapted appropriately to the introduction of new tools. so it is necessary for the curriculum to be dynamic. Java. Typically. If this is not done. new computer-based tools and technologies are constantly finding their way into popular use. leading to boredom. It is necessary to take note of what computer usage is prevalent among children of a given age group and introduce those topics into the curriculum in a suitable manner. This could lead to learning undesirable habits (playing on a computer for hours). This leads to variation in the books chosen by individual schools and hence in the topics covered at the primary and middle school level. As the individual schools are given the flexibility of following their own curriculum and textbooks. Microsoft Office). there should not be an emphasis on learning computers at the expense of other subjects/activities. There is very little emphasis on thinking skills or concepts of broad applicability that would be useful across subjects. each school can teach what the school decides as appropriate. Schools tied up with this board do teach the topics mentioned in the framework. there is a lot of ambiguity for teaching computer science. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 1 INTRODUCTION Children today are exposed to a wide presence of computers (in homes and elsewhere). Some schools introduce it as early as 1st grade and some introduce it in the 3rd grade or later. and the curriculum should be well-balanced. Hence there is an urgent need to define a detailed curriculum to teach computer science in schools. the focus is on usage and skill based content for specific applications (for example. there is a huge variation in topics that are being covered. One reason is the lack of a well defined framework. while simultaneously keeping a focus on conceptual learning. and unsafe usage (ignorance of the risks in Internet access). in addition to the dangers of incorrect/ignorant usage. They often learn on their own (or from friends or parents) to use a computer for a variety of purposes. The topics covered currently are more driven by the market demand at that point of time. the school curriculum would lag behind what students learn in other settings.

this curriculum prepares students to take Computers as an elective subject for 9th to 12th grades for the various Boards. and many schools are offering Computers as a subject in the lower grades.1 Scope of this curriculum This document defines the details of what we believe is an appropriate. This curriculum document addresses the first three purposes. emphasizes nurturing clarity of thought and learning of concepts associated with various tools. but also indicates the relative importance of different topics. several textbooks have been written for Computers as a school-level subject. referred to as CMC. the connections between the topics and the order at which they are to be studied. 1. Hence there is a need for detailed specifications for a school-level Computers curriculum in India. The syllabi for 9th to 12th grades are defined by the various Boards (See Section 2. CMC goes beyond a syllabus. What should be taught in the lower grades is being left open to interpretation for textbook authors and schools. curriculum as process and curriculum as praxis. This is addressed in CMC by specifying learning objectives for themes and sub-themes (Section 3. rather than just the usage skills of a specific tool. leading to a variety of ways in which it is being taught. a formal curriculum for Computers does not exist for the lower grades. Annexure A). in India. However. ii) Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students. There is no metric by which a school or a textbook author can check whether the topics being taught and the manner in which they are being taught are suitable. CMC makes the connections of topics in Computers to other subjects and to real world applications explicit. Yet. sub-themes and topics to be taught at each grade. the theory and practice of curriculum has been approached in four possible ways [Smith 2000]. which are not subject specific. according to students’ level of maturity and the demands of the present century. Section 3.3. The central themes in the content are identified and justified for inclusion in this curriculum (CMC).2) at every grade. This curriculum. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools To summarize. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 8 . i) Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted. such as stepwise thinking and logical reasoning. balanced curriculum for teaching Computers in schools for Grades 1-8. The treatment of topics assumes that Computers is taught as an independent subject. corresponding to different purposes that a curriculum can achieve: curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted. CMC explicitly include topics to facilitate and improve thinking skills. (Section 2. It not only defines the details of the themes. curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students.1. Yet.4. This approach is useful for teachers and students since this approach specifies clear performance outcomes at various stages.1) and hence are beyond the purview of this document. Historically. as shown in Section 3.

it does not address alternate requirements such as digital literacy or vocational education programs. in the form of text books. This document begins with a summary of some existing curricula to teach computers.1. and a description of the approach in designing CMC (Section 2). Before exploring this question. These are followed by recommendations for teaching-learning strategies (Section 4). CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools iii) Curriculum as a process. In this model. Annexure A). and an example of CMC implementation (Section 5 and Annexure B). ICSE. These points are addressed in CMC by providing a framework for the selection of the content and guidelines for sequencing it (Section 3). IGCSE. This curriculum (CMC). and the justification of various choices. • While there have been efforts at adapting CMC for an adult computer literacy programs. This document uses the term ‘grade’ consistently). does not address the following points: • It is desirable that a curriculum is customized to local requirements and resource availability. based on the underlying philosophy. CMC does not yet differentiate implementation in varying contexts. (Indian schools use the term ‘standard’ in place of the term ‘grade’. 2. a review of existing curricula and textbooks for teaching Computers at the K-12 grades is given below. Each Board prescribes curricula and conducts standardized examinations for grades 10 and 12. IB. Then details of content choice for various grades are given (Section 3. CMC does not yet provide a means of experimentation and evaluation.1 Existing Curricula and Textbook Options 2. • CMC does not address the praxis approach. such as for schools in rural and tribal areas in India. or State Boards. such as exploration of practice between peer-teachers or reflection by implementers as to what worked. the curriculum is required to provide the basis for planning a course. in its current stage. A summary of computers curricula prescribed by these Boards is as follows: Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 9 . 2 FOUNDATIONS OF THE CMC CURRICULUM CMC addresses the question: “What computer-related topics should be taught in each grade and why?” especially in the Indian context. followed by establishing the foundations for this curriculum (CMC). • It is recommended that a curriculum should describe techniques of empirically studying the effects of its implementation. and principles for developing teaching-learning strategies (Section 4). The underlying principles and philosophy on which CMC is based are also described (Section 2).1 Computer curricula in Indian school Boards Schools in India are affiliated to one of CBSE.

there are not many schools in India that follow these curricula. Technology Research Tools and Problem Solving.2 Computer curricula in other countries There exist K-12 Computer Science curricula in many countries. problem-solving. 2. • The European Computer Driving License [ECDL] foundation offers international computer skills certification from introductory to advanced levels. However for most other states the details of the topics to be covered and their depth are open to interpretation. social context of computing and ethical issues. and ethics. of Kerala which provides a comprehensive curriculum and teaching resources for various grades [IT@School project]. Schools are free to follow textbooks by any publisher that they find suitable. At each level. • The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) [ISTE] defines standards for evaluating skills and knowledge that students need to live productively in a digital world (NETS-S). CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools • The CBSE Board follows the NCERT NCF 2005 [CBSE Board]. • Some State Boards in India have introduced computers as a subject. However the syllabi for the lower grades are left open. concepts and skills taught at different schools. The syllabi for 9th to 12th grades includes topics such as computer hardware functions. data representation and internal computer structure. Communication Tools. computer software. As a result there are variations in the topics covered. information fluency. creativity. The curriculum is categorized for three levels: Primary. The NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) classifies computer literacy into six categories: Fundamental Operations and Concepts. Some examples are: • The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Task Force Report [ACM K-12] provides a curriculum and well-defined methodology to integrate teaching of computers and information technology into K-12 grades. programming using a high level language and computers in everyday life. • The IGCSE Board [IGCSE Board] based out of Cambridge and the IB Board [IB Board] based out of Geneva offers computer science and computer studies at various levels. • The ICSE Board has computers as a core subject in 1st to 8th grades. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 10 . IT Tools. Middle and Secondary schools. A pioneering effort is the IT@School project by the State govt. Computer skills are learnt by carrying out projects and computer-based activities in other subjects. The milestones describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of various grades. in technology operations. breadth of topics. and as an elective in 9th to 12th grades. However.1. Details are available on their website [ICSE Board]. the categories are divided into competencies and skills to be developed. with varying degrees of syllabus specification. Social and Ethical Issues. algorithms. The programmes contain modules which define the ‘skills and competencies to be a proficient user of a computer and computer applications’. collaboration. However these specifications are broad and there are variations in their interpretation across textbooks and schools.

4 CMC This document is a detailed specification of a computer science syllabus. Even in a given textbook. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 11 . Hence a comprehensive curriculum tailor-made for the Indian context is required. It prescribes the themes and sub-themes to be addressed in each grade. even among schools that are affiliated to the same Board. rather than the choice of the topics themselves. 2. learning objectives and competencies for CS education (also called Informatics. Integrated models such as the one from ACM are desirable but this approach is not suitable for Indian schools. [Hubwieser et al 2011] note that there is a variation not only in the content to be taught and at what level. They describe a research framework (called Darmstadt model). Many books contain several screenshots for the usage of software tools. In other words. to systematize descriptions of school CS education across countries. As a result. • None of the textbooks surveyed explicitly address the need to emphasize on general intellectual development and conceptual thinking skills. or IT) at the school level. there is insufficient emphasis on conceptual learning. • There is a wide variation in the interpretation of the syllabus leading to non-uniform emphasis on various topics. Sometimes the contents for an entire year deal with learning intricate details of one technology tool. Most books contain detailed explanations for some topics suggested in the NCERT or other guidelines. age-appropriate treatment of any given topic. Two key limiting factors are the lack of various resources and low computer skills among the teachers. referred to as CMC.1. In a few cases. It is hoped that these details will enable textbook authors and teachers to exercise their creativity in the explanation of a given topic. So no textbook was found consistently suitable. Some do not follow any book but simply leave it to the teacher’s creativity to choose the resources. but also in the levels of specificity described. they should be free to focus on the “how to teach”. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools • Governments of several countries define their own curricula. learning objectives for each topic and recommends teaching-learning methods to be followed. throughout the various grades and topics. Also. but these activities are primarily constructed around specific tools such as MS Word or Excel.3 Computer textbooks in India A review of some textbooks available from reputed publishers for teaching computers in Indian schools is given in Annexure C. there is a wide variation in the computer curriculum being taught. rather than deal with “what to teach” and “why”. A summary is as follows: • Most authors have attempted to provide a good. 2.1. The books provide useful suggestions for activities. it is not clear whether the book is meant to be read by the students or be used as a guide by the teacher. the relative emphasis of the various topics is sometimes disproportional to their importance. • Different schools follow different textbooks.

2. While computer literacy is defined as the knowledge and ability to use computers and related technology efficiently. In addition. it suggests Free/Open Source (FOSS) based operating systems and applications. Develop computer fluency. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 2. While mastery of a topic is important. solving problems. Computer literacy skills are introduced only after motivating the need for developing the corresponding thinking process skill. the need to develop thinking process skills (cognitive processes used by experts) is well established [Padilla 1990. CMC is neutral to specific hardware platforms and software packages. conducting investigations and communicating ideas. i.. The goal of such a concept-oriented approach is to equip students to be self-learners and enable them to cope with the inevitable advent of new versions. 3. CMC has emphasis on: (i) thematic integration. 1999]. computer fluency means a robust understanding of what is needed to use information technology effectively across a range of applications [Committee on Information Technology Literacy. not just computer literacy. rather than usage specific tools. which are the basic procedures and methods used in making sense of complex situations. Big6 skills]. not just content mastery. i.e. Develop thinking process skills. CMC has emphasis on understanding of the concepts behind various computer-based activities. this document addresses three purposes of a curriculum: (i) Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted. tools and technologies of the future. not just address a topic/subject in isolation. and (ii) spiral curriculum. which is as follows: 1. CMC has explicit emphasis on teaching of thinking process skills. the integration of knowledge from various subjects into the Computers curriculum.2 Underlying Philosophy of CMC As mentioned in Section 1. to maximize outreach and ensure scalability. the content of the curriculum is organized such that themes and topics are revisited with increasing depth in each successive visit. and (iii) Curriculum as a process. The various choices made to address these purposes are influenced by the underlying philosophy of CMC. Hence.1. While content mastery (domain knowledge) is important. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 12 . Hence. Highlight the interconnectedness of knowledge.e. Hence. (ii) Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students. and the use of computer-skills activities to strengthen knowledge in other subjects. NRC. The goal of computer fluency is to enable students to adapt to the changes in digital world rather than merely be aware about computer and its application.. recognizing the inter-connectedness of various topics and ideas leads students to construct a more expert-like knowledge structure [Ellis and Stuen 1998]. However.

The skills of gathering and organizing information are key to developing information literacy. but importantly. engineers. These key features described in the next section. multiple representation and divergent thinking. A body of science and mathematical education research literature recommends that students need to develop these skills to understand and practice authentic science. The thinking process skills addressed in CMC include: Algorithmic thinking. multiple representation and decision-making.1 Thinking process skills Thinking process skills include basic methods and cognitive processes used by scientists. and analyze and synthesize information. the Big 6 [Big6 skills].3 Key Features of CMC 2. economists and many other professionals in making sense of complex situations. The rationale for choosing the specific thinking process skills mentioned above is several-fold. form the basic steps of research in any area. One. as well as in everyday life. thinking process skills such as brainstorming. CMC addresses thinking process skills. represent it in multiple ways. systematic information gathering. synthesizing information. writers. computer scientists. learning how to systematically gather information. problem-solving skills. Various combinations of the thinking process skills have been referred to in literature as science process skills [Padilla 1990]. and critical thinking skills. ABET] that these transferable skills are required by college graduates. to buying a computer for home use. and in a context that reflects the inter-connectedness of different subject domains. hence developing step-wise algorithmic thinking is key to understanding several aspects of computers itself. Next. to deciding future education and career paths. These skills are applicable in a wide range of problems in science. CMC includes thinking process skills as a key feature of the curriculum not only because they are required in learning the fundamentals of computers.3. Algorithmic thinking and logical reasoning are applied in solving problems in several domains. brain storming. technology and engineering. because they need to be explicitly Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 13 . There exist recommendations from various professional bodies and accreditation boards such as ACM and ABET [ACM. algorithmic processes are the foundation of much of computer science. analysis and synthesis of information. Finally. fundamental concepts of computer science and computer literacy skills. conducting investigations and communicating ideas. from planning a vacation. Thinking process skills have been widely recognized as being relevant and important for students in the 21st century. equip students with powerful skills to handle real-life situations at various ages. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools To summarize. solving problems. 2. in manner that themes and topics are revisited with increasing depth in each successive visit.

This leads to the following categorization of topics chosen for each grade: • Concepts: Learning computer science concepts.3. the complexity of mental models and the amount of learning increase. Sunal et al 1996]. It provides useful ways for teachers and students to make connections between and among subject area concepts (Ellis & Stuen 1998). Advanced aspects of the usage skill are addressed in future visits to the topic. those taught using an interdisciplinary or integrated curriculum often exhibit better performance or learning than those taught according to traditional subject compartmentalized programs [Brooks and Brooks 1993. At that point. not just literacy. to construct a cohesive knowledge structure in their minds.3 Thematic integration Thematic integration views learning and teaching in a holistic way and reflects the interactive nature of the real world [Hanlon and Ayre 2005]. either to learn a concept or to develop a thinking process skill.3.2 Computer literacy integrated with fundamental concepts and thinking skills As mentioned in Section 2. and enjoying the process of inquiry.4. • Usage Skills: Developing hands-on skill in the use of various hardware.3. but also has emotional connections [Hinton et al 2008]. 2. Therefore. Moreover. These address the development of the cognitive faculties of the learner. software. Thus CMC does not approach computer literacy simply as a list of usage skills of increasing difficulty that the students must learn one by one. as well as thinking process skills. the usage skill is addressed only to the extent it is required by the underlying need. Hence CMC also addresses learners’ attitude towards computers. When curriculum is addressed in an integrated fashion. informal knowledge. 2. and programming languages. as explained in section 2. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 14 . CMC is based on the philosophy that it is necessary to address computer fluency. Learners connect ideas they encounter. Instead it approaches the learning of computer usage skills in the context of learning about fundamental computer-related concepts and thinking process skills. The first step in deciding to teach a particular usage skill lies in establishing the need for that skill. and when more connections are made between ideas. • Social Aspects: Understanding and applying ethical and security related issues of computer and Internet usage. Students do not automatically acquire these skills. developing a positive attitude towards computers. abstract knowledge and real-world.2. while learning content [Marzano et al 1988]. educational research shows that learning is not just a rational act. Thematic integration bridges the gap between formal. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools addressed in a curriculum if we want students to develop them. These address the development of behavioral faculties. both of which play an important role in the learning of computers. These address the affective faculties.

Geography. CMC suggests a thematic integration for Computers curriculum that involves reinforcing what is taught in other subjects while learning computers. where resources are constrained. the natural attraction of students to acquire computer-usage skills by doing computer-based projects is leveraged to motivate them to acquire deeper knowledge in the other subjects. 2008]. and so on. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools One way to apply thematic integration is through the development of an interdisciplinary thematic unit. get added in each subsequent visit. • The next. On the other hand. It is structured such that themes and topics are revisited multiple times. Maths. and provides flexibility to personalize learning. • After they have been mastered at a conceptual level. This entails use of computer-based learning tools. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 15 . It is acceptable if all students do not understand all ideas in the first visit. CMC curriculum builds on what students learn in subjects such as Science.3. To address these needs. thematic integration of technology primarily refers to the application of technology into other subjects [Eteokleous. builds from simple to complex ideas. Some benefits of a spiral curriculum are: it reinforces understanding of topics. In other words. • The connection with other knowledge is developed so that students start building interconnected complex set of ideas. laptops or other handheld devices in the classroom. The goal is that since each topic is revisited more than once. advanced applications. A spiral curriculum could be conceptualized as follows: • A set of ideas or operations are first introduced in an intuitive way.4 Spiral curriculum CMC is organized as a spiral curriculum [Bruner 1977]. supported in its development and execution through technology [Miller and Davidson 1997]. Moreover. 2. ideas are revisited in a more formal manner. New knowledge or skills. with each successive visit increasing the depth to which topics are addressed. In countries where most students have access to desktops. it is not simply a repetition of a topic. each student is able to grasp the topic at some point in time. While a spiral curriculum entails revisiting topics multiple times. in countries such as India. to acquire conceptual and procedural understanding of computers. computers are mostly implemented as a separate school subject. While attention is paid to the age appropriate manner of introducing a topic. the emphasis is not on defining precisely which topics are to be introduced at which age. At all times. higher level of mastery is treated at a more abstract level. explicit connections are made from new learning to old learning. Increasing levels of difficulty are addressed in successive visits of a topic. and additional objectives. achieves higher cognitive levels during successive encounters with a topic without overwhelming the student. Each visit deepens the treatment of the ideas.

4 Process of CMC Curriculum Design The CMC philosophy (Section 2. they will continue to remain as mere consumers of technology [Hawkridge 1990]. Besides bringing down implementation costs. and empowers them to participate in technology creation. 2. Define learning objectives for the topics in each grade. Usage Skills and Social Aspects. This section describes the process followed to operationalize the features into topics to be taught at each grade. builds confidence in the user to be in command of technology.2. and Social values.2) led to the identification of key features (Section 2.3. Computer applications.5 Scalability CMC is not preferential to any specific hardware platforms or software packages.3.3). to maximize the outreach and implementation in a cost-effective manner. Organize the themes into sub-themes and topics to be taught in each grade by applying the spiral design (See 2. usage skills and social aspects are relevant for K-12 levels. This led to the identification of the following themes: Familiarity with computers. The learning objectives are measurable indicators of the performance of a student in that topic [Anderson and Krathwohl 2001].4). Computer programming. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 16 .3. CMC recommends the use of free and open source software (FOSS) operating system and applications. As mentioned in 2. Note that age-appropriateness of the topics is addressed by the spiral design. The detailed learning objectives for each grade are given in Section 3. CMC categorizes topics into Concepts. with more details in Annexure A. These are described in detail in Section 3.2. Thinking skills. Identify what concepts. An overview of the sub-themes as well as their mapping to the grades is given in Figure 1. The process used for coming up with the curriculum details is as follows: 1. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 2. It has been recognized that unless an attitude and aptitude of knowledge creation is established in developing countries. the use of FOSS facilitates a culture of freedom. However.1. keeping in mind the key features of integrating computer literacy with thinking skills. 2. 3.

CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure 1: CMC curriculum at a Glance Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 17 .

Each of the themes has multiple sub-themes. and values such as sensitivity to others and intellectual property rights. presentation. • Computer applications: Topics in this theme build competency in applications usage. using multiple representations. Computer programming is addressed in two phases. These issues are incorporated in the curriculum by way of exercises to avoid computer related injury. such as Scratch is used in the first phase. spreadsheet and Internet. through a different language. Text-based syntax is introduced only in the second phase.1.what topics should be taught in each grade and upto what depth – follows. reasoning. and divergent thinking. • Familiarity with computers: Topics in this theme provide opportunities to become familiar with computer associated vocabulary.CURRICULUM DETAILS 3. to avoid cognitive overload.3. The above themes are further detailed into sub-themes and topics at each grade level.1 Themes and Topics As indicated in Section 1. and social values and ethics. multimedia. for learning of programming concepts. brain storming and synthesizing. As indicated in Section 1. A graphic user interface (GUI) based language.1 . these abilities equip students to deal with real life situations. These details are provided in Annexure A. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 3 CMC SYLLABUS .2 Grade-wise View of the Curriculum Sub-sections (3. computer applications. and write well- engineered programs.2. thinking process skills. use the appropriate applications for a given project. this section addresses the purpose of ‘curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted’. problem solving. thereby enabling students to utilize the potential of computer as users of the technology. A grade-wise summary view . Internet safety guidelines. • Social aspects – safety and ethics: Topics in this theme sensitize students to ergonomic. In addition. and acquire usage skills. such as Basic.2. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 18 .1. this addresses the purpose of ‘curriculum as a as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students’. • Thinking process skills: Topics in this theme build cognitive abilities of algorithmic thinking. These details would be useful for textbook authors to decide the topics to be addressed in each grade and the corresponding learning objectives. learn computer and file operations. information gathering. social and ethical issues associated with computer use. The two phases are bridged by teaching how to draw flow charts and write pseudo-code. The CMC curriculum has been classified into five themes: familiarity with computers. 3. computer programming. • Computer programming: Topics in this theme develop algorithmic thinking skills and enable students to become creators of technology. These abilities enable students to plan and execute complex projects. such as word processor.8) describe details of the topics to be taught in each grade in terms of learning objectives.

enter keys) and mouse (single/ double click) Usage skills • Open. hands. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools It is expected that a teacher would be able to comfortably address these topics. since many topics in the curriculum reappear at increasing depth in each grade. login.2. close and quit applications • Use simple applications (such as Paint) • Open. a student should be able to: • State functions of input and output devices Concepts • Explain Input-Processing-Output process • Apply the concept of organization to categorize items • Explain start-up and shut-down of a computer • Create folders Usage skills • Perform mouse actions like drag and drop • Operate navigation keys of a keyboard (such as page up/dn. the function of a CPU is to control all other parts of a computer) • Describe what is a file • Control functions of keyboard (arrow. neck and eyes • Respect others’ privacy • Follow guidelines for secure computer use (such as password) Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 19 . 3. log off and shut-down • Describe steps to be taken for care of the computer Social aspects • Identify and follow correct posture while using a computer • Practice exercises for shoulders.2 2nd Grade Category At the end of the 2nd grade. monitor. and one or two classes per week for grades 5-8. keyboard) • Identify associated functions of each part (such as.2. mouse. a student should be able to: • Recognize that a computer has different uses Concepts • List different uses of a computer • Identify applications for some uses (such as Paint) • List various parts of a computer (such as CPU. by teaching one class per week for grades 1-4. backspace) • Edit text using basic features of a text editor (such as insert.1 1st Grade Category At the end of the 1st grade. edit and save files • Identify and manipulate elements of a desktop and window • Identify and follow correct posture while using a computer Social aspects • Follow guidelines to keep a computer clean (such as not eat/drink near a computer) • Share common resources fairly (such as taking turns while using a keyboard) 3. delete) • Reuse text/images through cut/copy and paste • Rename/ delete/ save files • Practice start-up. It is recommended that the first few weeks of any grade be devoted to explicitly revising topics from the previous grade.

control and looks blocks Usage skills • Write programs involving threads (coordination between multiple sprites) • Organize files and folders • Identify file extensions • Work in teams to complete activities Social aspects • Practice exercises to avoid repetitive strain injury • Practice secular tolerance 3.2. a student should be able to: • Dissect a task into constituent sub-tasks Concepts • Apply step wise thinking to perform a task (such as planning a vacation) • Explain the purpose of a computer program • Describe the elements that make up a computer program • Format typed text using the mouse (such as font type.3 3rd Grade Category At the end of the 3rd grade. organize and store various types of content • Write programs in Scratch using commands in motion. a student should be able to: • Apply logical reasoning to solve a problem (that includes constraints) Concepts • Apply programming concepts (such as sequencing and control flow) • Classify.5 5th Grade Category At the end of the 5th grade. identify resources to gather the Concepts required information. control and looks blocks • Work in teams to complete activities Social aspects • Take care of one’s eyes. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 3. colour) Usage skills • Execute a Scratch program and interpret the results • Write simple programs in Scratch using motion. and capture and organize information • Organize information using tables and lists • Distinguish between the pros and cons of softcopy versus hardcopy • Recognize uses of a network of computers (such as Internet) • Explain how information is created and shared on the Internet • State the need for websites to have a unique addresses • Write advanced Scratch programs (such as build your own game) Usage skills • Use a browser to navigate through web pages.2. wrists and neck • Practice relevant exercises while using a computer 3.4 4th Grade Category At the end of the 4th grade. using keywords • Communicate through email Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 20 . using hyperlinks • Use a search engine to find information on the Internet. a student should be able to: • For a given task: Identify and analyze the goal.2. style.

invitations and posters • Apply formulas and sorting to process data in a spreadsheet • Exchange information with a group using internet • Explore features of FOSS applications • Write programs in BASIC involving conditions. Social aspects • Communication skills using Internet Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 21 .2. and manage lists and arrays • State measures to adopt for responsible use of Internet resources. such as CPU. loops. analyzing and decision making Concepts • Represent information in various forms (such as spreadsheet and mind map) • Categorize computers applications (such as standalone and Internet) • Plan a presentation • Explain the uses of a spreadsheet • Apply the concept of a flowchart to depict a process • Use tools for organizing and representing information (such as mindmaps) Usage skills • Create a presentation. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools • Explain importance of login and password Social aspects • Follow a correct posture while using a computer • Follow parents/ teachers guidance while browsing or searching the Internet • Inform parents/ teachers about emails from strangers • Protect against spam 3.2. a student should be able to: • Apply thinking skills: brainstorming. BIOS and RAM Concepts • Apply the concepts of pixels while editing images • Interpret information from tables and graphs • Process data in a spreadsheet to answer a query • Track the development of computer to its present form • Identify suitable FOSS application for a required purpose • Apply algorithmic thinking while writing programs • Edit image using image editor Usage skills • Incorporate multimedia files in a presentation to create a digital story • Format documents to create newsletters.6 6th Grade Category At the end of the 6th grade. a student should be able to: • Explain the functions of computer internals. synthesizing. including both content and aesthetic aspects • Create and edit data in a spreadsheet • Perform calculations and generate graphs using a spreadsheet • Draw flowcharts and write pseudo-code to represent a program • Write simple programs using appropriate syntax in BASIC • State the security steps to follow during online communication Social aspects • Explain the measures for responsible use of Internet resources 3.7 7th Grade Category At the end of the 7th grade.

such as ICSE. The ICSE. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 3. Maharashtra State Board]. The exams for grades 10 and 12 are conducted by the respective Boards. foster creativity. instead of independently re-defining the syllabi for grades 9-12. Computer Applications.0 Usage skills • Use Google tools to create and publish content online • Use a combination of office productivity tools to create a product design • Perform basic computer system administration and troubleshooting • Write advanced programs in BASIC • Create and query databases Social aspects • State the security steps to follow during online communication • Apply safety rules while accessing social networking sites 3. As mentioned in Section 1. a student should be able to: • Differentiate between the concepts of LAN.pdf It lists the following six aims: “1) To empower students by enabling them to build their own applications. WLAN and WAN Concepts • Explain the concepts of packet switching. 3.0 and give examples • Explain the uses of social networking • Apply design guidelines for creating blogs and websites • Explain the concept of binary number system • Explain the concepts of database.1 ICSE Board The ICSE syllabus for Computer Applications for grades 9 and 10 for the year 2013 can be found at: http://www. 3) To enable students to learn to use the World Wide Web in order to gather knowledge and communicate Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 22 . which can be found from their respective websites [ICSE. this section indicates how the CMC curriculum from grades 1-8 prepares a student to proceed with the Computers elective in grade 9 onwards. CBSE. 2) To introduce students to some effective tools to enable them to enhance their knowledge. improve the quality of work and increase efficiency.3. firewalls and security • State what is web 2. schools have to be affiliated to a Board. All the schools affiliated to a given Board follow syllabi prescribed by that Board.8 8th Grade Category At the end of the 8th grade. CBSE or State.3 How CMC prepares students for Grades 9-12 for various Boards In India. Hence.cisce.2. some Boards allow schools to define their own syllabi for grades 1-8 and define detailed syllabi only for grades 2013/23. broaden horizons. CBSE and some State Boards have defined syllabi for computers in grades 9-12. in order to conduct classes for grades 9-12. The ICSE syllabus for Computer Applications and the CBSE syllabus for Foundation of Information Technology are discussed below. primary key and querying • Use features of web 2.

CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools with students and the academic community all over the world. Grades 7 and 8 Conditionals and Loops: if else and switch-case. querying. operations. Values and Types. Grades 3 and 4 (Scratch). malicious intent and malicious code. Computing and Ethics: Intellectual property rights. using images. features and functions. for and while loops. privacy. and Conditionals and Loops. formatting. Computing and Ethics. Topics and sub-topics of ICSE grade 9 Prior preparation in CMC curriculum* Operating System: Need. HTTP. Table 1 gives the grade at which CMC addresses students’ preparation for these topics. 4) To enable students to learn to process words and numbers. multiple windows. Internet: Working of internet. adding. search Grades 5-7 engines. Database Packages: The need for database management. Grades 5-7 protection against spam. SMTP). creating. Table 1: ICSE grade 9 and Prior preparation in CMC Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 23 . performing calculations. sending and receiving e-mails. designing Grades 3-8 applications for various purposes. task bar icons. Grades 3-8 Spreadsheets – Editing. Multimedia Presentation. functions and charts. Protocols and their need (FTP. Elementary Concepts of Objects and Classes. editing and Grade 8 saving a database. Grades 7 and 8 (BASIC) Laboratory assignments: Use of Office applications. Office Application Software. report generation. Values and Types: Primitive types. Function calls between objects. working of modem. Grade 4 creating and arranging folders and files. sorting on various fields. 5) To help students learn fundamental concepts of computing using object oriented approach in one computer language. video and custom animation. Class as a Not addressed specification for objects. Office Application Software: Word Processor. Installing and un-installing Grades 7 and 8 software and hardware. data protection. Database Packages. communicate ideas effectively and make the optimum use of computer resources. programming. analyze data. 6) To provide students with clear idea of ethical issues involved in the field of computing” The topics listed for grade 9 are: Operating System. web servers. Using formulae. expressions. working with tables. deleting. Operating System: Working with GUI. assignment. sound. Objects and Classes: Modeling entities and their behavior by objects. Internet. Details of sub-topics at each grade in CMC are given in Annexure A. indexing. modifying records and fields.

CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools

As can be seen from Table 1, many topics in CMC are revisited in multiple grades, owing to the spiral
nature of the curriculum. Thus CMC lays a strong foundation for almost all the topics prescribed for
grade 9 of ICSE Computer Applications. It is expected that a student will be able to naturally progress
from CMC grade 8 to ICSE grade 9 and then further to grades 10-12.

3.3.2 CBSE Board
The CBSE syllabus for Foundations of Information Technology for grades 9 and 10 for the year 2013
can be found at: CURRICULUM-vol-1-2013.pdf
It consists of four units: Basics of Information Technology, Information Processing Tools, IT
Applications and Societal Impacts of IT. Table 2 gives the topics and sub-topics for grade 9 and shows
how the CMC curriculum prepares a student for them. topics. Details of sub-topics at each grade in
CMC are given in Annexure A.

Topics and sub-topics of CBSE grade 9 Prior preparation in
CMC curriculum
Basics of Information Technology (Computer): Components of computer Grades 7 and 8
systems; storage devices; software.
Basics of Information Technology (Communication): LAN, WAN, Internet, Grades 7 and 8
Wired and Wireless networks.
Information Processing Tools (OS): Operating System; Working with GUI, task Grades 3-8
bar icons; multiple windows; creating and arranging folders and files.
Information Processing Tools (Office): Word Processor, Multimedia Grades 3-8
Presentation, Spreadsheets – Editing; formatting; working with tables; using
images, sound, video and animation; Using formulae, functions and charts.
IT Applications (Examples): Report writing; greeting cards and poster making; Grades 7 and 8
Environment awareness; Advertising; Analysis reporting.
Societal Impacts of IT: Benefits of ICT in various sectors; Plagiarism; Privacy; Grades 5-7
Security and Integrity of Information; Intellectual Property Rights, Careers in IT.

Table 2: CBSE grade 9 and prior preparation in CMC

As can be seen from Table 2, CMC lays a strong foundation for almost all the topics prescribed for
grade 9 of CBSE Foundations of Information Technology. It is expected that a student will be able to
naturally progress from CMC grade 8 to CBSE grade 9 and then further to grades 10-12.
Mapping prior preparation in CMC to State Board grade 9 is along similar lines. These details omitted to
avoid repetition.

Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 24

CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools

As indicated in Section 1.1, this section addresses the purpose of ‘curriculum as a process”. Several
curriculum theorists [Stenhouse 1975] have suggested that a curriculum should include not only content,
but also the means to transact that content. Hence a curriculum must provide principles for the
development of a teaching strategy. Once the decision is made on what is worth teaching, psychology
and pedagogy principles should guide us identify effective teaching-learning strategies [Kumar 2004].
This section recommends broad strategies on which specific teaching methods and lesson plans can be
developed. These strategies are established to be effective and are suitable in the context of CMC. It is
recommended that textbook authors and school implementers incorporate these strategies.

4.1 Inquiry-based learning
Inquiry-based learning [Barrett 2005; Olson, S. and Loucks 2000] is an approach in which students are
actively engaged in the learning process by asking questions, interacting with the real world, and
devising multiple methods to address the questions. Learners are guided by questions that lead to
gathering of evidence, formulating explanations from the evidence and communicate and justify the
explanations. The teacher plays the role of a cognitive guide and a facilitator in the process. Inquiry-
based learning is an effective way to realize the key feature of Thinking Skills (Section 2.3.1).

There are different levels of inquiry-based learning. In some forms, the problem is suggested by the
teacher and the students devise their procedure to solve the problem. For example, the teacher asks
students to prepare a presentation on an unfamiliar topic, such as maintaining an aquarium or embedded
applications of computers. Students first identify what they already know about the topic and what they
need to find out. Then they gather the relevant information from various sources, and synthesize it to
create the presentation. The teacher oversees the process, provides feedback and intervenes wherever
necessary. In other, more open forms of inquiry, learning is more student-driven. For example, students
may want to learn about a particular technology, such as use of Google docs. The teacher helps them get
started and then guides them towards the discovery of features of their interest.

Inquiry-based strategies help students to ‘learn how to learn’. They develop the ability to locate,
evaluate and use appropriate information, which is crucial in today’s information-rich technological
environment. The guidance provided by the teacher helps students to develop skills and confidence to
apply concepts and use tools. Ultimately, inquiry-based strategies help students develop into
independent learners.

Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 25

CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools

4.2 Learning via Real-world Context
Learning is most effective when it is situated in a real-life context [Bransford et al 1992]. It engages and
challenges students to make connections between their environment and the formal curriculum. Making
real world connections to the content, teaching abstract principles by establishing the need for them in a
real-life context, and using analogies from students’ everyday lives, are practical methods to realize the
underlying key feature of Thematic Integration (Section 2.3.3). Connections to students’ everyday lives
can be established in multiple places – within the lessons, through classroom and homework activities,
by solving context-rich problems and while working on projects.

4.3 Collaborative learning
Collaborative learning (or cooperative learning, group work, team learning) is one method of getting
students to actively participate in the process of learning. Several research studies show that students
learn more of what is taught, retain knowledge longer, are able to solve more complex problems, and are
more satisfied with the process when they learn in groups [Johnson and Johnson 1986, Toten et al 1991].

Students work on one or more tasks in small groups by planning, discussing and negotiating.
Collaborative learning can take various forms: groups can be formal or informal, members can be
assigned to groups by the teacher or students can self-organize, groups can last for a particular class or
for a long-term duration (such as an entire semester, or for a project) and groups can be of varied sizes.
Students co-construct and share knowledge, thereby forming a community of learners in the class.

4.4 Playfulness
Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional
well being of children and youth. It allows children to use their creativity while developing their
imagination, dexterity, physical, cognitive, and emotional strength. Research studies have revealed that
play has been found to be the most developmentally appropriate way for children to learn since it
facilitates problem-solving, perspective taking, social skills, and development of the mind (Bailey 2002).
The role of play and the use of games as educational tools can influence learning among children by
bringing about qualities such as confidence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation (Garris et al 2002).
Hence CMC suggests including playfulness as an explicit basis for designing learning activities and
transacting them in the classroom.

Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 26

IB. only after the lesson on stepwise thinking (Level III. worksheets and activities based on the themes in the curriculum recommended for that particular grade. • Computer literacy integrated with fundamental concepts and thinking skills (Section 2. Guided by the curriculum. students are introduced to the Internet and its uses (Level V. reinforcing what is taught in other subjects while learning computers. only after they learn the thinking skill of systematically gathering information (Level V.2): CM textbooks address computer usage skills. Lesson 2) and concepts related to organizing information (Level V.3): CM textbooks achieve thematic integration. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 27 .. stepwise thinking is a lesson in Level III. The following sections describe how the key features. and teaching-learning strategies of the CMC curriculum were realized in the CM books.3.1 Realizing the key features of CMC curriculum • Thinking Process Skills (Section 2.1): Each CM textbook explicitly addresses one (or more) thinking process skills. Lesson 2). CM textbooks are labeled as Levels I-VIII. Level V) by drawing an analogy with water or electric supply networks. CM books are sequenced in such a way that students who have studied them from grades 1-8 would be able to meet the requirements of various education boards of the country –CBSE. by use of: 1. • Thematic integration (Section 2. such as planning a school play. which can correspond to Grades 1-8. if a school begins teaching Computers from Grade 1.3. The pedagogy emphasizes inquiry-based learning. Lesson 3).e. Each CM book has a “Concept before Skill” approach focusing on conceptual understanding before learning the usage skills associated with specific applications. logical thinking is a lesson in Level IV. gathering and synthesizing information is a lesson in Level V. within the context of learning fundamental computer concepts and thinking process skills. both hardware and software related. ICSE. and using multiple representations is a lesson in Level VI. themes and topics. For Each CM book contains lessons (chapters). 5. Lessons 5 and 6). CM books can be downloaded from www. For example.computermasti. starting from Level III. Lesson 4). CM books address students’ development of thinking process skills while teaching concepts and usage skills associated with computers. Another example is that students are formally introduced to programming (Level III. teaching about Internet network (Lesson 5. in which they apply algorithmic processes to daily life situations. Analogy from other domains to establish an understanding of computer related concepts. For example. and State boards – for grade 9 onwards. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 5 AN IMPLEMENTION OF THE CMC CURRICULUM Computer Masti (CM) [Iyer et al] is a set of textbooks based on this CMC curriculum. real-world contexts. i.3. collaboration and playfulness.

3. students learn about font types. A few levels later. 5. For example: while students are taught keyboard or mouse skills. students first learn only a few basic features of text-editing. Worksheets whose context lies in different subjects at that grade level. For example. they learn to incorporate multimedia objects and format the layout to create posters (Lesson 5.2 Themes and Topics in CM textbooks The content of the lessons in the CM textbooks follow from the themes. and revisited with increasing complexity multiple times. 3.3. they are given a drill of arithmetic operations through educational computer games such as Gcompris and TuxMath. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 2. At the next level.tasks Make a choice within Recording. usage skills and social aspects as described in Section 3. Level II). foot muscles Reinforce imagination 2nd Storage and organization Write scratch scripts of files/folders Create folders 2 Step-wise Identification and analysis of Apply step wise thinking Work systematically 3rd- Gathering of goal for a given task tools to achieve a goal Ask for Parental 5th Information Identification of resources to Break up a task into main guidance gather information task and sub. • Scalability (Section 2. Concepts are first introduced in an intuitive manner. All applications included in CM books have an equivalent for Windows operating systems as well. problem solving Do Exercises for legs. Similar details for other levels are given in Annexure B. An example for Level V that contains a suggested week-wise teaching schedule is shown in Table 3. Topics in each lesson are classified into concepts. an activity on organizing information (Lesson 6: Naming and organizing files. styles and colors (Lesson 6. sub-themes and topics prescribed in the CMC (Section 3.4): The feature of spiral curriculum is applied in CM textbooks in multiple instances. Thus students learn geography while doing a CM activity. Computer-based activities that provide a drill for knowledge acquired in other subjects. Level III). Lesson Topic Name Concepts Skills Values reinforced Weeks 1 Revision of Reasoning. mountains or cities. sizes. such as. • Spiral curriculum (Section 2. For example. Level IV) asks students to classify a list of items as rivers.5): CM activities employ a Free and Open Source (FOSS) operating system (edubuntu) and nearly 50 FOSS applications (See Annexure B).2. details in Annexure A) for each grade level. Level VII). Exchange of ideas 1st- Level IV Usage of control statements ankles. entering text and using the commands of Copy-Paste (Lesson 7. categorization of the given constraints information Decision making Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 28 .

Send and receive emails friends and family 24th password Use options in email Differentiate between Email spam application content in emails Attach files to email 8 Projects All concepts from levels 1-5 All skills from levels 1-5 All of above 28-32 Table 3: Topics and schedule in CM Level V 5. collaborative learning. Worksheets.3 Teaching-learning strategies in CM textbooks A social constructivist approach. A third character in the narrative. a mouse look-alike. operators and Lists Create lists (arrays) REVISION 12-15 5 Introduction to Network of computers : Use a browser to access Sharing information 16th – Internet – Internet Internet websites Observe analogy 18th Browsing Unique address for a website Open a given URL between topics and Sharing of information on Bookmark a website ο Use real life examples Internet through web pages hyperlinks Relating observations and websites Navigation of web pages to the context of the Hyperlinks on websites lesson (seen parents booking online) 6 Searching the Search engine Use effective keywords to Asking questions 19th – Internet Search Keywords search for information Go beyond the lesson 21st Follow parental/ teacher Look for information guidance while browsing on other subjects 7 Communication Communicate through Email Create an email account Keeping in touch with 22nd – using E-mail Email address. plays the role of a facilitator for inquiry-based learning. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 29 . complemented by playfulness. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 3 Organizing Organization of information Create a list. and lists Add/delete rows and independently Tables Softcopy and hardcopy columns in table Insert pictures in documents 4 Advanced Capture of input from user Assign values to variables Reinforcing creativity 9th – Scratch Conditional statements Write scripts using variables to design new games 11th Programming (if-else) and operators Variables. as recommended in Section 4. consisting of two children who learn about computers while they engage in their daily activities. activities and projects at the end of each lesson are geared towards exploration. sub-list using Be proactive 6th – Information Representation of information Bullets and numbering Explore 8th using Lists and using tables. and reflection. Students make real world connections and integrate knowledge via the context in the narrative. login. forms the basis of the teaching-learning strategies in the CM textbooks. The specific teaching-learning strategies adopted in the CM books are given in Annexure B. Each lesson has a narrative style.

The detailed specification of learning objectives for each topic at each grade may help to standardize the competencies expected from students at each grade. 7.Y: Eye on Education Inc. G. and Stuen. R. Mac Labhrainn. Committee on Information Technology Literacy. 5. (1977). 115–141). (1993). (1999). 6. Cambridge. and multimedia ( Textbooks based on CMC can equip students with computer concepts. The interdisciplinary curriculum. C. Larchmont..critical thinking. http://www. National Academy Press. http://ww. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 30 .nap. learning and assessing. Hillsdale. J. 2. Massachusetts. C.. Association of Computing Machinery. K. 441-467. http://www. In D. collaboration and creativity [Trilling and Fadel 2009]. Motivation and Learning: A Research and Practice Model. http://cbseacademic. communication. Big6 Skills. Galway: CELT.D. National Research Council. CBSE board. Bransford. L.K. 11.. A taxonomy for teaching. (2002).acm. C. in a manner that highlights the interconnectedness of knowledge. S. A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete Edition.php?record_id=6482 13. Final Report of the ACM K–12 Task Force Curriculum Committee. (eds). NRC. W. ABET accreditation organization. Evaluating computer technology integration in a centralized school system.html 12. and Applications. I.php 8. (2002). European Computer Driving License (also called International Computer Driving License outside Europe). T. & Williams.ecdl. G.html 4. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.M.abet. R. Brooks. A model curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. NJ: Erlbaum. J. (1998). http://big6. 33(4). (2001). usage skills. Commission on Physical Sciences.Cognition.. VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2008). Mathematics. In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. H. and Brooks.. Games. R. The Process of Education. 51(2). Early Years. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 6 CONCLUSION CMC develops computer fluency and thinking skills. 7 REFERENCES 1. Garris. Handbook of Enquiry & Problem Based Learning. T.D. 3. Hasselbring.. A. ACM K-12. N. ACM. http://csta. (2005). 2nd ed. J. 14.. and also the 4Cs of 21st century skills . Kinzer.acm. 16. and Ellis. ABET. Computers & Education. J. Barrett. Playing social chess: Children’s play and social intelligence. M. J. and Driskell. 9. Nix & R. 22: 163–173. Bailey R. ECDL. New York: Longman. (1992). http://www. Alexandria. Harvard University Press.). N. Committee on Information Technology Literacy. Bruner. It uses a spiral curriculum design to ensure that students retain their learning and progress to deeper levels. 10. Anderson. Washington D. Spiro (Eds. R. Simulation and Gaming. Anchored instruction: Why we need it and how technology can help. and enable textbook authors to focus creativity on ‘how to teach’ rather than ‘what to teach’.. Being Fluent with Information Technology. 669-686. D. and Krathwohl.

and Russ.. (2008-2012).. National Curriculum Framework. B. (2009).org/icse_X_Syllabus_S_year_2012-13. Olson. Magenheim. IB Board. Brain research. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).. 1-6. 2005. I.cisce. R..html 23.php .. & Fadel.. India.).. Hinton. J. Sills. (2000). and Johnson. and Schubert. Action research: Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Crawford et al. (2000). Padilla. 24. U. Hawkridge.ncert. Marzano.htm 35.. Chesapeake. Science and Children. R. S. Curriculum theory and practice. Suhor. L. Totten. Presselsen.. D. Brinda. 28. P.. Orient Blackswan. (Eds. Armoni. Maharashtra State Board. B. S. V.nic. Dimensions of thinking: A framework for curriculum and instruction. Diethelm.. and Ayre. M.iste.pdf 33. 2011. W. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference Reports on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (iTiCSE’11). Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 31 . 21. (1998). http://www. Technology Integration within Thematic Units. B. IGCSE Board. Hanlon. Computer science / informatics in secondary education. Dagiene.html 30. (1988). Jossey-Bass. The National Science Supervison Association Journal. 25. (Eds... C.. E. M. 15(1-3). Jones.. (1975). Digby. Hughes. https://www. D.htm 36. International Society for Technology in Education’s NETS for Students http://www. T. http://www. Chitta. Iyer. Brandt. and Loucks-Horsley. Meaningful learning in social studies through conceptual reconstruction: A strategy for secondary students. Committee on the Development of an Addendum to National Science Education Standards on Scientific Inquiry. N.. Cooperative learning: A guide to research. 20. Mittermeir. Johnson. Inquiry and the National Science EducationStandards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning.. C. 29. Who needs computers in schools and why? Computers in Education.msbshse. InOpen Technologies. (2008). C.. Kumar. 31. Inquiry in Social Studies. C. 18. M. (1990).. 22. Assoc. K. S. and Davison.iitb. D. What is worth teaching? 3rd ed. W. Research Matters–to the Science Teacher 1-17. http://www. http://www. 37.. 43(1). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2005 (pp. R. Stenhouse. IT@School project. VA: American Association of Computing Education.cse. NCF (2005). Giannakos. S.. An introduction to curriculum research and development. CMC: A Model CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 17. S. (1996). and Haas. Is thematic integration the best way to reform sience and mathematics education. F. Smith. Sunal. 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. K. European Journal on http://www. T. In C. 1409-1412).. L.itschool.. and Vishwanathan. B.ibo. C. D. The Science Process Skills. http://www. 26..computermasti. Alternate link: www. 32 (1).cie. A. 19–38. T. The encyclopaedia of informal education. ICSE Board. Baru. 32. M. http://www. National Research Council. for supervison and curriculum development. 87-103.php?isbn=0309064767 34. and Della-Chiesa. (1997). M. 19. NARST publications. Hubwieser. (1991). policy and practice. New York: Garland. http://www. (2005). K.sfu. learning and emotions: Implications for education research. Miyamoto. Miller. Knobelsdorf. Trilling. 24.infed. (2004). R. P. ISTE. 31-32. S.nap. 38. http://www.educ. Sunal.. 27. (1990). Computer Masti series of books.

organize files. their functions. drop. printer/ speaker. Usage skills • Mouse skills: • Practise mouse • Use a GUI based Continue with skills • Use internet access • Use input from • Use multimedia • Use internet single. change wall paper. devices – modems right click. application. double. 2. USB. Computer parts and their functions • Identify the • Understand giving • Identify network • Use external • State the function • State the functions observable parts of of input through components. • Keyboard – Enter • Practise keyboard • Keyboard and and webcam. devices – scanner. applications. • State functions of • State functions of • Recognize keys on through monitor/ various software. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 32 . devices . of a network. • Use a paint shift keys. applications. and getting output connection ports. • Basic trouble • Use elements of • Shutdown. Computer operations • Use elements of • Start a computer. arrow. skills – drag and programming from Grade 3. • Create folders and • Use internet access • Install and use • Managing and • Managing internet desktop: taskbar. Use Space. storage devices of internal parts of of internal parts the computer and keyboard/ mouse. • Recognize buttons • Identify Input and on a mouse. mic. a computer. 3. text. administration of a connectivity. output devices and state their function. application. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools ANNEXURE A: TOPICS COVERED FOR EACH GRADE FOR EACH THEME AND SUB-THEME Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Theme I: Familiarity with computers 1. • Identify different such as CD. skills . single computer.Caps lock. window: title bar. keyboard. network software. applications. • Enter password. • Login and logout. headphone and routers. • Use a text editor. mouse skills for Backspace key.scanners. navigation formatting text. shooting.

and Undo actions • Insert data. software. tables. presentations. • Manage files on multimedia • Create. • Take backup. and • Edit files – cut. • State what a networked. Uses of computers • State places • Using computer • Using computer • Identify different • History of where computer for writing for accessing types of computer computers are used.Stand-alone. style. paste. files to create maximize. 5. cards. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 4. File management and operations • Understand what • State functions of • Recognize that • Assign file and • Differentiate • Backup important • Use information • Use database is a file. website. file types. posters. • Insert images into • Design newsletters • Design and edit • Enter and edit text. open. options and tools. file extensions. and sub-folders. Paste colour). copy. different devices. structure of folder across files. use . • Create lists. folders. • Insert bullets and documents. rows and columns in a table. Copy. colour and • Use multimedia • Create multimedia • Use image editing • Use multimedia Paint and Music save charts. publishing application icons. and posters. and computer can and embedded. folders. software. Internet. information are on the content. size. type. delete a file. copy and soft one way. give examples. different types of folder names based between hard files in more than from multiple files. applications. Computer applications 1. content for a • Cut. programs. • Format text ( font. save. 2. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 33 . move files into stored in different • Identify and match copy. • Create a directory such as pendrive. and cannot do. numbers. presentations. Theme II. Multimedia • Identify and use • Draw. Text editor/ Word processor • Open new file. close. • Minimize and • Create folders.

such of charts according as sum. 6. • Use filters for data • Querying. forms selection. Presentation • Gather information • Create a new • Modulate content • Modulate content and plan content of presentation and of a presentation of a presentation a presentation.0 tools • Cloud tools. Internet applications • Use browser. Combination of one or more of the above • Work different • Use online applications – applications such word processor. • Create charts. insert data. • Web2. for given purpose. Spreadsheet • Create and use • Interpret given data • Use data filter. • Use different kinds present data. computations • Use appropriate • Edit data. available. according to time according to target • Use animations. charts to plot and rows and columns. synthesize • Find. and enter data. • Create spreadsheet • Make complex do trend analysis. install and • Use social network search engines and information for use applications and blogs. • Study given data. audience. as Google docs to spreadsheet and share content and presentation. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 34 . email applications. doing projects. lists and tables. • Use formulae. collaborate. 5. • Create websites. format it. tables. 7. insert using formula. • Gather. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 3. average. Database • Use a spreadsheet • Create database as a database. 4. to the given data. and reporting.

Theme III: Thinking Process skills 1. • Use folders and organize info to classification • Use multiple sub folders. Gathering Information • Identify resources • Use Internet to • Conduct surveys • Carry out projects that can provide gather information of users to gather involving all information to • Compile a report data for market aspects from accomplish a task. Logical Reasoning/ Problem solving • Identify goals and • Identify known • Identify necessary • Solve increasingly • Apply all aspects constraints of and unknown and sufficient complex problems. representations. present objects together. information in a information in a • Organize related hierarchy. • Follow appropriate communication. organize folders. sub tasks and solve grades. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 35 . given problem. accomplish task. tools to record information. information. information to conditions that a • State assumptions grades. solution works. 3. and receive emails. • Record. problem. information into for given task. Categorizing and organizing information • Grouping related • Create and • Organize given • Gather information • Synthesize given • Present gathered • Organize. schemes. multiple solutions. and collaborate for communication and blogs for • Compose. • Apply algorithmic solve a given solution should under which a thinking to solve. • Consolidate and • Use multiple coherent manner. files into folders.0 tools • Use social network accounts. Algorithmic thinking • Break up a non • Write steps to • Apply algorithmic • Identify and • Systematically • Apply all aspects computer-based perform given task thinking to solve a choose between divide task into from previous activity into steps. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 8. 2. user-friendly way. etiquette. and present the research. organize information • Use technology and synthesize coherently. 4. satisfy. Communication • Create email • Share information • Use Web2. information. previous grades. send through emails. from previous given problem.

Divergent thinking • Come up with • Come up with multiple solutions unusual solutions to given problem. choose between together to solve a • Organize ideas multiple solutions given problem. and of keyboard input. • Convert flow chart • Use variables. various options. picture) based on the graphic organizers convey results. using tools. scratch). 7. Brainstorming. • Evaluate pros and • Apply multiple constraints. loops. variables. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 5. tables. loops. to given problem. to given problem. Programming Language • Use a graphical • Use a graphical • Use a graphical • Do syntax based • Do syntax based • Do syntax based programming programming programming programming. analyze data and charts. • Write and execute if-else. • Use subroutines. Lists or Tables. analysis of ideas and synthesis • Generate multiple • Do brainstorming • Apply multiple ideas to solve a and analysis to thinking skills given problem. 8. • Use if-else. applications. calls. charts. arrays. • Apply concepts of • Apply concepts to programs. programming. lists. Decision making • Identify problem • Apply reasoning. life tasks. Using multiple representations • Represent given • Represent given • Use multiple • Integrate different information is information using representations to data forms (table. Theme IV: Computer Programming 1. programming. event handling. from different requirement. input and string functions. output functions. 6. language ( eg: language. lists. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 36 . constraints. and make library a simple program. language. decision making to cons of multiple thinking skills • Identify solutions make choices in solutions and together to solve a that meet the performing real decide among the given problem.

write programs. avoiding injury to avoiding injury to avoiding injury to amount of time amount of time arms. wrist. maintain • Be sensitive to perform a task etiquettes for sources of others in a group. eyes. Flow charts • Identify. 2. others’ needs cleanliness. spent on Internet. Social aspects – safety and ethics 1. 3. others needs. Dos and Don’ts – safety measures • Follow safety • Follow safety • Follow safety • Check copyright measures while measures while measures while before download handling machines handling browsing and from Internet. Internet. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 2. eye. • Work in a group to • Follow Internet • Acknowledge • Collaborate with • Follow etiquettes • Be sensitive to carefully. use flow • Use flow charts to Use flow charts to chart symbols. receiving emails. write programs. eyes. foot muscles. • Handle computers • Share computers. Avoid computer related injury • Identify. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 37 . neck waist. arms. shoulders. running on computers. systematically. • Avoid personal information from information on the multiple sources. leg. Theme V. ankle and spent on Internet. Ethical Values • Share computers. information. email and posts. follow • Do exercises for • Do exercises for • Do exercises for • Follow norms for • Follow norms for correct posture. • Verify electricity. wrists. • Create flowchart with decision making and loops. for blog posts.

(ii) the list of FOSS applications used in the books.1: Schedule for Level I Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 38 . and (v) details of how CM levels I-VIII prepares students for ICSE grade 9. B(i): Suggested week-wise schedule for teaching with CM textbooks The figures below contain screenshots from the textbooks. Figure B. This Annexure provides: (i) the suggested week-wise schedule for teaching with CM usage skills and values (social aspects).computermasti. (iv) mapping of the topics in CM books to competencies prescribed by NCERT. Each figure gives the distribution of lessons and topics in each level. CM books can be downloaded from www. along with a week-by-week schedule. (iii) specific teaching-learning strategies incorporated in the activities of each grade. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools ANNEXURE B: COMPUTER MASTI (CM) TEXTBOOKS Computer Masti (CM) [Iyer et al] is a set of textbooks based on this CMC curriculum. classified into concepts.

2: Schedule for Level II Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 39 . CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.

CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.3: Schedule for Level III Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 40 .

4: Schedule for Level IV Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 41 . CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.

CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.5: Schedule for Level V Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 42 .

6: Schedule for Level VI Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 43 . CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.

CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.7: Schedule for Level VII Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 44 .

8: Schedule for Level VIII Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 45 . CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Figure B.

thinking skills 3 14 Tux Math Educational game . language.managing personal accounts 6 38 Shotwell Photo Computer application .language and thinking skills 5 30 LibreOffice – presentation Office productivity tool 6 31 LibreOffice – spreadsheet Office productivity tool 6 32 Semantik Mind mapping software 6 33 Omnitux Educational Computer application . math and thinking skills 4 17 Sudoku Educational game .familiarity with computer.geography and thinking skills 6 34 Audacity Audio editing tool 6 35 Kstars Educational Computer application . thinking skills 4 19 Firefox internet explorer Web browser tool 5 20 Pysycache Educational game .familiarity with computer 1 4 Childsplay Educational game . thinking skills 4 16 Gbrainy Educational game . math and thinking skills 1 2 Tux Paint Drawing creation tool 1 3 Tux Type Educational game . thinking skills 5 21 Celestia Educational game . math and thinking skills 1 5 Mplayer Entertainment 1 6 Potato guy (Ktuberling) Educational game . science and thinking skills 5 22 Frogger Computer game . language. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools B(ii): List of FOSS applications included in CM No.thinking skills 5 26 Kolf Computer game .familiarity with computer.thinking skills 5 28 Marble Desktop Globe Educational Computer application .familiarity with computer.geography and thinking skills 5 29 Pauker Computer game .thinking skills 5 23 Lincity-NG Computer game .familiarity with computer. Name of the application Nature of the application CM Level* 1 GCompris Educational game .familiarity with computer 1 7 VLC Entertainment 2 8 Circus Linux Computer game .familiarity with computer.familiarity with computer 2 9 gedit text editor Office productivity tool 2 10 LibreOffice: word processor Office productivity tool 3 11 Scratch Programming language 3 12 Work rave Computer application .healthy computer practices 3 13 Hex a Hop Computer game .familiarity with computer.thinking skills 5 25 Mines Computer game .thinking skills 5 27 Untangle (gplanarity) Computer game .familiarity with computer.thinking skills 6 37 Homebank Computer application .thinking skills 5 24 Pix Bros Computer game .managing personal photographs 6 39 GIMP image editor Image editing tool 6 Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 46 . thinking skills 4 18 Chess Educational game .familiarity with computer.geography and thinking skills 6 36 Aerial combat simulator Computer game .familiarity with computer. language. math skills 4 15 Tetravex Educational game .

No Strategy and Techniques Level I II III IV V VI VII VIII 1 Puppet Show √ √ √ 2 Role Play √ √ √ √ √ 3 Games √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 4 Hands on experience √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 5 Scenario-based learning √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 6 Inductive-deductive approach √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 7 Problem-solving √ √ √ √ √ √ 8 Think-Pair-Share √ √ √ √ √ 9 Number heads together √ √ √ 10 Team-Pair-Solo √ √ √ √ √ 11 Small group teaching techniques √ √ √ √ 12 Filamentality strategies √ √ √ √ √ 13 Minimalist approach √ √ √ √ √ 14 Brainstorming sessions √ √ √ √ 15 Mind mapping √ √ √ 1.geography and thinking skills 6 42 Mtpaint Image editing tool 7 43 Smilebox Multimedia scrapbook 7 44 Gmail Advanced features of Email 7 45 Google Docs File editing and sharing 7 46 Picassa/Flickr Photo sharing 7 47 Xmind Mindmapping software 7 48 Scribus Desktop publishing software 7 48 Google+ Social networking and sharing 8 49 Blogger Creating blogs 8 50 Google Sites Creating websites 8 51 LibreOffice – base Creating and using databases 8 * ‘CM Level’ is the level at which the application is first introduced and continued in subsequent levels. Role play: This strategy is an educational setting in which learners take on the role profiles of specific characters (such as person affected by a social issue) or entities (components of a computer system) and simulate the conditions being studied. or paper mache). known as puppets (may be made of cloth. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 47 . B(iii): Specific teaching learning strategies in each CM level S. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 40 Basic 256 Programming language 6 41 Google Earth Educational Computer application . This strategy is a powerful way to attract student’s attention. 2. stick. The teacher sets up the situation and as students act out their roles they gain deeper understanding of the different perspectives. are used enact a scenario. Puppet Show: A puppet show is a strategy wherein the characters.

example-based approach. which a student may not be able to solve individually at the outset. Team-Pair-Solo: In this strategy the students work together first as a team and then as pairs and finally solve similar problems on their own. Hands on is an effective way to learn software or improve psychomotor skills. It is used to build confidence to tackle open-ended problems. The pros and cons of these are then analyzed. ii) Pair: Students are grouped in pairs to discuss their ideas and solutions. For the final step. During the first step. By having students work together in a group. Teacher then asks students to come up with the rule governing the similarities and cite more examples for the rule. individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying questions. Number heads together: Students are placed in groups and each person is given a number. a teacher first gives several examples of the topic. also called “by doing”. The student navigates by choosing options and is given feedback based upon their choice. 10. In addition. This approach helps develop critical thinking and also thinking from various perspectives. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 3. 9. Problem-solving: Teacher poses a problem statement for which many solutions are expected. members share their partner's response with the team. Games: Learning through games has proved effective in educational settings. Examples of small group teaching techniques are: i) Three-step interview: Each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. this strategy ensures that each member knows the answer to problems or questions asked by the teacher. iii) Share: Student pairs share their ideas with a larger group. students' ideas have become more refined through this three-step process. This step allows students to articulate their ideas and to consider those of others. The teacher poses a question and students "put their heads together" to figure out the answer. challenges and dilemmas. 8. For teaching a topic. 6. 4. is a technique where learning occurs by performing the task instead of merely learning the theory or content. Small group teaching : This is a problem based teaching approach whereby the students are divided into groups and they work in groups to find a solution and then share among the other groups. students are more comfortable presenting ideas to a group with the support of a partner. Scenario-based learning: Scenario-based learning puts the student in a situation or context and exposes them to issues. and asks them to apply knowledge and practice skills relevant to the situation. partners reverse the roles. Often. Learning through games increases students’ motivation and enhances their performance. 7. During the second step. Think-pair-share: Students work through questions using three distinct steps: i) Think: Students think independently about the question that has been posed. Hands on experience: Hands on. forming ideas of their own. 5. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 48 . The teacher calls a specific number to respond as spokesperson for the group. such as the whole class. 11. Then she asks students to find similarities across all the examples. Inductive Deductive approach: This is a step by step.

For example the teacher may ask who in the class was able to solve a difficult worksheet. This is done in following steps . Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage. in which learners are presented with a challenging task. Mind Mapping: This is a strategy for helping students order and structure their thinking through mentally mapping words or/and concepts. Each in turn. The sage explains what they know while the classmates listen. and to support learners' thinking at the levels of analysis. synthesis and evaluation. Brainstorming: This technique is used to generate large number of ideas to solve a problem. One such strategy is Web Quest. explains what they learned from their particular sage. All students then return to their teams. where each student (piece) must be part of the solution to the jigsaw puzzle. Teams go back together with each set of partners teaching the other set. 13. Some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet. wherein all the members have their own research topic to study. Partners work to learn and can consult with other partners working on the same material. 15. most unusual ideas are also welcomed and are numbered as they are generated. Web Quests are designed to focus learners on using information rather than looking for it. each topic expert is responsible for integrating the knowledge of his/her topic specific knowledge into their previous group. starting with a minimal introduction to the topic and helping students to explore further. The students learn the whole topic through a number of small steps 14. 12. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools ii) Three-minute review: Teachers stop any time during a lecture or discussion and give teams three minutes to review what has been said. Ideas are generated at random without much criticism. iii) Partners: The class is divided into teams of four. Minimalist Approach: Teacher uses a number of small steps. Half of each team is given an assignment to master and teach the other half.Students are first divided into groups. Partners move to one side of the room. After the new groups have been assembled. Their visual quality makes them easy to remember and review. Jigsaw method is a very useful tool for trying to help students to integrate knowledge and understanding from various sources and experts. Mind maps help to make notes that use only key words and images. Filamentality strategies: These are web-based interactive learning strategies. with no two members of the same team going to the same sage. ask clarifying questions or answer questions. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 49 . v) Jigsaw: In this technique. whereby learners have to answer questions using web-based learning materials. and take notes. ask questions. students are organized like pieces in a jigsaw to form different kind of groups. iv) Circle the sage: First the teacher polls the class to see which students have a special knowledge to share. After each member is done with their research. each topic group is split in such a manner that new groups have a single member from each of the old topic groups.

Keyboard (Level II.Communicate Use basic vocabulary related to i. Activities using Mouse and printer. Lesson 2) also explains how to use (c) Exploring Desktop mouse. introduces concepts of Level II. Fundamental Operations and Concepts 1. RAM. ROM. Application software likes Lesson 4) Tux paint. Lesson 6. Lesson 9) 2. GCompris and Childsplay Lessons 6 & 7 helps learners to develop (c) Using a music player computer related skills (Level I. CM clicks) (Level I. Level II. Interface. Lesson 2) such as mouse. monitor. Start and shut down the i. effectively. right terminology so on. e. (includes mouse. floppy drive. concept (Level I. keyboard. keyboard. Tux Math.log out) system). Computer Start Up & Shut output devices to computer (in both networked Down (includes how to start operate computers environment and stand alone computer and log in. Lesson 8) simultaneously reinforcing iii. Lesson 5 develop the keyboard and including game software & 6) mouse usage skills (b) Mouse usage (includes through different Free parts of mouse. printer. and TuxMath (included as activities in Levels I. keys on keyboard (Windows. CPU. single and double educational games. (includes mouse. Educational software Lesson 5. II and III) Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 50 . like disk All sub-topics are about technology drive. (a) Keyboard usage (includes The early levels of CM function. Demonstrate i. monitor. speaker. keyboard. Lesson 8) ii. Level to create animation. CD (b) Input and Output Devices keyboard. keyboard. It (Level II. IV. and internal printer. keyboard and ii. icon. familiarity with keys and introduce the functional of technology ii. 4. operation skills. (b) Paint application (Level I.Use input and i. Lesson 5. (a) Parts of Computer CM has considered the about technology the use of the technology. Lessons 3 & 4) 3. CU.. printer) operations and concepts right vocabulary window. Level V. operation effectively. Communicate Apply basic vocabulary. explicitly dealt in CM at operation using the modem. devices. icons) (Level I. and middle school level. ALU. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools B(iv): Mapping of CM topics to competencies prescribed by NCERT Primary school competencies NCERT CM Comments Competency Guidelines A. (Level II. processor. Use mouse. Lesson 3) English language and (b) Games such as GCompris EVS. Lessons 3 & 5.g. monitor. (a) Scratch programming Scratch that helps students (Level III. input and output drive. Students components iii. subjects like Mathematics. CPU. Use keyboard and mouse i. Lesson 4) programming through ii. Use Multimedia resources effective usage) (Level I. necessary fundamental components using mouse. drag and Open Source Software drop.(a) Educational software concepts learnt in other includes 'Scratch' (Level III. scanner) technology operation.

malfunction. Do's and Don'ts of computer handling and many more. Intellectual property. Level III. Lesson social and ethical issues in classroom ii. Share resources with other i. equivalent to LOGO has Level V. 2. Level II. Level II. IT tools 1. Use LOGO as a Use LOGO as a device for iii. viruses c. inform the teacher 3. processor editing facilities. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools B.Safeguard Use floppies after virus check i. Lesson 6) nurture creativity. Print/ delete files 6) lessons from levels I to IV based on the complexity. Lesson 4) sharing your computer. Practice responsible use of 3) aware of the hardware and software. computer (Level I. Lesson 7. Social and Ethical Issues 1. the class. (Level III. Work with i. Use a word Use word processor and its Text processing (Level II. Level IV. i. (Level I. Lesson 4) been introduced in order to develop programming skills. It emphasizes on ii. and while working with different types of files. 2. Lesson are covered in different iv. AWARE poster (Level V. Respect others’ privacy 3) a class as well as outside iii. Lesson levels learners are made devices ii. filling of Tux Paint (Level I. responsibilities while Maintain cleanliness. In case of machine other accessories. Work co. Lessons 4 & 7. Use tools for Create picture stories. Lesson 6. learning programming logic. SMART focus on five system against under the teacher’s supervision Lesson 7) basic internet safety rules. Save file at desired location. 7. Lesson 6) Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 51 . Create folders/files. work with files and folders iii. SMART poster (Level V. Level IV. CM inculcates the attitude Sources of information are properly Lesson 4) of acknowledging sources information acknowledged while using them of information through for one’s own purpose. 4. handling computers and iii. File and folder management Concepts necessary to folders and files ii. Projects and activities encourage students to work collaboratively. Practice i. Do's and Don'ts with CM addresses relevant operatively in the students. this poster. 3. a GUI-based programming tool controlling the technology for skills.Acknowledge Ensure that sources of i. Scratch to teach programming Scratch. Ensure that equipment is i. computer (Level I. Lessons 3 & 5. Lesson 6 & Tux paint is used to illustrations the images with color pattern. Do's and Don'ts with At the beginning of CM responsible use of unharmed while using it. 4. Lesson 5. AWARE poster (Level VI. Open /rename files/ folders. programming language. This poster also creates awareness about copyright laws and Creative Commons. working cooperatively.

Share drives in networked different kinds of files environment. Respect copyright guidelines. Lesson 7) level V of CM. Demonstrate an Use trouble-shooting strategies or Basic trouble shooting (includes CM covers safe handling understanding of bring problems to the notice of the configuring external devices of computer parts and hardware software teacher. CM posters develop legal and ethical ii. Scan hard disk scanning devices before periodically for viruses. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Middle school competencies NCERT CM Comments Competency Guidelines A. AWARE poster (Level VI. Fundamental Operations and Concepts 1. Use educational software. Almost all lessons in CM about technology Access information sources mail (includes Bookmark a provide links of related components using like CD-ROMs. Word processor skills – presenting available facilities. Lesson 3). Practice Use equipment properly so that Do’s and Don’ts with computer CM encourages students responsible use software media is not damaged. Lesson 7) mentions precautions. B. including update them. behavior. using Internet and LAN. Use tools for Create word processing docu. (Level V. to be responsible users. Social and Ethical Issues 1. such as printer. using them C. pictures. Communicate through e-mails iii. virus periodically. Lesson 4) c. (includes computer virus) ill effects of virus and by viruses.Communicate i. Mind maps VII. information. Follow ‘Net etiquette’ when Lesson 7) and ethical behavior. previously webpage) (Level V. SMART poster (Level V. webcam) peripherals. Presentation skills – (c) Spreadsheet (Level VI. Computer virus is dealt in programs and respect to virus check. iii. (a) Organizing information This is addressed in: publishing and ments with graphical elements using (Level V. Through projects and ii. Exhibit legal i. LAN (Level VIII. sharing and connectivity. of software and Recognize that someone else’s work This happens through hardware. Execute and Lesson 5) Impress stages. (Level VIII. right vocabulary book marked Internet sites. Lesson 7) websites for reference. 2. IT Tools 1. behavior. Recognize Use anti-virus program to protect Communication using e-mail CM cautions against the problems caused the system. Update anti. e-mail communication Variety of projects and mail. Lesson 7) assignments reinforce this iii. Lesson 2) format tables. i. Lesson 4) 3. Plan. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 52 . Practice safe Internet use. Lesson 5) resources. (b) Word processing (Level b. maps (Level VI. expected to share iii. Mind a. 2. every level. using the Internet and electronic ii. i & ii Communication using e. Use anti-virus Abide by laboratory norms with e-mail communication (Level V. residing on the computer should not constant reinforcement at be disturbed. (Level V. Lesson 2) activities the students are under teacher’s supervision. 3.

Lesson 4) Scratch is similar to programming exploring ideas. log out. Level VII. (Level V. environment. design and present an i. Communication using e. AWARE poster 3. E. Present academic Lesson 5) Google docs for online using on-line product to share data and solutions content sharing. materials ii. Lesson 3) in CM level V. if necessary. (Level V. Lesson 5) 3. 2. use password. interfaces/tools temperature. Lesson 3) iii is covered in CM level for data ii. Communication Tools 1. Boolean logic. 2. Lesson 6. Introduction to Internet . Communicate with others using VII. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 2. Lesson 9) D. electronic tools. and relevance in for their validity and relevance. Scratch (Level V. Work in a Log in. light intensity. iii. Recognize Identify potential sources of Stepwise gathering of Step wise gathering of electronic information on a topic from the information (Level V. bias different sources and crosscheck Lesson 4) Watch for CC license. Advanced Internet (Level multimedia digital story. on the Internet. Aware of copyright. Lesson 2) information involves information electronic library of the school identifying appropriate sources. Students use e-mail and with others experts and peers. username ii. video and sound. Reach information sources by ii. Collect scientific data. mail (Level V. Differentiate between Analog VII collection and and Digital transmission. in level V and continues in higher levels. ii. Communicate i. concept of multiple users. sources of information. Lesson 5) through lessons of – from worldwide ii. Internet and e-mail (Level V. CM level II introduces networked share resources. through the Internet. BASIC (Level VI. copyright date iii. Thinking processing sources. Lesson 5) skills iii. and i. Evaluate the i. 4. Digital storytelling (Level Presentations introduced with others (with academic product to the class VII. starting resources. Technology Research Tools 1. Multiple users of the system. Gather information from AWARE posters (Level VI. Use digital camera. Lesson 5) level V onwards. graphics. accuracy. collected. Devise search strategy to locate i. Online sharing of content and password are dealt in (Level VII.Use tools for Manipulate variables in simulations Not covered in CM analyzing model to obtain a desired outcome. to use the work of others. Plan. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 53 . Use i. like iii. (Across the curriculum). Introducing Internet and publisher. Acknowledge resources. Identify the author.Use LOGO for Use advanced LOGO features for i. Obtain permission. Students help from using slide show that includes to collaborate to create a teachers) using text. CM prepares learners information information. (Across the curriculum). Lesson 5 ) Communication occurs email (Across the curriculum). ii. analysis. VII. Reject plagiarism. Locate i. pH. Lesson 5 and 7) Online login. 3. keyword search. Explain in own words. Collaborate Make collaborative exchanges with Advanced Internet (Level VII. 3. Searching the Internet 1. 2. LOGO but more recent. Digital storytelling (Level i and ii are not covered. ii.

CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools F. 3. search engines. Make informed Put up justifications for choosing Searching the Internet Students learn about choice of browser an Internet service provider. Social and Ethical Issues 1. a (Level V. Lesson 6) alternative browsers and and search engine. or a search engine. paper. Lesson 5) devices and Internet. on their environment technology ii. (Level VIII. and its obsolescence. Lesson 5) use spreadsheets and to and model using representation of data and this ii. Lesson 3) about effect of technology and weaknesses of and services. Students have to choose appropriate tools to accomplish the task. Lesson 2) developing thinking skills problem-solving solutions to problem. Secondary school competencies NCERT CM Comments Competency Guidelines A. Advanced spreadsheet represent data in tabular a spreadsheet. B. technology and iii. and peripherals. (Level V and Level VI) students about the copyright behavior regarding ii. Replace System admin and basic trouble Students configure shooting for consumables builds like printer shooting (Level VIII. use graphing calculators. Demonstrate i. 2. Use IT Use digital means to collect. Describe computer viruses. (Level VII. etc. data through insensitivity. Select tools to Use electronic spreadsheet to create i. Fundamental Operations and Concepts 1. CM does not deal with information. Identify i. 2. Lesson 3) multiple applications. for a given task. Lesson 5) and graphical forms. Introduction to spreadsheet CM prepares students to interpret data. while learning. Explain impact of unauthorized and safety rules while using the use of intrusion and hacking. dynamic models. browser. Internet for information. process Step-wise gathering information CM focuses on resources for and interpret data and explore (Level V. working with computer applications. Use password and realize the SMART & AWARE posters The posters sensitize the legal and ethical importance of protecting it. Tools for Problem-solving 1. manipulation and hacking. such as step wise and and self-directed logical thinking. Make informed choice of Combined software activity Students are sensitized specific strengths appropriate technology systems (Level VIII. Analyze impact of technology through various activities. Trouble Make connections. cartridge. 2. Select Gather data using scientific Combined software activity Activity requires use of appropriate device probes. etc. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 54 . Make graphical (Level VI. do troubleshooting. resources. analysis. Ensure that they are not spread unauthorized intrusion.

document to another. a. mentioned earlier. iii. Combined software This is addressed by: to a variety of professional finesse. Create links to resource Lesson 3) collaboration using internet. Merge information from one Lesson 3) b. Lesson 2) from digital camera. Use spreadsheets to analyze. Communication using e. Use on-line Participate in news group and Advanced Internet (Level VII. Collaborate i. VII. CM encourages learners to information conferencing by experts. activity (Level VIII. Use tools to Use CD writer and Zip drive. Level VIII. Introduction to FOSS apps make models and (Level VIII. ii. clock. spreadsheet (Level VII. Communication tools 1. Digital story telling Create a digital story by present and presentations or web materials using presentation adding images/ sound/ publish with interactive features (e. Google docs and other cloud based applications. project works ensure that online collaboration happens in the class. project archive. 2. base. Use technological devices for i. Scribus for desktop interactive to other web sites) publishing and Xmind – mind multimedia mapping software (Level VIII. ii. Use tools to Design and create multimedia i. information with action buttons to play video. Create database reports. Lesson 7. features. and Scribus (Level VII. family through e-mail. Lesson 5) and analysis. D. Use a variety of i.g (Level VII. document through related knowledge ii. links ii. Lesson 8) 4. Word processor skills – audiences using IT ii. for data collection ii. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools C. Data analysis using technology tools collecting data. iii. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 55 . Level share their work or create a building content. Lesson 5) create files using different resources for software applications and collaboration and share with friends and communication. Lesson 4 & 8) 3. Lesson 7) Hyperlinks. Create and contribute digitized Content sharing using Internet Students are encouraged to with others for materials to a commonly agreed (Level V. IT tools 1. Creating newsletter iv. change in scanned image or image (Level VII. Manipulate Use imaging software to make Advanced Image editing images. Create documents with i. Use application accessories (using word processor such as calculator. Create documents containing mail (Level V. Presentation skills – tools. Communicate i. 2. materials to build group A number of activities and collaboration in research. Lesson 5) simulations 5. Lesson 3) video. Lesson 5.

Tools for Problem-solving 1. Evaluate appropriateness and effectiveness of electronic resources. a hobby or health issues thinking. filtering). preferences for effective use. advanced searches. Lesson 3) of multiple office communication the problem. Explain difference between the i. Use productivity i. iii. formulate the strategy to solve (Level VIII.g. Develop a solution to the problem. including the use of included. Lesson 5) sources. analysis and and prepare an investigative study observation along with report. to adapt software electronic ii. Develop i. F. 2. Lesson 6) relevant and engines. Given a concept. Technology Research Tools 1. e. use ii. Adapt software for personal according to requirement information efficiency by setting (Level VIII. iv.g. Use advanced features (e. findings. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 56 . sources. Lesson 2) wise thinking. Basic trouble shooting appropriate online key word searches. applications along with tools and research ii. Searching the Internet strategy to find use of directories and search (Level V. Students have to the Internet and probeware. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools E. logical learning interest. Investigate Locate and use on-line resources Step wise gathering of CM focuses on developing technology-based with respect to a personal learning information thinking skills such as step options for lifelong plan. computer application skills. Collect data from various online collaboration is skills. an area of academic (Level V. iii. Identify a problem and Combined software An activity that requires use tools. choose appropriate tools to interpret data and present accomplish the task.

b. the clock. input and ii) Input/output devices (Level secondary memory will be output devices. not addressed in CM VIII. limitations of finite They will be a part of std representations. Lesson 3. Students learn about safety computing and corresponding laws and rights. OS (Level VII. Students will have a fair systems – resource operations. BASIC (Level VI. Data representation (a) Number systems. 4. operating i) a. (c) Free software foundation applications (includes FOSS) software patent. Lesson Students work with language). ii) SMART (Level V. Computer Software (a) Boot process. different application (d) Compilers and Level V. Binary number system (Level Sub-topics (b) and (c) are and internal (b) Representations for VIII. already aware of sub-topics. Level VII lesson 10. Lesson 9) and licensing. trademarks. Start up and shut down. memory. (b) Directories. primary memory. registers. Lesson 2) new concepts to be learnt in communication devices iii) History of Computers and std IX. cache i) Parts of computer (Level I. instruction format. Social context of (a) Intellectual property and i) AWARE (copyright. II. simple algorithms in assembly language. Lesson 7) Students learn about licensing and piracy. high level programming (Level III. lesson 7. spiral nature of CM levels. Lesson 6) required. iii) Download and use intellectual property rights. interpreters. assembly iii) a. plagiarism) issues while learning to use ethical issues (b) Software patents. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools B(v): How CM prepares students for computer applications elective in ICSE Grade 9 Topics of ICSE Sub-topics Preparation through CM Comments 1. Creative commons. Lesson 6). in various open source software. computer structure integers. See B2 for a grade-wise (e) Application software. Lesson 7) Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 57 . IX syllabus. (d) Privacy. c. Computer Hardware CPU. Lesson 8) knowledge about most of management. Trouble shooting (Level VIII. (Level VII. iv) e-mail Communication CM Levels. as (c) Programming languages Lesson 4. cache memory. trademark and its position on software. Level IV. (Level VI. real numbers. files and Lesson 5) New knowledge can be hierarchical file system. Lesson8 ) Communication devices are iv) Inside computers – included as parts of I/O hardware and operating system devices. email etiquette. Clock. email and digital (Level VII. Scratch – multimedia language. (Level V. 5. Lesson 2) story telling. Lesson 2) the sub-topics. (Level II. iv) Application software (All). copyright. 3 and 5. (Level II introduced in Std IX. ii) File management. 3. Lesson 2) primary memory and secondary memory. (c) Internal structure of a computer. The students are applications (Level VII. command b. Lesson 4 ) software in each CM level. 2. Lesson 4) the Internet. due to the processing. Level VIII) list. (machine language. Level IV.

Level VII. Lesson 3 & 5. Lesson 6 ) d. The thinking skills precise) of information. scope also help them in and visibility of variables. The precedence of operators. repeat. developing program writing (d) Conditional statements. terminating. Lesson 7) using Internet. These skills and concepts space complexity. Lesson 5) Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 58 . Social networks (Level VIII. Lesson 10) Thinking Processing Skills (c) Statements. while preparing flowcharts. Step-wise gathering skills. Level VI. a. skills. email communication(Level and gather information V . while). browsing. Lesson 3 Students are familiar with a High Level (a) Primitive data types. 7. Presentation (Level VII. So they can learn (e) Loops (for. Std IX. definite. increasing complexity. with Internet. Lesson 6 multiple times in different (b) Basic introduction to the Level VII. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Topics of ICSE Sub-topics Preparation through CM Comments 5. c. edit and format documents Lesson 4. Level VII. are applied by the students (c) Basic ideas of the Mindmaps (Level III. Browsing and searching They also learn to (Level V. Lesson 5) levels of CM. Level V. Algorithms (a) Concept of an algorithm i) Thinking process skills – In earlier levels students (b) Properties of an algorithm Step-wise thinking. time Lesson 2. e-mail. Lesson 2. Level IV. Lesson 2) will help them to learn complexity. 6. complex programming in (f) Standard input/output. Logical have learnt thinking process (finite. Lesson 4) using features of different ii) Internet and communication: Open Office Documents. Spreadsheet (Level VI. blocks. & 5. ii) Flowchart (Level VI. Online content sharing (Level VII . (b) Expressions – Arithmetic Programming begins at and logical. database i) Office applications The spiral curriculum of everyday life spreadsheets. c. Level IV. Computers in (a) Word processing. Lesson 4) Scratch and BASIC 256. Lesn 6) about Algorithms. Lesson 5. Level V. Level VI. Programming using BASIC or C++ : i) Scratch (Level III. Brain storming. Lesson 7) Students learn to create. reasoning. a. Lesson 6) communicate via e-mail b. Word Processor (Level III. CM introduces applications Lesson 5. presentations. b. Lesson 2. Lesson 7. Level VII. programming through language variables and assignment. Level III of CM. complexity of an algorithm . Associativity and ii) BASIC 256 (Level VI.

Lesson 2) topics may have to CPU. ii) Innovation and creativity (Level of multiple tools and (b) Creating reports on various VIII. creating and editing Lesson 4). Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 59 . Data analysis simple statistical functions. Information (a) Basic concepts of Operating i) Inside computers (Level VII. Applications–2 (a) Creating presentations on i) Designing ephemera (Level VII. Lesson 9). specific – inventory and utility – anti-virus). application (general . Lesson 5). Digital story telling a level and advanced tools –2 slides. security. Lesson 4). using formatting options. WAN. (creating and editing documents. Memory. Lesson 3). Activities using a mouse detail & complexity Windows. Lesson 2) lower levels and tools -1 (b) Using Task bar. (Level II. Lesson 7). Level III. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools B(vi): How CM prepares students for foundations of IT elective in CBSE Grade 9 Topics of CBSE Sub-topics Preparation through CM Comments 1. (c) Office tools – Word processing organizing files (Level IV. Basics of (a) Convergence of computer i) Parts of computer (Level 1. Lesson2) covered. making cards Word Processor: Designing (Level Integrates use of and posters. to be learnt in more Technology –2 (b) Multimedia data use. Lesson 5). Image editing (Level VII. managing desktop Lesson 9). iii) Internet applications (Level V. Projects from level V various topics. tools. Applications–1 (a) Report writing. Lesson 7). 4. Lesson 6. onwards require use advertisement. such as cricket score card. editing and formatting. detail in std IX. (c) Societal impacts of IT – Lessons 5-7). Lesson2).office. thinking skills. Sub-topics may have Information WLAN. 2. VII. such as product Lesson 5). revisited at greater and folders. Innovation and multiple application creativity (Level VIII. Lesson 3). ii) Introduction to spreadsheets the higher levels. privacy and posters (Levels V and VI). Lesson 4). Naming and in the higher levels. Lesson 5). features addressed in (b) Spreadsheets – creating. 6. Information (a) Presentation tools –concept of i) Making presentations (Level VI. viewing files ii) Exploring desktop (Level I. SMART and AWARE plagiarism. (c) Types of software – System. Topics introduced at processing slide shows. Basics of (a) Computer networking – LAN. topics. Inside Internet (Level VII. inserting tables and charts. Lesson 7. All sub-topics are Information communication and content. Lesson 5). using (Level VI. units iii) Inside computers – hardware and be learnt in more of memory OS (Level VII. FOSS IPR issues. iii) Text processing (Level II. (Level VII. 5. Some sub- Technology –1 (b) Components of a computer – ii) I/O devices (Level II. using various formatting options). Lesson 2) detail in std IX. Level V. Topics introduced at processing systems. 3. (Level VII. applications (Level VII. I/O devices.

Publisher: Oxford Univ Press Rachna Sagar Kalra Publications JeevanDeep Prakashan Frank Bros Authors: Sangeeta Panchal. It is possible that some of the textbooks mentioned below have revised editions with significant changes between 2010 and 2013. Reeta Sahu Balasubramaniam Year: 2005 (Second edition) 2006 (Fourth edition) 2005 (Revised edition) 2006 (Revised edition) 2002 (First edition) Grade: 1st Parts of a computer Computer Useful Devices Computer What is a computer Uses of computers Parts of a computer About Computer Machines Uses of computer Mouse Handle with care History of Computer Electricity Computers everywhere Keyboard Uses of computers Some other Parts Information Parts of a computer Keyboard Uses of Computer Computer and its parts Monitor Mouse handling Importance of Computer Monitor Keyboard Paint Machines Cursor Input. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools ANNEXURE C: SURVEY OF EXISTING TEXTBOOKS This annexure gives a listing of the topics covered in various textbooks in India. Amit Kantiwal Sadhana Sharma Manjeet Jauhar.Joshi. as per the editions mentioned below. Output Don’ts with Computer Let’s use the Keyboard CPU Computer Alphabets Mouse and Printer Compu Maths CPU A to Z of Computer 2nd Computers – Machine What is a Computer? Computer Machines/Electricity Applications of computer Parts of computers Parts of a computer Components Man and Machine How computers work Application of computer Storage devices Keyboard and keys Information Getting started with a PC Start and Shut down More about computers CPU and its usefulness Where store Information? Using the Keyboard Keyboard Things to do Monitor and its uses Why we need Computers Compu Maths Mouse How does it work? Types of Computer What is a Computer? Fun with Paint Input-Process-Output Languages and LOGO Computer System Keyboard March of a TURTLE Let’s Use Keyboard Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 60 . Anu M. Bhuvana Sabharwal Pasricha. Alka Vaishali Bhatnagar.M. Note that most of this annexure was created in 2010 and has not been updated for the 2013 release of this curriculum document. Process.

Windows Drawing in Paint Your windows Languages and LOGO Paintbrush Introduction to LOGO Starting MS Paint Intro Windows98 Compu Maths LOGO Commands Fun with LOGO Intro to WordPad Writing with LOGO Drawing. Moving cmds Intro to Multimedia Arithmetic with LOGO Introduction to MS Word Notepad Project work Project work 4th Computer Evolution Computer overview Evolution of Computer Computer Learning step by step Input an Output Devices History of Computer Computer: Detailed Focus LOGO Introduction to LOGO More about Windows Working with windows Computer Applications 15 Chapters on LOGO 6 Chapters on LOGO commands and usage commands and usage More about Paint Working with MS Paint Computer terminology Some programs More LOGO commands Drawing with LOGO Learning PC LOGO REPEAT and PRINT Procedures in LOGO Windows98 – OS Intro to MS Word Advanced LOGO Working in Paintbrush Multimedia Word Processing Working with MS Word Project work Document Formatting Multimedia and Internet Project Work Social Ethics Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 61 . CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Mouse handling How a computer works Input-Output Paint Uses of computer Maths with Computer Operating a computer Uses of Computer Precautions Some Do’s and Don’ts 3rd Introduction to computer Know your Computer Introduction and History The Computer Man and Computer Keyboard Parts of Computer Uses of main parts. LOGO Input devices Operating a Computer Hardware and software Operating a computer 11 Chapters on LOGO Output devices commands and usage Starting Paint First step to Lab Other operations. Parts of Computer Structure of a computer Operating system Input output devices Other basic devices.

More features of Word Generations of Computer DOS and Windows MS DOS Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 62 . More on MS Word Uses of a computer Fundamentals of computer Computer Generation Creating tables in MS Characteristics Elements of computers A Quick Revision Word (BASIC) Word Art and Draw Classification Working in Windows 98 Revision of Commands Mail Merge Input / output devices Working with Word More System Commands MS Excel Hardware and software Flow Chart INPUT Internet Windows98 Multimedia and Internet Flow Chart Email Windows: My computer For … Next Basics of BASIC Windows: Accessories Library Functions Project work Word processing Read – Data Document Formatting Condition and Decision Clip art and word art Counters Excel and Powerpoint On GOTO Multimedia and Internet Graphics Project work 7th Computer peripherals Review of Computer Fundamentals of computer Computer System Not Seen. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 5th Application of computer Computers Overview Generation of Computers Computer Algorithms and flowcharts Data Storage Media Input Units Fundamental Elements Lets write a Program Windows ME More about Windows Output Units Output Devices Language (BASIC) Paintbrush Working with Calculator Computer Memory Uses of Computer Print Wordpad LOGO Procedures Computer Software More about Windows98 System Commands Internet and email Editing Text in Word MS-Windows98 More about Paintbrush Constants and Variables Compu Maths Formatting in MS Word Clip art and Word art More about MS Word LET Compu English More features of Word Algorithm and Flowchart Electronic Mail Let’s Try Print Again Internet Introduction to BASIC Introducing Networks GOTO Flowcharting BASIC statements Social Ethics Graphics Project work Multimedia and Internet Project Project Work 6th Computer Peripherals Review of a Computer Evolution of computers Computer Architecture Not Seen.

Address Book Intro to MS Access PowerPoint basics Windows 2000 What’s on the Internet Slide formatting E-Commerce Computer Network Graphics in QBASIC Web browser Project HTML programming Project work Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 63 .Volume.Charts in PPT Editing in Excel Internet Explorer Enlivening a PPT Charts in Excel Calculator. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools MS Excel Computer memory Introduction to Word File. Batch file. Time. CLS Intro to PowerPoint Windows: Explorer Wildcards Internet as post office Word processing Directory (DIR) Computer Viruses Text formatting in Word Path and Pathname QBASIC looping Mail merge in Word 9 chapters on DOS statements commands Project MS Excel Basics Common Error Message PowerPoint basics Multimedia Working with Internet Project work 8th Types of Computers Review of Computer Fundamentals of computer Windows Not Seen. Directory Editing in MS Excel Operating system Multimedia and Internet Format/Mode Formatting in MS Excel MS DOS commands Computer Virus Date. Prompt Formulas in MS Excel Files in MS-DOS Fundamentals of BASIC Version. Recycle Text in MS PowerPoint Windows98 Word pad and Notepad Organization in PPT Worksheet basics Paint Graphics. Advanced MS Word Number system Introduction to Word Window Elements Advanced MS Excel Computer languages Networking Explorer Charts in MS Excel Path and Batch file Multimedia and Internet Control Panel MS PowerPoint External commands My Computer.

Parts of computer 1.Uses of Computer Working with Windows Creating Presentations 4.Introduction to computer Computer fundamentals Working with windows 2.More About Keyboard Input and Output Devices 6. Windows 3.The Keyboard 7.Other Devices 10.Do`s And Don`ts 9. Starts & shut down Mouse Typing Text 4.Know Your Keyboard Use of keyboard 6. Keys on keyboard 2. Starting a Computer 3.Computer in Our Lives Working with Paint 7.Starting And Shut Down 12. How Computer Works Rules for Computer lab 8.Uses Of A Computer Mouse 7.U. Printer 9.Caring For Computer 11.Introduction to computer Introduction to computer Parts of a computer 2. 8. Windows 3. What is Computer? 1. Parts of computer 1.Parts of A Computer Parts of a computer Tux Paint 3.P.The keyboard 2. More about mouse Computer application 5.Project – 1 6. Word 4.Parts of A Computer Keyboard Creating Animations 3.The Parts of a Computers 3. start up-shut down 4. A computer 1.Know Your Mouse Computers at work 5.The Monitor. How do machines work. PowerPoint 4.Start Your Computer Uses of a computer Word Pad icons.Input Devices Working with Word Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 64 .The C.MS Paint 10.The Use of Computer 3.Looking after computer Taking care of computer 8.Project – 2 2nd 1. Paint 4.Input and Output Devices 9.The Parts of a Computer 2.The Mouse 5. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools Publisher: NAVNEET CBM MADHUBAN McMILLAN NIIT Edition: Grade 1st 1.Input and Output 7.Storage Places 11. Keyboard 2.The Mouse 5.Windows .Desktop 3. 1.The Computer 2.The Keyboard 4.Introduction to computer Computer Fundamental Creating Images-MS Paint 2. Computer as a machine 1.Project – 1 6. Windows 4.The Types of Computers 4.Project – 2 3rd 1.The keyboard 2.Do`s And Don`ts in Lab Hardware and Software Turtle Graphics 3.

Output Devices More on paint 6. Printing a document 6th – 8th Not Seen Not Seen Not Seen Not Seen Not Seen Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 65 .Changing your Desktop 5. A computer 1.Files and Folders 10.My Computer 1.Windows Explorer 11.Project – 2 5th 1. More About Tools – 1 8. Working with Tables 10.Computer Memory Programming concepts Photo editing 3.MS Excel Introduction to Internet Communication msgs 2 7. Tools 7.Storage Devices Introduction to LOGO 7.The Desktop 4. Parts of computer 1.Starting with Windows 3. An Introduction to Word 2. LOGO commands 5. Paint master 9.Flow Charts More on MS Word Introduction Messenger 5 Drawing with LOGO 5.More on MS Word 8.Types of Computer LOGO Working with files and folders-2 4. More LOGO cmds 6.The Start Menu 7. Windows 3. Columns and Tabs 9.Project – 1 6.The Accessories Menu 8. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools 5.Windows 2.More On Windows More on Windows Control Panel 5.More on Logo LOGO commands 9. Project – 1 6.Notepad Windows accessories 6. Paint 5. Formatting a Document 4. Introduction to Windows 1. Word art and Clip art 7.The keyboard 2. More Features of Word 6. Drawing with LOGO 7.Hardware And Software Computer fundamentals Creating files and folders 2.Introduction to Programs 12.Introduction to Internet More on LOGO Communication messages More LOGO chapters 6.The Brain Box – CPU Multimedia Working with files and folders-1 3.Computer Languages DOS Creating Charts 4.MS Power Point 5 more chapters on 8. More about tools – 2 9. Windows XP 8. The Features of Word 5. Drawing in paint 10.Reasoning and Logic 10. Editing a Document 3. Introduction to LOGO 4.The keyboard 2.Microsoft Word Introduction to Word 7.Logo 4th 1.Evalution of Computers Computer memory Searching Information 2. Windows 3. Introduction to LOGO 4.

at Dept of Computer Science and Engg. Rekha Kale. and Vinod Bhalerao. Mangala Sunder at IIT Madras. at IIT Bombay. Jayashree Shinde (SNDT). Farida Khan. Muralidhar Koteshwar. [2007-2009]: • Pilot implementation: Sridhar Iyer. Kaumudi Saharabudhe and Sameer Sahasrabudhe. Vijayalakshmi Chitta. Ltd. M. G. Vijayalakshmi Chitta. • Reviewers: Vaijayanthi Sarma (for 1-4) and Sahana Murthy (for 5-8). Aruna Prabhala. Niharika Luthia. Sahana Murthy. Nagarjuna at HBCSE. Mani and Anitha Kurien at Kendriya Vidyalaya. Om Damani and Varsha Apte at IIT Bombay). Vasudha Kamat (NCERT). and Kaumudi Sahasrabudhe at at IIT Bombay. Savita Bharadwaj at Sri Sri Ravishankar Vidya Mandir (SSRVM). • Reviewers of the 1st edition of the curriculum: Swami Suryapad. Neela Srinivasan. Malathy Baru. Farida Khan and Usha Vishwanathan. towards this effort. [2010-2012]: • Large scale implementation and Field studies: InOpen Technologies Pvt. Pravin Ingle. CS Curriculum for K-12 Schools ANNEXURE D: CONTRIBUTORS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The contributors at various stages of this work are as follows: [2006-2007]: • Authors of the 1st edition of the curriculum: Sridhar Iyer. Meera Hirani. Vijayalakshmi Chitta. Rajesh Kushalkar. We acknowledge support provided by Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay). Shravan Bharatulwar. at IIT Bombay. Srinath Perur. from IIT Bombay. A. Farida Khan. Malathy Baru. Neena Nayyar and staff from SSRVM Mulund. Moushumi Pati. Semeena Kader. Sanjivini Salunkhe. and Sameer Nanekar at other locations. [2009-2010]: • Authors of 2nd edition of CMC: Sridhar Iyer. Jayalaxmy Swamy. Sasikumar at CDAC. IIT Bombay. • Assistance for pilot: Meera Hirani. • Authors of 3rd edition of CMC: Sridhar Iyer. Aruna Adil. Abhijit Deshpande and K. Malathy Baru. • Contributors to Teacher Handbooks for grades 1-4: Sridhar Iyer. Malathy Baru. [2008-2012]: • Creators of Textbooks (Computer Masti): Sridhar Iyer. Usha Vishwanathan. Creative Commons Copyright © 2013 Some Rights Reserved 66 . Manjesh Kumar. and C. Abhiram Ranade. Mumbai. at IIT Bombay. and Usha Vishwanathan. Sri Sri Ravishankar Vidya Mandir (SSRVM) and InOpen Technologies. Smita Satam. at IIT Bombay. Farida Khan and Usha Vishwanathan. Sivakolunthu. • Inputs on Teaching-Learning for 2nd edition of CMC : Sahana Murthy (IIT Bombay). Malathy Baru and Umesh Bellur. Mumbai. Padma Sarangapani (TISS). Usha Vishwanathan.